Volume 52 - Number 2 - Summer 1986

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

52:20661 Auerbach, Alan J.; Kotlikoff, Laurence J. Simulating alternative social security responses to the demographic transition. National Tax Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2, Jun 1985. 153-68 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper uses a perfect foresight life cycle simulation model to examine the dynamic economic effects of baby 'booms' and baby 'busts' as well as the interaction of such demographic changes with social security policy. Demographic change can have sizeable short and long-run effects on saving rates and factors returns." The geographic focus is on the United States.
"The model predicts long-run improvement in welfare associated with a prolonged baby bust. This improvement holds even in the absence of accommodating social security policy. It reflects a long-run decline in the dependency ratio, with the reduction in dependent children per worker more than offsetting the increase in retirees per worker."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:20662 Beller, Andrea H.; Graham, John W. Child support awards: differentials and trends by race and marital status. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 2, May 1986. 231-45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines differentials in the award of child support by race and marital status [in the United States] and evaluates the impact of the child support enforcement program, begun in 1975, on child support awards. According to data from the 1979 and 1982 March/April Match Files of the Current Population Survey, never-married mothers are significantly less likely than ever-married mothers to have a child support award; which do, however, cannot readily be explained by our model. Ever-disrupted black marriages resulted in awards considerably less frequently than nonblack marriages, although the enforcement program has had a positive effect."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20663 de Kam, Flip; van Tulder, Frank; Goudriaan, Rene; de Groot, Hans; Hooijmans, Evelien; Pommer, Evert; Ruitenberg, Leendert. Demographic trends and public expenditure in the Netherlands, 1981-2030. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1985. 345-65 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
This article is a summary of a 1984 report prepared by the Social and Cultural Planning Office of the Netherlands. The aim is to assess the possible consequences of demographic trends for the level and composition of public expenditure in the Netherlands between 1981 and 2030. Four sectors of expenditure are considered: social security, education, health care, and social services. Particular attention is given to the effects of demographic aging.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20664 Fang, Shan. Mainland China's population and social problems. Pub. Order No. XXXI,286. Jun 1985. 52 pp. World Anti-Communist League, China Chapter: Taipei, Taiwan; Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
An analysis of the relationship between population factors and some social problems in China is presented. The focus is on the consequences of China's failure, until recently, to slow the rate of population growth. Separate consideration is given to housing, environmental pollution, marriage and the family, old age, employment, and crime.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20665 Heaton, Tim B. Sociodemographic characteristics of religious groups in Canada. Sociological Analysis, Vol. 47, No. 1, Spring 1986. 54-65 pp. Storrs, Connecticut. In Eng.
"By utilizing special tabulations from the 1981 Canadian Census, this paper compares 19 religious groups in terms of several socioeconomic and family characteristics. Standardized distributions also are presented which adjust for age, sex, and regional differences between religious groups. Correlations and covariance analysis of these variables indicate a high degree of association between socioeconomic and family characteristics. Religions characterized by low socioeconomic status exhibit more traditional family behavior; and high SES [socioeconomic status] religions have lower rates of marriage and fertility, but higher divorce rates."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20666 Mason, Karen O. The status of women: conceptual and methodological issues in demographic studies. Sociological Forum, Vol. 1, No. 2, Spring 1986. 284-300 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper explores several conceptual problems in social demographic studies of the status of women, including failure to recognize the multidimensionality of women's status and its variation across social 'locations,' the confounding of gender and class stratification systems, and the confounding of access to resources with their control. Also discussed are some generic problems in the measurement of female status, such as the sensitivity of particular indicators to social context, and the need to select consistent comparisons when judging the extent of gender inequality."
The geographic focus is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

52:20667 Morrison, Peter A.; Scommegna, Paola. Demographic trends tax the IRS. Population Trends and Public Policy, No. 11, Apr 1986. 12 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The probable impact of future demographic trends on tax collection in the United States is explored. The author notes that for the remainder of the 1980s and the 1990s, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will be forced to deal not only with more returns but with more complex returns as the result of social changes such as increasing divorce and remarriage, single-parent families, dual-earner couples, and retirees working part-time. Changes in the nation's labor force will also affect the pool of workers available to the IRS to implement its work. The focus is on policy implications of these changes and of proposed tax reforms.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

52:20668 Adeokun, Lawrence A. Problems of health intervention programmes: the case of Nigeria. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 179-93 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Difficulties encountered in implementing modern health programs in developing countries are reviewed, with a primary focus on Nigeria. The author evaluates Nigeria's Basic Health Services System and concludes that "the results have proved disappointing. Due to lack of reliable data, health planning appears to have been inadequate. Shortage of trained personnel, rapid urbanization and high levels of illiteracy have all contributed to these disappointing results. Nevertheless, the experience has served to create guidelines for the future. In particular, there is now a greater awareness of the population/environment interaction and its consequences for health."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20669 Allman, James; Rohde, Jon E.; Wray, Joe. Implementing priority primary health care in developing countries. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 163-78 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors outline a procedure for implementing primary health care in developing countries through a phased approach. The need to assess priorities and constraints concerning the introduction of medical technology given a political context is discussed. The role of social scientists is emphasized. The benefits to program management of such a step-by-step approach are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20670 Bednyi, M. S. Demographic processes and public health. [Demograficheskie protsessy i zdorov'e naseleniya.] Sovetskaya Meditsina, No. 6, 1985. 5-8 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a general study on the relationship between demographic characteristics and the health of a population. The author states that one of the main tasks of the medical profession and of society as a whole is to prevent the decline in birth rates that can result from increases in life expectancy. The geographic focus is on the USSR.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20671 Brown, Peter J. Socioeconomic and demographic effects of malaria eradication: a comparison of Sri Lanka and Sardinia. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 8, 1986. 847-59 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The relationship between disease control, population growth and economic development is examined through a comparison of changes subsequent to malaria eradication campaigns in Sri Lanka and Sardinia. Both islands were similar in terms of malaria morbidity and mortality rates as well as a history of massive malaria eradication campaigns using DDT immediately after the Second World War. The critical comparative distinction is that Sardinia had a much lower population density than Sri Lanka."
It is observed that "patterns of demographic change, marked by sharp declines in general mortality and accelerated population rates, are similar in both cases. Malaria control has resulted in economic development in neither case, however, and this is explained using ecological and political-economic analyses."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20672 Illsley, Raymond; Mitchell, Ross G. Low birth weight: a medical, psychological, and social study. A Wiley Medical Publication, ISBN 0-471-90355-8. LC 83-16963. 1984. xix, 272 pp. John Wiley and Sons: New York, New York/Chichester, England. In Eng.
This book consists of 10 papers by various authors on the causes and effects of low birth weight. It is based on a study carried out at the Medical Research Council Medical Sociology Unit in Aberdeen, Scotland. It "analyses the results of a controlled, longitudinal survey of a group of low birth weight infants from birth to the age of 10 years, in a defined geographical population. Medical, sociological and psychological investigations were conducted during this period in an attempt to unravel the relationship between birth weight, its antecedents, and its effects on the child's physical, intellectual and emotional development."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20673 Lincoln, Richard. Smoking and reproduction. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1986. 22-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author summarizes the discussions at the First International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held in 1985 in San Francisco, California, concerning the connection between smoking and pregnancy complications. It was suggested that increased efforts be made to encourage physicians and public health professionals to increase their intervention efforts and that a series of public policy measures be undertaken to control smoking in the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20674 Ross, David A.; Vaughan, J. Patrick. Health interview surveys in developing countries: a methodological review. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 78-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This review covers cross-sectional health interview surveys in which respondents were asked about their recent illness and their use of preventive and curative health services. Country survey results differed widely, for both morbidity prevalence estimates and health services utilization, reflecting major methodological differences as well as any true differences that may exist between the population groups studied. Comparison of morbidity and utilization rates is thus thwarted by the absence of standardization in survey methodology, methods of analysis, and the classification of results." Recommendations to improve health surveys in the future are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20675 Sherris, Jacqueline D.; Blackburn, Richard; Moore, Sidney H.; Mehta, Suman. Immunizing the world's children. Population Reports, Series L: Issues in World Health, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar-Apr 1986. [40] pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
A review of worldwide trends in immunization against diseases in children is presented. The authors note that although immunization saves the lives of an estimated one million children each year, more than 3.5 million children are killed or disabled by diseases that are preventable by immunization. Consideration is given to the problems encountered in developing effective programs, particularly in developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20676 Zsolnai, Bela. The development of obstetrical services, their achievements, and future tasks. [A szuleszeti ellatas fejlodese, eredmenyei es jovobeni feladatai.] Demografia, Vol. 28, No. 2-3, 1985. 215-43 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The development of obstetrical and maternal and child health services in Hungary over the past 10 years is reviewed. Data are presented on induced abortions, spontaneous abortions, and births. It is noted that 58 percent of registered pregnancies end in the birth of a child and 42 percent end in an abortion. Consideration is also given to trends in perinatal, infant, and maternal mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

52:20677 Adams, J.; Smouse, P. E. Genetic consequences of demographic changes in human populations. In: Diseases of complex etiology in small populations: ethnic differences and research approaches, edited by Ranajit Chakraborty and Emoke J. E. Szathmary. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, Vol. 194, 1985. 283-99 pp. Alan R. Liss: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine the demographic changes that occur in a population and describe how changes in vital rates can influence the genetic structure of a population, particularly genetically mediated disease. The primary focus is on developments affecting the population of Sweden from 1780 to 1965.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20678 Emery, Alan E. H. Identical twinning and oral contraception. Biology and Society, Vol. 3, No. 1, Mar 1986. 23-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between monozygotic twinning and the use of oral contraceptives is examined. The data are from official sources for the years 1952 to 1983 and concern England, Wales, and Scotland. The author concludes that the increase in this form of twinning may be due to delays in implantation of the fertilized ovum related to oral contraceptive use.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20679 Kevles, Daniel J. In the name of eugenics: genetics and the uses of human heredity. ISBN 0-394-50702-9. LC 84-47810. 1985. x, 426 pp. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, New York. In Eng.
A history of the development of the study and practice of eugenics from the time of Francis Galton in the late nineteenth century to the present is presented. The book has three main objectives: to provide a history of eugenics; to provide a history of human and medical genetics; and to appraise past, present, and possible future misuses of eugenics. The historical section covers developments in the United States, the United Kingdom, and, to some extent, Germany. Consideration is given to the attempts, particularly in the United States before World War II, to influence fertility differentials through legislation for eugenic reasons.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.