Volume 52 - Number 1 - Spring 1986

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

52:10387 Ahmed, Ashraf U. Socioeconomic determinants of age at first marriage in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1986. 35-42 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the factors affecting age at first marriage--place of residence, education, premarital work status, religion, husband's childhood residence, education and occupation. Women's education appears to be the strongest determinant of variation in marriage age, and all the other factors show statistically significant influences." The data are from the 1976 Bangladesh Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10388 Anzo, Shinji. Measurement of the marriage squeeze and its application. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 5, No. 8, May 1985. 1-10 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
The author first examines two measurements of the marriage squeeze, namely, the sex ratio measure developed by Akers, Heer, and Grossbard-Schechtman and the S measure constructed by Schoen. Using these measures, Japanese data for the years 1950 to 1980 are analyzed, showing a marriage squeeze for females in the first two decades and for males in the 1970s. Explanations for these findings are suggested, and the relative merits of the two methods are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10389 Beets, G. C. N.; Cruijsen, H. G. J. M. Population forecasts 1984: hypotheses on nuptiality. [Bevolkingsprognose 1984: hypothesen betreffende de nuptialiteit.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 33, No. 10, Oct 1985. 50-68 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The assumptions and hypotheses concerning nuptiality used in the official 1984 population forecasts for the Netherlands are presented. These assumptions, based on a study of the relevant literature and on trend analysis, postulate a decline in probabilities of first marriage and in the incidence of widowing and remarriage; and an increase in nonmarital cohabitation, age at marriage, and incidence of divorce. Projections of first marriage, divorce, widowing, and remarriage rates for female birth cohorts through the end of this century are then computed, and the methods used in deriving these projections are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10390 Bloom, David E.; Bennett, Neil G. Marriage patterns in the United States. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 85-4, Apr 1985. 22, [9] pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes cohort marriage patterns in the United States in order to determine whether declining rates of first marriage are due to changes in the timing of marriage, the incidence of marriage, or both....The results provide evidence that the incidence of first marriage is declining and that there is only a slight tendency for women to delay marriage. In addition, education is the most important correlate of decisions about the timing of first marriage whereas race is the most important correlate of decisions about its incidence."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 431).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10391 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Wolf, Douglas A. SIPP data on marriage, separation, divorce, and remarriage. Problems, opportunities, and recommendations. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 13, No. 3-4, Dec 1985. 229-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Longitudinal data concerning marital status, which are being collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) are described, and certain limitations are discussed. Recommendations are suggested concerning design changes in the marital history section of the SIPP.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10392 Fargues, Philippe. Marriage traditions in Arab societies. [Traditions matrimoniales dans les societes arabes.] Population et Societes, No. 198, Jan 1986. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
An attempt is made to summarize some features concerning marriage patterns common to the countries of the Arab world. Consideration is given to the impact of the instability of Islamic marriages, the role of the dowry and endogamy, the relationship between repudiation of the spouse and fertility, and the impact of female education.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10393 Festy, Patrick. Divorce, judicial separation and remarriage. Recent trends in the member states of the Council of Europe. Council of Europe Population Studies, No. 17, ISBN 92-871-0826-9. 1985. 70 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
This report is a result of the work of an expert committee set up at the recommendation of the Council of Europe's Steering Committee on Population to examine issues related to divorce, judicial separation, and remarriage in member countries. The report examines the frequency of divorce, the characteristics of those divorcing, divorced couples and their children, and remarriage. Numerous statistical data on divorce are included in an appendix.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10394 Friedlander, Dov; Ben Moshe, Eliahu. Occupations, migration, sex ratios, and nuptiality in nineteenth century English communities: a model of relationships. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1986. 1-12 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Two effects of occupational structure on nuptiality levels are examined: a direct functional effect related to the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on the feasibility and desirability of marriage, and an indirect structural effect related to nuptiality levels via sex selective migration patterns and population sex ratios. [The] analysis shows that nuptiality levels in nineteenth century English and Welsh districts were responsive to occupational variation and that both direct and indirect effects were significant. [The] results suggest that socioeconomic factors, often overlooked in favor of cultural explanation, must be considered in the analysis of nuptiality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10395 Germany, Federal Republic of. Bundesminister fur Jugend, Familie und Gesundheit (Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of). Nonmarital cohabitation in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaften in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.] Schriftenreihe des Bundesministers fur Jugend, Familie und Gesundheit, Vol. 170, ISBN 3-17-009033-X. 1985. 185 pp. W. Kohlhammer: Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Results are presented from a project begun in 1982 to study nonmarital cohabitation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The project consists of four separate studies: a representative survey of approximately 2,000 persons living in consensual unions and 1,000 married couples, a qualitative study of motivations and attitudes among 130 persons, a literature review, and a secondary analysis of official data from the micro-censuses of 1972- 1982.
The findings indicate that between 1 million and 2.5 million persons live in consensual unions, and this number has increased by 277 percent between 1972 and 1982. However, only 8 percent of these couples are opposed to marriage; in most cases these unions are viewed as a form of premarital cohabitation rather than as an alternative to marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10396 Hoem, Britta. Regional trends in modern cohabitation: methodology and results. [Regional utveckling i det moderna samboendet, analysmetoder och resultat.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 22, ISBN 91-7820-009-1. Nov 1984. 78 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This is one in a series of progress reports from a research project on the life cycle of women in modern Sweden from 1936 to 1960. In the present paper, regional variations in the frequency of consensual union in Sweden are reviewed, and changes over time are described. The author notes that consensual unions have played an important role in Sweden, particularly in the past few decades. Regional data are presented on cohabitation, marriage, adolescent childbearing, and cohabitation leading to marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10397 Hoem, Jan M. The impact of education on modern union initiation. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 27, ISBN 91-7820-014-8. Aug 1985. 71 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Education as a determinant of entry into a first union, through either marriage or cohabitation, is examined. Interview data from the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey of some 4,300 single women with zero parity (born between 1936 and 1960) are analyzed. Distinguishing between current student status and the level of education attained, the author finds that students initiate unions at much lower rates than nonstudents and that the amount of education has no significant effect on entry into consensual unions.
At the same time, the study finds that social background influences marriage formation only through the differential use of the educational system by women from various social strata while social origin is seen as an important determinant of cohabitation. The significance of respondents' educational histories for conducting future surveys is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10398 Jurgens, Hans W.; Pohl, Katharina. Sex ratio and the marriage squeeze. [Sexualproportion und Heiratsmarkt.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1985. 165-78 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors use 1982 official data for the resident population of the Federal Republic of Germany to indicate a substantial surplus of males in the current marriage market in contrast to the surplus of women in the total population. Reductions in the birth rate and in infant mortality are suggested as causes of this imbalance.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10399 Kellerhals, Jean; Languin, Noelle; Perrin, Jean-Francois; Wirth, Genevieve. Social status, family structure, and divorce: a longitudinal analysis of breach of unions in a marriage cohort. [Statut social, projet familial et divorce: une analyse longitudinale des ruptures d'union dans une promotion de mariages.] Population, Vol. 40, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1985. 811-27 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article analyzes the causes of divorce among a cohort of couples married in Geneva [Switzerland] between 1974 and 1975, from information based on interviews and other data collected at four different points [in] time." The classical factors associated with divorce, including its acceptability, financial constraints, and differences in social class between spouses, do not seem to be major determinants of divorce. The authors conclude that the main factor concerns changes in attitude toward marriage and that divorce is more frequent among couples who stress the importance of individual rights and equality between the sexes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10400 Kim, Yoon Shin. Marriage pattern of the Korean population in Japan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, Oct 1985. 445-50 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The trends of intermarriage, and the attitude to it, of Koreans in Japan were examined. About 47 [percent] of total marriages of Koreans during the period 1965-79 comprised a husband and wife of different nationality. The proportion of Korean-Japanese marriages was higher than that of Korean-Korean marriages in recent years....The results suggest that mixed marriages of Koreans and Japanese will continue to increase and may influence the future fertility of Koreans in Japan." The data are from official Japanese vital statistics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10401 Kojima, Hiroshi; Atoh, Makoto; Itoh, Tatsuya; Ikenoue, Masako. An application of the nuptiality model developed by Coale and McNeil. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 175, Jul 1985. 36-47 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The authors use Japanese data for the period since 1950 to suggest that the nuptiality model developed by Coale and McNeil is no longer completely applicable to the situation in contemporary Japan with regard to certain age groups. Methods to correct discrepancies in past data are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10402 Kojima, Hiroshi. Unbalanced sex ratio and nuptiality change: a short review of the literature. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 7, May 1984. 53-8 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The international literature on the relationship between imbalances in the sex ratio and nuptiality trends is briefly reviewed. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10403 Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne. The incidence of divorce from the point of view of children: application of a method to the situation in Quebec, 1969-1980. [L'incidence du divorce du point de vue des enfants: application d'une methode a la situation du Quebec, 1969-1980.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 13, No. 2, Oct 1984. 303-9 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
Divorce statistics for Quebec, Canada, for the years 1969- 1980 concerning the duration of marriage and the number of dependent children at the time of divorce are analyzed to obtain an indicator of the frequency of divorce from the perspective of children. The author finds that the age distribution of children of divorced parents is similar to the age distribution of all children in the population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10404 Lavoie, Claudette. Description of a marital mobility model and its application to Quebec. [Description et application au Quebec d'un modele de mobilite matrimoniale.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 13, No. 2, Oct 1984. 215-45 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The marital mobility model allows for the simultaneous study of the formation and break-up of couples in a given cohort. The model is equally suited for longitudinal and for period analysis. Its essential feature is the construction of a multiple status life table that deals either with initial status changes or with successive ones. Preliminary results obtained for Quebec indicate that, in recent generations, individuals marry less and divorce more; at the same time the prevalence of cohabitation and the number of births out of wedlock both continue to increase."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10405 Lehning, James R. Nuptiality and rural industry: families and labor in the French countryside. Journal of Family History, Vol. 8, No. 4, Winter 1983. 333-45 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This essay examines the impact of rural industry on nuptiality from several perspectives. First, aggregate data on marriage behavior during the second half of the eighteenth century are considered for one of the major proto-industrial regions of France, the departments along the northern border. No clear relationship is found between nuptiality and the presence of rural industry. The essay then examines the composition of the proto-industrial labor force in the department of the Loire during the nineteenth century and suggests some clarifications of this relationship."
The author suggests that two different models of proto-industrial family economy emerged and that the existence of both types in one area has produced the ambiguous results found in the aggregate data. "Thus, while in some parts of Europe proto-industrialization may have influenced age at marriage and proportions ever-marrying, this was by no means a universal effect. The household context of proto-industry played a major role in determining its impact on nuptiality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10406 Lieberson, Stanley; Waters, Mary. Ethnic mixtures in the United States. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 1, Oct 1985. 43-52 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
Recent trends in ethnic intermarriage in the United States are analyzed using data from the 1980 Public Use Microdata Samples. "...Marriage patterns among persons of mixed ethnic ancestry are examined in terms of whether choice of mates reflects the following possible outcomes: a pattern that lies somewhere between those common compatriots with just a single ancestry; a pattern in the direction of unmixed persons with one of the common ancestries; or a pattern quite distinctive from that found among unmixed persons of either ancestry."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 381).
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10407 Lynch, Katherine A. Marriage age among French factory workers: an Alsatian example. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 16, No. 3, Winter 1986. 405-29 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author examines trends in age at first marriage of factory workers in a community undergoing industrialization using data from marriage registers for Dornach, France, for the period between the mid-1820s and the mid-1850s. Several factors influencing workers' nuptiality, including occupation and migration characteristics and timing of parents' deaths, are investigated. The focus is on data concerning female workers. The findings are compared with the outcomes predicted by Hajnal's western European model and by the proto- industrialization hypothesis.
Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

52:10408 Malaker, C. R. Modelling of Indian nuptiality. Sankhya: Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 47, No. 1, Apr 1985. 118-27 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
Models of nuptiality developed by Coale are applied to data for India taken from the 1971 census. The author concludes that the available data do not permit the use of these models and proposes an alternative method involving the use of computerized searching. This method is used to analyze Indian nuptiality data. Substantial differences in nuptiality patterns between the sexes are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10409 McLaughlin, Steven D.; Grady, William R.; Billy, John O. G.; Landale, Nancy S.; Winges, Linda D. The effects of the sequencing of marriage and first birth during adolescence. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 12-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The consequences of the sequencing of marriage and first birth among adolescents giving birth in the United States are explored. The emphasis is on comparing the outcomes among adolescent mothers who differ in the timing of marriage relative to birth. The data are from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth and the four waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth conducted between 1979 and 1982. Factors considered include subsequent educational experience, marital instability, subsequent birth intervals, and differences by race.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10410 Murphy, M. J. Demographic and socio-economic influences on recent British marital breakdown patterns. Population Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3, Nov 1985. 441-60 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The sources of data on marital breakdown and divorce in the United Kingdom are evaluated. The accuracy of data from large-scale multi-purpose surveys is compared with data from official divorce records, and the extent of under-recording in the latter source is estimated. The results of the analysis indicate that demographic factors have a greater effect on marriage breakdown than do socioeconomic factors. Demographic factors considered include childlessness, length of first birth interval, age at marriage, and fertility status. Social factors considered include social class, housing, woman's religion, type of marriage ceremony, and length of dating period before marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10411 Neury, J.-E. The remarriage of divorced persons. [Die Wiederverheiratung der Geschiedenen/Le remariage des personnes divorcees.] Statistische Hefte, 1: Bevolkerung/Cahiers Statistiques, 1: Population, ISBN 3-303-01005-6. 1985. 20 pp. Bundesamt fur Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre; Ger. with sum. in Ita.
Trends in the remarriage of divorced persons are examined for Switzerland over the past 25 years. The data are from official sources. Topics covered include trends in the number of marriages of divorced persons, the frequency of remarriage, remarriage rates according to the duration of time since divorce, the average interval between divorce and remarriage, remarriage rates according to year of divorce, age at remarriage, and age at divorce for women who remarry.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10412 Rajulton, Fernando. Marriageability and divorceability: a simulation of the unobservables through the conditional Gaussian diffusion process. IPD Working Paper, No. 1986-1, 1986. 37 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The author attempts to illustrate the flexibility of the conditional Gaussian diffusion model and its applicability to the analysis of marriage and divorce. The particular focus is on changes in marital behavior in developed countries.
"Relevant notions and a viable measure (though incomplete) of marriageability and divorceability are introduced in Section 1. The model specification based on the ideas of the conditional Gaussian diffusion process, which allows an analysis of heterogeneity dynamics of these unobservables, is explained in brief in Section 2. And Section 3 gives an illustrative example of a simulation carried out for the case of marriageability with the ideas developed in Section 2. The last section points out the extension to divorceability and other demographic variables of interest."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10413 Schoen, Robert; Baj, John. The impact of the marriage squeeze in five Western countries. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 1, Oct 1985. 8-19 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"The impact of the marriage squeeze, [defined as] the effect of the age- sex composition of the population on marriage rates, is examined for the United States, England and Wales, Belgium, Sweden, and Switzerland over the period 1910-1976....The severity of the marriage squeeze was found to vary substantially by period and country, with the most severe squeezes occurring in England and Wales, Sweden, and Switzerland during the years 1915-35..
The authors compare the effects of the marriage squeeze on the proportion ever marrying and on the average age at marriage with the effects of changes in marriage preferences. The results indicate that "while the marriage squeeze phenomenon is not trival and should not be ignored, the findings did not support theories which see the marriage squeeze as playing a major role in recent changes in marriage behavior."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10414 Schweitzer, Walter. Marriage tables versus marital status tables--a critical comparison. [Heiratstafeln versus Familienstandstafeln--ein kritischer Vergleich.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 44, 1985. iii, 102 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The aim of this work is to describe how the theory of Markov chains can be used to construct both marriage tables (a form of multiple-decrement table) and marital status tables (a form of increment-decrement table). The models employed are first discussed, and a series of tables is presented using data for the Federal Republic of Germany in 1972- 1974. A critical comparison of the two types of tables is also provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10415 Storm, H. Life tables by marital status, 1981-1984. [Overlevingstafels naar burgerlijke staat, 1981-1984.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 33, No. 9, Sep 1985. 42-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Marital life tables for the Netherlands for the period 1981-1984 are presented. Changes in the number of moves among the four marital statuses never married, married, widowed, and divorced are analyzed. The results indicate that marriage is becoming less important over time as people spend longer periods in the never married or divorced status. Since 1971-1975, the mean duration of marriage has declined by about four years, whereas the mean time spent in the divorced status has increased to six years for men and eight years for women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10416 van Leusden, Hans. Indicators of marriage and marriage dissolution of the female population of Curacao, 1960-1962, 1970-1972, and 1980-1981: a multidimensional analysis. Working Papers of the NIDI, No. 66, Oct 1985. vii, 90 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This publication contains a statistical description of the process of marriage and marriage dissolution among women in Curacao over the periods 1960-1962, 1970-1972 and 1980-1981. The multidimensional method was applied for the analysis, using two procedures: the population-based approach and the status-based approach. For the sake of comparison, data from the Netherlands (1978) have been incorporated in this publication."
The results show "that marriage contraction has decreased since 1960-1962 and that divorce-- already at a high level in 1960-1962 in comparison with other countries--has increased even further. As for the patterns of marriage and marriage dissolution among the Antillean female residents of Curacao (women of Dutch nationality, born on the Netherlands Antilles), the analysis showed that, in 1980-1981, they hardly differed from the corresponding patterns found among the total female population of Curacao."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10417 Volkov, A.; Savchenko, N. Male nuptiality by real cohorts. [Brachnost' muzhchin v real'nykh pokoleniyakh.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 9, 1985. 19-29 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Trends in male nuptiality in the USSR over the past 30 years are analyzed. Male nuptiality is compared with female nuptiality using nuptiality indexes derived from real cohorts. A trend toward lower age at marriage over time is noted, and the impact of this trend on marital stability is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10418 Waite, Linda J.; Haggstrom, Gus W.; Kanouse, David E. The consequences of parenthood for the marital stability of young adults. American Sociological Review, Vol. 50, No. 6, Dec 1985. 850-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines how the birth of the first child affects the stability of marriages over the short run: it uses [U.S.] data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. [The] results show strong, positive effects of the first birth on the marital stability of young adults. [The authors] estimate that by the time the first child reaches his second birth [date] more than 20 percent of the parents would have been divorced or separated if the child had not been born, compared to actual disruption rates of 5-8 percent."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10419 White, Lynn K.; Booth, Alan. The quality and stability of remarriages: the role of stepchildren. American Sociological Review, Vol. 50, No. 5, Oct 1985. 689-98 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper separates the effects of remarriage and presence of stepchildren on the stability and satisfaction of second marriages. Using a [U.S.] nationwide probability sample of 1,673 married individuals interviewed in 1980 and again in 1983, [the authors] show that the higher divorce rate among remarriages is limited to the most complex form of remarriage: where both spouses have been previously married and there are stepchildren in the household....In addition to breaking up their families through divorce, stepfamilies are shown to move teenagers out of the home and empty the nest faster than biological families. [They] conclude that the presence of stepchildren is a destabilizing influence within remarriages and a major contributor to the somewhat greater rate of divorce."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10420 Woods, R. I.; Hinde, P. R. A. Nuptiality and age at marriage in nineteenth-century England. Journal of Family History, Vol. 10, No. 2, Summer 1985. 119-44 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper presents a reworking and extension of Anderson's...analysis of Victorian marriage patterns. It utilises registration district data for England and Wales in 1861 and 1891 together with information on individuals drawn from the census enumerators' books for six case study districts, 1851-1881. The main focus of the analysis is on the role of occupational characteristics, especially those of women, and the ways such characteristics condition the resultant level of nuptiality via age at first marriage and the proportion ever married. The need to supplement ecological multivariate analysis by the use of a 'collective biography' approach is emphasized and illustrated."
For the study by Michael Anderson, published in 1976, see 43:2451.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10421 Yamaguchi, Kiichi; Yamamoto, Michiko. Recent trends in the mean age at marriage in Japan in comparison with other countries. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 174, Apr 1985. 69-75 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Recent trends in age at marriage in Japan and the demographic consequences are examined. Comparisons are made with the situation in selected other countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10422 Zeng, Yi; Vaupel, James W.; Yashin, Anatoli I. Marriage and fertility in China: a graphical analysis. Population and Development Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1985. 721-36, 800, 802 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from China's 1982 one-in-a-thousand fertility survey are used to construct contour maps of various surfaces of Chinese marriage and fertility. They offer a panoramic view of the interaction of age, period, and cohort variations. The maps display long-term trends over the last three decades: an upward shift of about four years in age at marriage and dramatic fertility declines, especially before age 20 and after age 30." The authors also find that "marriage remains virtually universal by age 35 and fertility among married women under age 26 remains as high as it has been over the last 30 or 40 years. Each year about a third of married women between ages 19 and 26 bear a child."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

52:10423 Ankarloo, Bengt. Stages of women's lives: 18 Swedish female cohorts and their life cycle history. [Sekler av kvinnoliv: 18 svenska kvinnokohorter och deras livscykelforlopp.] Scandia, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1983. 277-90, 305 pp. Lund, Sweden. In Swe. with sum. in Eng.
Changing life cycle experiences among 18 female birth cohorts in Sweden between 1750 and the 1920s are reviewed. The focus is on the factors that prevented women from experiencing an "ideal" life cycle, including survival of self and husband to age 50. Five factors influencing the life course are considered, namely, mortality, emigration, nuptiality, widowhood, and divorce. The author notes that as mortality declined over time, factors preventing marriage played an increasingly important role. Consideration is also given to the family structure of Scandinavian immigrants in the American Midwest.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:10424 Benoit, D.; Levi, P.; Vimard, P. Household structures in rural populations of South Togoland. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2, Summer 1986. 219-31, vii, xi pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper examines variation in size and composition of family units among rural populations of South Togo. In particular, variation in family structure is examined in relationship to characteristics of heads of household and other socio-demographic variables." Factor analysis techniques are used, and findings are presented for type and size of household according to ethnicity; place of residence; and age, sex, marital status, educational level, and occupation of head of household.
Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

52:10425 Benson-von der Ohe, Elizabeth; Mason, Valmari M. An annotated bibliography of U.S. scholarship on the history of the family. AMS Studies in Social History, No. 6, ISBN 0-404-61606-2. LC 85-48008. 1986. xxix, 194 pp. AMS Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is an annotated bibliography of selected works by U.S. scholars on family history. It includes journal articles, books, and unpublished papers. The material covered is primarily published since 1970, with emphasis on the period since 1975, and is organized by subject. Sections are included on family and household structure and composition; marriage; the life cycle; and sexuality, birth, death, and migration. The works cited are from a variety of fields of study, including history, sociology, anthropology, economics, and women's studies. The primary geographical focus is on the United States; however, items on other countries are included. There is an author index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10426 Blanc, Ann K. The effect of nonmarital cohabitation on family formation and dissolution: a comparative analysis of Sweden and Norway. Pub. Order No. DA8520740. 1985. 125 pp. Dissertation Abstracts International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The aim of this dissertation is to examine the impact of nonmarital cohabitation on the sequence and timing of some important life-course events, including marriage and marital dissolution....The effect of cohabitation on the probability of entry into marriage is...explored in detail using a multivariate hazard model. Finally, some of the social and legal implications of cohabitation are discussed. Data from the 1980 Women in Sweden Survey and the 1977 Norwegian Fertility Survey are used in the analyses."
The results indicate that "the traditional sequence of relatively early entry into legal marriage followed by childbearing is no longer the course followed by the majority of women in Sweden. Among recent Swedish cohorts, the overwhelming majority of women cohabit before marriage and these nonmarital unions are less likely to result in marriage than such unions in earlier cohorts. In addition, the association of legal marriage with childbearing has become weaker....In Norway, similar trends are observed but are less extreme and seem to have begun somewhat later."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(7).

52:10427 Blanc, Olivier. Households in Switzerland: some aspects of their evolution from 1960 to 1980 using census statistics. [Les menages en Suisse: quelques aspects de leur evolution de 1960 a 1980 a travers les statistiques de recensement.] Population, Vol. 40, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1985. 657-74 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Using statistics from the 1960 and 1980 censuses of Switzerland, the author notes that the number of households has risen at a rate faster than the growth rate for the country's total population. Among the suggested explanations for this finding are the growing populations of young single and older widowed people, aging in the population as a whole, the decline in the number of extended households, and the drop in the birth rate. The author points out that the most marked changes between the two censuses occurred in the German-speaking cantons.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10428 Blayo, Chantal. The status of women and fertility: the experience of developed countries. [Condition de la femme et fecondite: l'experience des pays developpes.] Genus, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1985. 181-8 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
The author critically examines recent studies that have cited various changes in women's status in developed countries as the cause of changes in the number of children desired. It is suggested that "the number has decreased as a consequence of the social pressures tending to limit the total fertility of women so as to be compatible with the new behaviour patterns of an industrialized society."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10429 Brambila Paz, Carlos. Migration and family formation in Mexico. [Migracion y formacion familiar en Mexico.] ISBN 968-12-0300-3. 1985. 125 pp. Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios de Demografia y Desarrollo Urbano: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This analysis of data from the 1976 National Fertility Survey of Mexico is concerned with ways in which family formation has been affected by increasing urbanization during the last 40 years. Particular attention is given to the effects of the decision to migrate and of migration itself on the timing of marriage and the number of children. Adaptation of the individual to changed social conditions and strategies for family survival are also studied.
For a related study, published as a thesis in 1982, see 49:30419.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10430 Carmichael, Gordon A. The changing structure of Australian families. Australian Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 1-2, Autumn-Winter 1985. 95-104 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper reports briefly on some of the major contemporary demographic trends affecting family structure and family formation in Australia. It begins by noting some recent changes in the demographic character of Australian families and households. It then looks in turn at trends in first marriage patterns, childbearing, and divorce....It also highlights some of the new forces which now impinge on the processes of family formation and dissolution."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:10431 Chant, Sylvia. Single-parent families: choice or constraint? The formation of female-headed households in Mexican shanty towns. Development and Change, Vol. 16, No. 4, Oct 1985. 635-56 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using material collected in a survey of 244 low-income owner households in three irregular settlements in Queretaro, Mexico, the purpose of this article is to show firstly how female-headed households survive in comparison with male-headed household, and secondly to clarify the various reasons for the formation of single- parent units, indicating that they often result from female initiative."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:10432 De Vos, Susan. Using World Fertility Survey data to study household composition: an example of Latin America. CDE Working Paper, No. 85-22, 1985. 44 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Household data from the World Fertility Survey (WFS) are used to examine household composition in Latin America. "The major thrust of this note is methodological. The five main topics are: 1) determining the sample; 2) defining marital status; 3) data quality; 4) measuring household composition; and 5) the potential and limits of the WFS household data." Tables are included presenting findings on various aspects of household composition for the six countries concerned, which include Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, and Peru.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10433 Duncan, Greg J. A framework for tracking family relationships over time. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 13, No. 3-4, Dec 1985. 237-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The purpose of this article is to describe a data structure for the U.S. Bureau of the Census's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) that would enable analysts to account for numerous and varied changes in family composition. "A framework is proposed that can be used to link related individuals at any point during the data collection period and to determine whether the linked pair of individuals shared the same dwelling at any point. Examples of the value of such information are describing the living arrangements of children, in understanding the economic consequences of divorce, and in modeling the decisions of young unmarried mothers to live independently or with parents."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10434 Duncan, Greg J.; Hill, Martha S. Conceptions of longitudinal households: fertile or futile? Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 13, No. 3-4, Dec 1985. 361- 75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss difficulties inherent in defining a longitudinal household due to changes in composition through such occurrences as births, deaths, divorces, marriages, children leaving home, and institutionalizations. An alternative approach to longitudinal analysis of the population is suggested, namely, the use of the individual rather than the household as the unit of analysis. Data from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics are used to illustrate this approach.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10435 Farid, Samir. Fertility and family planning in the Arab region. IPPF Medical Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 1, Feb 1986. 1-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article describes patterns of family formation in the eight Arab countries that have participated in the World Fertility Survey (WFS) programme: Egypt, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco, the Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and the Yemen Arab Republic." Topics covered include age at marriage, fertility levels and trends, infant and child mortality, breast-feeding, fertility preferences, and family planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10436 Goldscheider, Frances K.; LeBourdais, Celine. The decline in age at leaving home, 1920-1979. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 2, Jan 1986. 143-5 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"A secular trend [in the United States] towards leaving home at earlier ages is found in a retrospective study of Rhode Island residents, covering the period 1920 to 1979....The data come from a clustered, multi-stage sample survey conducted in Rhode Island in 1967, 1968, and 1969 by the Brown University Population Laboratory. The sample consisted originally of 3,345 adult respondents, of whom 2,058 were successfully reinterviewed in 1979." Factors possibly contributing to the trend in leaving home at earlier ages are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10437 Golod, S. I. The stability of the family: social and demographic aspects. [Stabil'nost' sem'i: sotsiologicheskii i demograficheskii aspekty.] LC 84-241369. 1984. 134 pp. Nauka: Leningrad, USSR. In Rus.
Recent developments concerning the family in the USSR are reviewed. The characteristics of the contemporary family are analyzed, with a focus on the urban family. The central role of the relationship between husband and wife is stressed. Consideration is given to how the society can influence the process of human reproduction through policy measures.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:10438 Grigsby, Jill; McGowan, Jill B. Still in the nest: adult children living with their parents. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 2, Jan 1986. 146-8 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
The authors analyze data from the 1-in-1,000 Public-Use Microdata Sample of the 1980 U.S. Census of Population and Housing in order to examine selected characteristics of adult children living with their parents. The focus is on individuals over age 18 who are children of the head of household. Information is presented for this population by age for several socioeconomic variables, including marital status, school enrollment, education, labor force status, and individual income. A life cycle explanation for the observed living arrangements is suggested.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10439 Hancioglu, Attila. Family types and household size in Turkey. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 7, 1985. 61-76 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This study is concerned with the prevalence of specific family types and their mean sizes in various regions and places of residence in Turkey for the year 1978, when the nationwide Turkish Fertility Survey was conducted. Through concentration on various typologies of the compositions of families, comparisons of the 1978 findings with those of the 1968 Survey on Family Structure and Population Problems are also made."
The author concludes that "the main change has been the significant increase of the dissolved families and the significant decrease of the patriarchal families, in all regions and places of residence."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10440 Hohn, Charlotte. The family life cycle concept and cohort analysis. [Familienzykluskonzept und Kohortenanalyse.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1985. 147-64 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Use of the family life cycle concept in demographic studies is explored. "By example of the methodological measuring problems which arise for each of the 7 indicators of the classical 6-phase family life cycle, if the latter are derived from cross-section data, it is demonstrated that only the cohort analysis of biographies can serve as the appropriate procedure. This moreover makes it possible to avoid the limitation of the family life cycle concept to stable first marriages....In addition, the cohort analysis is also superior on account of the fact that partial demographic processes are differing from one generation to the next with regard to speed and intensity."
Some examples of these approaches in demographic analyses are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10441 Kravdal, Oystein. Moving out of the parental home: regional and social differences among Swedish women born between 1936 and 1960. [Flytting fra foreldrehjemmet: regionale og sosiale forskjeller blant svenske kvinner fodt 1936-60.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 26, ISBN 91-7820-013-X. Jun 1985. 84 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
The factors affecting when adult children leave home permanently in Sweden are analyzed using data for women born between 1936 and 1960. Consideration is given to age at leaving, reasons for leaving, and to living arrangements prior to entering into a union or marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10442 Lutz, Wolfgang. Marriages, divorces, and number of children: life tables on the family life cycle in Austria. [Heiraten, Scheidungen und Kinderzahl: demographische Tafeln zum Familien-Lebenszyklus in Osterreich.] Demographische Informationen, 1985. 3-20, 128 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
A multistate life table approach to the analysis of the family life cycle is outlined. "After calculating one-dimensional nuptiality and divorce tables and presenting a recently developed model of a fertility table based on parity, a multi-state model is described in which the cells represent all possible combinations of marital status and parity." The model is applied to data from the 1976 and 1981 micro-censuses of Austria. Findings regarding marriage, divorce, fertility, and fertility differentials by education are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10443 Marini, Margaret M. Determinants of the timing of adult role entry. Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1985. 309-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Factors influencing the timing of the transition from adolescence to adulthood are examined by focusing on entry into the labor force, marriage, and parenthood. Data from a 1957-1958 survey of students in 10 U.S. high schools and a follow-up study of the same sample in 1973-1974 are analyzed. For these cohorts, the timing of entry into adult roles is shown "to be a function of (1) the duration of time spent in transitional roles, (2) availability of the opportunity to enter an adult role, and (3) an individual's orientation to an adult role."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10444 Munz, Rainer. Life with children: desire and reality. [Leben mit Kindern: Wunsch und Wirklichkeit.] Demographische Informationen, 1985. 56-68, 129 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
This article is a summary of a larger study designed to analyze the desire for children, reproductive behavior, and family formation in Austria, as well as the consequences of family formation for the living conditions of women. The findings of the study are also published in a 1985 book edited by R. Munz. Data for the study are from interviews conducted in 1978 and 1981-1982 with 2,000 women who had married in 1974 or 1977. Additional in-depth interviews were carried out with 40 women.
Findings are presented regarding "desired family size and number of children; employment of women and mothers; the every-day lives of women and the division of labor in the family; patterns of relations in the family; contraception and family planning; [and] perspectives on family policy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10445 Oropesa, R. S. Subjective relative affluence and expected family size. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 69, No. 4, Jul 1985. 501-15 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This paper explores some of the microlevel implications of the Easterlin hypothesis using [U.S.] data from the NORC General Social Science Surveys [for the period 1972- 1983]. Questions are answered surrounding the extent to which perceived changes in affluence from the family of origin to the present affect the expected family sizes (in the short- and long- term) of men and women. The results of this analysis provide evidence for both skeptics and believers of the hypothesis."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10446 Poston, Dudley L.; Yu, Mei-Yu. Completed single childedness in 61 nations, including China and other Communist countries. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 1, Oct 1985. 107-9 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
Trends in single childedness around the world are analyzed using data from a variety of official national and U.N. sources, as well as from the World Fertility Survey. The results suggest "that single childedness occurs disproportionately in most Communist countries, net of literacy as a predictor. It [is also found] that although China has a low rate of completed single childedness, it has a very high rate of single childedness as a ratio to childlessness. This ratio is generally higher in Communist countries than elsewhere."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10447 Ramu, G. N.; Tavuchis, Nicholas. The valuation of children and parenthood among the voluntarily childless and parental couples in Canada. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1986. viii, xii, 99-116 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Recent shifts in attitudes toward children and parenthood in Canada are examined. The data, which were collected in 1975 and 1977, concern two groups of non-randomly selected couples with and without children in Winnipeg. The couples' reasons for becoming parents or remaining childless are explored.
Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

52:10448 Tabard, Nicole. Reflections on the relationship of fertility and social mobility. [Reflexions sur la relation fecondite-mobilite sociale.] Consommation, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1983. 61-9 pp. Montreuil, France. In Fre.
This is the text of the concluding section of a report on fertility and living standards in France, which was commissioned by the Caisse Nationale d'Allocations Familiales in 1982. The focus of the report is on factors affecting family size, particularly those contributing to declines in the number of children parents have. The data are from a survey of approximately 3,000 households.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10449 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Households, families, marital status, and living arrangements: March 1985 (advance report). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 402, Oct 1985. 13 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Data from the U.S. Current Population Survey on households, families, and marital status as of March 1985 are presented. Comparative data back to 1940 are also included. Consideration is given to marriage postponement, consensual unions, and the number of persons living alone. The source and reliability of the data are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10450 van de Giessen, G. J. Social norms concerning family size. [Sociale normen ten aanzien van de gezinsgrootte.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 33, No. 9, Sep 1985. 60-4 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of changing social norms on the number of children that parents choose to have is analyzed. The author notes that although in the past societal pressures were generally pro-natalist, the norms in the United States and Western Europe are currently for two or three children only. The continuation of social disapproval of voluntary childlessness and one-child families is discussed. It is suggested that since children are no longer a source of income and are not necessary for old age security, the childless and one-child status for families will become increasingly popular. The growing acceptance in the Netherlands of childbearing among people who are single, in consensual unions, or in homosexual relationships is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10451 Yeh, Stephen H. K. Households and housing. Census Monograph, No. 4, ISBN 9971-914-18-2. [1984]. xiii, 106 pp. Department of Statistics: Singapore. In Eng.
This is one of a collection of nine reports on the results of the 1980 census of Singapore, the focus here being on households and housing. The household structure and housing situation in 1980 are described, and recent trends are examined. Prospects for household formation and for the demand and supply of housing for the 1980s are outlined. Information is also included concerning new towns in Singapore and the role of the government in urban and residential planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.