Volume 52 - Number 2 - Summer 1986

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

52:20582 Cowgill, Donald O. Aging around the world. ISBN 0-534-05166-9. LC 85-7174. 1986. xii, 227 pp. Wadsworth Publishing: Belmont, California. In Eng.
A general review of aging around the world is presented, using the modernization theory approach to explain differences among cultures. Consideration is given to the comparative demography of aging populations. Particular emphasis is given to values and to the relationship between the general ethos of a society and its treatment of the aged.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20583 Frenkel, Izaslaw. The size and structure of the peasant population in Poland, 1960-1982. Part 1. [Dynamika i zmiany w strukturze demograficznej ludnosci chlopskiej w latach 1960-1982. Czesc I.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/81, 1985. 3-43 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"An examination of changes in the size and age-sex structure of the peasant population in Poland is presented. The analysis is based on the results of 1960-1970 and 1978 General Censuses, the 1982 Sample Census of Rural-Farm Population and Current Population Statistics. The time series studied refer either to 1960-1982 or 1970-1982--depending on data availability." The analysis considers three aspects of change, namely, natural increase, migration, and changes from peasant to non-peasant status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20584 Kovar, M. G. Aging in the eighties: preliminary data from the Supplement on Aging to the National Health Interview Survey, United States, January-June 1984. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 115, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 86-1250. May 1, 1986. 8 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents preliminary data concerning the elderly in the United States taken from a supplemental survey carried out in conjunction with the National Health Interview Survey in the first six months of 1984. The data concern nearly 6,000 individuals 65 years and over. The data are organized separately for those 65-74, 75-84, and 85 years and over and concern residential characteristics, health status, health opinions, and health care use.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20585 Myers, George C. Aging and worldwide population change. In: Handbook of aging and the social sciences, edited by Robert H. Binstock and Ethel Shanas. 2nd ed. ISBN 0-442-26480-1. LC 84-25729. 1985. 173-98 pp. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this chapter, major perspectives of the demography of aging are examined, with particular emphasis placed on contemporary research issues. Initially some conceptual issues are discussed that relate to the ways in which demographers view the field. The remainder of this chapter is organized around three concepts that can serve to guide our understanding of population aging--population momentum, population metabolism, and population diversity." The geographical focus is worldwide, with particular attention given to the situation in the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20586 Saw, S. H. The dynamics of ageing in Singapore's population. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, Vol. 14, No. 4, Oct 1985. 709-13 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Trends in demographic aging in Singapore are reviewed. The causes of demographic aging are first reviewed. The situation in Singapore is then considered, and changes since 1947 and projected changes up to 2070 in the age distribution of the population are described. "Some of the more significant consequences in the areas of level of living, consumption pattern, savings, labour shortage, and ageing work force are discussed briefly."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20587 Sen, Ilina. Geography of secular change in sex ratio in 1981: how much room for optimism? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 21, No. 12, Mar 22, 1986. 497-500 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Geographic aspects of secular changes in the sex ratio in India are analyzed. It is observed that "in 1981, the Indian Census recorded a sex ratio (females per 1,000 males in the population) of 936 as against 930 of the 1971 Census." The author notes that "since there had been a secular trend of decline of the sex ratio between 1901 and 1971, the 1981 sex ratio marks the reversal of a 70-year old movement and can be looked upon as a demographic revolution of sorts." The focus of the analysis is on regional aspects of this change. The author concludes that major changes in the sex ratio are unlikely in the near future.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:20588 Smith, Stanley K. Using Medicare data for short-run projections of the elderly population. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 14, No. 1, Apr 1986. 37-49 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author develops a method that uses Medicare data for projecting the size of the elderly population in the United States. The approach is suggested as an alternative to widely used cohort component techniques. "Projections for several base periods and projection horizons are made for all states and for counties in Florida and are compared with actual Medicare enrollment. On the basis of these comparisons it appears that Medicare data and simple projection techniques can produce very useful short-run projections of the elderly population for states and local areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20589 Sokolovsky, Jay; Sokolovsky, Joan. Aging and the aged in the Third World: Part II. Regional and ethnographic perspectives. Studies in Third World Societies, Vol. 23, LC 84-070106. Mar 1983. ix, 146 pp. College of William and Mary, Department of Anthropology: Williamsburg, Virgina. In Eng.
This special issue contains five case studies on aging in developing countries. The case studies concern New Britain, China, India, Sudan, and Mexico. The focus is on the persistence of traditional customs for caring for the aged given the changes associated with urbanization and socioeconomic development.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20590 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Selected demographic and social characteristics of the world's children and youth. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/60, 1986. viii, 108 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This study "presents a description of selected demographic and social characteristics of the world's children and youth: their number, growth, composition, mortality levels, cause-of-death patterns, sex differentials in mortality, contribution to internal migration in both less developed and more developed regions, and levels of illiteracy and educational attainment in developing countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20591 Universidad de la Habana. Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM] (Havana, Cuba). Socio-demographic aspects of youth. [Aspectos sociodemograficos de la juventud.] 1985. 176 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
These are the proceedings of a symposium on youth studies which was held in Havana, Cuba, June 14-15, 1985. Seven papers by various authors are included. The papers cover topics such as the reproductive behavior of young people, fertility at a young age and its impact on neonatal mortality, economic activity, and education of the young in Latin America. The primary geographic focus is on Cuba.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20592 Zopf, Paul E. America's older population. ISBN 0-88105-055-5. LC 84-71505. 1986. xviii, 325 pp. Cap and Gown Press: Houston, Texas. In Eng.
The characteristics of the elderly population of the United States are examined using official data for 1980 and more recent years. The author investigates the combined effects of current trends in fertility, mortality, and migration on the process of demographic aging. Comparisons are made both externally, with other countries, and internally, by sex, ethnic group, and rural and urban areas.
The work also "assesses the social, economic, political, and other results of the process of aging in America's population, basically along two lines: (1) the impact that the elderly and their characteristics have on society, and (2) the consequences that those characteristics have for the elderly themselves."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

52:20593 Benso, L.; Lorenzino, C.; Pastorin, L.; Gambotto, S.; Battaglia, C.; Baldassar, A. M.; Conrieri, M. The age of menarche. [L'epoca del menarca.] Minerva Endocrinologica, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1985. 11-29 pp. Turin, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
A review of the literature concerning age at menarche is presented, and the various methods for measuring age at menarche are described. Factors considered include genetic and ethnic factors, family characteristics, physique, geographic factors, morbidity, and socioeconomic factors. The results of a wide range of studies from historical times to the present are summarized. The geographic focus is worldwide.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20594 Franke, Hans; Chowanetz, Wilmar; Schramm, Axel. In track of longevity. [Auf den Spuren der Langlebigkeit.] ISBN 3-7945-0887-4. 1985. xii, 188 pp. F. K. Schattauer: New York, New York/Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
A study of longevity is presented using data on over 575 documented centenarians in the Federal Republic of Germany. The study involved questionnaires, personal interviews, and physical examinations and covered topics such as life-style patterns, psychological factors, physiological conditions, morbidity, and causes of death. Previous literature on longevity is also reviewed, with attention to statistics on longevity, historical patterns, maximum length of life, and problems of studying longevity. Finally, some suggestions are offered for achieving a longer life.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20595 Gavrilov, L. A.; Gavrilova, N. S.; Semyonova, V. G.; Belozersky, A. N. Epidemiologic approach to the biology of human life span. Geographia Medica, Vol. 15, 1985. 40-64 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
"The present work suggests a new, epidemiologic approach to the study of the biological mechanisms determining human life span. The proposed approach is based on revealing the biological component of human mortality with a subsequent analysis of its regional and sex variability. The biological component of mortality is defined as a component which is age-dependent, but historically stable with respect to socio-economic transformations."
Over 800 life tables from more than 50 sources are used to develop a computerized data base from which maps of biological mortality for males and females at age 40 are prepared for the provinces of Europe, excluding the USSR. Reasons for the differences observed are considered.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20596 Huffman, Sandra L.; Wolff, Mark; Lowell, Sarah. Nutrition and fertility in Bangladesh: nutritional status of nonpregnant women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 42, No. 4, Oct 1985. 725-38 pp. Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
The results of a study on the relationship between nutritional status and fertility in Bangladesh are presented. The information was collected during a 1975 longitudinal study of over 2,000 married, nonpregnant women in Matlab. "The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal nutritional status and: 1) components of intervals between births (postpartum amenorrhea, menstruating interval to conception, and gestation); 2) fetal and child survival; 3) breast-feeding behavior; 4) seasonal influences; and 5) socioeconomic conditions."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20597 Roberts, D. F.; Wood, W.; Chinn, S. Menarcheal age in Cumbria. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 13, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 161-70 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"A survey of age at menarche in north-west England, how it is affected by family environment and how it affects physique, was carried out on a large sample of schoolgirls in Cumbria. Age at menarche shows no independent effect of social class, but is strongly influenced by family size and also partly by position in family. Similar results emerge from analyses of the status quo and recall data. Menarcheal status differences remain associated with pronounced differences in height and weight when all other variables are held constant...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20598 Shock, Nathan W.; Greulich, Richard C.; Costa, Paul T.; Andres, Reubin; Lakatta, Edward G.; Arenberg, David; Tobin, Jordan D. Normal human aging: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Pub. Order No. NIH 84-2450. Nov 1984. xxii, 399, [34] pp. U.S. National Institutes of Health [NIH]: Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
This report concerns the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, primarily the first 23 years of activity of this project, which was designed to trace the effects of aging on humans. Recruiting 1,000 male volunteers aged 17 to 96 was the first phase of the project. The report begins by examining the methods for studying aging. A review of the literature of longitudinal studies follows. Next, the Baltimore study is described, and the tests administered are detailed. Results from cross-sectional studies of aging in men and from longitudinal studies of aging carried out during the course of the Baltimore study are summarized.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20599 Villadsen, Sonja; Jeune, Bernard; Kongshavn, Trygve; Pedersen, Steffen H. The age of the menopause. Methodological problems in historical and geographic comparisons. [Alderen for menopausens indtraeden. Metodologiske problemer i historiske og geografiske sammenligninger.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 147, No. 45, Nov 4, 1985. 3,637-41 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
Questions related to age of menopause and the methodology for estimating it are considered. Data concern 401 women aged 40-59 living on the Danish island of Fyn in 1983. The results indicate an average age at menopause of 48 using retrospective data and 50 using probit and logit analyses. The difficulties of identifying changes in age at menopause over time are discussed.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

52:20600 Fuchs, Victor R. Sex differences in economic well-being. Science, Vol. 232, No. 4749, Apr 25, 1986. 459-64 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Sex differences in economic well-being in the United States are examined using data from the censuses of 1960, 1970, and 1980 and from the Current Population Surveys of 1980 and 1984. "Despite large structural changes in the economy and major antidiscrimination legislation, the economic well-being of women in comparison with that of men did not improve between 1959 and 1983." The data suggest that although women's ratio of money income almost doubled in comparison with that of men over this period, so did their financial obligations, resulting in little or no improvement in women's access to goods, services, and leisure.
Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

52:20601 Margo, Robert A. Race, educational attainment, and the 1940 census. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 46, No. 1, Mar 1986. 189-98 pp. Wilmington, Delaware. In Eng.
"Decreases in the racial schooling gap have been shown to account for one-third of the increase in the black- white income ratio from 1930 to 1970 [in the United States]. But the usual measure of the gap, based on census educational attainment data, is flawed. Data on school enrollment rates and months of school attended reveal that schooling levels of blacks born in the late nineteenth century were far lower than census data indicate. With the corrections proposed, the narrowing of the racial schooling gap explains two-thirds of the rise in the black-white income ratio from 1930 to 1970."
Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

52:20602 Gray, Alan. Some myths in the demography of aboriginal Australians. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 2, No. 2, Nov 1985. 136-49 pp. North Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
The author discusses the proliferation of stereotypes and myths concerning the demography of aboriginal Australians. "In this paper, four of these myths will be discussed, in the hope that a basis for constructive analysis of recent and historical demographic change can be laid." The myths considered pertain to the validity of studying aboriginal societies that have been in contact with non-aboriginal societies, disorder in the aboriginal family, the study of aborigines as a third world population, and the relationship between high fertility and aboriginal poverty.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20603 Horak, Stephan M. Guide to the study of the Soviet nationalities: non-Russian peoples of the USSR. ISBN 0-87287-270-X. LC 81-18657. 1982. 265 pp. Libraries Unlimited: Littleton, Colorado. In Eng.
This is an annotated, selective bibliography of literature concerning non-Russian ethnic groups residing in the Soviet Union. It is intended for the general reader and is organized by subject area under each of nine major categories of ethnic group. An introduction to each section provides reference information, including the addresses of relevant institutions. For most groups, a section is included on geography and demography. Approximately 60 percent of the works cited are in English.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20604 Lichter, Daniel T.; Heaton, Tim B.; Fuguitt, Glenn V. Convergence in black and white population redistribution in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 1, Mar 1986. 21-38 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"U.S. black and white population redistribution is examined for metro-nonmetro, South--non-South, central city-suburb, and urban-rural locations using the 1950-80 decennial censuses. Results reveal some racial convergence in population growth rates across regions and metro-nonmetro locations, although considerable divergence persisted within detailed metro-nonmetro locations. Moreover, black underrepresentation in recent U.S. population deconcentration resulted in only modest changes in racial distributions across broad residential categories."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20605 McKenney, Nampeo R.; Farley, Reynolds; Levin, Michael J. Direct and indirect measures of ethnicity: how different definitions affect the size and characteristics of various ethnic groups. In: American Statistical Association, 1983 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1983]. 123-30 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper is one of a series of reports investigating the quality and completeness of data gathered by the new ancestry question that was asked in the [U.S.] Census Bureau November 1979 Current Population Survey (CPS) and the 1980 decennial census. The paper has two aims: first, data from the November 1979 CPS are analyzed to illustrate how the definition of an ancestry group influences estimates of its size and characteristics. Second, the ancestries reported in the November 1979 CPS are compared with those in the decennial census taken 5 months later to test for reliability of ancestry reporting."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20606 Smith, Tom W. Problems in ethnic measurement: over-, under- and misidentification. In: American Statistical Association, 1983 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1983]. 107-16 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines subjective ethnicity measurements frequently used in U.S. governmental and scholarly surveys. He discusses problems of overidentification, or mentioning two or more distinct ethnicities; under-identification, mentioning no ethnicity; and misidentification, mentioning an incorrect or inappropriate ethnicity. The capabilities of subjective techniques to reduce overidentification and under-identification and to improve the reliability of ethnicity measurements are assessed. Ethnic pluralism and assimilation in the United States, as evidenced in ethnicity measurements, are also considered.
The author concludes that "both because of its complexity and because of its lability for many people, ethnic identification is highly sensitive to measurement variation and response effects."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20607 Stevens, Gillian; Swicegood, Gray. The linguistic context of ethnic endogamy. Working Papers in Population Studies, No. WP 8601, 1986. 28, [3] pp. University of Illinois, Department of Sociology: Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
This study is concerned with ethnic endogamy in the United States, and particularly with the extent to which language is associated with ethnic endogamy. "The analysis, based on the 1976 Survey of Income and Education, first shows strong relationships between endogamy and ethnic group size and geographic segregation. The second part of the analysis shows that ethnic endogamy is associated with not only the language characteristics of group members but also with the relative size and vitality of the embedded non-English language subgroup. These results underscore the importance of non-English languages as sources of ethnic group cohesion and continuity."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 397).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20608 Sullivan, Teresa A.; Gillespie, Francis P.; Hout, Michael; Greeley, Andrew M. Surname versus self-identification in the analysis of Hispanic data. In: American Statistical Association, 1983 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1983]. 117-22 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine several issues involved in the choice between the use of self-identification and Spanish surname as indicators of Hispanic identity in official U.S. demographic data, particularly censuses and vital records. They conclude that "the recoding of Spanish surnames may offer a compromise position between administrative definition of ethnic group and an ambiguous self-identification. Because the Spanish-surname recode is used only in statistical tabulations and does not appear on the vital record itself, its possible stigmatizing influence is neutralized." Examples of two surname classification programs currently being used, one by the federal government and one by the state of Texas, are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20609 Taffel, Selma M.; Keppel, Kenneth G. Characteristics of Asian births: United States, 1980. In: American Statistical Association, 1983 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1983]. 304-8 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper the demographic profiles of Asian mothers [in the United States] with respect to age, education, nativity, and parity, and the health of their babies, as measured by birth weight and APGAR scores, are compared with those of white and black mothers and births. It will be demonstrated that for a number of characteristics there are major differences between Asians and other races and between foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian mothers."
Evidence of a process of assimilation is also presented. The authors conclude that "as the flow of Asian immigrants and refugees abates, the childbearing patterns of Asian mothers will more and more resemble those of white mothers. An increased frequency of teenage births, out-of-wedlock births, and low-birth-weight babies among Asians will be cause for concern."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20610 Tienda, Marta; Ortiz, Vilma. "Hispanicity" and the 1980 census. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 1, Mar 1986. 3-20 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This research evaluates the term 'Hispanic' as an ethnic label by analyzing the degree of correspondence among six indicators of Spanish/Hispanic origin or descent available in the 1980 [U.S.] Census of Population. Hispanics were quite consistent in reporting characteristics which indicate their Hispanic origin or descent, and the full-enumeration Spanish/Hispanic origin question proved to be the single best item to identify this population. This does not automatically establish the existence of an ethnically unified group or the validity of 'Hispanicity' as a culturally meaningful social construct, but the results provide confidence in the validity of the 1980 enumeration."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20611 Verhoef, R.; Tas, R. F. J. Aliens in the Netherlands on January 1st 1985. Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 34, No. 3, Mar 1986. 42-54 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The increase in the number of aliens in the Netherlands has slowed down considerably since 1980. Nevertheless, we can still speak of significant changes in the alien population. This article gives a brief description of these changes in 1984 and looks at differences with the recent past....Some preliminary figures on changes in the alien population in the first half of 1985 are also given. The article concludes with a summary of the (annually) available figures on aliens in the Netherlands." Data are included on people born in Suriname or the Netherlands Antilles who have Dutch nationality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.