Volume 52 - Number 1 - Spring 1986

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

52:10145 Bidegain, Gabriel. Recent trends in Venezuelan mortality. [Evolucion reciente de la mortalidad venezolana.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 14, Jun 1985. 14 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Recent trends in mortality in Venezuela are examined using data from official sources. Information from six states is presented to show changes in infant mortality between 1950 and 1982, mortality by age and sex, life expectancy, and data reliability.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10146 Bulusu, L. Area mortality comparisons and institutional deaths. Population Trends, No. 42, Winter 1985. 36-41 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The impact of mortality among residents of long-stay institutions on mortality in the area in which the institution is located is explored using official data for England and Wales. "This paper examines the effectiveness of the method of adjustment for institutions in use until 1982 against a more suitable method using 1981 Census based populations and deaths registered in 1981. It is shown that the old method was inappropriate and that a simple standardised mortality ratio, which adjusts for age and sex distribution of the population only, is adequate for most areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10147 Caselli, Graziella; Vaupel, James W.; Yashin, Anatoli I. Mortality in Italy: contours of a century of evolution. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1985. 39-55 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The authors construct contour maps of Italian male and female mortality rates for ages 0-79 for the years 1870-1979 using life table data from published sources. The maps "display persistent global and prominent local patterns of mortality, simultaneously over age, by period, and for cohorts." Previously documented aspects of the evolution of Italian mortality are highlighted graphically, and new areas for study are indicated.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10148 Cohen, Joel E. An uncertainty principle in demography and the unisex issue. American Statistician, Vol. 40, No. 1, Feb 1986. 32-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to show that if many characteristics affect the mortality of individuals, there are intrinsic limits to the ability of demographers to answer two elementary questions:" whether the force of mortality in the last year was more or less severe in one country relative to that in a second, and whether an individual's chance of survival would have been greater in one or the other of the two countries. The author notes that the conclusions are applicable to all demographic crude rates.
"The possibility of encountering Simpson's paradox suggests that since sex is only one of many possible stratifying variables that appear to affect mortality, the use of mortality tables distinguished by sex and by no other variables is, in the absence of information about the importance of other variables, demographically arbitrary."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10149 Crews, Douglas E. Mortality, survivorship and longevity in American Samoa, 1950 to 1981. Pub. Order No. DA8516013. 1985. 176 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The relationship between changes in life-styles and cause-specific mortality in American Samoa from 1950 to 1981 is examined. The emphasis is on the effects on mortality of a growing reliance on manufactured products and Western health products. The data are from official sources and a six-year longitudinal study of approximately 5,800 individuals. The results indicate that changes in Samoan life- styles have been associated with only moderate changes in mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. A relationship between modernization and mortality from infections, diabetes, and trauma is also noted. The author concludes, however, that body weight and obesity are not risk factors for death among American Samoans.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR). Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 46(6).

52:10150 Foschiatti, Ana M.; Somoza, Jorge L. An estimation of mortality in the city of Corrientes in the nineteenth century. [Una estimacion de la mortalidad de la ciudad de Corrientes en el siglo XIX.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 13, No. 39, Dec 1985. 105-26 pp. San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This paper is organized in two parts: the first reviews the history and economic development of the city of Corrientes, Argentina, and introduces the census and registry sources to be examined; the second presents the analysis leading to estimations of the mortality rates and life expectancy for this city in the nineteenth century. The "age distribution of deaths" procedure, developed by William Brass, is used.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10151 Freed, Stanley A.; Freed, Ruth S. Two decades of sterilisation, modernisation, and population growth in a rural context. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 20, No. 49, Dec 7, 1985. 2,171-5 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Explanations for the slight increase in the rate of population growth as recorded in the 1981 census of India are sought in the concept of survivorship. The authors investigate "the relationships among sterilisation, modernisation, and survivorship in a north Indian village based on studies made in 1958-59, 1977-78, and 1983. Comparison of the demographic data for the decades of the 1960s and 1970s reveals to some extent the degree to which sterilisation has affected survivorship. Multiple regression analysis is used to reveal the relationships among sterilisation, survivorship, and various aspects of modernisation."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:10152 Galloway, P. R. Annual variations in deaths by age, deaths by cause, prices, and weather in London 1670 to 1830. Population Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3, Nov 1985. 487-505 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The impact of annual variations in prices, temperature, and rainfall, on annual fluctuations in age-specific and disease-specific mortality is examined for London [England] from 1670 to 1830. The analysis reveals that deaths in London in the middle and older age groups tended to increase when grain prices were high. Increases in deaths among the elderly are associated with unusually cold winters and unusually warm summers. High grain prices tend to increase the incidence of epidemic diseases, while endemic diseases appear to increase with colder winters and warmer summers. The role of migration is discussed in the light of the results and the implications for long-term mortality decline are considered."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10153 Gbenyon, Kuakuvi K. The Courbage- Fargues method of indirect measure of mortality. Adequacy or inadequacy in the case of Togo in 1971? [Pour une mesure indirecte de la mortalite: la methode de Courbage-Fargues. Adequation ou inadequation au cas du Togo en 1971?] Etudes Togolaises de Population, No. 9, 1985. 22 pp. Lome, Togo. In Fre.
An indirect method of mortality estimation developed by Y. Courbage and P. Fargues is evaluated using incomplete data from a demographic survey carried out in Togo in 1971. The author concludes that the method gives good results in this case. The method is used to estimate life expectancy at birth to be 40.51 for men and 43.12 for women.
For the study by Courbage et al., published in 1979, see 45:3132.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:10154 Hrubec, Z.; Floderus-Myrhed, B.; de Faire, U.; Sarna, S. Familial factors in mortality with control of epidemiological covariables. Swedish twins born 1886- 1925. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologia/Twin Research, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1984. 403-12 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
Mortality among twins in Sweden is analyzed. "A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out that evaluated age- specific death risk among 21,890 twins born in Sweden during 1886 through 1925 and followed during 1962 through 1980. Co-twin's survival was used as the primary covariable, and auxiliary covariables were smoking, marital status and, among men, police registration for alcohol abuse."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10155 Imhof, Arthur E. Mortality problems in Brazil and in Germany--past-present-future: learning from each other. Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jun 1985. 233-50 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Eng. with sum. in Por.
Comparisons are made between the mortality situation in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Brazil. The focus is on the benefits to both countries of studying aspects of the epidemiological transition, which affects mortality in countries at different stages of development.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10156 Kaminski, Monique; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Helene; Blondel, Beatrice. Mortality among young people in the countries of the European Community (from birth to age 24). [Mortalite des jeunes dans les pays de la Communaute europeenne (de la naissance a 24 ans).] Collection Grandes Enquetes en Sante Publique et Epidemiologie, ISBN 2-7040-0477-3. 1985. xx, 310 pp. Doin Editeurs: Paris, France; Editions INSERM: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine mortality among the population of the European Community aged 0-24. The data are from official sources in the 10 member countries and concern the period 1960-1980. The primary objective of the study "is the critical analysis of these mortality statistics and the comparison of the level of mortality and causes of death for various age-groups in the countries of the Community during the past 20 years."
Chapters are included on registration and analysis of causes of death; mortality in the first year of life; the principal causes of infant death; sudden infant death; mortality for ages 1-4, 5-14, and 15-24; and mortality due to accidents.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10157 Kano, Katsumi; Yamaguchi, Seiya. A study of mortality patterns in Latin American countries using a statistical and epidemiological approach. Latin American Studies, No. 7, 1983. 121-41 pp. Ibaraki, Japan. In Eng.
Mortality patterns in Latin America are analyzed from an epidemiological standpoint using data from published U.S. sources. Consideration is given to mortality differences among countries by age, sex, and cause; infant mortality differentials are also considered. Comparisons are made with other developing regions.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10158 Manton, Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric; Creason, John P.; Riggan, Wilson B. U.S. cancer mortality 1950-1978: a strategy for analyzing spatial and temporal patterns. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 60, May 1985. 369-80 pp. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
The technical and statistical problems associated with monitoring the temporal and spatial variation in local area death rates in the United States in order to identify systematically elevated risks are examined. Consideration is given to the problem of identifying areas with truly elevated mortality risks from a large number of local area comparisons.
"This analytic strategy involves two stages. The first is a procedure for examining the entire distribution of local area death rates instead of simply selecting high risk 'outliers.' The second is the development of an analytic procedure to relate the temporal changes in the cross-sectional distribution of local area death rates to models of the disease process operating within the populations in those areas. The procedures are applied to data on cancer mortality for the 3,050 counties (or county equivalents) of the United States over the period 1950 to 1978."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10159 Mergenhagen, Paula M.; Lee, Barrett A.; Gove, Walter R. Till death do us part: recent changes in the relationship between marital status and mortality. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 1, Oct 1985. 53-6 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
The relationship between mortality and marital status in the United States is examined using 1979 data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Comparisons are made with earlier available data for 1959-1961. Marital status mortality ratios are calculated for never-married, widowed, and divorced white males and females at various ages.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10160 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Recent international changes in longevity. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1986. 16-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Recent changes in life expectancy and longevity in the United States are described using official data. The U.S. rates for males and females are then compared with data from other developed countries. It is noted that "as a result of the favorable trend in the United States, international longevity differences have, for the most part, narrowed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10161 Myers, George C.; Manton, Kenneth G. Compression of mortality: myth or reality? Gerontologist, Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug 1984. 346-53 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The concept of the rectangularization of the human survival curve has received considerable attention in discussions of the past and future course of life expectancy and survival changes for the United States population, especially at later ages. Surprisingly, few empirical studies of rectangularization have been made. In this article, [the authors] examine several aspects of this issue as they relate to changes in life expectancy, survival, and compression of ages at death during the twentieth century and specifically during the period 1962-1979. These studies provide evidence that rectangularization has had little impact on the population or mortality dynamics of the elderly."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10162 Myers, George C.; Manton, Kenneth G. Recent changes in the U.S. age at death distribution: further observations. Gerontologist, Vol. 24, No. 6, Dec 1984. 572-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This article is a response to a critique by J. F. Fries of an earlier article by the same authors on changes in the distribution of ages at death in the United States. The focus is on the relationship between life expectancy and the biological bounds on the human life span.
For the earlier article by Myers and Manton, as well as the article by Fries, both published in 1984, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10163 Paes, N. A. Mortality in Recife: application of a competitive risks model. [Mortalidade em Recife: aplicacao de um modelo de riscos competitivos.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jun 1985. 251-62 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Life table methodology developed by C. L. Chiang is applied to 1979 data for the city of Recife, Brazil, in order to evaluate the relative impact of certain groups of causes of death on probability of death, survival, and life expectancy. Differences in mortality by sex are considered. The results indicate a mortality pattern with elements of both developed and developing country situations.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10164 Pison, G.; Langaney, A. The level and age pattern of mortality in Bandafassi (Eastern Senegal): results from a small-scale and intensive multi-round survey. Population Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3, Nov 1985. 387-405 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data from a small-scale follow-up survey of a population of about 7,000, which was conducted in 1983 in the Bandafassi region of eastern Senegal, are used to derive an estimated life table. The results indicate that mortality was high, with life expectancy around age 31. The findings include "a pattern of infant and child mortality close to that observed in other rural areas of Senegal, with a very high level of mortality between ages six months and three years; a seasonal pattern in child mortality with two high-risk periods, the rainy season and the end of the dry season; an adult mortality pattern similar to that described in model life tables for developed countries; [and] no significant difference by sex or ethnic group."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10165 Poikolainen, Kari; Eskola, Juhani. The effect of health services on mortality: decline in death rates from amenable and non-amenable causes in Finland, 1969-81. Lancet, No. 8474, Jan 25, 1986. 199-202 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
"The impact of the Finnish health services on mortality from natural causes amenable to interventions by them was estimated for the period 1969 to 1981. During this period, mortality from amenable causes fell by 63% among males and 68% among females aged 64 years or less. The respective decreases for non-amenable natural causes of death were 24% and 29%. The rate of decline in mortality from amenable causes was similar for the two sexes." The authors conclude that health services accounted for about half of the total decline in mortality from amenable causes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:10166 Pressat, Roland. The significance of variations in mortality by age on differences in life expectancy. [Contribution des ecarts de mortalite par age a la difference des vies moyennes.] Population, Vol. 40, No. 4-5, Jul- Oct 1985. 766-70 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
A method for calculating the impact of a change in mortality rates for various ages on changes in life expectancy at birth is presented. The method is designed to measure changes either over time or between two populations at a particular point in time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10167 Rondi, Carla G. Concerning differences in male and female life expectancy in Italy. [Sulle variazioni della vita media maschile e femminile in Italia.] Statistica, Vol. 45, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1985. 251-64 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author assesses methods of estimating mortality rates of males and females in Italy during the nineteenth century. Of the methods discussed, Arriaga's index of relative change is considered the most suitable. Two methods for determining the contribution of mortality changes in different age groups to total change in life expectancy are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10168 Rutten, Willibrord. Mortality and medical services in the Netherlands around 1870-1900. [Mortalite et medicalisation aux Pays-Bas vers 1870-1900.] DH: Bulletin d'Information, No. 46, Feb 1986. 3-9 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationship beteen use of medical services and the decline in mortality that occurred in the Netherlands from 1870 to 1900 is considered, with particular reference to regional differences in mortality. The data are from cause of death statistics kept at the provincial level. The importance of preventive medicine in reducing mortality is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10169 Salhi, Mohammed. Some aspects of recent trends in mortality in Algeria (1965-1981). [Quelques aspects de l'evolution recente de la mortalite en Algerie (1965- 1981).] Genus, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1985. 149-66 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
Using data from the official vital statistics register and from a three-round survey that was conducted in 1969-1970, the author calculates mortality estimates for Algeria for the years 1965-1981. The findings show "a period of fluctuations between 1965 and 1975, [during which] mortality between the age of five and young adult age experienced a deterioration which could [have been] the result of an increase of deaths due to accidents. Since 1976, mortality has decreased spectacularly, although all ages do not benefit from this decrease in the same way."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10170 Schoenbach, Victor J.; Kaplan, Berton H.; Fredman, Lisa; Kleinbaum, David G. Social ties and mortality in Evans County, Georgia. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 123, No. 4, Apr 1986. 577-91 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The relationship between social support and reduced mortality risk is examined using data for a cohort of individuals in Evans County, Georgia, for the years 1967- 1980. An index is developed on the lines of that originally devised by Lisa F. Berkman. It is tested in race- and sex-specific proportional hazards models for 2,059 individuals originally examined between 1967 and 1969 during the course of a county-level cardiovascular survey. The results confirm the modest beneficial effects of social networks on mortality.
For the study by Berkman et al., published in 1979, see 45:4199.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:10171 Sivamurthy, M.; Seetharam, K. S. Handbook of indirect methods for mortality estimation. CDC Occasional Paper, No. 2, 1980. xiv, 120 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This Handbook aims at providing detailed operational steps in the application of four of the indirect methods of mortality estimation: Orphanhood, Widowhood, Census survivorship and Deaths Distribution methods. Each of these is dealt with in a separate chapter giving details of data required, underlying assumption, and operational steps involved."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10172 Tabutin, Dominique. Mortality transitions in the third world: problems and explanations. [Les transitions de mortalite dans le tiers-monde: quelques problemes et aspects explicatifs.] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 127, Aug 1985. 33 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This document aims mainly at examining various explanatory aspects of the different types of mortality transitions in the Third World since 1945. It first presents briefly a few statistical relations in 1982 between life expectancy and various macro-economic, social and demographic variables, then presents a history of mortality transitions in the Third World, and therefrom the fundamental differences with the Western experience. Then four main problems are approached: the fundamental role of poverty and of nutrition, the relations between malnutrition, infectious diseases, and mortality, increasing of social inequalities and the three great dimensions (economic, sanitary, and social) of the health phenomenon."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10173 Thom, Thomas J.; Epstein, Frederick H.; Feldman, Jacob J.; Leaverton, Paul E. Trends in total mortality and mortality from heart disease in 26 countries from 1950 to 1978. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1985. 510-20 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors calculate rates for total mortality and heart disease mortality for men and women aged 45-64 in 26 developed countries for six time periods during the years 1950-1978. Data are from official sources, and the results are presented separately by sex and country. Changes in the proportion of total mortality attributable to heart disease and the impact of changes in heart disease mortality on total mortality are compared among countries over time.
While the analysis indicates the significance of percentage changes in heart disease mortality over the observed period, the authors also show that "absolute changes in heart disease mortality rates since 1950 have had, from the point of view of international differences, little effect on the relative position of a given country along the scale of descending mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10174 Tsay, Ching-lung. Trends of phase- specific life expectancy in postwar Taiwan. Academia Economic Papers, Vol. 11, No. 2, Sep 1983. 31-59 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
The decline in mortality in Taiwan since World War II is analyzed using life tables. "Special features of the research include (1) a phase-of-life-specific, rather than an age- specific, analysis of mortality, and (2) the use of measures based upon person-years of life in phase intervals, rather than survival rates or expectation of life at given ages. The empirical results suggest that the mortality decline can be described as a two-stage process: an initial stage of substantial improvement in life expectancy between 1950 and 1965, and a final stage of slow gain in life expectancy since 1965."
Age and sex variations in mortality and differing rates of mortality decline are noted. Implications of increased longevity for economic and social programs are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10175 Urquhart, John; Heilmann, Klaus. Risk watch: the odds of life. 1984. xviii, 214 pp. Facts on File: New York, New York/Bicester, England. In Eng.
This book, which is translated from the original German, is an investigation of the concept of the risks of premature death or disability involved in the various activities people undertake during their lives. It is concerned both with voluntary risks, which involve a choice by the individual, and with involuntary risks, which may not involve a conscious individual decision. The authors first examine the changing importance of risks to human life over the course of history, with an emphasis on recent history. They then introduce the concepts of measuring and comparing risks.
The authors propose a scale that is intended to offer a rational means of weighing the relative dangers of risks, both voluntary and involuntary, in everyday life. The primary geographical focus is on developed countries.
This is a translation of the German edition, Keine Angst vor der Angst, by K. Heilmann and J. Urquhart, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, Kindler Verlag, 1983.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10176 Vallin, Jacques; Lopez, Alan. The struggle against death. The effect of social and health policies on mortality trends. Proceedings of an international meeting held in Paris from February 28 to March 4, 1983, at the initiative of the IUSSP Committee on Factors Affecting Mortality and Life Expectancy. [La lutte contre la mort. Influence des politiques sociales et des politiques de sante sur l'evolution de la mortalite. Actes d'un colloque international tenu a Paris du 28 fevrier au 4 mars 1983 a l'initiative de la Commission de l'UIESP sur les facteurs affectant la mortalite et la duree de la vie.] Travaux et Documents, No. 108, ISBN 2-7332-0108-5. 1985. ix, 541 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of an international conference held in Paris, France, in 1983, concerning the effect of social and health policies on mortality trends. Separate sections include papers on health intervention programs in developing countries; preventive health programs, again with the primary focus on developing countries; and health intervention programs in developed countries.
Seven case studies dealing with the impact of economic and social policies are also included. These concern Senegal, Costa Rica, Kerala in India, China, Japan, France, and Poland. The final section contains four comparative studies, with equal consideration given to developed and developing countries.
An English language version of these proceedings is currently in press and will be cited in due course.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10177 Wagstaff, Adam. Time series analysis of the relationship between unemployment and mortality: a survey of econometric critiques and replications of Brenner's studies. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 9, 1985. 985-96 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"M. Harvey Brenner's numerous time-series analyses of the relationship between population mortality rates and aggregate unemployment rates have attracted considerable attention from academics, policy-makers and the mass-media. Over the course of the last few years, however, Brenner's studies have begun to be subjected to critical scrutiny by econometricians. This paper provides a survey of these studies and concludes that--contrary to what is often claimed--Brenner's analyses do not provide convincing evidence that the social costs of unemployment include premature deaths." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10178 Yamamoto, Fumio. Changes by year of mortality and sociocultural indexes, Japan: 1921-1925 to 1975. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 5, No. 8, May 1985. 31- 40, 43 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between mortality and various sociocultural phenomena in Japan is examined using a range of analytical techniques. Changes in mortality rates from the 1920s to 1975 are shown to be influenced by sociocultural changes. Among the variables considered are education, economy, urbanization, industrialization, and health. Differences in the degree of influence of certain factors on male and female mortality rates are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

52:10179 Edouard, Lindsay. The epidemiology of perinatal mortality. [Epidemiologie de la mortalite perinatale.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1985. 289-301 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre.
The epidemiology of perinatal mortality around the world is examined, with particular reference to its role in the evaluation of pregnancy outcome. Consideration is given to problems of definition, the determinants of perinatal mortality, international comparisons, causes of death, and future trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10180 Kiely, John L.; Paneth, Nigel; Susser, Mervyn. An assessment of the effects of maternal age and parity in different components of perinatal mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 123, No. 3, Mar 1986. 444-54 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The results of a study on the relationships among maternal age, parity, and perinatal mortality are presented. The data concern all singleton live births and fetal deaths of 24 completed weeks of gestation or greater in New York City from 1976 to 1978 and are from vital statistics kept by the Department of Health. Perinatal mortality is divided into four components "late fetal deaths that occurred before labor (late antepartum fetal deaths), fetal deaths during labor (intrapartum fetal deaths), neonatal deaths, and perinatal deaths attributed to congenital anomalies, and...the relation of each of these to maternal age and parity [is assessed], controlling for relevant confounding factors."
The results indicate that "1) increasing maternal age was strongly associated with antepartum fetal deaths but not with intrapartum fetal deaths, while older maternal age was also associated with perinatal deaths attributed to congenital anomalies; 2) high parity bore a strong relationship to intrapartum fetal deaths, but none to antepartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, or congenital anomaly deaths; and 3) for neonatal death, there was a statistically significant...interaction between parity and age such that mothers over 34 years old having their first birth were at especially high risk."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:10181 Laurenti, Ruy; Buchalla, Cassia M.; Costa, Moacyr L. A study of perinatal morbidity and mortality in maternity hospitals. [Estudo da morbidade e da mortalidade perinatal em maternidades.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 18, No. 6, Dec 1984. 436-47 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The authors report on a study of perinatal morbidity and mortality in Brazil using data from medical records in nine maternity hospitals, seven of which were in the state of Sao Paulo. The data concern 13,130 deliveries, of which 12,782 were live births, 217 still births, and 131 abortions. This is the first in a planned series of papers, and consists of a description of the project.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10182 Pebley, Anne R.; Huffman, Sandra L.; Chowdhury, A. K. M. Alauddin; Stupp, P. W. Intra-uterine mortality and maternal nutritional status in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3, Nov 1985. 425-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper is an investigation of the relationship of a maternal nutritional status with intra-uterine mortality in a population of chronically malnourished rural Bangladeshi women. First, life-table techniques are used to compare the level of intra-uterine mortality in this population with levels reported in other studies. Then the relationships of maternal nutritional status, age, parity, foetal loss and season of conception with intra-uterine mortality are examined in a multivariate analysis." Data for the period 1975-1978 are from the Determinants of Natural Fertility Study, carried out by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and concern 14 villages in Matlab Thana.
"The results indicate foetal mortality in Bangladesh to be markedly higher than in other populations where living conditions and health care are superior. Maternal nutritional status, maternal age and season of conception all appear to be related significantly to foetal mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10183 Peutl, Christa. Perinatal mortality in Austria: an analysis of social risk factors. [Perinatalsterblichkeit in Osterreich: Analyse sozialer Risikofaktoren.] Demographische Informationen, 1985. 43-8, 128-9 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Social factors related to perinatal mortality are analyzed using log-linear models and data for a sample of 215 perinatal deaths that occurred in hospitals in Vienna, Austria, during 1978. A sample of 210 surviving children is used as a control group. "The findings indicate that perinatal mortality decreases with higher education of mothers. Furthermore, the risk of perinatal mortality is considerably higher for those who have mothers above age 35....For illegitimate births, the risk of death is twice that of legitimate births even when accounting for differential medical control during pregnancy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10184 Rogers, Richard G. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates: are we sacrificing quality for simplicity? Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-85-4, Sep 1985. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
Official data concerning period- and cause-specific infant mortality rates for U.S. whites for the years 1941-1979 are analyzed in order to show that neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates are not accurate approximations of endogenous and exogenous infant mortality rates. "Use of cause-specific rates [is] shown to be more accurate than period-specific rates....Reasons behind the reduced dominance of endogenous causes and the increased dominance of unknown causes of death are explored, and possible future contributions of preventive versus curative health care are presented."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10185 Rumeau-Rouquette, Claude; du Mazaubrun, Christiane; Rabarison, Yvon. To be born in France: 10 years of change, 1972-1981. [Naitre en France: 10 ans d'evolution, 1972-1981.] Collection Grandes Enquetes en Sante Publique et Epidemiologie, ISBN 2-85598-261-8. 1984. xix, 216 pp. Doin Editeurs: Paris, France; Editions INSERM: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This book presents a collection of papers by various authors on the results of a 1981 survey in France concerning the perinatal period. This survey was based on a representative sample of 5,577 births and was similar to surveys undertaken in 1972 and 1975-1976. The focus is on perinatal mortality and congenital defects and on the medical programs designed to influence these two factors.
Part 1 is devoted to indicators of effectiveness; it includes a paper on fetal, infant, and maternal mortality. Part 2 describes the development of preventive medical care, including prenatal care and care at delivery. Part 3 deals with social and demographic changes that have occurred over the 10-year period; it includes changes in the conditions of reproduction such as smaller families and the increase in contraceptive use. Part 4 is concerned with regional aspects of infant and perinatal mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

52:10186 Adlakha, Arjun L.; Suchindran, C. M. Factors affecting infant and child mortality. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, Oct 1985. 481-96 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The determinants of differences in infant and child mortality in Jordan, Tunisia, Egypt, and Yemen are examined using data from the World Fertility Survey. "The analysis considers biological correlates of mortality--mother's age, birth order, birth interval, and previous infant loss--and several social factors--mother's and father's education, mother's residence, father's occupation, and mother's work experience since marriage. A multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model is carried out to obtain the net effect of each factor on mortality. Separate models are constructed for infant mortality and childhood mortality and for each country."
All four countries examined "show large variations in mortality, but this is persistently higher in female than male children. All four demographic characteristics affect mortality significantly, especially the length of the preceding birth interval. Among the socioeconomic variables, only rural-urban residence is influential."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10187 Al-Obeidy, Ibrahim M. The incidence of infant mortality in a sample of households in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Pub. Order No. DA8520493. 1985. 286 pp. Dissertation Abstracts International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study investigates the incidence of infant mortality in a cross- sectional sample of households in the capital city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were derived from interviews with 1,200 heads of households in Riyadh between November 25, 1983, and February 19, 1984." The results indicate a rapid decline in infant mortality since 1963, with the major factors associated with this decline being mother's education, socioeconomic status, housing conditions, the use of health facilities, and infant nutrition.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Michigan State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(7).

52:10188 Castaneda, Tarsicio. The socioeconomic context and causes of the decline in infant mortality in Chile. [Contexto socioeconomico y causas del descenso de la mortalidad infantil en Chile.] Estudios Publicos, No. 16, Spring 1984. 5-71 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
The decline in infant mortality in Chile between 1960 and 1982 is studied in relation to public health expenditures, productivity, employment, wages, inflation, and income. A multiple regression analysis is undertaken to compare the impact of these factors on infant mortality in different regions of the country, and to compare the situation in 1975 with that in 1982.
Comments by Dagmar Raczynski, Juan P. Illanes, and Erica Taucher are included (pp. 57-67), as well as a reply to these comments by the author (pp. 67-71).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10189 Choolun, Rajindranath. Infant mortality and socio-economic development in Mauritius. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 31, No. 3, Jun 1985. 174-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in infant mortality in Mauritius are reviewed using data from official sources. Consideration is given to causes of death and to the impact of socioeconomic factors.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10190 Fargues, Philippe. The observation of pregnancies: an opportunity for indirect measurement of infant and child mortality in countries with deficient data. [L'observation des grossesses: une occasion de mesurer indirectement la mortalite des enfants dans les pays a statistiques deficientes.] Population, Vol. 40, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1985. 891-909 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines the value of medical records compiled over the course of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal care as sources of data on infant and child mortality, particularly in developing countries where demographic data may be deficient or lacking. The author describes a technique of indirect estimation of infant and child mortality using such data, which takes into account the number of orphans, birth intervals, and maternal medical records. The focus of the technique is on the relationship between maternal age and fertility history and the life expectancy of the child.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10191 Guimaraes, Jose J. de L.; Fischmann, Airton. Inequalities in 1980 infant mortality among shantytown residents and nonshantytown residents in the municipality of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1985. 235-51 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Preexisting data were used to investigate patterns of infant mortality among shantytown and nonshantytown residents in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in 1980. The results show sharply differing mortality patterns among these two groups--even within the same limited study areas--and suggest that the recently favorable downward trend of infant mortality in Porto Alegre could be reversed by rising numbers of shantytown deaths unless concerted action is taken to combat shantytown health hazards."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10192 Guzman, Jose M. Some problems concerning the selection of the most appropriate mortality model for the indirect estimation of infant mortality. [Algunos problemas que se presentan en la seleccion del modelo de mortalidad mas apropiado para la estimacion indirecta de la mortalidad infantil.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 13, No. 39, Dec 1985. 75-103 pp. San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper analyzes the problems that arise when infant mortality estimates are derived through the probabilities of dying obtained from the application of the Coale-Trussell technique to the proportion of children deceased according to age of mother derived from census or survey data. These problems arise because this operation requires the acceptance of a mortality model by age."
The author outlines "some criteria for the selection of the model through the use of information from Vital Statistics and surveys. Finally, it is stated that an alternative for the study of infant mortality trends is the selection of an indicator less affected by the mortality structure by age...." The problems are illustrated using data from selected countries in Latin America.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10193 Haines, Michael R. Inequality and childhood mortality: a comparison of England and Wales, 1911, and the United States, 1900. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 45, No. 4, Dec 1985. 885-912 pp. Wilmington, Delaware. In Eng.
"An index of childhood mortality is proposed as a good measure of socioeconomic well-being and inequality. The index is used to investigate the relationship between childhood mortality and occupation and income of parents. The sources consist of the 1900 United States Census public-use sample and the published 1911 Census of Marriage and Fertility of England and Wales. Results revealed more inequality in mortality and income across social-class groupings in England and Wales than in the United States. The outcome arose more because of relatively higher childhood mortality for white-collar groups in the United States than because of a better situation for blue-collar groups."
Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

52:10194 Hearst, Norman. Infant mortality in Guatemala: an epidemiological perspective. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1985. 575-81 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Infant mortality in Guatemala is analyzed using official estimates and published sources for the years 1940-1982. Attention is given to the causes of infant death and the determinants of infant mortality. The author finds that "infection and malnutrition are the main causes of infant death. Risk factors for death during infancy include low birthweight, high birth order, Indian race, rural residence, and lack of maternal education, with wide differences in risk among population subgroups." The results of studies concerning the impact of medical intervention are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10195 Herman, A. A. B.; Wyndham, C. H. Changes in infant mortality rates among whites, Coloureds, and urban blacks in the RSA over the period 1970-1983. South African Medical Journal/Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 68, No. 4, Aug 17, 1985. 215-8 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
Official data are used to examine changes in infant mortality rates among whites, Coloureds, and urban blacks in South Africa between 1970 and 1983. The results indicate that rates declined for whites and Coloureds over this period. Some evidence of a similar decline is noted among selected black urban populations.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10196 Herrera Leon, Lorenzo; Gonzalez Perez, Guillermo; Avalos Triana, Octavio. Estimation of infant mortality in the early ages in the western provinces of Cuba. [Estimacion de la mortalidad infantil y en edades tempranas en las provincias occidentales de Cuba.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1985. 55-65 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Infant and child mortality in the western provinces of Cuba is analyzed using methods developed by Brass and adapted by Trussell. Consideration is given to regional differences and to differences between rural and urban areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10197 Hobcraft, J. N.; McDonald, J. W.; Rutstein, S. O. Demographic determinants of infant and early child mortality: a comparative analysis. Population Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3, Nov 1985. 363-85 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relative importance of selected demographic determinants of infant and early child mortality is examined using data from the World Fertility Survey for 38 developing countries and Portugal. The data concern "sex of the child, age of the mother at the time of the birth, birth order, mother's educational level and a number of indicators of spacing of adjacent births among the correlates of chances of survival for children below the age of five years."
The results show that "mortality of firstborn children and of those born to teenage mothers is shown to be higher than average; that of later children and those of older mothers was not much higher than average, once other factors are controlled. Effects of poor birth- spacing persist even after other factors have been controlled, and are similar where a sib was born during the two years preceding the birth of a child, regardless of the survival status of that sib; however, mortality was higher when that sib had died, due to increased familial risks of mortality. Rapid subsequent births also raise mortality for their earlier sibs."
The results are remarkably consistent among a wide range of countries. "The study leaves little room for doubt that poor child-spacing is clearly linked to decreased survival chances."
For a related study by Hobcraft et al., published in 1983, see 50:10197.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10198 Hsieh, John J. Construction of expanded infant life tables: a method based on a new mortality law. Mathematical Biosciences, Vol. 76, No. 2, Oct 1985. 221-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article derives a mortality law for infants and proposes a parametric method for constructing period infant life tables on the basis of the derived model." The model is tested using official data for Canadian males for the period 1980-1982. The results indicate that "for advanced countries, the three-parameter model is found to fit the mortality data for subdivisions of the first year of life extremely well, with estimates of the life-table functions calculated from the proposed model closely matching those constructed by the traditional method." The advantages of the proposed method over the traditional life table method are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

52:10199 Hull, Terence H.; Gubhaju, Bhakta. Multivariate analysis of infant and child mortality in Java and Bali. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1986. 109-18 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Application of a multivariate analytical technique to the World Fertility Survey data for Java and Bali indicates that demographic variables, particularly the length of the preceding birth interval, are more important in explaining infant and child mortality differentials than are such social variables as education of parents or urban-rural residence. These findings are weakened to some extent by the lack of satisfactory data on household economic status which might have provided a better base for indirectly discerning the effects of nutrition and sanitation on mortality at young ages."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10200 Jain, A. K. Determinants of regional variations in infant mortality in rural India. Population Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3, Nov 1985. 407-24 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"An analytical framework is specified for understanding the determinants of infant mortality [in India]. It distinguishes between factors at three levels--village, household and individual--and arranges them in ascending order with respect to their proximity to infant mortality. Village and household-level factors are assumed to influence infant mortality indirectly by influencing at least one of the six individual-level factors. "The results indicate that it might be possible to reduce the high level of infant mortality currently prevalent in many states in India by simple preventive medical interventions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10201 Krishnan, T. N. Infant mortality in Kerala State, India: a preliminary analysis. Assignment Children, No. 65-68, 1984. 293-308 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Infant mortality in the Indian state of Kerala is analyzed, with emphasis on the reasons why infant mortality has reached such a low level despite continuing low levels of income. The author describes the historical background of mortality control and the critical roles played by an expanded immunization program and a diverse health system, which are both widely accessible to all segments of the population. The impact of women's education on the use of these services is noted.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:10202 Madigan, Francis C. Characteristics of mothers whose children have died in infancy. Research Institute for Mindanao Culture, Series 1, 1983 NDS, No. 3, Dec 1985. 22 pp. Xavier University, Research Institute for Mindanao Culture: Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. In Eng.
Data from the 1983 National Demographic Survey for the Philippines and from earlier published sources are analyzed in order to examine the relationships between selected maternal characteristics and infant mortality. Among the characteristics considered are place of residence, number of pregnancies, number of live-born children, number of times married, age at marriage, and family planning use. Regional differences in the findings are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10203 Madigan, Francis C. Infant mortality by socioeconomic variables, Philippines, 1983. Research Institute for Mindanao Culture, Series 1, 1983 NDS, No. 4, Dec 1985. 16 pp. Xavier University, Research Institute for Mindanao Culture: Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. In Eng.
Data from the 1983 National Demographic Survey of the Philippines and from earlier published sources are analyzed in order to examine the relationship between three socioeconomic variables and infant mortality. The findings show a strong association between infant mortality and monthly cash income, mother's education, and the presence of an attendant at childbirth.
For a related study, published by the same author in 1985, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10204 Palloni, Alberto; Tienda, Marta. The effects of breastfeeding and pace of childbearing on mortality at early ages. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1986. 31-52 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The purpose of this paper is to test a set of hypotheses concerning the impact of both birth intervals and lactation practices on infant and early childhood mortality in Peru. Consideration is given to the mechanisms through which these effects operate and to the factors that strengthen or weaken them. Data are from the Peruvian Fertility Survey, conducted during 1977-1978 as part of the World Fertility Survey.
"The strong effects of both length of breastfeeding and the pace of childbearing on the risks of child death suggest that neither of them exerts an impact on mortality totally mediated by the other. Social and demographic factors (such as age of child, education of mother, and region of residence) also condition the impact of breastfeeding and pace of childbearing on mortality."
This is a revised version of the paper cited in 50:20180 and presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, pp. 396- 7).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10205 Tezcan, Sabahat. Medico-social causes and preventability of infant deaths in Etimesgut Health District. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 7, 1985. 43-59 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"The study presented in this article was carried out to define the extent, socio-demographic correlates and preventability of infant deaths in Etimesgut Health District [Turkey]. Using a retrospective cohort approach, the birth records (9,246 births) and death records (861 deaths) [for the years 1970-1974] were linked."
The medical causes of infant death are outlined, and preventability determinations for each cause are calculated. Among the sociocultural factors examined as correlates of infant mortality are father's occupation, previous child death, place of delivery, place of residence, and distance from a health center. Characteristics of the high risk group with regard to infant mortality are summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10206 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Socio-economic differentials in child mortality in developing countries. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/97, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.7. ISBN 92- 1-151154-2. 1985. xi, 319 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study, census and survey data on child mortality differentials in 15 selected countries from Africa, Asia and Latin America are analysed." The study was developed in cooperation with an ongoing research project at the Population Studies Center at the University of Pennsylvania. The study's major purpose "is to establish a solid core of empirical generalizations about the factors associated with child mortality that can be used to provide guidance for policy and programme formulation and to orient future research on the subject."
The results are organized according to the variables considered, which include maternal and paternal education, ethnicity and religion, mother's childhood residence and lifetime migration status, father's occupation, mother's economic activity, income and wealth, marital status and household structure, housing characteristics including plumbing facilities, rural-urban residence, region of residence, and health care.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10207 Victora, Cesar G.; Smith, Peter G.; Vaughan, J. Patrick. Social and environmental influences on child mortality in Brazil: logistic regression analysis of data from census files. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1986. 87- 101 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Census data were used to investigate the influences of socioeconomic and environmental variables on child mortality rates in southern Brazil. By multivariate logistic regression analysis the effects of correlated factors were distinguished, after adjustment for maternal age and parity."
The results indicate that "low family income and, to a lesser degree, low employment status of the head of the family were associated with high child mortality levels. Place of residence, education of the mother and of the head of the family, availability of piped water in the home, access to a toilet and type of housing were all associated with childhood mortality variation, even after allowing for the effects of income and employment."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

52:10208 Alderson, Michael; Ashwood, Fred. Projection of mortality rates for the elderly. Population Trends, No. 42, Winter 1985. 22-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article considers past and future mortality rates for three of the main causes of death affecting persons living in England and Wales and aged 60-84. The reason for concentrating on this age-group in particular is that the majority of deaths occur to people within this range (over 80 per cent of all the men and nearly 90 per cent of all the women who died in 1984.)" The projections take into account not only past trends and the factors that have affected them, but also assumptions of the effect that future changes in life-styles and health care will have on mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10209 Chackiel, Juan; Orellana, Hernan. Adult female mortality trends on the basis of questions on maternal orphanhood included in censuses and surveys. [Tendencias de la mortalidad femenina adulta a partir de preguntas sobre orfandad materna incluidas en censos y encuestas.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 13, No. 39, Dec 1985. 25-55 pp. San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This paper is concerned with problems related to the collection of data on adult female mortality in developing countries, and in particular with the location in time of the estimates obtained from questions included in censuses and surveys. The example of maternal orphanhood is used to illustrate these problems, and methods developed at the Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE) to resolve them are described and tested using Latin American data.
This is an expanded version of a paper originally presented at the IUSSP International Population Conference in Florence in June 1985 (see 51:40109).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10210 Manton, Kenneth G. Cause specific mortality patterns among the oldest old: multiple cause of death trends 1968 to 1980. Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Mar 1986. 282- 9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Trends in sex specific mortality from six conditions (hip fracture, septicemia, pneumonia, cancer, heart disease, and stroke) were examined for the period 1968 to 1980 to determine if recent increases in life expectancy at advanced ages were associated with significant shifts in the pattern of cause specific mortality at those ages. Changes in life table parameters were assessed both at birth and age 85 to determine if the relative significance of certain conditions had increased or decreased at advanced ages."
The data are from the U.S. multiple cause of death mortality statistics, which contain all medical conditions listed by the physician on the death certificate for each death occurring in the United States. The results provide little evidence that mortality for conditions associated with a debilitation has increased markedly at later ages.
Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

52:10211 Anson, Jon. The parameters of death: a proposed parameterisation of the mortality curve. Pub. Order No. DA8519801. 1985. 158 pp. Dissertation Abstracts International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"A method is sought to express the pattern of mortality depicted by a life table in a minimal number of parameters. The survivorship...columns of 360 empirical life tables...are fitted by a fifth degree polynomial, and it is shown that six parameters are adequate to reproduce these curves almost flawlessly. However, of these six parameters four are collinear. As all four represent various dimensions of the scale, or level of mortality, it is proposed that one parameter may be taken to represent all four."
The remaining two parameters "express dimensions of the shape of the mortality curve: its tilt, or the skewness of the distribution of deaths over the life span; and its flatness, or the kurtosis of this distribution." A preliminary investigation is presented concerning the changing relationship between male and female mortality as the level of mortality declines, and the clustering of the life table shapes is compared with that implied by model life table assignments.
"It is shown that, consistent with previous findings, male-female mortality differences grow to give females a clear advantage as mortality declines, though the use of the three parameter scheme enables some new interpretations to be made of these differences....A concluding chapter discusses possible uses of the three parameter representation in the demographic and sociological analysis of mortality." This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(7).

52:10212 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The 36th abridged life tables (April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983); the 37th abridged life tables (April 1, 1983- March 31, 1984). Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 236, Sep 1, 1985. ii, 54 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
These abridged life tables for Japan are part of an annual series based on official mortality statistics. The present publication includes both the 36th and 37th in the series, concerning 1982-1983 and 1983-1984, respectively.
For a previous report in this series, published in 1982, see 49:30181.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10213 Kim, Yun; Baal, Lydia; Swearengen, Roger. Abridged life tables for males and females: Utah and its planning districts, 1980. Population Research Laboratory Research Report, No. 106, Oct 1985. iv, 79 pp. Utah State University, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Population Research Laboratory: Logan, Utah. In Eng.
"This report presents abridged life tables for males and females for the State of Utah and its eight planning districts for 1980. The abridged life tables are based on the average number of annual deaths registered in 1979, 1980, and 1981 and the age and sex distribution of the population obtained from the 1980 U.S. Census of Population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10214 Piasecki, Edmund. An attempt to construct cohort life tables for people born in the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century on the basis of data from parish registers. [Proba sporzadzenia kohortowych tablic trwania zycia dla urodzonych w XIX i w pierwszej polowie XXw. na podstawie ksiag ruchu naturalnego.] Materialy i Prace Antropologiczne, No. 105, 1984. 147-65 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Data from birth and death registers in the parish of Bejsce, in Kielce voivodship, Poland, are used to calculate two different life tables, one including and one excluding migration. The abbreviated life tables are constructed for 10-year periods from 1801 to 1950 for males and females. Changes in life expectancy over time are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10215 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). U.S. decennial life tables for 1979-81. Volume I, Number 1: United States life tables. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 85-1150-1. LC 85-600190. Aug 1985. iv, 33 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
This report "contains life tables by single years of age from birth to age 110 for the United States. Tables are included for the total population, the white population, the population other than white, and the black population. Within these large populations are tables showing the race-sex categories of male, female, and both sexes combined. Standard error tables for the probability of dying and of the average remaining lifetime are included for the first time in this series."
For a related publication by the same author presenting life tables at the state level, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10216 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). U.S. decennial life tables for 1979-81. Volume II, state life tables: No. 5, California. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 86-1151-5. LC 85-600190. Aug 1985. iv, 31 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
This is one of a series of 51 reports containing "life tables for a particular State and a table which ranks each State in the order of life expectancy. All States have tables for the total population and the white population by sex. In addition 35 States have tables for the other than white population and 31 have tables for the black population. Standard error tables for the probability of dying and of the average remaining lifetime are included for the first time in this series."
For a related publication by the same author presenting life tables for the United States as a whole, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

52:10217 Caselli, Graziella; Egidi, Viviana. Mortality, morbidity, and the status of women. [Mortalita, morbosita e status della donna.] Genus, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1985. 167-80 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Recent literature on the relationships between the health of women and living and working conditions is critically reviewed. Several studies have discussed the associations between morbidity and mortality of women in developed countries and such variables as work, education, marital status, and socioeconomic class. The limitations and advantages of various types of analysis are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10218 Horska, Pavla. Differences in male and female mortality from the viewpoint of historical demography. [Rozdil v umrtnosti muzu a zen z hlediska historicke demografie.] Demografie, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1985. 321-8 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Data concerning male and female mortality rates for areas now forming modern Czechoslovakia in the seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries are summarized and contrasted with information for other countries. Differences in sex-specific mortality rates for certain ages at selected points in time are emphasized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10219 Ishikawa, Akira. Occupational differences in life expectancy for males: 1980. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 173, Jan 1985. 64-72 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Differences in male life expectancy by occupation in Japan in 1980 are examined in a series of life tables. Consideration is also given to changes since 1970.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10220 Kestenbaum, Bert. Mortality by nativity. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1986. 87-90 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This note reports the reversal of the mortality-nativity relationship in the United States. In the first half of the twentieth century, mortality among foreign- born Americans was greater than among (white) native Americans. Data for 1980 show that now mortality among the foreign-born is markedly lower than among native Americans."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10221 Koenig, Michael A.; D'Souza, Stan. Sex differences in childhood mortality in rural Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1986. 15-22 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze trends in excess female mortality during childhood using longitudinal data for children in rural Bangladesh during the 1960s and 1970s.
"Initially, the basis for higher female than male mortality in patriarchal societies is explored, and more specifically, the rationale for the differential valuation of male and female offspring. The pattern, timing and magnitude of sex differentials in mortality during infancy and early childhood is subsequently examined for children in [this] study. The paper concludes with a review of possible behavioral mechanisms which may contribute to higher female than male mortality during childhood."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10222 Moser, K. A.; Fox, A. J.; Jones, D. R.; Goldblatt, P. O. Unemployment and mortality: further evidence from the OPCS Longitudinal Study 1971-81. Lancet, No. 8477, Feb 15, 1986. 365-7 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between unemployment and mortality in England and Wales is examined using data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study for the period 1971-1981. The authors extend a previous analysis, conducted in 1984, in two ways. They "first investigate whether the combination of regional differences in unemployment and in mortality could have contributed to [their] earlier findings of excess mortality among the unemployed. [They] then widen the scope of previous results by extending [their] analysis of mortality of wives of men seeking work to cover all women in households containing a man who was aged 15-64 and seeking work in 1971."
For a related study, published in 1984, see 51:10199.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:10223 Nebreda Moreno, Mercedes; Avalos Triana, Octavio. Socio-demographic aspects of maternal mortality in Havana City, Holguin, and Cienfuegos provinces, 1979-1982. [Aspectos sociodemograficos de la mortalidad materna en las provincias Ciudad de la Habana, Holguin y Cienfuegos, 1979-1982.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan- Mar 1985. 43-54 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The effect of selected socio-demographic variables on maternal mortality from 1979 to 1982 in three Cuban provinces is investigated. The results indicate the importance of woman's age at pregnancy, educational status, and marital stability. Consideration is also given to causes of maternal mortality, and the impact of abortion is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10224 Parant, Alain. Social inequality in the face of death. [Inegalite sociale devant la mort.] Futuribles, No. 79, Jul-Aug 1984. 69-81 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Data from official and other published sources are analyzed in this examination of differential mortality in France. The measurement of mortality in France by socio-professional category is first discussed. Probabilities of dying for males aged 35 to 60 and life expectancy at age 35 for the years 1975-1980 are presented separately according to occupational category. Information is also included concerning female mortality rates by occupation and male mortality by cause and occupation. Life expectancy and suicide figures for France in 1976 are compared with those for selected other European countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10225 Poston, Dudley L.; Doyle, Alan; Perkinson, Laura; Cullen, Ruth M. Marital status integration and stress-related mortality in Austin, 1980. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 6: 1984, No. 6.026, [1984]. 29, [6] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The authors "investigate the degree to which the status integration model is capable of predicting suicide and cause-specific mortalities due to heart disease, liver cirrhosis and cancer among urban neighborhoods." Census and death registration statistics for the census tracts of Austin, Texas, in 1980 are analyzed. The results show that "the incidence and prevalence of stress-related mortality, as measured by four cause-specific death rates, are negatively related to the degree of marital status integration. The strength of the relationship varies systematically by both sex and cause of death."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10226 Pressat, Roland. Regional mortality differences in Italy. [Differences regionales de mortalite en Italie.] Population, Vol. 40, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1985. 938-43 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Regional mortality differentials in Italy are analyzed using data from official sources. Consideration is given to differences in mean length of life, life expectancy at age 65, mortality by sex, and infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10227 Tsay, Ching-lung. Possible effects of transportation on mortality differentials in central Taiwan. Academia Economic Papers, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1985. 145-66 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
The author develops the hypothesis that transportation systems may affect mortality differentials in developing countries by facilitating or retarding accessibility to medical services. The hypothesis is tested using data for 39 townships in central Taiwan for the years 1980-1982. The results suggest that while transportation may be significant in explaining child mortality differentials, it does not significantly affect infant or neonatal mortality rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

52:10228 Araki, S.; Murata, K. Factors affecting suicide in young, middle-aged and elderly men. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1986. 103-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effects of socioeconomic and geographical factors on age-specific mortality by suicide in men were assessed in 46 Japanese prefectures (counties) by stepwise regression analysis...." The study is based on official data for 1970 and 1975, years preceding and following the onset of the world oil crisis.
Factors significantly related to mortality included "(1) the proportion of old and young men in the population for young men; (2) low income for middle-aged men; and (3) rural residence for elderly men. The mortality significantly increased after the crisis in young and middle-aged men, while no significant alteration was observed in elderly men."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10229 Azemar, Remi. Causes of death in La Roque-Sainte-Marguerite. [Les causes de deces a La Roque-Sainte-Marguerite.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 239-58 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The parish registry for La Roque-Sainte-Marguerite, France, for the years 1721-1742 is unique among registries of that time and location in that it includes information concerning causes of death. This information is summarized and presented in graph and tabular form.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10230 Beaglehole, Roger; Jackson, Rodney. Coronary heart disease mortality, morbidity, and risk factor trends in New Zealand. Cardiology, Vol. 72, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1985. 29-34 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates [in New Zealand] declined by 22 and 13% for European men and women respectively between 1968 and 1981. Data from two methodologically identical population-based registers indicate that in the period 1974-1981 there was no change in either the event rates or case fatality rates of definite myocardial infarction. In the same period there was a significant 17% decline in the sudden death event rates."
The factors associated with these declines are considered, including a decrease in consumption of dairy products, a reduction in cigarette smoking, improved control of hypertension, and possibly a lowering of cholesterol levels and an increase in physical activity. "There have also been improvements in the medical management of patients with CHD although this appears to be of secondary importance in contributing to the decline in CHD mortality."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10231 Buehler, James W.; Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Hughes, Joyce M.; Smith, Jack C.; Rochat, Roger W. Maternal mortality in women aged 35 years or older: United States. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 255, No. 1, Jan 3, 1986. 53-5 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Maternal mortality among U.S. women aged 35 years or older is analyzed using data from death certificates for the period 1974-1978. "There were 425 maternal deaths, corresponding to a mortality rate of 58.3 deaths per 100,000 live births. This rate was higher than the rate for women 20 through 34 years of age....The leading causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage and embolism. Black women had higher mortality rates than white women for deaths without abortive outcomes...and with abortive outcomes, and the latter difference was largely due to a higher rate of deaths associated with ectopic pregnancy among black women."
The results indicate that "from 1974 through 1978, compared with 1982, maternal mortality rates for women aged 35 years or older reported by the National Center for Health Statistics declined approximately 50%. Among white women, changes in age and parity accounted for less than half of this decrease, suggesting that improvements have occurred in age- and parity-specific mortality for women aged 35 years or older."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10232 Chaperon, J.; Chaperon, J. M. Mortality by suicide of persons under 25 years of age in the regions of France (1925-1982). [La mortalite par suicide des moins de 25 ans dans les regions francaises (1925-1982).] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1985. 199-219 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Official data concerning deaths by suicide in France for the years 1925-1982 are analyzed. Findings concerning death by suicide are presented by sex and age group for the total population and are compared with data for the Federal Republic of Germany, England and Wales, Italy, and Japan. Interregional comparisons are also included. The focus is on young people aged 5-14 and 15-24. The results show consistently higher suicide rates for males than for females and a doubling of the rate for males aged 15-24 relative to that for males over 65.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10233 Facchini, Ugo; Camnasio, Maurizio; Cantaboni, Angelo; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo. Geographical variation of cancer mortality in Italy. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1985. 538-48 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine variations in mortality due to cancer among the northern, central, and southern regions of Italy. Using data from official death records for the years 1969-1978, the authors calculate age-standardized mortality rates for all ages and for ages 35-64, and age-specific mortality rates for men and women aged 40-49. The results are presented by sex and region for 29 categories of cancer. The analysis shows a clear north-south gradient with consistently higher mortality rates in the north, lower rates in the south, and intermediate values in the central region.
More detailed findings according to sex, age, and type of cancer are discussed, and possible reasons for the geographical variations, including regional patterns concerning diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10234 Fortney, Judith A.; Susanti, Inne; Gadalla, Saad; Saleh, Saneya; Rogers, Susan M.; Potts, Malcolm. Reproductive mortality in two developing countries. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 2, Feb 1986. 134-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors report on a study conducted during the early 1980s concerning reproductive mortality, which is defined as including mortality attributable to pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, childbirth and its sequelae, and contraception.
The data are "from one governorate of Egypt, where reproductive mortality was 46 per 100,000 married women ages 15-49 (2.2 per cent of this was attributable to contraception), and one province of Indonesia, where reproductive mortality was 70 per 100,000 (of which 1.4 per cent was due to contraception). In both locations, complications of pregnancy and childbirth were a leading cause of death in the age group studied (the first cause in Indonesia, second in Egypt). Contraceptive prevalence was 24 per cent of married women ages 15-49 in Egypt and 48 per cent of this age group in Indonesia."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10235 Fox, Leon P. A return to maternal mortality studies: a necessary effort. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 152, No. 4, Jun 15, 1985. 379-86 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
The author describes the experience of the Santa Clara County Maternal Mortality Study Committee, which continued its local activity after the termination of state-supported study groups in 1970. The study focuses on the 36 maternal deaths occurring among approximately 262,000 live births in this California county between 1971 and 1983. The need for a continuation of studies on the incidence and causes of maternal mortality is stressed.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10236 Goldbourt, U.; Neufeld, H. N. Trends in coronary heart disease mortality and related factors in Israel. Cardiology, Vol. 72, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1985. 63-74 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
Changes in mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) among Jews in Israel between 1975 and 1979 are analyzed. The authors note a sharp decline in mortality from this cause among both males and females. These changes have been associated with changes in medical technology and health care, but no changes in serum cholesterol levels, cigarette smoking, or dietary habits are noted. There is, therefore, no evidence that changes in life-style have affected CHD mortality.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10237 Hardes, G. R.; Dobson, A. J.; Lloyd, D. M.; Leeder, S. R. Coronary heart disease mortality trends and related factors in Australia. Cardiology, Vol. 72, No. 1- 2, Jan-Apr 1985. 23-8 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been the greatest single cause of mortality in Australia over the past 30 years. For most age and sex groups CHD mortality rates peaked in 1965-67. Since that time, rates have decreased by nearly 40% and are currently the lowest for 30 years." Variations in CHD mortality by region, place of birth, and socioeconomic status are noted. The impact of changes in life-style, including diet and smoking, and in medical techniques are analyzed.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10238 Harrison, Kelsey. Child-bearing, health and social priorities: a survey of 22,774 consecutive hospital births in Zaria, northern Nigeria. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Supplement, Vol. 92, No. 5, Oct 1985. 119 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
A survey of 22,774 consecutive hospital births in Zaria, northern Nigeria, shows that the principal risk factors for the high maternal mortality rate were lack of antenatal care, early teenage pregnancy, high parity, and high child mortality from previous births. The primary focus of the study is on the determination of health care needs for the area.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10239 Horm, John W.; Kessler, Larry G. Falling rates of lung cancer in men in the United States. Lancet, No. 8478, Feb 22, 1986. 425-6 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
"Lung-cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States were calculated for the years 1973 to 1983. The historically increasing age-adjusted rates for white men levelled off in the late 1970s and fell between 1982 and 1983. These falls were seen for white men only. Both the incidence and mortality rates for women continued to rise with no hint of a reduction." The effect of cigarette smoking on these trends is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:10240 Jorge, Maria H. de M.; Marques, Marilia B. Violent childhood deaths in Brazil. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1985. 288-99 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Since introduction of a standard death certificate for all parts of Brazil in the 1970s, it has become feasible to collect childhood mortality data on a national scale. The purpose of this article is to examine patterns of childhood death from external causes (accidental deaths, suicides, and homicides) in Brazil and Sao Paulo, so as to help learn how such deaths can be prevented."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10241 Kearney, Robert N.; Miller, Barbara D. The spiral of suicide and social change in Sri Lanka. Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 45, No. 1, Nov 1985. 81-101 pp. Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Increases in the suicide rate in Sri Lanka during the period 1955-1974 are noted, and possible explanations are suggested. Using data from official sources, the authors conclude that "the rising suicide rate may be related to the growing competition for education and careers, high unemployment, internal migration, and the increasing age at marriage, all of which contribute to the fundamental dislocation of a once more stable and predictable society."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10242 Kornitzer, Marcel. Evolution of coronary heart disease mortality from 1958 in Belgium. Cardiology, Vol. 72, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1985. 59-62 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality [in Belgium] increased during the 1950s and 1960s but then showed a steady decline over time, starting in 1970. The author reviews the evidence relating this decline in CHD mortality to a favourable evolution of the major coronary risk factors."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10243 La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano. Trends in cancer mortality in Italy, 1955-1978. Tumori, Vol. 71, No. 3, Jun 30, 1985. 201-18 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng.
An analysis of age-specific and age-standardized death rates from cancer in Italy during the period 1955-1978 is presented using official data from death certificates. Differences by sex and cause are reviewed. "In males total cancer mortality rates increased in all age groups. However, when respiratory and other tobacco-related neoplasms were excluded, death certification rates were roughly stable up to age 64. Moderate decreases in overall cancer mortality have been apparent at younger ages (35-44) since the early 1970's. In females, all the age-specific and the age standardized, under-65 death certification rates decreased; the downward trends were more pronounced (-18.5%) in the younger age group considered (35-44 years)."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10244 Liu, Chaocheng. A survey of cause of death (1973-1979) in Bao Jing County. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 2, Mar 29, 1984. 40-3 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Findings from 1976 and 1980 surveys conducted by the Provincial Tumor Prevention Bureau and the County Department of Health concerning causes of death in Baojing, China, from 1973 to 1979 are reported. The data show that mortality rates for women and children were relatively high. The leading cause of death was contagious disease, particularly dysentery, followed by respiratory diseases. No relationship between cause of death and ethnic origin was established.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).; Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

52:10245 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Variations in mortality from cancer. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1986. 22-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Variations in mortality from cancer among U.S. regions and states are summarized using data from official sources. The data are presented separately for males and females and by age group.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10246 Pyorala, Kalevi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Valkonen, Tapani. Trends in coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity and related factors in Finland. Cardiology, Vol. 72, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1985. 35-51 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"A marked increase in the coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality of working-age men and women occurred in Finland from the 1950s until the 1960s. Around the year 1970, CHD mortality started to decline and this decline still continues. In the age group 35-64 years the average annual decline of CHD mortality in the 1970s was 1.8% for men and 3.4% for women. Limited data available on trends in CHD morbidity show that the decline in CHD mortality is accompanied by a decline in the incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction."
Geographical variations in CHD mortality are discussed. The authors note parallel changes in fat consumption, cholesterol levels, smoking among men, control of hypertension, and medical care. They suggest that changes in life- style and medical care are jointly responsible for the downward trend in CHD mortality.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10247 Rose, G. International trends in cardiovascular disease--implications for prevention and treatment. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 4, Aug 1984. 375-80 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"Stroke mortality is declining fast in many countries (this decline being due, in part, to treatment), with implications for medical care and for coronary disease incidence, but in some European countries rates are rising. Coronary mortality is decreasing fast in some countries, probably because of a fall in incidence; dietary and other life-style changes are likely to be involved, but lack of systematic monitoring inhibits firm conclusions. In other countries with comparable medical care the rates have not declined, and in eastern Europe and sections of developing populations they are rising fast. Some implications are discussed."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10248 Rywik, Stefan; Kupsc, Witold. Coronary heart disease mortality trends and related factors in Poland. Cardiology, Vol. 72, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1985. 81-7 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The reported data point to a clear trend of increasing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Poland with a tendency toward its reduction in recent years. The mortality is higher in urban than rural areas, but the increase has been greater in the rural population, especially in males. Recent reduction in the trend of increasing mortality has not been found in middle-aged men and women. The trend showed a correlation with changes in the levels of risk factors, especially in the usual diet consumed by the population. The authors suggest that the increased mortality is due to an increased incidence of CHD."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10249 Stamler, Jeremiah. The marked decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates in the United States, 1968-1981; summary of findings and possible explanations. Cardiology, Vol. 72, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1985. 11-22 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
The decline in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality that occurred in the United States between 1968 and 1981 is analyzed. The author notes that CHD mortality declined over this period at a rate averaging about three percent annually and involved all sectors of the population defined by age, sex, race, and region. The author attributes this decline to the successful development of public health policy that has brought about changes in life-style affecting diet, smoking behavior, and exercise, particularly among the more affluent sectors of the population. The impact of improved medical and surgical techniques is also considered.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10250 Walker, Godfrey J. A.; Ashley, Deanna E. C.; McCaw, Affette M.; Bernard, G. Wesley. Maternal mortality in Jamaica. Lancet, No. 8479, Mar 1, 1986. 486-8 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
Results of an inquiry into all maternal deaths occurring in Jamaica from 1981 to 1983 are presented. "192 maternal deaths were identified by a variety of means. The maternal mortality rate of 10.8 per 10,000 live births was considerably higher than the official rate of 4.8." Consideration is given to the most common causes of death, the relationship of maternal mortality to age and parity, and the largest groups of avoidable factors associated with such mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:10251 Zimicki, Susan; Nahar, Luftun; Sarder, A. M.; D'Souza, Stan. Demographic Surveillance System-- Matlab. Volume thirteen: cause of death reporting in Matlab. Source book of cause-specific mortality rates, 1975-1981. ICDDR,B Scientific Report, No. 63, Oct 1985. 103 pp. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This paper describes the system for cause of death reporting as it has evolved since 1966 in the context of the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System [in Bangladesh]. The validity of the reporting system is evaluated: the sources of potential bias are identified and their importance examined. Cause categories are reviewed to establish their relation to local descriptions and the possible medical diagnoses which might be subsumed by them."
For Vol.12, published in 1984 by Kashem Shaikh et al., see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.