Volume 52 - Number 1 - Spring 1986

I. Historical Demography and Demographic History

Studies dealing with the demographic events of any given period from the early historical to the modern, defined as being World War I.

I.1. General Historical Demography

Comprehensive surveys, notes of sources, and items on the state of research. Particularly concerned with the period before modern vital registration was introduced and censuses were taken. Historical items that primarily pertain to one specific demographic variable are classified first under the specific heading and then cross-referenced to this heading.

52:10562 Bouraoui, Abdelhamid. A note on certain aspects of the demography of the Maghreb on the eve of colonization (the case of Tunisia). [Note sur certains aspects de la demographie maghrebine a la veille de la colonisation (cas de la Tunisie).] Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 20, No. 72-75, 1983. 219-25 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
A brief review of selected sources concerning the demography of Tunisia in the middle of the nineteenth century is presented. Consideration is given to population estimates, spatial distribution, and age structure.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10563 Calvo, Thomas. Mexican families in the seventeenth century: an attempt at reconstitution. [Familles mexicaines au XVIIe siecle: une tentative de reconstitution.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 149-74 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Starting with information concerning marriages during the years 1666-1675 recorded in the registry of the Sagrario parish of Guadalajara, Mexico, the author proceeds to reconstitute families in this population. He finds that "certain more original aspects of this population are revealed, such as a differentiated ethnic pattern, and an obviously Malthusian attitude within marriage (although early marriage is the rule) which contrasts with the exuberant attitude prevailing outside marriage."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10564 Diederiks, H. Cholera in the Netherlands, particularly in 1832: diffusion of measures to fight the epidemic. [Le cholera aux Pays-Bas, en 1832 en particulier: diffusion de mesures pour combattre l'epidemie.] DH: Bulletin d'Information, No. 45, Nov 1985. 23-33 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This article, which is translated from the original Dutch, is concerned with the process of diffusion of innovations, using as an example the development and application of measures to combat cholera in an urban situation in the Netherlands in the nineteenth century. The results suggest that the improvement of medical services was centrally organized and not particularly influenced by health crises such as the cholera epidemic of 1832-1833.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10565 Farris, William W. Population, disease, and land in early Japan, 645-900. Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, No. 24, ISBN 0-674-69031-3. LC 84-22576. 1985. xvi, 235 pp. Harvard University, Council on East Asian Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard-Yenching Institute: Cambridge, Massachusetts. Distributed by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. In Eng.
"This book examines population, disease, land clearance, agricultural technology, and rural settlement in Japan between 645 and 900." A chapter on fertility, mortality, and life expectancy in the early eighth century includes a description of available data sources and an assessment of the quality of the data they contain. A chapter is also included on the relationship between population trends and epidemic disease. The final chapter is devoted to rural settlement, including migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10566 Fauve-Chamoux, Antoinette. Innovation and parental behavior in an urban environment (fifteenth to nineteenth centuries). [Innovation et comportement parental en milieu urbain (XVe-XIXe siecles).] Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Vol. 40, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1985. 1,023-39, 1,239 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the reasons why putting children out to wet-nurse became prevalent in French cities by the eighteenth century, given that the risks to the child of such a practice were known. The obstacles to nursing by the natural mother are reviewed, and the attitude of fathers is identified as critical. Fathers encouraged the practice of putting children out to nurse in order to protect their conjugal life. The process by which these changes led to a reduction in the number of pregnancies and the emergence of a new model of the family are reviewed. Consideration is also given to the possible effect on such practices of the European habit of carrying children in the arms rather than on the back.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10567 Goswami, Homeswar. Population trends in the Brahmaputra Valley (1881-1931): a study in historical demography. LC 85-901037. 1985. xiv, 206 pp. Mittal Publications: Delhi, India. In Eng.
An analysis of population dynamics in the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam, India, between 1881 and 1931 is presented, using data from a variety of published and unpublished sources. Separate consideration is given to changes in the population level and distribution, changes in population characteristics, vital statistics, and trends and fluctuations. The focus of the study is on the factors associated with the demographic transition that took place in this region over the 50-year period. Following a description of the study methodology and sources of data, chapters are included on theoretical background, fertility, mortality, migration, and population growth.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:10568 Gregory, Joel W.; Cordell, Dennis D.; Gervais, Raymond. African historical demography: a multidisciplinary bibliography. Archival and Bibliographic Series, ISBN 0-918456-51-7. 1984. xiv, 248 pp. Crossroads Press: Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
This is an interdisciplinary bibliography of studies concerned with African historical demography. While the bibliography is largely without annotations, some entries have a one-line descriptive note.
"The bibliography is divided into six major sections. The first, Interregional Studies and Methodology, is general. The others are regional: North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa. Four subsections are common to each major section: Broad Studies and Methodology (including works falling into more than one of the following categories), Fertility and Nuptiality, Mortality and Morbidity, and Migration and Urbanization. The first major section, Interregional Studies and Methodology also includes two additional subsections, one on Research Aids, and another on Slavery, Slave-Raiding and the Slave Trade." Author and subject indexes are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10569 Hammel, Eugene A. Short-term demographic fluctuations in the Croatian military border, 1830-1847: a contribution to historical demography. [Kurzfristige demographische Schwankungen in der kroatischen Militargrenze 1830-47: ein Beitrag zur historischen Demographie.] Demographische Informationen, 1985. 21-35, 128 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Crude birth, death and marriage rates are examined for [Austria's] Croatian military defence zone and 'cordon sanitaire' against Turkey for the period 1830-1847....The data suggest that between about one and four fifths of the variance in long term swings and in annual fluctuations from the moving averages of birth, death, and nuptiality rates can be explained by a combination of linear trend over time, an epidemic year, and primarily three economic indicators: grain lagged by one year, grain in the report year (perhaps as a proxy for other plant production), and livestock in the report year."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10570 Lachiver, Marcel. Thirty years of historical demography in France. [Trente annees de demographie historique en France.] Annee Sociologique, Vol. 34, 1984. 165-99 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Demographic research in France over the past 30 years is reviewed, with a focus on applied historical demography concerning the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. An inventory of methods and data sources is first presented. The author then discusses the use of parish records, their limitations, and some priorities for future research.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:10571 Poos, L. R. The rural population of Essex in the later middle ages. Economic History Review, Vol. 38, No. 4, Nov 1985. 515-30 pp. Kendall, England. In Eng.
A series of data for the English county of Essex is used to provide an index of aggregate population trends between the late thirteenth and late sixteenth centuries. "This evidence was produced by the medieval frankpledge system, requiring adolescent and adult males to be enrolled into collective surety groups called tithings, and consists of annual totals of tithing membership from thirteen Essex communities. The validity of these datasets can be confirmed by comparison with parochial, taxation, and manorial sources."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10572 Rogers, John. The Nordic family: II. Perspectives on family research. Meddelande fran Familjehistoriska Projektet/Reports from the Family History Group, No. 5, ISBN 91- 506-0488-0. 1986. 35 pp. University of Uppsala, Department of History, Family History Group: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
This publication consists of comments on the reports presented at a round table session held during the Sixteenth International Congress of Historical Sciences in Stuttgart, August 25- September 1, 1985. The comments by Robert W. Lee are concerned with the family in history; those by Solvi Sogner are on changing marriage patterns. The geographic focus is on the Scandinavian countries.
For the papers presented at the round table, published by Rogers et al. in 1985, see 51:30457.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10573 Schapiro, Morton O. Economic development and population growth: implications from a model of U.S. demographic history. Center for Development Economics Research Memorandum, No. 98, Jan 1985. 39 pp. Williams College, Center for Development Economics: Williamstown, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The interrelationship between migration and fertility decisions and their endogenous response to changes in land availability are examined by using a settlement model to explain the U.S. historical experience. General conclusions concerning the course of population growth and distribution are outlined and then applied to the developing world with the aim of determining which of these results are relevant, what type of population program is most likely to succeed, and which new issues should be added to the research agenda."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10574 Skolnick, M. H.; Bean, L. L.; Mineau, G. P.; Jorde, L. B.; Bardet, J. P. Genetic and demographic studies and the Utah genealogical data base. [Etudes genetiques et demographiques et base de donnees genealogiques de l'Utah.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 103-13 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The authors present the data base of the Department of Human Genetics, Salt Lake City, the sources of which are family forms established by the members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and various family books from the same origin, completed by vital records and census nominal lists." The authors claim the sources to be of high quality and stress the significance of the data base for research in historical demography, genetics, and epidemiology.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10575 Watkins, Susan C.; Menken, Jane. Famines in historical perspective. Population and Development Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1985. 647-75, 799-801 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors consider the demographic consequences of famine and assess the role of past famines in controlling the long-term growth of population in light of the theories developed by Malthus. "The paper first reviews what is known about the magnitude and duration of changes in mortality and fertility during famines and the frequency of famines in past societies. This evaluation is used to provide reasonable alternative values with which to simulate the sequence of demographic changes that could be expected to have accompanied and followed famines in the past."
The authors conclude that "the combination of the historical record and the calculations suggests that famines did not play a major role in accounting for long-run population stability in the past." The geographical focus is on Asia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10576 Wichtl, Thomas. On the economy of "wealth of people": demographic-political theories in the Austria of enlightened absolutism. [Zur Okonomie des "Volksreichtums": bevolkerungspolitische Theorien im Osterreich des aufgeklarten Absolutismus.] Demographische Informationen, 1985. 36-42, 129 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This essay focuses on mercantilist theories and interpretations of demographic trends [in Austria] in the late 18th century." The writings of several mercantilist authors are summarized, and the influence of their views on population policy is discussed. It is noted that the official population policy, which aimed at fast population growth to strengthen the economy and increase the number of soldiers, was based on the mercantilist theory that greater population size means higher per capita incomes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

I.2. Methods of Historical Demography

Applications of demographic methodology to the records of the past in order to obtain further demographic information. Relevant items are coded here and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models if of more general interest than to historical demography alone.

52:10577 Becchia, Alain. The study of demographic behavior and social change through the reconstitution of lineages. [Etude des comportements demographiques et des mutations sociales a travers la reconstitution de lignees.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 25-44 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Limitations of population studies that are based on data anonymously collected into pluri-decennial groups are discussed. An alternative method involving the reconstitution of lineages is presented, and its merits are outlined. Using data from France for the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the author applies this method to three examples of socioeconomic analysis: "the study of social change; the dissemination of Malthusian practices (a study of family networks may reveal their diffusion throughout the family, or on the contrary, the existence of 'resistence zones'); and ethnographical aspects."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10578 Bideau, Alain; Poulain, Michel. From genealogy to historical demography: ascending genealogies and demographic analysis. [De la genealogie a la demographie historique: genealogie ascendante et analyse demographique.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 55-69 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article attempts to elaborate a methodology specifically adapted to ascendant genealogies; it is based on a study of the demographic characteristics of 1,000 ascendants from Tournai [Belgium]." Marriage, fertility, and mortality patterns for the groups studied are analyzed for the years 1780-1879.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10579 Cottias, Myriam. Trois-Ilets, Martinique, in the nineteenth century: a study in demographic marginality. [Trois-Ilets de la Martinique au XIXe siecle: essai d'etude d'une marginalite demographique.] Population, Vol. 40, No. 4- 5, Jul-Oct 1985. 675-97 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author first illustrates that "the methods generally used in historical demography (especially in the case of family data files) raise considerable problems when applied to the Caribbean village of Trois-Ilets during the 19th century. These problems stem from significant cultural differences: first, family names attributed after abolition have only recently become more stable; secondly, matrimonial unions have been the final rather than the initial stage in the foundation of the family."
The author then compiles matrifocal data files, determines fertility rates, and compares the fertility rates of married and unmarried women. The findings indicate that "the slight advantage [in fertility] held by married women disappears after the thirtieth birthday."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10580 Daumard, Adeline. Social genealogies: one of the bases of comparative and quantitative social history. [Les genealogies sociales: un des fondements de l'histoire sociale comparative et quantitative.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 9-24 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Social genealogies are contrasted with traditional genealogies in terms of their applicability and usefulness in the study of comparative and quantitative social history. The author concludes that, in social genealogies, "the attention paid to the female lineage, to youngest children and collaterals enables a better understanding of changes in social status, and of the role of circumstances, the individual, and family networks respectively in the evolution or permanence of social structures." The geographic focus is on France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10581 Dyrvik, Stale. Historical demography: an introduction to the methods. [Historisk demografi: ei innforing i metodane.] ISBN 82-00-06233-3. 1983. 213 pp. Universitetsforlaget: Bergen, Norway. In Nor.
This is an introductory textbook for the study of historical demography. The book, written in New Norwegian, includes sections on developments in historical demographic methods, the census as a source of data, data contained in parish registers, demographic crises and their effects, and family roots. The geographic focus is on Norway.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10582 Jette, Rene; Charbonneau, Hubert. Descending genealogies and demographic analysis. [Genealogies descendantes et analyse demographique.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 45-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The limitations of descending genealogies for historical demographic analysis are discussed, including the risk of biases from small numbers; representativeness problems; and the frequent omission of adult death certificates, wives' dates of birth, and information pertaining to children dying at an early age. The merits of reconstituted lineages in studying adult mortality and migrations are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10583 Lucchetti, Enzo; Soliani, Lamberto. The use of the computer in the reconstitution of families and genealogies in Bellino. [L'utilisation de l'ordinateur dans la reconstitution des familles et des genealogies a Bellino.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 129-35 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors present a method for reconstituting families and genealogies through the use of a computer. This method is applied to parish registers for Bellino, Italy, for the years 1770-1970.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10584 Reher, David-Sven. An introduction to the study of nominative information through the computerization of Spanish parish archives. [Introduction a l'etude de l'information nominative a partir de la mise sur ordinateur des archives paroissiales espagnoles.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 137-46 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on 37,000 records extracted from the parish registers of the town of Cuenca (Spain) between the mid-XVIth and the mid-XIXth centuries, the project was addressed at reconstituting whole families: the records selected provided 99% nominal data. A short description of the methods adopted (computerized) and the problems encountered is provided, with a fuller discussion of the specific difficulties stemming from name variability."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10585 Segalen, Martine. The use of genealogy in a study of marriage patterns in the southern Bigouden region. [L'usage de la genealogie dans une recherche sur les structures de l'alliance dans le pays Bigouden Sud.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 71-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
A computer program to analyze marriage patterns between blood relations and between marriage relations for the southern Bigouden region of Brittany is presented. The program is capable of utilizing long, bilateral genealogies to analyze the frequency and structure of marriage relations, and may be applied as well to the study of other genealogical subgroups.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10586 Wrigley, Tony. The means to marry: population and economy in pre-industrial England. Quarterly Journal of Social Affairs, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1985. 271-80 pp. Hillsdale, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between marriage trends and long-term economic trends in preindustrial England is explored using data developed through aggregative back projection by the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure. The results show that marriage became more difficult and therefore less frequent in worsening economic conditions, and easier and therefore more frequent when the economic climate was improving. The author speculates on the links between this relationship and the creation of conditions favorable to the industrial revolution.
Location: New York Public Library.

Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.