Volume 65 - Number 4 - Winter 1999

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

65:41398 Andreev, E. M.; Barkalov, N. B.; Valentei, S. D.; Denisenko, M. B.; Ivanov, S. F.; Kurdar, Uner; Kolesov, V. P.; Roshchin, S. Yu.; Sagradov, A. A.; Teleshova, I. G. Essentials for studying human development. [Osiovy izucheniya chelovecheskogo razvitiya.] Chelovek i Ekonomika, ISBN 5-7712-0077-8. 1998. 168 pp. Prava Cheloveka: Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
This textbook focuses on selected issues of human development in Russia. Chapter One describes and assesses the human development index. Chapter Two analyzes health status, morbidity and life expectancy in Russia over the course of the twentieth century. Chapter Three discusses Russia's educational system since 1960 and compares it to that of other countries. Chapter Four presents employment, income, and poverty trends in Russia for the 1990s.
Correspondence: Izdatel'stvo Prava Cheloveka, 17 Zubovskii Bul'var, 119847 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41399 Bohn, Henning. Social security and demographic uncertainty: the risk sharing properties of alternative policies. NBER Working Paper, No. 7030, Mar 1999. 42, [10] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"As the U.S. population ages, the growing retiree-worker ratio increases the burden of public retirement systems. Is it efficient to maintain a defined benefit social security system? Should PAYGO benefits be reduced and private retirement savings be encouraged? The paper examines these questions in a neoclassical growth model with overlapping generations and demographic uncertainty."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: bohn@econ.ucsb.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41400 Bravo, Jorge. Fiscal implications of ageing societies regarding public and private pension systems. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. Sep 1999. 141-53 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The fiscal implications of aging populations for social security systems are examined. "In order to provide an overview of fiscal implications of ageing in the public, private, and transition systems in different types of country situations, I will first highlight the fiscal requirements of public pension systems and the effects of ageing. Then I will briefly look at the fiscal obligations related to contemporary private pension schemes. This will be followed by a discussion on the fiscal financing requirements of unfunded-to-funded reforms, with emphasis on the role of demographic ageing. Finally, I will comment on the sustainability and inter-generational equity of pension system policies and reforms." The geographical focus is on Latin America.
Correspondence: J. Bravo, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Population Division, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41401 De Silva, W. Indralal. Socio-economic change and adolescent issues in the Asian and Pacific region. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 149, 1998. [74] pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study examines socioeconomic change and adolescent issues in the Asian and Pacific region. Aspects considered are education, child labor, adolescent reproductive health, malnutrition and menarche, marriage patterns, adolescent fertility and pregnancy, sexual behavior and attitudes, health, and consequences of sexual behavior. Also included are summary and policy recommendations.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41402 Grundy, Emily. Changing role of the family and community in providing support for the elderly. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. 1999. 103-22 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The changing role of the family and the community in providing support for the elderly in developed countries is noted. There are sections on kin availability: marriage and children; living arrangements of older people; explanations for period changes in living arrangements; contacts with family beyond the household; wider social networks of elderly people; and conclusions.
Correspondence: E. Grundy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 49-51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41403 Hao, Yan. Old-age support and care in China in the early 1900s. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, Vol. 38, No. 3, Dec 1997. 201-17 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from the 1992 National Survey on the Old-age Support System carried out by the China Research Centre on Ageing in 12 provinces and municipalities are used to analyze the support and care received by the elderly in China. The analysis includes living arrangements, economic security, physical care, access to health services, and emotional support. The results show that, in the early 1990s, most of the support for the elderly was provided by families, primarily through coresidence.
Correspondence: Y. Hao, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: hxy300@coombs.anu.edu.au. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:41404 Jourdain, Alain; Martin, Claude. What does dependence depend on? Some reflections on the law that establishes a specific subsidy for dependence for elderly people. [De quoi dépend la dépendance? Réflexions sur la loi instaurant une prestation spécifique dépendance aux personnes âgées.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, Vol. 39, No. 2-3, Apr-Sep 1999. 179-93 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The dependency of elderly persons [in France] became recently an autonomous issue beside the problem of the pensions or the disability. We can explain this late apparition in the field of social policy by a strong attention paid to problems of the pensions and the lack of interest to the new concept of disability. But the main reason is the disagreement on two main questions. There is no common vision on the resources that the community must devote to help dependent people and their family. Moreover there is no agreement on the quality assurance of the services provided. The public debate for the first law was focused on the measure of the dependency and its budget. The second, in a context of growth of the number of dependent people, must integrate the need of support for an increasing number of families, and the condition for production of care of quality."
Correspondence: A. Jourdain, Ecole Nationale de la Santé Publique, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41405 Kono, Shigemi. Measures to enhance self-reliance of elderly population: options and policies. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. Sep 1999. 233-50 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The extent to which the elderly are given the opportunity to both take care of themselves and contribute to society in the modern world is assessed. There are sections on self-reliance and independence, health and morbidity, economic activity and well-being, and living arrangements and the family.
Correspondence: S. Kono, Reitaku University, Kashiwa, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41406 MaCurdy, Thomas; O'Brien-Strain, Margaret. Reform reversed? The restoration of welfare benefits to immigrants in California. ISBN 1-58213-002-7. LC 98-39690. 1998. x, 75 pp. Public Policy Institute of California: San Francisco, California. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of the denial and subsequent reinstatement of welfare benefits, including Supplementary Security Income (SSI) and Food Stamps, for noncitizen immigrants in the United States since 1996. "The authors argue that the lack of thoughtful program design was the most disturbing feature in both the denial and reinstatement of benefits to immigrants. The original decision to cut benefits across the board would have left many families destitute, with no apparent hope of relief. Yet, in simply reversing the decision a year later and restoring SSI benefits, lawmakers were giving welfare dollars to thousand of people who did not need public assistance." Some ways to make welfare programs more effective are outlined.
Correspondence: Public Policy Institute of California, 500 Washington Street, Suite 800, San Francisco, CA 94111. E-mail: info@ppic.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41407 Moffitt, Robert A. Demographic change and public assistance expenditures. NBER Working Paper, No. 6995, Mar 1999. 40, [8] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Growth in overall real welfare expenditures per capita has been a noted trend in the last thirty years in the U.S. The influence of demographic forces in contributing to this growth is considered in this paper. It is found that the growth of female-headed families is the strongest and dominant force in contributing to trends in real AFDC expenditures per capita over the long run. The influence of demographic growth is especially strong for the black population. For the Food Stamp and Medicaid programs, increases in participation rates, on the other hand, have been more important. Projections of future trends in the age, race, and sex composition of the U.S. population show that expenditures in none of these programs is likely to respond to such basic demographic trends, however."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: moffitt@jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41408 Mormiche, Pierre. The dependency burden: the weight and the concern. [La dépendance: le poids et le souci.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, Vol. 39, No. 2-3, Apr-Sep 1999. 161-77 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Data on the dependency at old ages are scarce and sometimes not reliable. However, information collected from various industrialized countries confirms that the proportion of the elderly who live in nursing homes is decreasing, except for the ages over 85. In France the average age at entrance into nursing homes increased to 82.3 years in 1998 from 80.2 years in 1976. The trend may be explained at first glance by 4 factors: (i) the family support provided to the very old has not been reduced as previously predicted; (ii) mortality decline at old ages has reduced widowhood and the need for living in nursing homes; (iii) the very poor among the elderly have decreased; (iv) the elderly are today in better health."
Correspondence: P. Mormiche, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41409 Mossé, Philippe. Is the Welfare State threatened by population aging? [L'Etat Providence est-il menacé de vieillissement?] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, Vol. 39, No. 2-3, Apr-Sep 1999. 211-30 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Growth of the number and proportion of the elderly in the coming decades will be undoubtedly the greatest threat so far to the Welfare State [in France]. However, the various decisions aimed at assisting the old, and firstly the very old, should avoid [taking] into account only the quantitative, monetary or similar issues. Certain decisions introduce new forms of assistance which may be less appropriate than the former solutions they replace. Moreover, the elderly population is not a homogeneous group. A global expansion of the assistance coverage is less efficient to promote equity [than] selective measures directed towards those who are in greatest need. Similarly, an efficient promotion of `living at home' versus `nursing homes' requires more than money or good will, it calls for an all-out effort for understanding complex situations and uniting actors having divergent interests."
Correspondence: P. Mossé, Laboratoire d'Economie et de Sociologie du Travail, 35 Avenue Jules Ferry, 13626 Aix-en-Provence Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41410 Mulligan, Casey B.; Sala-i-Martin, Xavier. Social security in theory and practice (I): facts and political theories. NBER Working Paper, No. 7118, May 1999. 38 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"166 countries have some kind of public old age pension. What economic forces create and sustain old age Social Security as a public program? We document some of the internationally and historically common features of Social Security programs including explicit and implicit taxes on labor supply, pay-as-you-go features, intergenerational redistribution, benefits which are increasing functions of lifetime earnings and not means-tested."
For Part II, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: c-mulligan@uchicago.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41411 Mulligan, Casey B.; Sala-i-Martin, Xavier. Social security in theory and practice (II): efficiency theories, narrative theories, and implications for reform. NBER Working Paper, No. 7119, May 1999. 38 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors "document several of the internationally and historically common features of social security programs, and explore `political' theories of Social Security.... The political and efficiency explanations are compared with the international and historical facts and used to derive implications for replacing the typical pay-as-you-go system with a forced savings plan. Most of the explanations suggest that forced savings does not increase welfare, and may decrease it." The data concern 166 countries around the world.
For Part I, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: c-mulligan@uchicago.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41412 Parant, Alain. The dependency burden at extreme old age: a problem in the future that needs to be anticipated. [La dépendance du grand âge: un choc à venir, une ardente obligation d'anticipation.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, Vol. 39, No. 2-3, Apr-Sep 1999. 133-59 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
According to "the projections undertaken by the National Institute of Statistics, the number of the non-autonomous elderly [in France] will increase to 762,000 (optimistic scenario) or 1,185,000 (pessimistic scenario) in 2020 from 666,800 in 1990. It is noteworthy that the starting point of dependency occurs mainly between the ages of 80 and 85. This means that the number of [dependent] elderly will accelerate sharply...after the year 2020. For the time being, the non-autonomous elderly people are generally cared [for] by their own families. However, in the future, new collective behaviors, in particular the higher female participation rate [in] economic activity, may change fundamentally the issue. How to find a sufficient amount of resources to cover the care provided to the very old? The [urgency] of the question, due to the upcoming arrival of the baby boom cohorts at retirement age, is not perceived in France for the time being."
Correspondence: A. Parant, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41413 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Wang, Guang-zhen. Women's reproductive rights and social equality in developing countries. Social Science Journal, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1999. 459-67 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The paper presents a cross-national analysis of the relationship between levels of reproductive rights and social equality in developing countries. One hundred and one developing countries identified by the World Bank are used. We find that high levels of social equality are associated with high levels of marital rights. However, the relationship between levels of social equality and legal abortion right is weak and insignificant. The interrelations among women's reproductive rights, social equality, and religious forces are analyzed."
Correspondence: G.-z. Wang, University of Arkansas, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204-1099. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41414 Rochon, Madeleine. Population aging and the elderly's participation in funding health and social expenditures. [Vieillissement démographique et participation des personnes âgées au financement des dépenses de santé et des dépenses sociales.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 299-329, 363, 368 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The contribution of the elderly in funding social expenditures in the Canadian province of Quebec is examined. "The average contribution of an elderly person was half that of a person of working age in 1993, and this contribution is on the rise. It could however stabilize if wages resume a growth trend.... Expenditures for health and long-term care will represent half of this increase. Aside from changes related to the nature of such programs, their unit costs and their funding method, the main factors that will affect this evolution are the indexing method for government transfers, economic growth, the financial resources of the elderly, and the retirement age."
Correspondence: M. Rochon, Ministère de la Santé et des Services Sociaux, Direction Générale de la Planification et de l'Evaluation, 1075 Chemin Ste-Foy, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41415 Sen, Kasturi. The prevention of frailty and dependence among elderly people in developing countries. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. Sep 1999. 167-80 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The contribution introduces the concept of frailty and examines strategies for the support of older people around the world. There are sections on the demographic background, the oldest old, the need for services, the United Kingdom's experience in providing such services, the dilemmas facing developing countries, the notion of frailty, aging as a gender issue, family support and social and health services in developing countries, changes in patterns of disease, reforms of public welfare, the impact of such reforms on economic vulnerability, and policy implications.
Correspondence: K. Sen, University of Cambridge, Department of Community Medicine, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41416 Sinn, Hans-Werner. The crisis of Germany's pension insurance system and how it can be resolved. NBER Working Paper, No. 7304, Aug 1999. 25 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The paper discusses the options for a reform of the German pension system using a model developed...for the German Council of economic advisors to the Federal Ministry of Economics and Research. It is argued that the German pay-as-you-go-system is efficient in a present value sense but will nevertheless need the support of a funded system to avoid a financial crisis. The paper investigates the possibility of introducing obligatory private savings at a variable rate where the time path of the savings rate is chosen so as to stabilize the sum of this rate and the pay-as-you-go contribution rate, given the time path of pensions as defined in the present system."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: hans-werner.sinn@ces.vwl.uni-muenchen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41417 van Wissen, Leo J. G.; Dykstra, Pearl A. Population issues: an interdisciplinary focus. Plenum Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis, ISBN 0-306-46196-X. 1999. xv, 287 pp. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, New York/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The contributors to this volume are selected participants in an eight-year program of research on population issues, funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research: The NWO Priority Program on Population Issues.... The focus was on both the ways in which people's life options are organized by society, and the ways in which people select behavioral alternatives from the socially created and socially determined options.... Dutch population trends are compared and contrasted with those in neighboring countries, or more generally, with those observed in Western industrialized societies." Chapters are included on the life course approach as an interdisciplinary framework for population studies; models and analysis; understanding changing patterns of family formation from a life course perspective; households, families, and kin networks; work, savings, and social security; residential relocations; medical demography in the Netherlands; and advances in the microsimulation of demographic behavior.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41418 Yap, Mui Teng. Adapting existing institutions to meet the needs of the elderly. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. Sep 1999. 207-20 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The way in which Singapore plans to cope with providing for the needs of a growing elderly population are described. There are sections on the evolution of a policy on the elderly; related developments; the philosophy of care; roles of the individual, family, community, and government; adaptations to meet the needs of the elderly; and summary and conclusions.
Correspondence: M. T. Yap, Institute of Policy Studies, Singapore. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

65:41419 Benoit, Michel. Settlement, endemic violence, and the modification of wild regions in West Africa: a no man's land in Niger. [Peuplement, violence endémique et rémanence de l'espace sauvage en Afrique de l'Ouest: le no man's land du "W" du Niger.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1999. 29-51 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The existence of no man's lands created and maintained by endemic violence is one of the characteristics of West African settlements. The case studied here is that of the region defined by the Tapoa, Alibori and Niger rivers, which was brought under the protection of the colonial authorities and named Park `W' of Niger between 1926 and 1954.... [The author analyzes] certain aspects of the geopolitics of the eastern Niger bend area and their effects on the settlement of the land.... The cartography proposed illustrates the relationship between violence, depopulation and the renaissance of the wilderness."
Correspondence: M. Benoit, ORSTOM, B.P. 11416, Niamey, Niger. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41420 Blayo, Yves. Political events and fertility in China since 1950. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 4, 1992. 209-32 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"After comparing period and cohort trends in fertility and nuptiality since 1950, to study the 'current' of recent history, we shall investigate [how various historical and political events] have affected the reproductive strategies of Chinese couples." Aspects considered include female nuptiality, overall and marital fertility, fertility by birth order, and the transformation of the Chinese family.
Correspondence: Y. Blayo, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41421 Courbage, Youssef. A redistribution of the demographic map of the Middle East. The demographic future of the Israeli-Palestinian region. [Redistribution des cartes démographiques au Proche-Orient. L'avenir du peuplement de la région Israël-Palestine.] Revue d'Etudes Palestiniennes, No. 18, Winter 1999. 62-78 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of some of the current demographic trends in Israel and Palestine (the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). In particular, the author analyzes the impact of the Wye River Agreement for the demographic future of both Israel and the areas that will be under the control of the Palestinian Authority. The author also notes the demographic changes that are occurring within the Jewish population, including the change from minority to majority status of the Sephardic population. The political and demographic implications of the much higher fertility of the orthodox religious sector of the population are also considered.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

65:41422 Courbage, Youssef. The June 1998 and June 1999 elections in Northern Ireland: the demographic factor. [Les élections de juin 1998 et de juin 1999 en Irlande du Nord: le poids de la démographie.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 3, May-Jun 1999. 573-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
A demographic analysis of the elections that took place in Northern Ireland in 1998 and 1999 is presented. The author focuses on the relationship between religion and the number of people voting for the various nationalist, loyalist, and independent political parties. He suggests that, for a number of reasons, the prospects for obtaining a majority vote in the province for the reunification of Ireland are slim in both the near and mid-term future.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41423 Greene, Ronald W. Malthusian worlds: U.S. leadership and the governing of the population crisis. ISBN 0-8133-9073-7. LC 99-21202. 1999. xi, 273 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The role of the United States in efforts to solve the global population problem is examined. The author shows how U.S. leadership on population issues is related to its ability to link international with domestic policy objectives, and makes the case that the global population crisis has had a major impact on the U.S. political scene. He describes the development of the global population crisis since the end of World War II and the apparatus of institutions and ideas developed to cope with it, noting that the focus was on the concept of rapid population growth as a threat to socioeconomic development. The need to reorganize U.S. leadership on population issues to place greater emphasis on sustainable development, women's health and empowerment, and the control of international migration is stressed.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:41424 Junn, Jane. Participation in liberal democracy: the political assimilation of immigrants and ethnic minorities in the United States. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,417-38 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article compares patterns of participatory behavior in politics among immigrants and ethnic minorities in the United States. Differences in rates of participation in a range of political activities...are analyzed for Whites, African Americans, Latinos, and Asian Americans, as well as by generation of immigration within groups. The extent to which standard socioeconomic status models of participatory behavior explain variation in political activity across ethnic and racial groups is assessed. In so doing, the article challenges the normative interpretation of the results from these standard models that more participation among minorities and new entrants to the United States is desirable."
Correspondence: J. Junn, Rutgers University, Department of Political Science, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41425 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Population weights in the international order. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 126, 1999. 42 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Population relativities play little part in the international system. A nation's economic and military power is influenced by population size, but as one factor among many. Formal relations among states exclude population from consideration by the principle of sovereign equality. Three sources of possible change in this situation are explored, in which states would be `population-weighted' to a greater degree than before."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41426 Mukomel', V. I. The demographic consequences of ethnic and regional conflicts in the CIS. [Demograficheskie posledstviya etnicheskikh i regional'nykh konfliktov v SNG.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 6, 1999. 66-71 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The demographic consequences over the course of the 1990s of the many conflicts that have broken out in the various countries that used to form the Soviet Union are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41427 Mulligan, Casey B.; Sala-i-Martin, Xavier. Gerontocracy, retirement, and social security. NBER Working Paper, No. 7117, May 1999. 56 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors develop a simple interest group model to examine the political effectiveness of the old-age lobby in the United States. "The model has a variety of implications for the design of social security programs, which we test using data from the Social Security Administration. For example, the model predicts that social security programs with retirement incentives are larger and that the old are more `single-minded' in their politics, implications which we verify using cross-country government finance data and cross-country political participation surveys. Finally, we show that the forced savings programs intended to `reform' the social security system may increase the amount of intergenerational redistribution. As a model for evaluating policy reforms, ours has the attractive feature that reforms must be time consistent from a political point of view rather than a public interest point of view."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: c-mulligan@uchicago.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41428 Scalabrini Migration Center (Quezon City, Philippines). Exiles, motherland and social change. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, 1999. 279 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
This special issue contains 12 papers by various authors on one aspect of emigration from the Philippines, defined as exile migration, specifically exile for political reasons. The period covered is the last 100 years.
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, P.O. Box 10541 Broadway Centrum, 1113 Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

65:41429 Ali, Samia R. Men and reproductive health in Punjab: perspectives from 37 discussion groups. Population Council Research Report, No. 10, Jul 1999. viii, 30, [5] pp. Population Council: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The Population Council held a series of discussion groups with various community men, community women, and service providers in five districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan, to elicit peoples' understanding, concerns, and needs regarding men and male involvement in reproductive health. A total of 37 discussion groups was held during September and October, 1997.... The discussions covered five broad subject areas: family planning, infertility, male sexual weakness/impotence, sexually transmitted diseases, and inappropriate sexual behaviors. For each of these, we tried to elicit knowledge and attitudes, health seeking behavior, needs, and programmatic ideas and suggestions."
Correspondence: Population Council Pakistan, 7 Street 62, F-6/3, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41430 Asari, V. Gopalakrishnan; Susuman, I. A. Sathiya. Reproductive health of women in a declining fertility: a study of married women in Kerala. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1998. 91-103 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
This study examines the reproductive health of women in the Indian state of Kerala, which is experiencing significant declines in fertility. Data are from a survey carried out in four villages in 1996. "The results reveal that 81 percent of deliveries were conducted in hospitals. Educated women take more care of their reproductive health than the illiterates. The study has shown that there is a high potential for improving the health status of women if reproductive health is achieved through reducing the birth rates and increasing the age at marriage."
Correspondence: V. G. Asari, University of Kerala, Population Research Centre, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41431 Basu, Alaka M. Poverty and AIDS: the vicious circle. In: Population and poverty in the developing world, edited by Massimo Livi-Bacci and Gustavo De Santis. 1999. 144-60 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter sets out some of the major evidence that supports the assertion that the poverty-AIDS nexus is a vicious circle which can only get worse unless there is a new commitment to dealing with it by simultaneous interventions at several points.... The chapter places a new emphasis on transmission factors, the health care system in particular, which are outside the control of individuals. It also stresses some of the poverty-related consequences of HIV/AIDS. An important conclusion is that we need much more evidence on such consequences and societal and household coping strategies, so that the limited resources available to alleviate the impact of the infection can be targeted more effectively."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41432 Berer, M. Reducing perinatal HIV transmission in developing countries through antenatal and delivery care, and breastfeeding: supporting infant survival by supporting women's survival. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 77, No. 11, 1999. 871-7 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"In 1998, a joint UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO working group announced an initiative to pilot test an intervention to reduce perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), based on new guidelines on HIV and infant feeding. This intervention for developing countries includes short-course perinatal zidovudine (AZT) treatment and advice to HIV-positive women not to breastfeed their infants, where this can be done safely. The present paper raises questions about the extent of the public health benefit of this intervention, even though it may be cost-effective, due to the limited capacity of antenatal and delivery services to implement it fully."
Correspondence: M. Berer, Reproductive Health Matters, 444 Highgate Studios, 53-79 Highgate Road, London NW5 1TL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41433 Berer, Marge; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari. Safe motherhood initiatives: critical issues. Reproductive Health Matters, ISBN 0-9531210-1-1. 1999. ix, 244 pp. Reproductive Health Matters: London, England. Distributed by Blackwell Science, P.O. Box 88, Oxford OX2 0NE, England. E-mail: journals.cs.blacksci.co.uk. In Eng.
"This book raises critical issues arising from the national and international policies, programmes and services whose aim is to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity. Containing 25 papers and a list of resources by authors from around the world, it analyses where safe motherhood initiatives stand today, what has been achieved and what remains to be done, and offers a wide range of perspectives on making pregnancy, childbirth and abortion safer for women in [the] future."
Correspondence: Reproductive Health Matters, 444 Highgate Studios, 53/79 Highgate Road, London NW5 1TL, England. RHMjournal@compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41434 Boadu, Kwame. Life expectancy as indicator of health status: the case of Edmonton and Calgary. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1999. 183-204 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study compares the health status of the populations of Calgary and Edmonton [in Canada] by examining their respective life expectancies. Age- and cause-specific death rates are analysed by the method of standardization and decomposition. The analysis reveals that generally, the population of Calgary enjoys a higher life expectancy than the population of Edmonton, and by implication, better health status. However, decomposition by age-groups reveals that females aged 65 years and over in Edmonton are healthier than females of the same age-group in Calgary. Similarly, when decomposition by cause-of-death is applied, there are instances where death rates due to certain cause-of-death components are higher in Calgary than in Edmonton when the general population is considered as well as sub-groups. The results of the study bring to the fore the inherent limitation of life expectancy as a true reflection of the health status of an entire population, and particularly the two populations of Calgary and Edmonton."
Correspondence: K. Boadu, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41435 Bobak, Martin. Health and mortality trends in countries with economies in transition. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 203-26 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
Recent health and mortality trends are reviewed for the countries of central and eastern Europe and some of the countries that were part of the former Soviet Union. "This paper has two objectives. First, it will present the most recent mortality figures and will place the recent trends in their longer-term context. Secondly, it will briefly discuss the causes for the poor health status in the region. When not stated otherwise, data used are those reported by the countries to the World Health Organization and made available through WHO Health for All database...." Some reasons for the growing mortality gap between these countries and other developed countries in the West are explored. Particular attention is given to the growth in socioeconomic differences in both health and mortality in these countries.
Correspondence: M. Bobak, University College London Medical School, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41436 Bond, Katherine C.; Valente, Thomas W.; Kendall, Carl. Social network influences on reproductive health behaviors in urban northern Thailand. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 12, Dec 1999. 1,599-614 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Prevention approaches for reproductive health have evolved from an emphasis on individually focused models of behavior change to a recognition that risk reduction occurs within a context of social norms. Prevention programs can be improved by understanding how social structure influences sexual behavior and using that understanding to develop strategies for positive change.... Using data from a study of social and sexual networks conducted in northern Thailand, this article describes partner relations and social structure in the modern, urban context, and illustrates the links between individual, relational and structural properties and reproductive risk behaviors. Triangulation of ethnographic, survey and social network data collection and analytic tools provide an opportunity to interpret individual behaviors, meanings of relationships and structural properties of networks."
Correspondence: K. C. Bond, Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health and Development, 1201 Connecticut Avenue, Suite 501, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: kbond@pathfind.org. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41437 Bonnet, Doris; Guillaume, Agnès. Reproductive health. Concept and actors. [La santé de la reproduction. Concept et acteurs.] ETS Documents de Recherche, No. 8, Nov 1999. 20 pp. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction: Marseilles, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Through an historical perspective, this paper analyses the concept of reproductive health through declarations and actions of international organisations, from where it was developed through the impetus given by non-governmental organisations and feminist movements. Today, substituting for maternal and child health, it includes sexual health and fertility regulation. Reproductive health [concerns not] only maternal and child health but also [that] of teenagers, [menopausal] women and men. Reproductive health exceeds also the strict medical framework to investigate the question of individual and collective responsibility concerning sexual and reproductive behaviours. From this evolution appears [the notion] of `reproductive rights' which implies the freedom of choice concerning sexuality and fertility. Nevertheless there is a gap between these declarations and aims and the social and political organisation of the concerned countries." The case of abortion is used as an example of this.
Correspondence: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction, Case 10, Centre St. Charles, 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseilles Cedex 3, France. Author's E-mail: dbonnet@club-internet.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41438 Brockerhoff, Martin; Biddlecom, Ann E. Migration, sexual behavior and the risk of HIV in Kenya. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1999. 833-56 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The behavioral mechanisms that link AIDS and migration in Sub-Saharan Africa are explored. "Using data from the 1993 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, this article examines whether migrants are more likely than nonmigrants to have multiple recent sexual partners and not use condoms with those partners. Results indicate that migration is a critical factor in high-risk sexual behavior and that its importance varies by gender and by the direction of movement. Independent of marital and cohabitation status, social milieu, awareness of AIDS, and other crucial influences on sexual behavior, male migrants between urban areas and female migrants within rural areas are much more likely than nonmigrant counterparts to engage in sexual practices conducive to HIV infection. In rural areas, migrants from urban places are more likely than nonmigrants to practice high-risk sex."
Correspondence: M. Brockerhoff, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41439 Caldwell, John C. Good health for many: the ESCAP region, 1950-2000. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1999. 21-38 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The ESCAP region has been especially successful over the last half century in terms of economic growth, the control of fertility and reduction of mortality. This article charts this historic change starting with a period prior to 1950 and tracing developments to the current decade. It brings out the reasons for the improvements in health that have occurred and explains the interrelationships among the various factors that led to the declines in all forms of mortality. It identifies three aspects that should be addressed in the future: the achievement of small families, the tremendous growth of cities, and the mortality implications of the AIDS epidemic for the region. The article concludes with an 11-point formula for furthering the mortality decline."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41440 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat; Anarfi, John; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Ntozi, James; Orubuloye, I. O.; Marck, Jeff; Cosford, Wendy; Colombo, Rachel; Hollings, Elaine. Resistances to behavioural change to reduce HIV/AIDS infection in predominantly heterosexual epidemics in third world countries. 1999. iv, 256 pp. Australian National University, Health Transition Centre: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This publication contains selected papers from a conference held at the Australian National University in Canberra, April 28-30, 1999. The focus is on the obstacles to behavioral change with regard to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among heterosexuals in developing countries in general and Sub-Saharan Africa in particular. There are 13 papers on Africa, which examine aspects of sexual behavior, attitudes toward death, and condom usage; 5 papers on the prospects of an AIDS pandemic in Asia; 1 paper on the homosexual AIDS epidemic in Australia; and 3 retrospective overviews.
Correspondence: Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: Htc@nceph.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41441 Campbell, O. M. R.; Ronsmans, C.; Collumbien, M. What birth interval is best? IPPF Medical Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 3, Jun 1999. 3-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Family planning is encouraged to avoid the four `toos'--births which are too close, too early, too late, or too many.... Here we review two recent analyses that specifically assess the impact of birth intervals on maternal and child health." Data are from Bangladesh and the United States.
Correspondence: O. M. R. Campbell, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London WC1E 7HT, England. E-mail: oona.campbell@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41442 Chamie, J.; Cliquet, R. L. Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997. ISBN 90-403-0100-X. 1999. xv, 467 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume contains the papers presented at the Symposium on Health and Mortality held in Brussels, Belgium, November 19-22, 1997, which was organized jointly by the UN Population Division and the Belgian Population and Family Study Centre. "The Symposium brought together experts in the study of health and mortality to review the state of knowledge in the field, analyse recent trends and discuss prospects for the improvement of the health status in different regions of the world. The Symposium focused mostly on issues related to the health and mortality of persons aged 15 or over. The sessions of the Symposium were organized along three major issues: (a) the measurement of mortality and health status; (b) the state of current knowledge about the evolution of mortality and health in developed market-economy countries, countries with economies in transition, and developing countries; and (c) the analysis of risk factors associated with specific behaviours that account or may potentially account for large or growing proportions of deaths."
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: cbgs@wvc.vlaanderen.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41443 Cleland, John; Harris, Katie. The effect of maternal education on child health and survival--do girls benefit? In: Too young to die: genes or gender? 1998. 179-207 pp. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"First, evidence concerning the well established maternal education-child survival relationship and the possible mechanisms involved are briefly reviewed. That review is followed by an outline of existing hypotheses concerning the question of central interest: does the education of a mother bring about a relative shift in health and survival of her sons and daughters? The relevant literature is outlined. A description of the data and methods used in the present study, together with their limitations, follows. The most plausible pathways, differential nutrition and health-seeking behaviour, are then examined, by analysing data on health indicators from phase I Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Lastly, child mortality is analysed with the aim of ascertaining whether maternal education has a mediating effect on sex differentials." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41444 Cockerham, William C. Health and social change in Russia and Eastern Europe. ISBN 0-415-92080-9. LC 98-29877. 1999. xii, 284 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The causes of the decline in both general health status and life expectancy in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are analyzed. The study is based primarily on the published and unpublished literature in the countries concerned, including Russia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, the former Czechoslovakia, and the former East Germany. "The first chapter in this book examines the nature of the 74-year socialist experiment, discusses the quality of the data, and reviews the evidence for a social basis for the decline in life expectancy. The second chapter identifies and discusses the specific social determinants of the downturn in longevity. The third chapter presents a theoretical framework for conceptualizing the issues. The remaining chapters are case studies of the seven former socialist countries, followed by a concluding chapter providing a final commentary."
Correspondence: Routledge, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41445 Duncan, S. R.; Scott, Susan; Duncan, C. J. A demographic model of measles epidemics. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1999. 185-98 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Liverpool, U.K., 1863-1900, has been used as a model to explore the interaction between measles epidemics and the population dynamics in an overcrowded community with inadequate nutrition using a non-linear model which allows the estimation of certain underlying demographic parameters. The results are consistent with a system that is driven by an oscillation in the transmission parameter that is compounded of an oscillation in autumn temperatures (at the resonant frequency of the system, 2.4 years) and, secondarily, by an oscillation in wheat prices (wavelength=5.3 years, twice that of the epidemics)."
Correspondence: C. J. Duncan, University of Liverpool, School of Biological Sciences, Derby Building, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41446 Elman, Cheryl; Myers, George C. Geographic morbidity differentials in the late nineteenth-century United States. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 4, Nov 1999. 429-43 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We use a national cross-sectional database, the 1880 Integrated Public Use Microdata Sample, to examine aggregate patterns and individual-level estimates of chronic-disease morbidity and long-term disability in the United States in the late nineteenth century. Despite higher levels of urban mortality in 1880, morbidity prevalence rates were highest in the rural areas of the country, especially in the western and the southern regions. Equations using microdata show that the estimated risk of chronic disease and impairment was highest for males and females who were older, of lower socioeconomic status, or from rural areas. This era was marked by geographically uneven but significant levels of endemic chronic disease, likely the outcomes of prior episodes of infectious disease and exposure to conditions generated by human action, such as the Civil War and migration."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: C. Elman, University of Akron, Department of Sociology, Akron, OH 44325-1905. E-mail: Cheryl2@uakron.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41447 Evelyn, Unuigbe I.; Osafu, Ogbeide. Sexual behaviour and perception of AIDS among adolescent girls in Benin City, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 1999. 39-44 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"To institute meaningful preventive measures for the control of HIV/AIDS, there is need for more information relating to the perception and knowledge of AIDS and the sexuality of our adolescent population, who form a significant at-risk group. A survey of the knowledge and perception of AIDS and sexual behaviour among 723 randomly selected secondary school adolescent girls, aged 13 to 18 years, was carried out in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Over 94% of the study population was aware of AIDS, while 64% rightly knew that AIDS can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Similarly, 9.1% and 3.9% wrongly ascribed AIDS transmission to causal kissing and sharing of utensils with AIDS patients. More than 77% of the girls were sexually active, and of this, 35% had multiple sexual partners and only 26.9% practised the use of condoms during sexual intercourse. This study re-echoes the urgent need for intensive and effective control programmes for HIV/AIDS."
Correspondence: U. I. Evelyn, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Department of Medicine, PMB 1111, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41448 Fadeyi, Olufemi A. Reproductive health in Nigeria: strategies for intervention program in maternal health care. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 423-43 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The objectives of this study are to describe [the] health care system in Nigeria and to propose a range of strategies for [a] policy intervention program." The focus is on maternal health.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41449 Farid, Samir. The use of surveys to gather information on health status (developing countries). In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 181-202 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The use of surveys to collect health data is examined using the example of surveys carried out as part of the Gulf Family Health Project in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates between 1995 and 1997. The surveys included data on reproductive health, including marriage patterns, fertility, family planning, maternity care, and pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum complications.
Correspondence: S. Farid, Gulf Family Health Survey, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41450 Fauci, Anthony S. The AIDS epidemic: considerations for the 21st century. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 341, No. 14, Sep 30, 1999. 1,046-50 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
In this article, the author examines the origins of the AIDS epidemic, how it has developed over the past 18 years, what has been accomplished from a scientific and public health perspective in combating it, and what are the future perspectives. The author concludes that AIDS has become "a global pandemic of such proportions that it clearly ranks as one of the most destructive microbial scourges in history.... Biomedical research has provided the tools for the development of treatments as well as a still elusive vaccine. It has become apparent over the past few years that minimizing the destructive impact of this epidemic will require partnerships between the public and private sectors as well as a stronger political will among the nations of the world. Unless methods of prevention, with or without a vaccine, are successful, the worst of the global pandemic will occur in the 21st century."
Correspondence: A. S. Fauci, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892. E-mail: afauci@niaid.nih.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:41451 Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.; Asuzu, Michael C.; Oduntan, S. Olu. Survey of knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices relating to HIV infection/AIDS among Nigerian secondary school students. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 2, Oct 1999. 15-24 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The research was carried out to study the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour of 450 students selected by the multistage sampling technique from four Nigerian secondary schools. Eighty-three per cent of the students knew AIDS was transmitted sexually, but the percentage of those aware of other modes of transmission was much lower.... First sexual experience occurred at 15.8 years for males and 16.3 in females. Of the 450 students studied, 159 (35.3%) had experienced sexual intercourse before [the survey]. Of the 120 students (26.7%) who became sexually active a month before the survey, 34 (28.3%) had multiple sexual partners. Consistent condom use was reported in only 22 (19.8%) of the sexually active students. The use of unreliable methods for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases was common."
Correspondence: O. I. Fawole, University of Ibadan, College of Medicine, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, PMB 5017 GPO, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41452 Fernández Moreno, Sara Y. A theoretical-methodological approach to studies of reproductive health. [Aproximación teórico-metodológica a los estudios en salud reproductiva.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 16, Apr-Jun 1998. 63-81 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author summarizes basic approaches to studying reproductive health. The focus is on policies regarding family planning and fertility control; the medicalization of reproductive behavior; reproductive rights; and reproductive health as a matter for study and discussion at world population conferences.
Correspondence: S. Y. Fernández Moreno, Universidad de Antioquía, Apdo. Aéreo 1226, Ciudad Universitaria, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia. E-mail: sparta@latinmal.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41453 Ferro-Luzzi, Anna; Branca, Francesco. Coping with poverty: the biological impact of nutrition insecurity. In: Population and poverty in the developing world, edited by Massimo Livi-Bacci and Gustavo De Santis. 1999. 49-60 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors describe the human body's response to insufficient food intake. There are separate sections on the biological responses of adults and those of children to malnutrition.
Correspondence: A. Ferro-Luzzi, Istituto Nazionale della Nutrizione, via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41454 Finer, Lawrence B.; Darroch, Jacqueline E.; Singh, Susheela. Sexual partnership patterns as a behavioral risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 228-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The 1988 and 1995 cycles of the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth and five rounds of the General Social Survey conducted from 1988 to 1996 are used to examine women's and men's numbers of recent sexual partners. Levels of direct risk for STDs (two or more partners in the past year) and the social and demographic correlates of multiple partnership are analyzed among women and men. In addition, women's indirect risk for STDs (their partners' involvement with other partners in the past year) is used to estimate their overall risk of STDs through multiple partnerships."
Correspondence: L. B. Finer, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41455 Fleßa, Steffen. Many worlds of health: a simulation of the determinants of the epidemiological transition in developing countries. Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1998. 459-94 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"The epidemiological transition constitutes the backbone of the explanation of the different pattern of diseases in countries of dissimilar development status. Infectious diseases are dominating in the third world whereas the western world is characterised by chronic and degenerative illness. This paper discusses the different factors determining and influencing the path of morbidity and mortality through the different phases of the epidemiological transition and points out the implication of these changes on the health care systems in developing countries. For this purpose a system dynamics model has been developed and different simulation results are demonstrated here."
Correspondence: S. Fleßa, Evangelische Fachhochschule, Bärenschanzstraße 4, 90429 Nürnberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41456 Ford, Nicholas J.; Halliday, Joyce; Little, Jo. Changes in the sexual lifestyles of young people in Somerset, 1990-1996. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul 1999. 55-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The immediate objective was to up-date knowledge of the socio-sexual lifestyles and AIDS awareness of young people (16-24 years of age) in Somerset, [England] and to compare these 1996 survey findings to the Somerset Survey findings from 1990. The ultimate objective was to provide information to assist the continuing development of HIV risk-reduction and sexual health promotion strategies for young people."
Correspondence: N. J. Ford, University of Exeter, Department of Geography, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4RJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41457 Freedman, Vicki A.; Martin, Linda G. The role of education in explaining and forecasting trends in functional limitations among older Americans. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 4, Nov 1999. 461-73 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we document the importance of education in accounting for declines in functional limitations among older Americans from 1984 to 1993. Of the eight demographic and socioeconomic variables considered, education is most important in accounting for recent trends. The relationship between educational attainment and functioning has not changed measurably, but educational attainment has increased greatly during this period. Our analysis suggests, all else being equal, that future changes in education will continue to contribute to improvements in functioning, although at a reduced rate."
Correspondence: V. A. Freedman, RAND Corporation, Labor and Population Program, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41458 Fullilove, Robert E.; Fullilove, Mindy T.; Northridge, Mary E.; Ganz, Michael L.; Bassett, Mary T.; McLean, Diane E.; Aidala, Angela A.; Gemson, Donald H.; McCord, Colin. Risk factors for excess mortality in Harlem: findings from the Harlem Household Survey. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 3S, Apr 1998. 22-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In 1980, age-adjusted mortality rates in Central Harlem were the highest among New York City's 30 health districts. This population-based study was designed to describe the self-reported frequency of selected health conditions, behavioral risk factors, preventive health practices, and drug use in the Harlem community. From 1992 to 1994, in-person interviews were conducted among 695 adults aged 18 to 65 years who were randomly selected from dwelling-unit enumeration lists for the Central Harlem health district. Descriptive statistics were computed for men and women separately, and compared to other population-based surveys. Self-reported medical insurance coverage in Harlem was unexpectedly high (74% of men, 86% of women) as was lifetime use of preventive health practices, e.g., blood cholesterol screening (58% of men, 70% of women). However, lifetime rates of substance use, e.g., crack cocaine (14%) and self-reported history of traumatic events, e.g., witnessing someone seriously injured or violently killed (49% of men, 21% of women) were also high in Harlem, especially in comparison to other populations."
Correspondence: R. E. Fullilove, Columbia University, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health, 617 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: ref5@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41459 Geronimus, Arline T.; Bound, John; Waidmann, Timothy A. Health inequality and population variation in fertility-timing. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 12, Dec 1999. 1,623-36 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We estimate the impact of fertility-timing on the chances that children in poor urban African American communities [in the United States] will have surviving and able-bodied parents until maturity. To do so, we use census and vital statistics data to compute age- and sex-specific rates of mortality and functional limitation among prime-aged adult residents of impoverished African American areas in Harlem, Detroit, Chicago, and the Watts area of Los Angeles and for blacks and whites nationwide. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the early fertility-timing characteristics of poor urban African American populations mitigates some of the costs to families associated with excess mortality and early health deterioration in young through middle adulthood."
Correspondence: A. T. Geronimus, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. E-mail: arline@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41460 Goldman, Noreen; Heuveline, Patrick. Health seeking behavior for child illness in Guatemala. OPR Working Paper, No. 99-2, Mar 1999. 26 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
This paper relies on "data from the 1995 Guatemalan Survey of Family Health (EGSF) to analyze the relationship between child illness and health seeking behavior.... Information on illness was collected for a total of 3,193 children. This analysis is based on 870 of these children who began a diarrheal or respiratory illness during a 13-day period prior to interview. Estimates are derived from binomial and multinomial logistic models of the probability of seeing any or a specific type of provider on a given day of illness as a function of characteristics of the illness and the child."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41461 Grieco, Margaret. Health status and service needs of older persons: a policy framework. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. Sep 1999. 155-80 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
Some aspects of the problems that developing countries are facing in their efforts to meet the health needs of older persons in the face of economic constraints are addressed. The author questions the value of broad policy initiatives, and makes the case that "new technologies enable the ready organisation of detailed local data into appropriate local action plans which can be integrated through the use of new technologies to achieve the same effects as broad initiatives. Furthermore, energy placed upon converting the already available broad outlines of action into more specific inventories of possible operations will increase the likelihood of measures moving from the policy table into the operational field."
Correspondence: M. Grieco, University of North London, Business School, Department of Organisation and Development Management, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41462 Hitt, Rachel; Young-Xu, Yinong; Silver, Margery; Perls, Thomas. Centenarians: the older you get, the healthier you have been. Lancet, Vol. 354, No. 9179, Aug 21, 1999. 652 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The compression of morbidity paradigm envisions a potential reduction of overall morbidity, disability, and health-care costs as people approach the limits of their life span.... To investigate this hypothesis we set out to retrospectively assess the health and functional status of [U.S.] centenarians in a population-based study." The data concern 43 centenarians living in the Boston, Massachusetts, area.
Correspondence: T. Perls, Harvard Medical School, Division on Aging, Boston, MA 02215. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:41463 Hull, Terence H.; Hartono, Djoko; Romdiati, Haning; Djohan, Eniarti. Culture and reproductive health in Irian Jaya: an exploratory study. Development Bulletin, No. 48, Apr 1999. 30-2 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This article reviews the need to recognise and deal with cultural gaps between the Dani people of the interior of Irian Jaya [Indonesia] and the government servants in Jayapura and Jakarta in designing appropriate and effective initiatives to improve reproductive health." Sections are included on basic conditions of health, antenatal care, birthing practices, sexual practices and sexually transmitted diseases, and elements of appropriate interventions.
Correspondence: T. H. Hull, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41464 Jacobi, Jantine; Phiri, Dean S.; Kalwani, Rebecca. Safe motherhood needs assessment, Zambia, 1996. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 1999. 66-80 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"As part of the development of a national reproductive health plan, Zambia's Ministry of Health carried out a safe motherhood needs assessment in 1996. The specific objectives of the assessment were to describe the availability, use and quality of maternal and newborn care, and to identify gaps in the provision of maternal care. Ninety-six health centres, eleven hospitals and nine district health management teams were surveyed. Clients and staff were interviewed at each of these sites using WHO's safe motherhood needs assessment methodology. While the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey indicated that 96 per cent of pregnant women had at least one antenatal check-up and that only half delivered in a health facility, the assessment found substantial gaps in the availability and quality of care."
Correspondence: J. Jacobi, World Health Organization, P.O. Box 3444, Windhoek, Namibia. E-mail: jacobi@un.na. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41465 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. Reproductive health information in India: What are the gaps? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 42-43, Oct 16-29, 1999. 3,075-80 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The current focus on reproductive health in India marks a global recognition that reproductive health needs have been largely neglected and that the consequences of this neglect have been profound, particularly for women.... The objective of this paper is to summarise the contribution of the recently concluded National Family Health Surveys (NFHS) to enhancing what is known about reproductive health and choice in India; and to highlight the considerable data and information gaps that remain."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41466 Joffres, Michel R.; MacLean, David R. Comparison of the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors between Quebec and other Canadian provinces: the Canadian Heart Health surveys. Ethnicity and Disease, Vol. 9, No. 2, Spring-Summer 1999. 246-53 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Differences in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality between Quebec and other Canadian provinces are analyzed using data from the Canadian Heart Health surveys. Data are from stratified, two-stage, replicated probability samples from health insurance registries involving 2,353 Quebec residents and 20,776 other Canadians aged 18-74. The results indicate that, although the prevalence of multiple risk factors is similar in Quebec and the other provinces, the combination of these risk factors is not. This finding, as well as possible genetic and cultural factors, should be taken into account when analyzing ethnic differences in mortality and morbidity.
Correspondence: M. R. Joffres, Dalhousie University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Health and Epidemiology, 5849 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4H7, Canada. E-mail: Michel.Joffres@dal.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41467 Langer, Ann; Tolbert, Kathryn. Women: sexuality and reproductive health in Mexico. [Mujer: sexualidad y salud reproductiva en México.] 3rd ed. ISBN 968-409-877-4. 1998. 415 pp. EDAMEX: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a collective work containing 13 articles by various authors on aspects of reproductive health in Mexico. Topics covered include pregnancy, delivery, and childbirth; sexuality and adolescent fertility; the use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco during the reproductive cycle; the impact of women in the labor force on reproductive health; family planning; prostitution; AIDS; sexually transmitted diseases; aggression and violence against women; induced abortion; cervical and breast cancer; sex education; and menstruation and the menopause. The work is designed for a non-specialist public, is based on the latest available data, and contains recommendations for future research and public policy initiatives.
Correspondence: EDAMEX, Heriberto Frías 1104, Colonia del Valle, 03100 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. E-mail: edamex@compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41468 Lévy-Vroelant, Claire. The diagnosis of insalubrity and its consequences for the city: Paris 1894-1960. [Le diagnostic d'insalubrité et ses conséquences sur la ville: Paris 1894-1960.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1999. 707-44 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The apparatus for identifying the causes of insalubrity, originally created to combat epidemics and later tuberculosis, has been employed in France--particularly in Paris and its region--as an instrument of policies which, though very different in their motivation, have ultimately helped to transform the urban environment. The present article offers a survey of long-term changes in the forms of action against so-called insalubrious housing."
Correspondence: C. Lévy-Vroelant, Centre de Recherche sur l'Habitat, Ecole d'Architecture de Paris-la-Défense, 41 allée Le Corbusier, 92023 Nanterre, France. E-mail: crh@paris-ladefense.archi.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41469 Lindmark, G.; Horga, M.; Campana, A; Kasonde, J. Towards better reproductive health in Eastern Europe: concern, commitment, and change. ISBN 963-9116-30-0. 1999. xiv, 150 pp. Central European University Press: Budapest, Hungary; World Health Organization [WHO], Division of Family Health: Geneva, Switzerland. Distributed by Plymbridge Distributors, Estover Road, Plymouth PL6 7PZ, England. In Eng.
This is a collective work containing eight studies by various authors on aspects of reproductive health in Eastern Europe. "Documenting the latest statistical data on current problems related to the reproductive health issues in Central and Eastern Europe, this book explores the reasons for these problems and recommends action based on scientific evidence for improving reproductive health. The main issues covered in the book are: declining standards of reproductive health care; rising trends in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases; low rates of use of modern contraceptives; high rates of induced abortion; high prevalence of infertility; and the needs of adolescents with regard to reproductive health."
Correspondence: Central European University Press, Október 6. Utca 12, 1051 Budapest, Hungary. E-mail: ceupress@osi.hu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41470 Lopez, Alan. Alcohol and smoking as risk factors. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 374-411 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper begins with a review of the types of studies that have been carried out to quantify the individual hazards of smoking and alcohol use for various diseases and injuries, and then considers estimated current levels of exposure to these two substances in different parts of the world. Next, population-level attributable risks (as opposed to individual risks) from smoking and alcohol use are summarised. The final section of the paper reviews the various policy responses to smoking and alcohol, and discusses the extent to which these have been adopted in various parts of the world, and how effective they might be."
Correspondence: A. Lopez, World Health Organization, Programme on Substance Abuse, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41471 Lush, L.; Cleland, J.; Walt, G.; Mayhew, S. Integrating reproductive health: myth and ideology. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 77, No. 9, 1999. 771-7 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Since 1994, integrating human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) services with primary health care, as part of reproductive health, has been advocated to address two major public health problems: to control the spread of HIV; and to improve women's reproductive health.... In this paper, a historical comparison is made between the health systems of Ghana, Kenya and Zambia and that of South Africa, to examine progress on integration of HIV/STD services since 1994."
Correspondence: L. Lush, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, 49-51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41472 Mackay, Judith. The global tobacco epidemic: the next 25 years. Public Health Reports, Vol. 113, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1998. 14-21 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author forecasts future trends in global tobacco use and regulation. She predicts that "a major distinction will evolve between nations which have or have not made the `transition' to committed and vigorous preventive health measures and practices" with regard to tobacco use.
Correspondence: J. Mackay, Asian Consultancy, Tobacco Control, Riftswood, 9th Milestone, DD 229, Lot 147, Clearwater Bay Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong. E-mail: jmackay@pacfic.net.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41473 Madise, Nyovani J.; Matthews, Zoë; Margetts, Barrie. Heterogeneity of child nutritional status between households: a comparison of six Sub-Saharan African countries. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 3, Nov 1999. 331-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using cross-sectional data from Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, a multilevel analysis was performed to determine the extent of correlation of nutritional status between children in the same family and geographical area. Weight-for-age z-scores were used as a measure of nutritional status for children up to three years of age. The percentage of children who were under-weight ranged from 16 in Zimbabwe up to 36 in Nigeria. The effects of socioeconomic factors and individual characteristics on nutritional status between countries varied. However in all six countries, the child's age was the most important factor associated with nutritional status. A clustering effect at the household level was found in all six countries, ranging from 24 per cent in Tanzania and Zimbabwe to 40 per cent in Malawi. There was also a significant, but smaller clustering effect at community level for Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia."
Correspondence: N. J. Madise, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41474 Martin, Sandra L.; Kilgallen, Brian; Tsui, Amy O.; Maitra, Kuhu; Singh, Kaushalendra K.; Kupper, Lawrence L. Sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes: associations with wife abuse in India. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 282, No. 20, Nov 24, 1999. 1,967-72 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The relationship between wife abuse and reproductive health in India is explored using data on 6,632 married men aged 15-65 collected in the PERFORM System of Indictors Survey carried out in 1995-1996. Factors considered include physical and sexual abuse toward wives, sexual activities outside marriage, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), contraceptive usage, unplanned pregnancies, and sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicate that "wife abuse appears to be fairly common in northern India. Our findings that abusive men were more likely to engage in extramarital sex and have STD symptoms suggest that these men may be acquiring STDs from their extramarital relationships, thereby placing their wives at risk for STD acquisition, sometimes via sexual abuse. These abusive sexual behaviors also may result in an elevated rate of unplanned pregnancies."
Correspondence: S. L. Martin, University of North Carolina, Department of Maternal and Child Health, CB 7400, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. E-mail: sandra_martin@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:41475 Matshalaga, Neddy. Gender issues in STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention and control: the case of four private sector organisations in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 2, Oct 1999. 87-96 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article focuses on gender issues in STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention and control in four implementing agencies [in Zimbabwe]. The current STIs/HIV/AIDS programme mainly targets workers who in most cases are males, with the hope that they will disseminate any information they obtain to their families.... Commercial sex workers are the second target group benefiting from special progammes.... By targeting male workers and commercial sex workers, the agencies have failed to address married women's issues in STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention and control. Married women who economically depend on their husbands have low decision-making power in STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention. The current `peer' education progammes, which are mainly a domain of commercial sex workers, have failed to reach married women who stigmatise the education as `education for prostitutes'. Field data was collected using focus group discussions in Masvingo, Zimbabwe."
Correspondence: N. Matshalaga, University of Zimbabwe, Institute of Development Studies, P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41476 McMichael, A. J.; Powles, J. W. Human numbers, environment, sustainability, and health. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7215, Oct 9, 1999. 977-80 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Based on a review of the published literature, the authors examine global population dynamics and the prospects for making health gains for the population as a whole. They suggest that the major problems will be associated with the disruption of natural systems by disruptive economic activity rather than with the numerical growth of population. If a change can be made in both productive technologies and consumption habits toward more environmentally friendly behavior, they suggest that there will be substantial scope for improving population health at any level of national income.
Correspondence: J. W. Powles, University of Cambridge, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge CB2 2SR, England. E-mail: jwp11@cam.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:41477 Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne-Emmanuèle. Gender differentials in adolescent sexual activity and reproductive health risks in Cameroon. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 2, Oct 1999. 51-67 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines gender differentials in adolescent sexual activity and reproductive health risks in urban Cameroon. The results show that males become sexually active at an earlier age than females, but that age at first intercourse is declining among females. Peer influences encourage early sexual initiation, but being enrolled in school delays it. Many youths, especially males aged 18-22, engage in risky sexual practices, including exchanging gifts or money for sex and having multiple partners. Although most youths have tried condoms, current use has remained low, suggesting that its use is inconsistent or that it varies by partner. Data on abortions and STDs highlight the need for additional and better programmes that specifically address adolescent and young adult reproductive health problems."
Correspondence: D. Meekers, Population Services International, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41478 Mexico. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social [IMSS] (Mexico City, Mexico); Population Council (New York, New York); United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF] (New York, New York). Lactation in maternity: a reproductive health strategy. [Lactancia materna: una estrategia de salud reproductiva.] 1997. 114 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This report describes an initiative that was carried out throughout the 1990s in Mexico in an effort to encourage and develop the practice of breast-feeding newborn infants. The campaign, which was called the "Hospital Amigo del Niño y de la Madre", was developed over the years 1991 to 1995. Data are presented indicating that the percentage of women breast-feeding their newborns has increased over time.
Correspondence: Cualitas Cuantum, Valle de Navia No. 23, 3a Sección de Valle de Aragón, Ecatepec, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41479 Moore, Melissa. Reproductive health and intimate partner violence. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 302-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A growing body of research is beginning to document associations between experiences of violence and the status of women's reproductive health. The data still are largely preliminary, but they suggest a need for further inquiry into these relationships, as well as the potential for reproductive health care providers to play a key role in responding to violence against women." The author goes on to define partner violence and discusses the methodological difficulty in measuring violence. She then discusses such topics as violence during pregnancy, violence and STDs and HIV, and the role of providers in the prevention of partner violence. The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: M. Moore, Alan Guttmacher Institute, Family Planning Perspectives, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41480 Nizard, Alfred. On AIDS and other new emerging risks. [Du sida et d'autres risques émergents.] Population et Sociétés, No. 349, Sep 1999. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Some of the new threats to people's health that are arising in the modern world are reviewed. These include pollution of the atmosphere, water, and food; influenza and hepatitis; and AIDS and HIV infections. The primary geographical focus is on France.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41481 O'Reilly, Kevin R.; Dehne, Karl L.; Snow, Rachel. Should management of sexually transmitted infections be integrated into family planing services: evidence and challenges. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 7, No. 14, Nov 1999. 49-59 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An extensive review of what is known about efforts to integrate prevention and treatment services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) into family planning services found that all too little empirical evidence is available. This paper summarises the key findings of the review, discusses the need for additional information on forms of integration and how they are working, and makes recommendations on gathering the type of information that will allow countries to decide whether and how to integrate these two public health services for women."
For the review referred to, by Dehne and Snow, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: K. R. O'Reilly, World Health Organization, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. E-mail: oreillyk@who.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41482 Philipson, Tomas. Economic epidemiology and infectious diseases. NBER Working Paper, No. 7037, Mar 1999. 36, [8] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Infectious disease is currently the main cause of mortality in the world and has been even more important historically. This paper reviews recent research in economic epidemiology. Specifically, it discusses the occurrence of infectious diseases and the effects of public health interventions designed to control them. Several key points include: differences in the predictions regarding short- and long-run disease occurrence between rational and epidemiological epidemics, the nonstandard effect of interventions when epidemics are rational, the desirability and possibility of eradicating infectious diseases, as well as the components of the welfare loss induced by infectious diseases."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: t-philipson@uchicago.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41483 Raleigh, Veena S. World population and health in transition. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7215, Oct 9, 1999. 981-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Global population trends and health status are surveyed based on a review of the published literature. The author points out that substantial growth in world population is inevitable during the next century because of the current age structure of the population, and that the largest increases will occur in those countries in which poverty and unemployment are endemic. All regions will experience demographic aging. "Population policies will need to address the socioeconomic and environmental implications of changes in the size, structure, and consumption patterns of world population, and the emerging task of achieving a sustainable and equitable global human ecology."
Correspondence: V. S. Raleigh, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Public Health Monitoring, London WC1E 7HT, England. E-mail: v.raleigh@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:41484 Rosen, James E.; Conly, Shanti R. Getting down to business: expanding the private commercial sector's role in meeting reproductive health needs. ISBN 1-889735-05-1. LC 99-664885. 1999. 74 pp. Population Action International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines how developing country governments and international donors can stimulate private sector involvement in the reproductive health arena, with a particular emphasis on improving the availability of commodities such as contraceptives, drugs for treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and nutritional supplements. The report aims to help policymakers in both developing and donor countries better understand the crucial role of private business in expanding access to reproductive health care."
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: pai@popact.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41485 Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John. Refining the association between education and health: the effects of quantity, credential, and selectivity. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 4, Nov 1999. 445-60 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We refine the established association between education and health by distinguishing three aspects of a person's education (quantity, credential, and selectivity) and by examining the mechanisms through which they may correlate with health. Data are from the 1995 Aging, Status, and the Sense of Control Survey, a representative U.S. national telephone survey of 2,593 respondents aged 18 to 95, with an oversample of elderly. Results show that physical functioning and perceived health increase significantly with years of formal education and with college selectivity for those with a bachelor's or higher degree, adjusting for age, sex, race, marital status, and parental education.... Of the three aspects of education, years of schooling has the largest effect.... A large portion of the net association of college selectivity with physical functioning and perceived health appears attributable to health lifestyle."
Correspondence: C. E. Ross, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: ross.131@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41486 Sakhanova, Goulmira; El-Deeb, Bothaina. Socio-economic variations in maternal health in Kazakhstan. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 444-73 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the behavioral factors, usually referred to as the intermediate factors, which have a direct biological effect on reproductive health [in Kazakhstan]. These include the woman's childbearing pattern, her utilization of health services, and her health-related behavior such [as] using contraceptives and practicing abortion."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41487 Samucidine, Mario; Barreto, Jorge; Folgosa, Elena; Mondlane, Celso; Bergström, Staffan. Infertile women in developing countries at potentially high risk of HIV transmission. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 1999. 98-102 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"One hundred infertile women and 200 proven fertile women were recruited in Montepuez District, northern Mozambique, in order to elucidate the risk of syphilis and HIV seropositivity. TPHA [syphilis] seropositivity occurred in 55.0 per cent of infertile and 18.5 per cent of fertile women.... Among women with [more than] 2 lifetime spouses, 64.6 percent of infertile women were TPHA seropositive, compared to 22.3 per cent of fertile women.... Three women (all infertile) had HIV-1 antibodies and one, fertile, had HIV-2 antibodies. It is concluded that infertile women constitute a group at potentially high risk of HIV infection once this infection is introduced into the community."
Correspondence: S. Bergström, Karolinska Institutet, Division of International Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health Sciences, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41488 Scott, Victoria J.; Gallagher, Elaine M. Mortality and morbidity related to injuries from falls in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique, Vol. 90, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 343-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Falls are a major health problem for persons aged 65 years and over. This study examined differences in patterns of fall-related injuries and deaths between age groups, sexes, and among Health Regions of BC [British Columbia]. For those under the age of 65 years, fall-related injuries are highest among males, whereas for those 65 and over, falls among females exceed those among males by 2:1. For persons aged 65 and over, 84% of hospital days for unintentional injuries involve falls, with transportation and `other' unintentional injuries contributing 16%. While older women are hospitalized more often for fall-related injuries, more older men die from fall-related injuries. Hospitalization rates due to injuries from falls are highest in the Northern Regions of BC. Policy implications of the findings are discussed."
Correspondence: V. J. Scott, University of Victoria, School of Nursing, P.O. Box 1700, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada. E-mail: vscott@uvic.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41489 Setel, Philip W.; Lewis, Milton; Lyons, Maryinez. Histories of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Contributions in Medical Studies, No. 44, ISBN 0-313-29715-0. LC 98-38207. 1999. vi, 267 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This book is the second in a two-volume set of comparative histories of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in developing countries. This volume contains 10 studies on African countries, and the focus is on how particular configurations of cultural, social, political, and economic factors have affected the patterns of disease and the official and community responses to them. The 10 papers are: Comparative histories of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in Africa: an introduction, by Philip W. Setel; Sex, disease, and culture change in Ghana, by Deborah Pellow; Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in Côte d'Ivoire, by Jeanne-Marie Amat-Roze; A history of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in Senegal: difficulties in accounting for social logics in health policy, by Charles Becker and René Collignon; Medicine and morality: a review of responses to sexually transmitted diseases in Uganda in the twentieth century, by Maryinez Lyons; Local histories of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in western and northern Tanzania, by Philip W. Steel; Sexually transmitted diseases in colonial Malawi, by Wiseman C. Chirwa; The social, cultural, and epidemiological history of sexually transmitted diseases in Zambia, by Bryan T. Callahan and Virginia Bond; The management of venereal disease in a settler society: colonial Zimbabwe, 1900-30, by Jock McCulloch; and Sexually transmitted diseases in nineteenth- and twentieth-century South Africa, by Karen Jochelson.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41490 Singh, Susheela; Darroch, Jacqueline E. Trends in sexual activity among adolescent American women: 1982-1995. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 212-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"An analysis of three NSFG surveys, carried out in 1982, 1988 and 1995, allows examination of the sexual behavior of teenage [U.S.] women over a 13-year time period, using comparable data for the entire time period.... The proportion of adolescent women who ever had sexual intercourse increased somewhat during the 1980s, but this upward trend stabilized between the late 1980s and the mid 1990s. Throughout the period, there has been little change in the proportion currently sexually active.... Differences in teenage sexual behavior across poverty and racial and ethnic subgroups were large in the early 1980s, but narrowed over the 13-year period."
Correspondence: S. Singh, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41491 Sommerfelt, A. Elisabeth; Arnold, Fred. Sex differentials in the nutritional status of young children. In: Too young to die: genes or gender? 1998. 133-53 pp. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present chapter examines differences in nutritional status between boys and girls drawing upon recent data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme.... The present study, however, does not examine either feeding practices or the incidence of childhood diseases as possible determinants of nutritional status and mortality risks. Instead, the aim is essentially descriptive, with a focus on assessing the nutritional status of boys and girls as measured by 41 cross-sectional surveys carried out as part of the DHS."
Correspondence: A. E. Sommerfelt, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41492 Stover, John; Johnston, Alan. The art of policy formulation: experiences from Africa in developing national HIV/AIDS policies. POLICY Occasional Paper, No. 3, Aug 1999. x, 37 pp. Futures Group International, POLICY Project: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The AIDS epidemic has quickly become one of the most serious health and development problems facing the world today. In most countries, efforts to combat AIDS have so far been too little too late. Over 30 million people are currently infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. More than 80 percent of AIDS deaths have occurred in Africa. In 1998, AIDS was responsible for about 2 million deaths.... This paper describes the experience of nine African countries in policy formulation and discusses both the content and process of HIV/AIDS policy formulation. The country experiences should be useful in understanding and promoting further policy reform in these and other countries in Africa and elsewhere."
Correspondence: Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: policyinfo@tfgi.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41493 Temin, Miriam J.; Okonofua, Friday E.; Omorodion, Francesca O.; Renne, Elisha P.; Coplan, Paul; Heggenhougen, H. Kris; Kaufman, Joan. Perceptions of sexual behavior and knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1999. 186-90, 195 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Twenty-four single-sex focus group discussions were conducted among young people aged 15-20 attending secondary schools in Benin City [Nigeria]. The discussions explored the adolescents' perceptions of sexual behavior among their peers, their knowledge of STDs [sexually transmitted diseases] and their preferred means of preventing and treating STDs.... The participants perceived that sexual activity is common among their peers.... The young people had some knowledge about STDs, especially HIV and AIDS, but many believed infections were inevitable. When they had an STD, most went to traditional healers; they were unlikely to seek treatment from doctors because of high cost, slow service, negative provider attitudes toward young people and a perceived lack of confidentiality."
Correspondence: M. J. Temin, Department for International Development, 94 Victoria Street, London SW1E 5JL, England. Source: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41494 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Maternal and child health statistics: Russian Federation and United States, selected years 1985-95. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 5: International Vital and Health Statistics Reports, No. 10, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 99-1486. ISBN 0-8406-0545-5. LC 99-15066. Mar 1999. viii, 57; 73 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng; Rus.
"This report is the second in a series providing comparative vital and health statistics data for the Russian Federation and the United States.... The focus of the current report is on maternal and child health statistics in the two countries. Using tables, figures, and commentary, this report makes available information on a broad range of health measures for mothers, infants, children, and adolescents in the Russian Federation and the United States.... This report contains 24 tables covering population size, prenatal and obstetrical care, abortions, natality data, breastfeeding practices, mortality data including leading causes of death, immunization rates, communicable diseases, and other morbidity measures. Data are provided for selected years from 1985 to 1995, with the focus on the 1990s.... In the Russian Federation, data are presented for urban and rural regions; in the United States, for black and white racial groups."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Data Dissemination Branch, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 1064, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41495 Wang, Jia; Jamison, Dean T.; Bos, Eduard; Preker, Alexander; Peabody, John. Measuring country performance on health: selected indicators for 115 countries. Health, Nutrition, and Population Series, ISBN 0-8213-4409-9. LC 98-50177. 1998. v, 359 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book presents a selection of data that can be used to assess the consequences of health policies. It "contains results for 115 countries at five-year intervals in the period 1960-90 on six health indicators--under-five mortality rates, total fertility rates, adult mortality rates for males and females, and life expectancy at birth for males and females. The World Bank's purpose in undertaking this study was not to explain why performance differs; rather the aim was to prepare a reference document that provides measures that other analysts can use in assessing the consequences of policy. The main report describes the methods used and provides an overview of results. Supplementary tables IV and V contain the country performance results for each indicator. In both cases performance relative to income is provided, and, when appropriate education data were available, performance controlling for both income and education is also reported."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41496 Webb, Douglas. HIV and AIDS in Africa. ISBN 0-7453-1125-3. 1997. xiii, 258 pp. Pluto Press: Chicago, Illinois/London, England; David Philip: Cape Town, South Africa; University of Natal Press: Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southern Africa, based primarily on data collected in South Africa and Namibia in 1992-1993. The author attempts to answer some important questions, such as "How does structural change affect behaviour patterns and the way people think about disease? Why is knowledge not translated into widespread behaviour change? The answers lie in the communities and lives of the people [concerned]. This book aims to show how these thoughts, actions and lives can be untangled to reveal the real issues involved in the epidemic: poverty, fatalism, uncertainty, violence and the lack of access to crucial services." Consideration is given to some of the political and logistical issues that will have to be faced if the problems posed by this epidemic are to be resolved.
Correspondence: Pluto Press, 345 Archway Road, London N6 5AA, England. Location: Princeton University Library.

65:41497 Wise, Paul; Chavkin, Wendy; Romero, Diana. Assessing the effects of welfare reform policies on reproductive and infant health. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 10, Oct 1999. 1,514-21 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impact on the health of women and children in the United States of the welfare reform law of 1996, which ended the entitlement to cash assistance for the poor and imposed work requirements and time limits, is analyzed. "The authors outline the reproductive health outcomes most likely to be sensitive to welfare policies, identify indicators that might be used to assess these outcomes, review empirical evidence, and suggest specific methods and data sources." They conclude that "assessing the effects of welfare policies on reproductive and infant health is possible, although challenging. Reauthorization of the legislation is required in 2002; it is essential that the consequences for health be included in the next round of public debate."
Correspondence: W. Chavkin, Columbia University, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health, 60 Haven Avenue B-3, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: wc9@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:41498 Yang, Gonghuan; Fan, Lixin; Tan, Jian; Qi, Guoming; Zhang, Yifang; Samet, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Carl E.; Becker, Karen; Xu, Jing. Smoking in China: findings of the 1996 National Prevalence Survey. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 282, No. 13, Oct 6, 1999. 1,247-53 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Results are presented from a population-based survey on smoking in China based on a nationally representative sample of 120,298 persons aged 15-69. "A total of 41,187 respondents smoked at least 1 cigarette per day, accounting for 34.1% of the total number of respondents, an increase of 3.4 percentage points since 1984. Current smoking continues to be prevalent among more men (63%) than women (3.8%). Age at smoking initiation declined by about 3 years for both men and women (from 28 to 25 years). Only a minority of smokers recognized that lung cancer (36%) and heart disease (4%) can be caused by smoking. Of the nonsmokers, 53.5% were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at least 15 minutes per day on more than 1 day per week. Respondents were generally supportive of tobacco control measures."
Correspondence: J. M. Samet, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: jsamet@jhsph.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

65:41499 Ewbank, Douglas. The genetic make-up of population and its implications for mortality by cause of death: links between Alzheimer's and ischaemic heart disease. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 344-56 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The role of genes in determining variations in mortality and morbidity is explored. "The first section describes the methodology we will use to produce estimates of differences in morbidity and mortality attributable to APOE [Apolipoprotein-E] gene frequencies. The next section presents estimates of the extent to which differences in the incidence of heart attacks and mortality to IHD [ischemic heart disease] might be attributable to variations in APOE gene frequencies. The third section examines the likely contribution of variation in APOE gene frequencies to variations in the prevalence of AD [Alzheimer's disease]. In the fifth section, we estimate the size of differentials in overall mortality at the oldest ages that might be attributable to APOE distributions.... The final section of the paper discusses the implications of these findings for future research in demography and epidemiology and the significance for health planning." The primary geographical focus is on developed countries, but the implications for mortality in developing countries are considered.
Correspondence: D. Ewbank, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41500 Heyer, Evelyne; Cazes, Marie-Hélène. The notion of "useful children": a demographic measure for population genetics. [Les "enfants utiles": une mesure démographique pour la génétique des populations.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1999. 677-92 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In historical demography, an individual's contribution to the population of the following generation is defined by the number of their children. However, of these children only those which reproduce in their turn will be `useful' for the population geneticist, in the sense that they will transmit genes to the next generation. This article sets out to review the different theoretical measures of the `number of useful children' index from reconstituted genealogies, according to the type of cohort used for its calculation. It compares the theoretical measures with the possible empirical measures (dependent on the type of data available) and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of each. The conclusion is that the best measure is that which calculates the number of children having already had at least one child, coming from a cohort of individuals who have themselves had at least one child. And it is the distribution of this number of children who have reproduced which is of interest to the geneticist."
Correspondence: E. Heyer, Musée de l'Homme, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie Biologique, 17 place du Trocadéro, 75116 Paris, France. E-mail: eheyer@mnhn.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41501 Kohler, Hans-Peter; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Christensen, Kaare. Is fertility behavior in our genes? Findings from a Danish twin study. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1999. 253-88, 405-6, 408 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article investigates the fertility of Danish twins born during the periods 1870-1910 and 1953-64 in order to pursue two central questions for understanding human reproduction: Do genetic dispositions influence fertility and fertility-related behavior? Does the relevance of the 'nature versus nurture' debate shift over time or with demographic regimes? The authors find that genetic influences on fertility exist, but that their relative magnitude and pattern are contingent on gender and on the socioeconomic environment experienced by cohorts.... Because genetic effects are most prevalent in situations with deliberately controlled fertility and relatively egalitarian socioeconomic opportunities, the authors propose that the genetic dispositions affect primarily fertility behavior and motivations for having children."
Correspondence: H.-P. Kohler, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Doberaner Straße 114, 18057 Rostock, Germany. E-mail: kohler@demogr.mpg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41502 Oleszczuk, Jaroslaw J.; Keith, Donald M.; Keith, Louis G. Projections of population-based twinning rates through the year 2100. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 11, Nov 1999. 913-21 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
Using data from national statistical authorities in Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Norway, Singapore, Sweden, and the United States, the authors present the first compilation of population-based twinning rates published after the year 1990 and project population-based twinning rates through the year 2100. The authors suggest that "physicians reexamine their patterns of prescribing ovulation-inducing agents, which carry a greatly increased risk of multiple pregnancy."
Correspondence: L. G. Keith, 333 East Superior Street, Chicago, IL 60611. E-mail: lgk395@nwu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41503 Peel, Robert A. Human pedigree studies: proceedings of a conference organised by the Galton Institute, London, 1998. ISBN 0-9504066-4-3. 1999. xii, 117 pp. Galton Institute: London, England. In Eng.
"This book is based on papers presented at the Galton Institute's thirty-fifth annual conference held on 17 September 1998 at the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine. The conference was designed to examine the concept of the human pedigree in both its traditional and scientific forms and to assess the contribution of the eugenics movement to the development of this essential theoretical tool." The papers included here are: Genealogy--the construction of family histories, by Anthony Camp; Eugenics--the pedigree years, by Pauline Mazumdar; Human pedigrees and human genetics, by Elizabeth Thompson; A brief history of the pedigree in human genetics, by Robert Resta; Computers for research, storage and presentation of family histories, by David Hawgood; and Social, ethical and technical implications of pedigree construction-- what the maps tell us about the mapmakers, by Robert Resta.
Correspondence: Galton Institute, 19 Northfields Prospect, Northfields, London SW18 1PE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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