Volume 52 - Number 2 - Summer 1986

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

52:20035 Bahr, Jurgen. Population geography: distribution and dynamics of population from a global, national, and regional viewpoint. [Bevolkerungsgeographie: Verteilung und Dynamik der Bevolkerung in globaler, nationaler und regionaler Sicht.] Uni-Taschenbucher, No. 1249, ISBN 3-8001-2509-9. 1983. 427 pp. Eugen Ulmer: Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
An introduction to the basic concepts of population geography is presented. Chapters are included on spatial population distribution and population structure; the spatial aspects of natural population change and its components, including mortality, fertility, and nuptiality; and population redistribution through both international and internal migration. Each chapter begins with a methodological section and includes examples at the global, national, and regional levels.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20036 Birg, Herwig. Regional demography and regional scientific analysis. [Regionale Demographie und regionalwissenschaftliche Analyse.] IBS-Materialien, No. 21, ISBN 3-923340-10-9. 1986. 112 pp. Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik: Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng; Ger.
This publication consists of four papers, two of which have been previously published. Three of the papers are in German, and one is in English. The focus of all of them is on regional demography in the Federal Republic of Germany. Individual papers deal with interregional demo-economic models, empirical and theoretical aspects of trends in the spatial concentration and dispersion of population, population movement from northern to southern German states and from West Berlin to the rest of the country, and regional human capital and spatial mobility.
Two of the papers included here have previously been included in No. 18 of the same series, published in 1985, see 51:40440 and 51:40651.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20037 Canada. Statistics Canada (Ottawa, Canada). Canada's changing population distribution. [Evolution et repartition de la population au Canada.] Pub. Order No. 99-931. ISBN 0-660-51270-X. Jul 1984. [46] pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This is a popular introduction to the dynamics of the population of Canada. The focus is on recent changes in the distribution of the population. Data are from official sources including the 1981 census.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20038 Chandna, R. C.; Kant, Surya. Distribution and density of population in India, 1981. Asian Profile, Vol. 13, No. 4, Aug 1985. 339-51 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
A review of population distribution and density in India using data from the 1981 census is presented. A map of population density by district is included. Separate consideration is given to areas of high density, moderate density, and low density.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20039 Cuba. Comite Estatal de Estadisticas (Havana, Cuba); Cuba. Instituto Cubano de Geodesia y Cartografia (Havana, Cuba). National demographic atlas. [Atlas demografico nacional.] 1985. 117 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
This demographic atlas for Cuba was prepared using official data, including 1981 census data. Separate sections are included on historical trends, urbanization and spatial distribution, the population in 1981, vital statistics, migration, the economic sector, and housing.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20040 Kosinski, Leszek A.; Elahi, K. Maudood. Population redistribution and development in South Asia. ISBN 90-277-1938-1. LC 84-26260. 1985. x, 243 pp. D. Reidel: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a collection of revised papers that were originally presented at a 1980 symposium in Karachi, Pakistan, sponsored by the Commission on Population Geography of the International Geographical Union.
The book consists of 14 papers, "three of which are concerned with overall patterns of population change in South Asia and eleven are dealing with individual countries of the region. Specific problems of tribal population, flood related migration and refugee settlement were covered by Indian authors. A general chapter on population trends in Nepal is followed by more specific treatment of resettlement policies in that country. For Sri Lanka there are three complementary contributions dealing with general trends, population policies and the urbanization process. An overall review of trends in Pakistan is supplemented by a case study of the North West Frontier Province. Finally, refugee questions are discussed in detail for Bangladesh."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20041 Vining, Daniel R. Population redistribution towards core areas of less developed countries, 1950- 1980. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, Apr 1986. 1- 45 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"This paper presents estimates of the rate of population redistribution to the core areas of 44 developing countries over the period 1950-80. Particular attention is given to the period 1970-80, a time during which the core areas of developed countries experienced substantial declines in their rates of net inmigration. The principal finding is that the core areas of most developing countries are still experiencing high and, in a number of cases, increasing rates of net inmigration."
The author contends that "this finding confirms the developmental model of spatial concentration and dispersal and should lay to rest other explanations of deconcentration, including arguments that focus on diseconomies of absolute size in the core area or on fluctuations in the aggregate economy." The difference between the population growth rates of entire nations and of core areas is used as a measure of interregional migration. Data for the 44 countries and information on the data sources are included in appendixes.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:20042 Ying, Killian Ping-Hung. Small area population dynamics in Hong Kong. Pub. Order No. DA8526280. 1985. 248 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study is concerned with changes in the spatial distribution of population in Hong Kong in the period since World War II. The measures implemented by the government designed to influence population distribution are described. The analysis suggests that these methods have been successful in reducing some of the imbalances in population distribution.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Ohio State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International 46(9).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

52:20043 Adepoju, Aderanti. Managing cities in sub-Saharan Africa. Populi, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1986. 32-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
In this article, based on a paper presented at the International Conference on Population and the Urban Future, held in Barcelona, Spain, in May 1986, the author examines problems associated with the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa. The annual urban growth rate of 10-15 percent observed in the region, the inadequate economic base of African cities, and the young age of Africa's urban populations are discussed. The author contends that "the development strategy in Africa has been biased in favour of urban areas, a situation which is both a cause and consequence of migration--and the root of the problems of the burgeoning cities. In essence, management problems of the cities--its causes and policy measures--stretch beyond the city limits."
The need for reliable population data in order to plan for and manage urban growth is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20044 Apgar, William C. The demographic factor and urban decline: a cross-national comparison. Research in Urban Economics, Vol. 5, 1985. 21-51 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines demographic changes in the 25 member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), focusing on the differential rates of population growth in urban and rural areas and changes in the age structure of population." The period covered is 1950-1980. The emphasis is on the implications of these trends for the likely growth of population and households in urban areas during the 1980s. The paper concludes with consideration of the impact of these demographic changes on public policy.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:20045 Arokiasamy, P. India's urban future. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 93-105 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes "several issues related to India's urbanisation including the relevant more recent policy decisions [and] seeks also to make some constructive suggestions for an alternative developmental strategy for the future of urban India."
A brief review of census data for the period 1901-1981 and a projection to 2001 show continued growth of the urban population. The author's proposed strategy would decentralize industry, health and educational services, and government; restrict the influx of population into urban areas and encourage the development of small and medium-sized towns; check environmental pollution; provide housing, transportation, and health services; and work to reduce poverty.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20046 Bradnock, Robert W. Urbanisation in India. Case Studies in the Developing World, No. 2, ISBN 0-7195-3912-9. LC 84-129529. 1984. vi, 58 pp. John Murray: London, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with urbanization in India. "First we examine the historical background to India's modern urban system. Secondly, the factors underlying recent urbanisation are analysed. In Chapter 3 we move on to the question of what effects urbanisation is having today on the cities' morphology and functional organisation. These themes are then studied through a more detailed examination of two contrasting Indian cities, Madras and Hyderabad." The book concludes with a discussion of future prospects concerning urbanization and potential problems.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20047 Casper, Dale E. Urban America examined: a bibliography. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, No. 269, ISBN 0-8240-8815-8. LC 84-48384. 1985. 212 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is an unannotated bibliography of urban research concerning the United States. It consists of some 2,000 English- language citations, most of which are to books and journal articles. The bibliography is organized by major geographic region and by six subject topics, and alphabetically by author within those sections. Brief subject and geographic indexes and information on sources are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20048 Dergachev, V. A. Peculiarities in the formation of populated places on the seaboard of the USSR. Soviet Geography, Vol. 27, No. 3, Mar 1986. 143-57 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"A number of investigators have noted a movement of Soviet population toward the seacoasts, contrasting with the nation's traditional inland development. The pull of the coast has been linked to the increasing foreign trade of the USSR and to greater involvement in ocean affairs in general. The author analyzes the recent growth of maritime urban places in terms of the nation's major maritime regions: Azov-Black Sea, Baltic, Caspian, Pacific and Arctic, compares the rates of urban population growth and discusses some of the factors that account for differences in regional development."
This is a translation of the Russian article in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk: Seriya Geograficheskaya (Moscow, USSR), No. 5, 1985, pp. 56-66.
Location: Princeton University Library (Maproom).

52:20049 Dynarski, Mark. Household formation and suburbanization, 1970-1980. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan 1986. 71-87 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
The author attempts to establish whether the recent increases in some population subgroups in central cities in the United States is the start of a trend or a temporary phenomenon. Data are from the 1970 and 1980 censuses. The author concludes that the increase is a temporary one that is primarily due to an increase in the size of certain cohorts. The overriding trend is toward suburbanization, and the author concludes that the increase in central city populations will cease as cohorts decline in size.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:20050 Ebel, Robert D. Urban decline in the world's developed economies: an examination of the trends. Research in Urban Economics, Vol. 5, 1985. 1-19 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to provide a definition and overview of urban decline. It is intended to establish a framework for evaluating the policies that various countries have used to address the costs and benefits of urban decline...." The geographic focus is on the developed countries who are members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Urban declines are defined as decreases in population and/or loss of economic base as measured by the level and composition of employment.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:20051 Edmonston, Barry; Goldberg, Michael A.; Mercer, John. Urban form in Canada and the United States: an examination of urban density gradients. Urban Studies, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jun 1985. 209-17 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
Differences between urban patterns in the United States and Canada are analyzed. The focus is on differences in urban form identified through a comparative investigation of the density gradients of residential population for metropolitan centers in both countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:20052 El-Shakhs, Salah. Population and planning of large cities in the Middle East. Populi, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1986. 39-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Patterns in urban growth in the Middle East since 1950 and projections through the year 2000 are summarized. This article is based on a paper presented at the May 1986 International Conference on Population and the Urban Future, held in Barcelona, Spain. The concentration of the urban population in the region's largest cities is noted. It is observed that "with the notable exceptions of Algeria and Saudi Arabia, from one fifth to two thirds of the urban population lived in the largest city of each country in the region in 1980. The same statistic will hold true up to the year 2000 with the exception of Algeria."
Recommendations for urban planning are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20053 Friedrichs, Jurgen. Cities in the 1980s: demographic, economic, and technological developments. [Die Stadte in den 80er Jahren: demographische, okonomische und technologische Entwicklungen.] ISBN 3-531-11758-0. 1985. 264 pp. Westdeutscher Verlag: Opladen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This book consists of nine papers in which various authors examine demographic, economic, and technological developments in cities of the Federal Republic of Germany over the past 20 years. Prospects to the end of the 1980s are also discussed. Individual papers focus on population changes and migration patterns in large cities since 1970, the foreign population and urban trends, spatial consequences of the development of new household types, housing, regional trends, and economic and technological aspects of cities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20054 Gordon, P.; Richardson, H. W.; Wong, H. L. The distribution of population and employment in a polycentric city: the case of Los Angeles. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 18, No. 2, Feb 1986. 161-73 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The distribution of population and employment in metropolitan Los Angeles in 1970 and 1980 is examined in this paper. Population continued to disperse in the 1970s, whereas the geographical distribution of employment combined job clustering around a few major employment centers with a high degree of general job dispersion. In Los Angeles polycentrism has been associated with shorter work trips, particularly intracounty trips in the more peripheral counties."
Population data are for 2,403 comparable census tracts for 1970 and 1980; data concerning geographical employment distribution are from the 1980 census.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:20055 Gwynne, Robert N. Industrialization and urbanization in Latin America. ISBN 0-8018-3113-X. LC 85-10079. 1986. xiv, 259 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the process of industrialization in Latin America since World War II. Chapters are included on the historical perspectives of urbanization and on the relationship between industrialization and urbanization. "The connections between industrialisation, the urban hierarchy and the large city are examined as are various theories that have sought to conceptualise about the relationship between 'capital-intensive' industry and 'labour-abundant' cities."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20056 Hall, Peter. Cities of the aged. Populi, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1986. 45-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
In this article, which is based on a paper presented at the International Conference on Population and the Urban Future, held in Barcelona, Spain, in May 1986, the author examines aspects of the urban situations in developed countries. Attention is given to problems of demographic and economic decline facing cities and to the underlying influences of falling fertility rates and aging populations. Trends toward suburbanization are noted, and U.N. population projections through the year 2000 for the largest urban areas in the developed countries are presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20057 Hope, Kempe R. Urbanization in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean, ISBN 0-8133-7182-1. LC 86-1674. 1986. xiii, 129 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
An analysis of urbanization in the Caribbean is presented using data for Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. An overview of urbanization in developing countries is first presented. "The second chapter...[examines] the structure, sources, and the impact of urban population growth and urbanization in the Caribbean. Chapter three provides a discussion of unemployment and labour force participation....Chapter four considers and advocates a set of policies for managing rapid urban population growth and urbanization in the Caribbean...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20058 House, William J. A socio-economic and demographic profile of the population of urban Juba. Working Reports of SUD/79/PO6, No. 3, LC 85-980461. Feb 1985. x, 140 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Juba, Sudan. In Eng.
This report presents initial results of a 1983 survey of 1,039 households carried out in the Sudanese city of Juba. The report first summarizes the existing demographic situation in Southern Sudan and Juba, with sections on population aggregates, migration, fertility and mortality, educational status, and employment. Next, the Juba Household Survey is described. The results are presented separately with regard to population characteristics, nuptiality, migration, educational status, economic activity, employment, and allocation of human capital resources.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:20059 Jordan, Ricardo S. Urban concentration in Latin America. Populi, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1986. 26-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
In this article, which is based on a paper presented at the International Conference on Population and the Urban Future, held in Barcelona, Spain, in May 1986, the author discusses urbanization and living conditions in urban areas in Latin America and the Caribbean. Trends in population growth in the region during the last three decades are outlined, and relative urban and rural growth rates are assessed. Social and economic problems arising from population concentration in urban areas are mentioned.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20060 Kabir, M. Urbanisation, fertility and mortality in Bangladesh. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 82-92 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to examine the pattern of urban population growth [in Bangladesh] since 1951 and then to investigate the fertility and mortality levels and trends. The study attempts to provide some insights into recent changes in the level and the rates of urbanization." According to the census and survey data cited, the urban population has grown at a rate faster than that of the total population of Bangladesh since 1961. While the author finds significant differentials in infant mortality and in life expectancy between urban and rural areas, no parallel fertility differentials are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20061 Kellerman, Aharon; Krakover, Shaul. Multi-sectoral urban growth in space and time: an empirical approach. Regional Studies, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1986. 117-29 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper compares the distribution of growth of several economic sectors in an attempt to trace and analyse their spatiotemporal sequence of decentralization. The paper applies a polynomial regression model capable of dealing with detailed spatiotemporal series. The application of the model to the urban field of Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] shows population to be the farthest spread followed by manufacturing industries. Despite, or probably because of, their extensive spread, both sectors display low levels of growth." In addition to population and manufacturing, the patterns of growth in retail and wholesale trade, services, and the provision of financial, insurance, and real estate services are examined for the period 1960-1980.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:20062 Laquian, Aprodicio A. Population growth and the cities of Asia. Populi, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1986. 15-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This article, based on a paper presented at the International Conference on Population and the Urban Future, held in Barcelona, Spain, in May 1986, focuses on the rapid growth of cities in Asia that is projected through the end of this century and on the policy implications for social and economic development planning. The author notes that "of the 75 world cities projected to have population exceeding 4 million by the year 2000, more than half are in Asia."
The causes and consequences of rapid urban growth in the region are summarized, and experiences with migration and population distribution policies are outlined. Tables present World Bank data on urbanization patterns in Asia and U.N. population projections for the region's 15 largest cities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20063 Leepson, Marc. Supercities: problems of urban growth. Editorial Research Reports, Vol. 2, No. 20, Nov 22, 1985. 887-904 pp. Congressional Quarterly: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses aspects of urbanization, living conditions in urban centers, and selected policies, summarizing findings from recently published sources. U.N. population projections for selected urban areas for the year 2000 are compared with 1950 estimates, and the proportions of the population living in urban areas in various regions of the world are contrasted.
Attention is given to living conditions in rapidly growing and crowded cities, including Mexico City, Mexico; Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Lagos, Nigeria; and Cairo, Egypt. Statements on urban growth issued by the U.N. Fund for Population Activities are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20064 Martinez Tirado, Nestor. Experiences of the urbanization process in Venezuela. [Incidencias del proceso de urbanizacion en Venezuela.] Revista Geografica, No. 102, Jul-Dec 1985. 73-80 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The process of urbanization and urban growth in relation to economic development in Venezuela is analyzed. Four periods are considered: the period prior to the discovery of oil in Venezuela, which ended in the early 1940s; from the 1940s to the early 1970s; from the 1970s to 1983; and the present. Information is provided for the period 1936-1981 on total and urban population growth and on the size and number of urban centers.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20065 Molodikova, I. N.; Khanin, S. Ye. Use of the population potential model for predicting the growth of cities in a region (with reference to Moscow Oblast). Soviet Geography, Vol. 27, No. 2, Feb 1986. 75-83 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"A modification of the population potential model is used to analyze the structure of the potential of population for cities of the Moscow region, to develop a relationship between population potential and city size, and to use this procedure to forecast future population change in Moscow Oblast cities." Cities in the region with a population of 50,000 or more at the censuses of 1959, 1970, and 1979 are included.
This is a translation of the Russian article in Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta: Geografiya (Moscow, USSR), No. 5, 1985, pp. 39-45.
Location: Princeton University Library (Map Room).

52:20066 Mutizwa-Mangiza, N. Damson. Urban centres in Zimbabwe: inter-censal changes, l962-l982. Geography, Vol. 71, Pt. 2, No. 311, Apr 1986. 148-50 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
"This article examines urbanisation trends in Zimbabwe over the last two decades using data obtained from the three complete national population censuses, 1962, 1969 and 1982. The paper focuses first on changes in the levels and rates of urbanisation and then on changes in the rank-size distribution of urban centres."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20067 Philippines. National Census and Statistics Office (Manila, Philippines). Urban population of the Philippines by category, by region, province and city/municipality and by barangay: 1970, 1975 and 1980. Special Report, No. 4, 1983. viii, 623 pp. Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
This is one of a series of reports prepared using data from the 1980 census of the Philippines. It presents information on the urban population in 1970, 1975 and 1980 by region, province, city or municipality, and barangay, and thus presents a summary of the urbanization process over the decade 1970-1980.
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii. Source: APLIC Census Network List, No. 57, Jan 1986.

52:20068 Picouet, Michel R. Reflections on the relationships among migration, urban growth, and population perspectives. [Quelques reflexions sur la relation: migration, croissance urbaine et perspectives de population.] In: Actes du colloque: la question demographique dans le monde arabe. Tunis 21- 25 novembre 1983. Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 21, No. 76-79, 1984. 241-54 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
This study is concerned with the phenomenon of urbanization, with particular attention to the situation in the Arab countries. The focus is on urban spatial distribution and migration. Comparisons are made with urbanization trends observed in other parts of the world from 1960 to 1980 and with trends projected up to the year 2020.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20069 Rofman, Alejandro B. Argentina: a mature urbanization pattern. Cities, Vol. 2, No. 1, Feb 1985. 47-54 pp. Guildford, England. In Eng.
"This article describes the historical development of Argentina's cities, pointing out the traditional dominance of the 'centre-litoral' region and...[of] Buenos Aires. Recent trends such as the population increase in the southern region are described and demographic trends are related to economic developments. The article concludes by examining Argentina's contemporary urban patterns, including the current low rate of urbanization."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:20070 Salas, Rafael M. The state of world population, 1986. Populi, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1986. 5-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This article is excerpted from the State of World Population report, produced by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities in preparation for the International Conference on Population and the Urban Future, held in Barcelona, Spain, in May 1986. The focus is on current and projected trends in urbanization worldwide, potential problems, and suggested courses of action. Attention is given to questions of urban employment and income, housing, health problems, and education.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20071 Schweizer, Urs. Suburbanization caused by fiscal inequality. [Suburbanisierung als Folge fiskalischer Inaquivalenz.] Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/ Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique, Vol. 122, No. 1, Mar 1986. 1-15 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The relationship between fiscal inequalities among central cities and suburban areas and migration to the suburbs is examined. The focus of the study is on questions related to resource sharing in the provision of goods and services that would benefit residents of both central cities and their suburbs.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:20072 Sit, Victor F. S. Chinese cities: the growth of the metropolis since 1949. ISBN 0-19-583746-0. 1985. xvi, 239 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
A review of current urbanization trends in China is presented. The book consists of a series of five case studies on the Chinese cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Xi'an, and Guangzhou written by scholars from China; case studies of Taipei, Taiwan, and Hong Kong; and a general introduction to urbanization and city development in China. Topics covered include urban evolution, land-use patterns, the economic base, urban problems, and planning in the five major Chinese cities, with comparisons to Hong Kong and Taipei.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20073 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Population growth and policies in mega-cities: Calcutta. Population Policy Paper, No. 1; ST/ESA/SER.R/61, 1986. vii, 38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the first in a series of studies that will focus on population policies and plans concerning mega-cities in developing countries. The emphasis is on policies designed to improve the standards of living and quality of life of the more than 8 million inhabitants projected for each of these cities by the year 2000. Among the policies discussed are those concerning migration, population projections, spatial distribution, urban infrastructure, employment, revenue raising, and institutional arrangements for planning and managing urban growth. This report concerns the mega-city of Calcutta, India.
The papers will follow a common format. "Section I provides basic information on demographic trends and reviews the use of demographic data in planning for rapidly growing urban populations." Other sections deal with economic issues and employment, policies affecting spatial distribution, infrastructure, and public investment.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20074 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Population growth and policies in mega-cities: Seoul. Population Policy Paper, No. 4; ST/ESA/SER.R/64, 1986. vii, 56 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one of a series concerning population policies and planning in the mega-cities of the developing world. The focus is on policies designed to improve the quality of life and standards of living of the inhabitants of the world's largest cities. The present study is concerned with Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea. The papers in the series are in a common format: they include chapters on demographic characteristics, the economy, decentralization and location, issues and sectors, and resources and management.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20075 Winsberg, Morton D. Geographical polarization of whites and minorities in large U.S. cities: 1960- 1980. Population Today, Vol. 14, No. 3, Mar 1986. 6-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Changes in the population composition of the major urban areas of the United States, defined as the 38 largest SMSAs, are reviewed for the period l960- 1980 using data from official sources. Differences in the rate at which whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians move to the suburbs are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20076 Yamada, Hiroyuki. A cross-section analysis of urbanization in the Tokyo metropolitan region. Kyoto University Economic Review, Vol. 52, No. 1-2, Apr-Oct 1982. 1-29 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Eng.
The author seeks to analyze the pattern of urbanization in the Tokyo metropolitan area through techniques of cross-sectional and principal components analysis. The focus is on accurately defining and delineating the urban area using data for 43 demographic and socioeconomic variables for 296 zones collected during the 1970 census of Japan. Particular attention is given to population density, the proportion of the population employed in non-primary industry, and the proportion of the employed population commuting.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20077 Yu, Eui-Young. "Koreatown" Los Angeles: emergence of a new inner-city ethnic community. Bulletin of the Population and Development Studies Center, Vol. 14, 1985. 29-44 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to explore the origin of Koreatown in Los Angeles, describe its characteristics and functions, explain the causes of its development, and speculate about its future." Data are from a variety of sources including the 1980 and 1981 Claremont Survey. Comparisons are made with the growth of Little Tokyo and Chinatown in Los Angeles.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20078 Zhong, Feng-Gan; Clarke, John I. Urban population growth in China: its characteristics and areal variations. Census Research Unit Working Paper, No. 26, Dec 1985. v, 47 pp. University of Durham, Department of Geography, Census Research Unit: Durham, England. In Eng.
"The characteristics of urban population growth in China reflect clearly the strong influences of explicit and implicit population redistribution policies and of the disguised urbanization process. Analyses of absolute number and percentage of urban population reveal the essential characteristics and areal variations of urban population growth resulting from the natural endowment and political- economical development processes. A new spatial pattern will evolve during a new development stage." Data are from official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20079 Zovanyi, Gabor. Structural change in a system of urban places: the 20th-century evolution of Hungary's urban settlement network. Regional Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, Feb 1986. 47- 71 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
A review of urban change in Hungary in the twentieth century is presented. Both the traditional approach to studying urban change, involving changes in the percentage of those residing in urban areas, and the newly developed approach, focusing on regional aspects of urbanization, are used in the analysis. "In sharp contrast to most European countries Hungary is shown to evidence continued centralization of urban development, but the recent experience of Budapest and other indicators are said to portend future decentralization."
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

52:20080 Igudina, A. I.; Ioffe, G. V. Shifts in the distribution of rural population in the non-Chernozem zone of the RSFSR. Soviet Geography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Apr 1986. 215-32 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Rural population change within the Non-Chernozem zone of the RSFRS [Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic] is examined over the period 1959-79 at several levels of analysis: the Non-Chernozem zone as a whole, its major economic regions, individual oblasts, individual rayons and individual farms and rural places. The overriding tendency at all levels of analysis has been the increasing spatial concentration of rural population."
The authors observe that "this concentration assumes a variety of forms, from the concentration of rural population in the suburban zones of large cities and the immediate surroundings of rayon seats to a decline in the number of rural places (from 180,000 in 1959 to 118,000 in 1979) and the growth of local centers against a general background of rural population decline. The authors hint that the observed tendency is a positive development, in keeping with the policy of converting Soviet agriculture to a more intensive path of development."
This is a translation of the Russian article in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriya Geograficheskaya (Moscow, USSR), No. 5, pp. 67-80.
Location: Princeton University Library (Maproom).

52:20081 Nikitenko, V. V. Implementation of the national food program as an important factor in changes in socio-demographic processes and structures in rural areas. [Realizatsiya prodovol'choi prohramy yak vazhlyvyi faktor zmin u sotsial'no-demohrafichnykh protsesakh i strukturakh na seli.] Demohrafichni Doslidzhennya, No. 9, 1985. 28-34 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author investigates changes in socio-demographic processes and structures in rural areas of the USSR that have occurred as a result of the national food program. Special attention is given to potential changes in migration, both permanent and seasonal, among villages and towns. Future changes in the age and sex distribution and in marital and family structures are estimated. Trends in rural employment and occupational patterns are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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