Volume 65 - Number 4 - Winter 1999

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications. Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations, as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

65:41163 Adamchak, Donald J. Meeting the needs of the poor elderly in Zimbabwe and Namibia. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. Sep 1999. 183-205 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The process of rapid population aging that is occurring in Namibia and Zimbabwe is examined. "Our overall purpose is to identify the socio-economic conditions of the elderly, focusing particularly on the poor, with the goal of developing strategies that will meet their needs now and in the future." The contrast between a country such as Namibia, which has a national pension scheme, and one such as Zimbabwe, which does not, is noted.
Correspondence: D. J. Adamchak, Kansas State University, Department of Sociology, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41164 Alexandrova, Vera; Bolotov, Viktor; Denisenko, Michael; Echenique, Vladimir; Halevinsky, Igor; Kalmykova, Natalia; Markov, Andrei; Matytsina, Natalia; Mikhailov, Eugene; Roshchin, Sergei; Valentei, Sergei; Barkalov, Nicholas; Ivanov, Sergei; Kapitsa, Larissa; Kocharyan, Alexander; Zelenev, Sergei. Human development report 1995: Russian Federation. [1995]. 74 pp. United Nations Development Programme: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned annual series of reports on human development in Russia initiated by the United Nations Development Programme. Chapters Four (Health) and Five (Population) contain information on mortality patterns, the age structure and its implications, fertility by birth order, and contraceptive prevalence in Russia.
Correspondence: United Nations Development Programme, One United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41165 Bavay, Francine; Huchon, Jean-Paul. The age challenge. Volume 1: the consequences of demographic aging. [Le défi de l'âge. Volume 1: les conséquences du vieillissement de la population.] Cahiers de l'IAURIF, No. 121, 1998. [200] pp. Institut d'Amenagement et d'Urbanisme de la Region d'Ile-de-France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This report examines the implications of demographic aging for the Ile-de-France region that surrounds Paris, France. It notes that the population of the region is growing because the birth rate is rising and many elderly people are deciding not to move away from the region in retirement. The impact of the growing number of the elderly on services, transport, and leisure activities is examined.
Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

65:41166 Biggar, Robert J.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Westergaard, Tine; Melbye, Mads. Sex ratios, family size, and birth order. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 150, No. 9, Nov 1, 1999. 957-62 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In many countries, the male:female ratio at birth has varied significantly over the past century, but the reason for these changes have been unclear. The authors observed a close parallel between decreasing family size and declining male:female sex ratio in Denmark from 1960 to 1994. To explain this finding, they examined the sex ratio and birth order of 1,403,021 children born to 700,030 couples. Overall, 51.2% of the first births were male. However, families with boys were significantly more likely than expected to have another boy (biologic heterogeneity). By the fourth birth to families with three prior boys, 52.4% were male. The increase varied directly with the number of prior boys.... Furthermore, couples with boys were more likely to continue to have children. In summary, the authors found that the declining male:female ratio in Denmark and probably other European populations is mainly attributable to three effects: declining family size, biologic heterogeneity, and child sex preference."
Correspondence: R. J. Biggar, National Cancer Institute, Viral Epidemiology Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:41167 Botev, Nikolai. Older persons in countries with economies in transition. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. 1999. 85-100 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"This contribution attempts to highlight several important issues related to the status of older persons in the countries with economies in transition and the way this status is affected by the economic and social adversities these countries face. The first section sets the broad demographic background against which the status of older persons should be interpreted. The second section focuses on three important aspects of the status of older persons, namely: living standards and income security; living arrangements and care provision; and gender aspects of population ageing. Finally, the third section considers the possible policy responses to the challenges and implications of population ageing." Countries with economies in transition are defined as those countries in Eastern and Central Europe and those that were part of the former Soviet Union.
Correspondence: N. Botev, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Population Activities Unit, EAD, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41168 Calot, Gérard; Sardon, Jean-Paul. The factors of population aging. [Les facteurs du vieillissement démographique.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 3, May-Jun 1999. 509-52 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article sets out to assess the contribution of each of the three factors in population dynamics (fertility, mortality and international migration) to the ageing of the French population since 1946.... It is shown that although mortality was until recently the sole factor increasing...ageing, at present and until the middle of the next century, past changes in fertility (the baby boom and the baby-bust) will play a determinant role in the acceleration of the process and their contribution will begin to equal that of mortality. Although the outcome is already more or less certain as regards ageing around 2020, beyond that point the possible courses are increasingly open. Fertility changes in the next decades will determine ageing in the middle of the 21st century."
Correspondence: G. Calot, Observatoire Démographique Européen, 2 bis, rue du Prieuré, 78107 Saint-Germain-en-Laye Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41169 Carr, Deborah; Pemmarazu, Anu; Rice, Dorothy P. Improving data on America's aging population: summary of a workshop. ISBN 0-309-05633-0. 1996. xii, 51 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop held in March 1996 on the aging population of the United States. "The purposes of the workshop were to identify how the population at older ages in the next few decades will differ from the older population today, to understand the underlying causes of those changes, to anticipate future problems and policy issues, and to suggest future needs for data for research in these areas.... The first section of this report reviews the information presented at the workshop regarding economic, social, and health trends affecting the aging population. The second section highlights the common themes that emerged at the workshop. Finally, broad guidelines for assessing the merits of relevant data sources are provided, and suggestions for future projects are described." This report is also available on-line at www.nap.edu.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41170 Centre de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales (Paris, France). The impact of demographic changes on the health-care system. [L'impact des évolutions démographiques sur le système de santé.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, Vol. 39, No. 2-3, Apr-Sep 1999. 84-283 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This special issue contains a selection of papers presented at a symposium on the impact of recent demographic changes on the health system in France, held in Paris on December 7, 1999. The primary focus is on the impact of population aging.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Centre de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, 60 Boulevard de Latour-Maubourg, 75007 Paris, France. E-mail: CSDM.FIC@wanadoo.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41171 Chande, Roberto H. Aging in Mexico: from concepts to necessities. [El envejecimiento en México: de los conceptos a las necesidades.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 5, No. 19, Jan-Mar 1999. 7-21 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"An unavoidable aging process is projected for the Mexican population.... The aging process [jeopardizes] the developing opportunities of a middle-income country like Mexico since new problems will arise and be added to unresolved difficulties.... In this sense, it is urgent to consider the aging process within the...social, economic and cultural contexts. Paradigms should include conceptual and cultural [dimensions] of aging: aging manifestations in the heterogeneous socio-economic realm of Mexico, including the indigenous population; the shift in family structures and the requirements of the elderly for support; health problems and disabilities and the availability and access [to] medical care."
Correspondence: R. H. Chande, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. E-mail: rham@colmex.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41172 Chen, Chaonan; Wu, Huoying; Lee, George. Population aging and changes in dependency ratios in Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 20, Oct 1999. 35-62 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper analyzes the trends of three dependency measures in Taiwan to observe their relationships and to contemplate their economic implications. The findings indicate that Taiwan's population is aging much faster than that of the United States, and that the shift from more young and less elderly to less young and more elderly dependents will accelerate in the near future. It was also found that there have been no significant differences between the labor-force-participation adjusted dependency ratio (LADDR) and the expenditure adjusted dependency ratios (LEADDR) in Taiwan in the past two decades.... Finally, the changes in population composition and expenditure indicate that Taiwan's family burden during the past two decades has been gradually eased because the high consumption group has decreased in size while the low consumption group has increased in size."
Correspondence: C. Chen, Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41173 Cliquet, Robert; Nizamuddin, Mohammed. Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries. ISBN 0-89714-533-X. Sep 1999. xii, 301 pp. United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
This publication presents a selection of the papers presented at a joint UNFPA/CBGS technical meeting on population aging held in Brussels, Belgium, October 6-9, 1998. The 15 papers are organized into four parts, which are entitled: Dimensions of population ageing; Social implications of population ageing; Policy responses to population ageing; and Conclusions. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41174 Coney, Nancy S.; Mackey, W. C. The woman as final arbiter: a case for the facultative character of the human sex ratio. Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 169-75 pp. Mt. Vernon, Iowa. In Eng.
"The sex of an individual drives the gender-role expectations for that person essentially from birth to death. To the extent that gender-role expectations, in turn, drive an individual's life chances and options, the sex of the individual is an important causal agent upon the individual's life experiences. Two separate explanations are available to help understand the determination of a person's sex at birth: (1) sex determination is random, or (2) sex determination is facultative or biased. We argue that sex is not determined at random, but that a woman's reactions to environmental parameters will bias her toward giving birth to a daughter or to a son. Family structure and the mother's evaluation of the father are offered as two candidates that bias the sex determination away from chance or randomness."
Correspondence: N. S. Coney, Western Illinois University, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Macomb, IL 61455. E-mail: mfnsc@wiu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41175 Delbes, Christiane; Gaymu, Joëlle. The retired in France: from the past to the future. [Les retraités en France: d'hier à demain.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, Vol. 39, No. 2-3, Apr-Sep 1999. 113-31 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Mortality and fertility declines will shape the features of the elderly population [of France] in the future. Families with four generations will be frequent. The future elderly will have a higher life expectancy, the time they will live in good health will be even...longer, but they will likely have to devote a part of this time to caring [for] their own old parents. The proportion of widows among the future elderly will decrease, however, as celibacy and divorce have been frequent during the adulthood of these generations, the proportion of people living alone may increase. The trend will not prevent them [from entering] at a later age into the nursing homes since they will be probably more educated, wealthier and in better shape, as compared to the elderly of today."
Correspondence: C. Delbes, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41176 Delisle, Marc-André. Regional aspects of aging. [Vieillissement et régionalité.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 40, No. 2, May-Aug 1999. 313-44, 401 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In Quebec, most persons aged 65 years and over live outside the large urban centres. In order to learn more about them and to better understand whether `regionalism' has an effect on how people age, we present an analytical survey of research focusing on elderly persons living in seven regions of Quebec. Considerable differences can be observed between elderly persons in the different regions, and people do not age in the same way everywhere--hence the likelihood of a regional influence."
Correspondence: M.-A. Delisle, Université Laval, Département de Sociologie, Cité Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41177 Edlund, Lena. Son preference, sex ratios, and marriage patterns. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 107, No. 6, Pt. 1, Dec 1999. 1,275-304 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Preference for sons over daughters is widespread in many Asian countries, for example, India, China, and South Korea. This paper models endogenous sex choice and shows that unbalanced sex ratios are but one of several possible consequences of a preference for sons. In particular, if parents want children who reproduce, nonrandom mating may cause women to be consistently born into low-status families and thus relegated to a permanent underclass. The paper also discusses possible links between son preference and marriage patterns such as spousal age gaps, hypergamy (women marrying up), caste endogamy, and cousin marriages."
Correspondence: L. Edlund, Stockholm School of Economics, 11383 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41178 Emery, J. C. Herbert; Rongve, Ian. Much ado about nothing? Demographic bulges, the productivity puzzle, and CPP reform. Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan 1999. 68-78 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
The future of the Canadian Pension Plan (CPP), which is financed on pay-as-you-go principles, is examined in the light of current demographic trends. "In an overlapping generations model, the authors examine how demographic factors alone could explain the observed changes in productivity/wage growth over the last 30 years. The authors also examine how these factors impact on a pay-as-you-go financed CPP. If Canada is a small open economy, then real wages and real interest rates are not affected by domestic demographic conditions. In this setting, increasing payroll taxes transfers the burden of finance away from the lower income baby bust generation to the higher income baby boom generation. In contrast, if Canada can be characterized as a closed economy, then real wages and real interest rates are sensitive to domestic demographic conditions. In this setting, increasing payroll taxes now to keep taxes lower in future is intergenerationally regressive because the CPP burden is reduced for the well off baby bust generation and passed onto the lower income baby boomers."
Correspondence: J. C. H. Emery, University of Calgary, Department of Economics, Calgary AB T2N 1N4, Canada. E-mail: hemery@acs.ucalgary.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41179 Emke-Poulopoulos, Ira. Greek elderly citizens. Past, present, and future. [Ellenes elikiomenoi polites. Parelthon, paron kai mellon.] ISBN 960-286-374-9. 1999. 632 pp. Ellin: Peristeri, Greece. In Gre.
This study focuses on the elderly population in Greece, which along with Italy is one of the countries with the highest proportion of elderly in the world at present. The elderly population is analyzed with regard to age and sex distribution, health status, marital status, and geographic distribution; past occupation, education, income, housing, social status, and psychological factors are also discussed. The author examines the crisis in the social security system and argues that the demographic factor is small compared to the structural problems. Finally, the health system as it pertains to the elderly is discussed.
Correspondence: Ellin, 30 Ath. Diakou Street, 12131 Peristeri, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41180 Festy, Patrick. The aging of the French population: lessons from the past. [Le vieillissement de la population française: perspectives à la lumière des expériences passées.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, Vol. 39, No. 2-3, Apr-Sep 1999. 93-112 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Current trends in population aging in France are described. The author notes that the baby-boom cohorts will be starting to reach the age of retirement from the year 2006 onward, which will accelerate the process of population aging. "However, the elderly of the year 2020 will be likely different from the elderly of the 90s. More educated, better cared [for] by a more efficient health system, but more affected during their adulthood by unemployment and family [instability], living themselves in an older universe, they will have new behaviors, and will express perhaps unknown demands."
Correspondence: P. Festy, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41181 Golini, Antonio. Population ageing in developed countries: lesson learnt and to be learnt. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. 1999. 49-84 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
Some aspects of demographic aging in developed countries are reviewed. There are sections on fertility and mortality, population momentum, and aging; the aging of populations and subpopulations; present and future trends: desirability and/or sustainability; fertility as a keystone in the contemporary population system; and concluding remarks. The contrast between what is likely to occur in most developed countries and many developing countries is stressed.
Correspondence: A. Golini, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41182 Grünheid, Evelyn; Höhn, Charlotte. Demographic aging and economic growth. Seminar of the (German) Federal Institute for Population Research in Bingen, 1998. [Demographische Alterung und Wirtschaftswachstum. Seminar des Bundesinstituts für Bevölkerungsforschung 1998 in Bingen.] Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts für Bevölkerungsforschung, Vol. 29, ISBN 3-8100-2315-9. 1999. 212 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
This volume includes 11 papers by various authors given at a seminar on population aging and economic growth in Bingen, Germany in 1998. The papers are as follows: Determinants of and trends in demographic aging, by Charlotte Höhn; Economic issues, especially quality of life in old age, by Wilhelm Weber; Hypotheses and empirical findings on demographic aging and economic growth, by Bert Rürup and Roland Klopfleisch; Demographic aging and innovation, by Ulrich Blum; Long-term labor force trends in Germany with special consideration of demographic issues, by Johann Fuchs; Demographic aging and trends in women's employment, by Erika Schulz; Demographic aging and economic aspects of migration, by Bernd Hof; Economic growth, demographic changes, and future developments in the social security system, by Holger Viebrok; The effects of demographic changes on health insurance, by Eckhard Knappe and Sonja Optendrenk; Intergenerational distribution effects on public funding--an analysis using generational accounting, by Bernhard Manzke; and The effects of demographic aging on Germany's economic competitiveness in a global market, by Norbert Walter.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Straße 27, 51379 Leverkusen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41183 Gulati, Leela; Rajan, S. Irudaya. The added years: elderly in India and Kerala. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 44, Oct-Nov 1999. 46-88 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
This special section includes articles by various authors on aging in India. They are as follows: Law and women of age: a short note, by Flavia Agnes; Ageing and women in India, by Malini Karkal; Ageing of women in post-menopausal stage: need for intervention, by Murli Desai; Three tales of ageing, by V. Geetha; On the fine edge of real and the fictional, by Krishna Sarbadhikary; Some comments on national policy on older persons, by C. P. Sujaya; and Ageing women in a welfare state: cracks in the Utopia? by Maithreyi Krishnaraj.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41184 Hogan, David B.; Fung, Tak S.; Ebly, Erika M. Health, function and survival of a cohort of very old Canadians: results from the second wave of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique, Vol. 90, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 338-42 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Seniors 85 years of age and older (85+) make up the fastest-growing segment of the Canadian population. There is a need for longitudinal data on the health status of this group. We used data collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging to examine how health status changed over five years in a large (n=1,799) cohort of Canadians 85+. By the time of the follow-up assessment, 60.1% had died and 33.9% of those who had been residing in the community when the cohort was initially formed had been institutionalized. Most (79.2%) of the community survivors felt that their health had stayed the same or improved, even though over two thirds (67.9%) reported a decline in their functional abilities. Potential predictors of both good and adverse outcomes were explored. While disease prevention, health promotion and environmental modifications may decrease the personal and societal impacts of these age-associated findings, health care planning for the very old should take these data into account."
Correspondence: D. B. Hogan, University of Calgary, Health Sciences Centre, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada. E-mail: dhogan@ucalgary.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41185 Hossain, M. Ripter. Population aging in Bangladesh and its perspectives. Man in India, Vol. 79, No. 1 & 2, Jan-Jun 1999. 111-22 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
"In this piece of work the evolutionary process of population aging in Bangladesh is examined by analysing proportion of the aged population, life expectancy of the aged, total age structure, mortality patterns of the aged and by computing aging indices. It is revealed that there will be [a] remarkable increase in the aged population of Bangladesh from the beginning of the next century and by the year 2030 the country will have to bear the aged population of 11.5 million. The aging indices also reflect the sex differential in aging, clearly indicating the need for special attention towards [females]."
Correspondence: M. R. Hossain, University of Rajshahi, Department of Statistics, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41186 Katus, Kalev. General trend of population ageing in Estonia. Trames, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1997. 190-220 pp. Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
"The paper outlines general trends in population ageing in Estonia. The process is analysed in the European context, determining the most specific trends and the major time frames of the population ageing. The analysis is mainly based on general indicators of the population ageing, calculated on the basis of data from nine censuses carried out on the Estonian territory. Using the same general indicators the population ageing and its differences in two sub-population groups of Estonia, native-born and immigrant population, is followed up to the year 2030 on the basis of population prognosis."
Correspondence: K. Kalev, Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. E-mail: asta@ekdk.estnet.ee. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41187 Knodel, John. The demography of Asian ageing: past accomplishments and future challenges. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1999. 39-56 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"While rapid population growth was the major demographic issue of public, political and scientific concern in much of Asia during the last half century, population ageing is poised to replace it as the major demographic preoccupation in the twenty-first century. In describing the situation in countries of the region, the article points out two major concerns for government policy makers: how to ensure adequate health care and adequate economic and social support for the elderly. The article outlines a number of issues for research and highlights the challenges for demographers in addressing the projected situation in the not-too-distant future."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 426 Thompson Street, P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 4810. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41188 Lai, Dejian; Hardy, Robert J. Potential gains in life expectancy or years of potential life lost: impact of competing risks of death. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 5, Oct 1999. 894-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The potential gains in life expectancy (PGLE) by elimination of deaths from HIV/AIDS, diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms were compared to the years of potential life lost (YPLL) due to these causes in measuring the impact of premature death for the U.S. population of working age (15-64)." Official data for the period 1987-1992 are used for the comparison. "The PGLE by elimination of deaths from diseases takes into account the competing risks on the population and it can be compared easily across populations. The YPLL is an index that does not take into account competing risks and it is also heavily influenced by the age structure and total population size. Although there are several standardization techniques proposed to improved the comparability of the YPLL across different populations, the YPLL fails to address the central issue of competing risks operating on the population. For this reason, we prefer the PGLE to the YPLL in measuring the impact of premature deaths on a population."
Correspondence: D. Lai, University of Texas, School of Public Health, Houston, TX 77030. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41189 Lambrecht, M. Demographic aging. From the analysis of population dynamics to the risk of premature conclusions. [Le vieillissement démographique. De l'analyse des évolutions de populations au risque de conclusions hâtives.] Planning Paper, No. 81, Nov 1997. 38 pp. Bureau Fédéral du Plan: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
This document is about population aging in Belgium. Population trends since the end of World War II and some recent projections up to the year 2050 are first introduced. The implications of these trends for the characteristics of the population are considered next. Finally, the author analyzes the impact of these demographic changes on the country's ability to finance its national pension system in the future.
Correspondence: Bureau Fédéral du Plan, Avenue des Arts 47-49, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: contact@plan.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41190 Linhart, Sepp. The impacts of population aging on social institutions in Japan. [Die Auswirkungen der Alterung der Bevölkerung auf gesellschaftliche Institutionen in Japan.] Angewandte Sozialforschung, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, 1998-1999. 61-71, 118 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The aging of Japan's population is presently occurring at a tremendous speed. Already in the year 2000 Japan will have the highest percentage of aged people among all countries of the world. This contribution, firstly, discusses various consequences which this rapid process of aging is carrying along on three levels: that of the state, the community and the individual, stressing that these consequences are similar in most countries. Different, though, are the reactions and policy measures of the societies that have to cope with new problems. Japan very early decided not to follow the example of European style welfare states but to create a `Japanese style welfare society'. The paradox clearly visible already is that the high number of the elderly leads to counter-measures which seem to undermine various institutions thought to be typically Japanese."
Correspondence: S. Linhart, Universität Wien, Institut für Japanologie, AAKH-CAMPUS, Spitalgasse 2-4, 1090 Vienna, Austria. E-mail: sepp.linhart@univie.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41191 Mayer, Peter. India's falling sex ratios. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1999. 323-43, 407, 409 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The proportion of females in India's population, low compared to other countries, reached its lowest level this century in the 1991 census.... The persistent decline in the twentieth century has been the subject of renewed investigation and critical comment over the past two decades. While many explanations for the decline have been offered, almost without exception these have not addressed the causes of the nearly continuous fall observed since 1901. Several possible long-term changes are investigated in this note. The author argues that India's declining sex ratio is primarily an artifact of the dynamics of India's population growth."
Correspondence: P. Mayer, University of Adelaide, Politics Department, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41192 Mirkin, Barry; Weinberger, Mary B. Demographic, economic and social aspects of population ageing. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. 1999. 27-47 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
An overview of the demographic aspects of global population aging is first presented, with sections on the speed of aging, age patterns of the sex ratio, demographic causes of population aging, trends in the dependency burden, and urbanization. In the second part, the economic aspects of aging populations are discussed, including economic growth, savings, and investment; labor markets; pension schemes; and health and long-term care. The third part focuses on social aspects, including family structure and living arrangements, and the socioeconomic status of older persons.
Correspondence: B. Mirkin, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, DC2 1950, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41193 Moore, Eric G.; McGuinness, Donald L. Geographic dimensions of aging. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 139-73 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"The major focus of this chapter is on the geographic dimensions of aging and the demographic processes that underlie them, with the empirical focus on the Canadian experience in the latter part of the 1980s. The proportion of the population over 65 varies considerably among census divisions across the country.... The fundamental question we address is how this distribution changed in the five-year period from 1986 to 1991 and the way in which those changes relate to the demographic and socioeconomic attributes of small areas. Where appropriate, we compare the Canadian experience with research in the United States where many demographic forces are behaving in a similar way to those in Canada."
Correspondence: E. G. Moore, Queen's University, Department of Geography, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41194 Muschkin, Clara G.; Patterson, Carol J. Aging trends--Puerto Rico. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1997. 373-85 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The current status of demographic aging in Puerto Rico is reviewed. There are sections on fertility change and aging, migration and aging, mortality change and aging, the gender gap in life expectancy, median age and support ratios, Puerto Ricans in the United States, marital status and living arrangements, and labor force participation and economic status.
Correspondence: Kevin Kinsella, U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Room 113, Washington Plaza II, Washington, D.C. 20233. E-mail: kkinsell@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41195 Nieminen, Mauri. Population growth and aging in Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 35, 1998-1999. 12-23 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author analyzes population growth and aging in Finland, with a focus on the consequences of an increased number of elderly people. Changes in fertility, mortality, and migration trends are examined. The social and economic effects of slowed population growth and a larger population aged 80 and over are discussed.
Correspondence: M. Nieminen, Statistics Finland, Population Statistics Division, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41196 Nizamuddin, Mohammed. Population ageing: an overview. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. 1999. 3-26 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"This review is divided into two broad parts. In the first part, the contribution addresses the fundamental demographic processes which underlie the structural ageing of populations and the outcomes in terms of changing age and gender balances, and uneven spatial distribution.... Part two addresses the major issues produced by ageing processes for individuals and national governments or agencies in the context of diverse cultural, social and economic contexts. These issues range from the personal needs and preferences of older persons themselves to the support of caregivers and agencies, and to private and public obligations and funding for the welfare of older persons."
Correspondence: M. Nizamuddin, United Nations Population Fund, Technical and Policy Division, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41197 Nonaka, K.; Desjardins, B.; Charbonneau, H.; Légaré, J.; Miura, T. Human sex ratio at birth and mother's birth season: multivariate analysis. Human Biology, Vol. 71, No. 5, Oct 1999. 875-84 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We used a population-based historical French Canadian database to examine the effects of mother's birth season on sex ratio at birth.... Season of child's birth significantly affected the sex ratio.... Season of mother's birth also contributed highly significantly to the variation of sex ratio.... In contrast, season of father's birth did not affect the sex ratio...."
Correspondence: K. Nonaka, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Hygiene, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41198 Ntozi, James P. M.; Nakanaabi, Immaculate M. Ageing problem in Sub-Saharan Africa in the context of the AIDS epidemic. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. Sep 1999. 251-64 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The problem of population aging in Sub-Saharan Africa is reviewed in the light of the AIDS epidemic. The authors note that, although the proportion of the population that is elderly is still relatively small, it is likely to increase over time. They also note that very few African countries are in a position to develop social programs to provide support for the elderly, and that the problems of dealing with the AIDS epidemic have made this situation even worse.
Correspondence: J. P. M. Ntozi, Makerere University, Department of Population Studies Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41199 Peng, Xizhe; Huang, Juan. Chinese traditional medicine and abnormal sex ratio at birth in China. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct 1999. 487-503 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A study of the abnormal sex ratio at birth in China reveals that it is not an entirely new phenomenon that emerged since the 1980s, but is simply more visible at present. Deliberate intervention to determine the sex of children has existed in the past few decades, at least in certain groups. Apart from modern medical methods, traditional Chinese medical practice is shown to be highly accurate in identifying the sex of a fetus. This may lead to sex-selective abortion and an abnormal sex ratio at birth. The possible causes of the abnormal sex ratio at birth include not only the real imbalance due to the disturbance of social factors, but also a spurious one attributable to the undercounting of female births. The real magnitude of the imbalance has been exaggerated by statistical error. The phenomenon is a complicated one reflecting the comprehensive socioeconomic setting. Among these factors, the stage of the fertility transition is one of the most decisive."
Correspondence: X. Peng, Fudan University, Institute of Population Research, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41200 Rajan, S. Irudaya; Mishra, U. S.; Sarma, P. Sankara. India's elderly: Burden or challenge? ISBN 0-7619-9291-X. LC 98-46660. 1999. 356 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this...book is to assist a better understanding of the socio-economic and demographic dynamics of India's elderly in order to design appropriate programmes and policies to cater to their needs. The authors present a comprehensive account of the different dimensions of elderly life in India. A unique feature of this book is the demographic assessment (based on projections of the elderly in 25 states and 7 union territories) of the number of India's elderly up to the year 2021. Using data from the 1961, 1971, 1981 and 1991 censuses, the National Sample Survey, and the Ageing Survey, the socio-economic characteristics of the elderly--such as level of literacy, work, sex ratio, marital and health status, household structure, rural-urban distribution and living arrangements--are discussed in detail. This is complemented by case studies of and group discussions with the elderly to assess their views about life and society. The authors conclude with policy prescriptions for enhancing the quality of life of India's senior citizens."
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41201 Reher, David-Sven. Elderly and aging in historical perspective: the challenge of a field at its apogee. [Vejez y envejecimiento en perspectiva histórica: retos de un campo en auge.] Política y Sociedad, No. 26, Sep-Dec 1997. 63-71, 187 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper, the author stresses the importance of aging for contemporary societies as well as the significance of research on historical aging processes as a basis for a better understanding of aging today. Despite its importance, aging and the elderly have never...received the widespread attention of historians, in particular those working on the history of Spain. The author points out a number of key themes and ways of conceptualizing them in future research on this subject, indicating potentially fruitful areas of research as well as some of the pitfalls inherent in this subject."
Correspondence: D.-S. Reher, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Sociología II, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41202 Riche, Martha F.; Waldrop, Judith. America's changing demographic tapestry. In: America's demographic tapestry: baseline for the new millennium, edited by James W. Hughes and Joseph J. Seneca. 1999. 21-33 pp. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
This is a review of some of the ways that the population of the United States is changing. The author focuses on five demographic trends of significance, which are cultural diversity, age diversity, life-style diversity, socioeconomic diversity, and life-course diversity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41203 Riis, Ilan. The secondary sex ratio in Israel: 1980-1985. Social Biology, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1999. 33-46 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study deals with models and hypotheses that attempt to explain the underlying mechanisms determining the sex ratios at birth in human populations. Since the factors responsible are still questionable and research results are contradictory, we examine data available in Israel on the sex ratios at birth among two different sociodemographic groups, Jews and Moslems. Results suggest a difference between Jewish and Moslem patterns of secondary sex ratios with respect to parental age, education, and birth number. The difference may be described as a more regular and, by existing models, a more predictable pattern of secondary sex ratio among Moslems than among Jews. The possibility that Jewish religious laws play a role in this difference is discussed."
Correspondence: I. Riis, Central Bureau of Statistics, 41/6 Hel HaAvir Street, Pisgat Zeev, Jerusalem 97535, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41204 Rogerson, Peter A. Geography of the baby-boom cohort. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 174-92 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter is concerned with some geographic aspects of the baby-boom generation in the United States, with special consideration given to the question of intergenerational relationships. "In addition to a concern with intergenerational relationships and the consequences of mobility and migration patterns, the chapter also addresses related questions associated with measurement. Examples of such questions include: How many members does the baby-boom echo cohort (defined as children of baby boomers) have, and how old are its members? How many parents of baby boomers are still alive, and how will that number change over the next few decades? How far do people move, and what is the extent of intergenerational geographic proximity?"
Correspondence: P. A. Rogerson, State University of New York, Department of Geography, Wilkeson Hall, Buffalo, NY 14261. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41205 Savelieva, Irina; Hegazy, Mohammed. Demographic profile of Tatarstan Republic. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 91-113 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This study aims at giving a general evaluation of [the] current demographic situation [in Tatarstan, located in the Russian Federation. Its] main objectives are to analyze the dynamics and trends of basic indicators composing [the] demographic profile such as crude birth rate, crude death rate, infant mortality rate, population growth rate and age structure; [and] to analyze trends in demographic processes [such] as migration and urbanization." Data are mainly from official 1993 estimates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41206 Sednawi, Korania T. Population profile of the Palestinians living in camps in Syria, 1995. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 14-34 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This is a demographic analysis of the Palestinian population living in Syrian camps, half of which are in Damascus. The camp population is described in terms of age and sex composition, marital status, education, fertility and family planning, and maternal and child health. Data are from a 1995 sample survey carried out by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics with the collaboration of the United Nations Children's Fund (Unicef).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41207 Solís, Patricio. Entrance into the fourth age in Mexico: an estimation of its intensity, timing, and implications in family and social support for the aged. [El ingreso a la cuarta edad en México: una aproximación a su intensidad, calendario e implicaciones en el apoyo familiar y social a los ancianos.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 5, No. 19, Jan-Mar 1999. 43-63 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The study of health conditions in later ages must depart from the distinction between aging free of disabilities and the final stage of frailty and functional disability, which we call the `fourth age'. In this paper we explore the prevalence of the fourth age in Mexico among different population groups, as well as its increasing trend with age and some of its effects on family support. The results suggest that the probability of entering into the fourth age notably increases after age 75. They also indicate that the transition to the fourth age implies the intensification of family support--especially physical assistance--along with an increasing load in support tasks for women."
Correspondence: P. Solís, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Nuevo León, Mexico. E-mail: patricio@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41208 Spain. Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales (Madrid, Spain). Population under age 18 in Spain: general statistical data, 1991. [Población menor de 18 años en España: datos estadísticos generales 1991.] ISBN 84-7850-029-4. [1991]. 173 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This publication contains a selection of data on children and young people under 18 years of age in Spain, the most recent of which are for 1986. The first section has data on the characteristics of this population by sex and province, fertility, and infant and child mortality. There are also sections on the family, health, education, and other social factors.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales, Centro de Publicaciones, José Abascal 39, 28003 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41209 Sprangers, A. H. How many people experience their second turn of the century? [Hoeveel mensen maken voor de tweede keer een eeuwwisseling mee?] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 47, No. 11, Nov 1999. 10-1 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"It is expected that about 1,050 people of 100 years or older will be living in the Netherlands on 1 January 2000. As these people were born at the end of the 19th century, they will, for the second time in their lives, experience a turn of the century. The number of centenarians in the Netherlands has increased strongly in the course of the 20th century, especially during the second half of this century. A hundred years ago no more than 10 centenarians were living in the Netherlands. Due to the lower mortality rates for women, at present about seven out of every eight centenarians are female. According to the Dutch Population Forecasts the number of centenarians will further increase to about 5,000 in 2050."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41210 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). Population ageing 1999. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/179, Pub. Order No. E.99.XIII.11. Jun 1999. 1 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This poster provides tabular data on population aging trends worldwide in 1999. Information is included on number and percentage of population aged 60 years or older; percentage (men and women) currently married; percentage in the labor force; potential support ratio; statutory retirement age; and life expectancy at age 60.
Correspondence: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41211 Vanderleyden, Lieve; Schoenmaeckers, Ronald C. Population ageing: key issues and recommendations for action. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. Sep 1999. 267-88 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
This contribution presents the recommendations of the joint UNFPA/CBGS Technical Meeting on Population Ageing held in Brussels, Belgium, October 6-9, 1998. Demographic trends and the changing age structure in the developed and developing countries are first described. Sections are included on health promotion and access to resources in later life, support systems for the elderly and the quality of life, special needs of the elderly, economic implications of an older society, and social policy implications of an older society. The paper concludes by identifying 10 key issues and presents associated recommendations on those issues.
Correspondence: L. Vanderleyden, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41212 Waldron, Ingrid. Factors determining the sex ratio at birth. In: Too young to die: genes or gender? 1998. 53-63 pp. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"There are more male than female live births in human populations throughout the world, although the extent of the male excess varies between groups.... It has been widely argued that males have higher mortality risk than females in utero, and consequently it can be concluded that more males than females are conceived. However, evidence reviewed in the present chapter shows that sex differences in mortality risk are unknown for the early period of embryonic development when mortality risk is highest, and the sex ratio at conception is also unknown at present. After a methodological introduction...the present chapter discusses three interrelated topics: the patterns and correlates of sex ratios at birth...sex differences in mortality before birth...and the sex ratio at conception...."
Correspondence: I. Waldron, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Leidy Laboratory, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41213 Yntema, Sharon. Americans 55 and older: a changing market. 2nd ed. ISBN 1-885070-23-3. 1999. xiv, 421 pp. New Strategist Publications: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
This book is designed as a sourcebook on the demographics of the population over age 55 in the United States, providing information on their attitudes and behavior, education, health, income, labor force participation, living arrangements, population characteristics, spending, and wealth.
Correspondence: New Strategist Publications, P.O. Box 242, Ithaca, NY 14851. E-mail: demographics@newstrategist.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41214 Zeng, Yi. Population ageing in China: policy trade-off and challenges. In: Population ageing: challenges for policies and programmes in developed and developing countries, edited by Robert Cliquet and Mohammed Nizamuddin. Sep 1999. 221-32 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The main demographic facts that indicate that population aging will become a major issue in China before 2050 are first outlined. The following sections examine the policy trade-off between population growth and population aging, the present challenges the country faces in trying to establish an old-age insurance system in rural areas, problems associated with reforming the old-age insurance system in urban areas, and the need to continue to encourage the family-support system.
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, 1 Loudouqiao, Hai Dian, Beijing 10087, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41215 Zetina Lozano, María G. Conceptualization of the aging process. [Conceptualización del proceso de envejecimiento.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 5, No. 19, Jan-Mar 1999. 23-41 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The study of the elderly...requires...taking [into] account different disciplines, focus and theoretical issues.... From this theoretical review emerge some hypothetical issues: the third age is a dynamic process; therefore [it] is necessary to study it through [the] diverse phases and to look at the life style of...the elderly.... [It is also] necessary to study the family interrelations and life style of the elderly in order to obtain an integrated study."
Correspondence: M. G. Zetina Lozano, Instituto Mexicano de Estudios Sociales, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. E-mail: imesmsr@infosel.net.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

65:41216 Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S. Data resources for biodemographic studies on familial clustering of human longevity. Demographic Research, Vol. 1, 1999. Rostock, Germany. In Eng.
"The purpose of this work is to review the data resources that could be used in familial studies of human longevity.... The review describes: (1) data resources developed for biodemographic studies, (2) data collected in the projects on historical demography, (3) data resources for long lived individuals and their families, (4) publicly available computerized genealogical data resources, (5) published genealogical and family history data. The review also contains the description of databases developed by the participants of the research workshops [on] Genes, Genealogies, and Longevity organized by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research."
Correspondence: L. A. Gavrilov, University of Chicago, Center on Aging, Chicago, Illinois.

65:41217 Kannisto, Väinö. Longevity in the light of the latest data. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 35, 1998-1999. 24-9 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author analyzes trends in life expectancy in selected developed countries. Information is provided on changes in life expectancy at age 80 for males and females; annual decline in the probability of dying within 12 months; population aged 80 and over in 1950 and 1990; and some indicators projected to the year 2050.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41218 Kranczer, Stanley. Continued United States longevity increases. Statistical Bulletin of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Vol. 80, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1999. 20-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews recent trends in life expectancy in the United States. Sections are included on race and sex analysis, chances of survival, individual life expectancies, and racial differences.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41219 La Rochebrochard, Elise de. The age at which girls and boys reach puberty in France: measures from a survey on adolescent sexuality. [Les âges à la puberté des filles et des garçons en France: mesures à partir d'une enquête sur la sexualité des adolescents.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 933-62 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
An analysis of the age at puberty for both sexes is presented using data from the Analysis of Sexual Behavior of Young People (ACSJ) survey carried out in France in 1994 on the generation born between 1975 and 1978. "Puberty in girls is identified by the onset of menstruation, at a median age of 13.1. Using this indicator, a long-term decline in age at puberty has been established for the developed countries as a whole. This historical change seems to be continuing in France though it has stabilized in several countries. Puberty in boys is harder to identify and there is continuing debate over the choice of a suitable indicator. Using the ACSJ survey, three possible indicators can be suggested: the breaking of the voice (median age 14.8), the maximum growth rate (median age 16) and the first masturbation (median age 14.2). Of these three indicators, the breaking of the voice appears to be the most satisfactory for identifying male puberty."
Correspondence: E. de La Rochebrochard, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: roche@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41220 Le Bourg, Eric. Some questions about aging. [Le vieillissement en questions.] ISBN 2-271-05621-7. 1998. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique [CNRS]: Paris, France. In Fre.
In this study, designed for the nonspecialist, the author examines the factors that affect human aging. The emphasis is on attempting to answer some of the most commonly asked questions about the aging process. There are chapters on demographic aging, the laws governing differences in aging among species, methodological aspects, theories of aging, ways to increase longevity, and achievements in increasing human longevity.
Correspondence: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

65:41221 Manton, Kenneth G. Dynamic paradigms for human mortality and aging. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences, Vol. 54, No. 6, Jun 1999. 247-54 pp. Washington, D. C. In Eng.
"Hazard models are often applied to mortality data of humans and other species so that the parameter estimates made for those models can be used to make inferences about the biology, and comparative biology, of ageing processes. Enough longitudinal data on physiological and functional changes in humans now exist to know that the age trajectory of the physiological state of individuals is multidimensional, stochastic, and plastic. Thus, to fully asses the biological significance of existing longitudinal data on human aging and mortality processes, multivariate stochastic process models must be developed that are biologically detailed and valid. This requires assessing genetic mechanisms controlling human longevity and rates of aging, developing models of how those traits may have evolved, and developing statistical methods for identifying gene environment interactions. This article examines the theoretical basis for such models and the biological rationale of their parametric structure. Several examples are given."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Box 90408, Durham, NC 27708. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41222 Manton, Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric; Corder, Larry. The limits of longevity and their implications for health and mortality in developed countries. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 324-43 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
This paper examines the human life span and life expectancy and the estimation of limits to those quantities. There are sections on the molecular mechanisms related to life expectancy and life span differences, regulatory and protective mechanisms influencing life span, and implications of hormesis and the physiological complexity of human systems for limits to life span. The authors conclude that a conservative estimate is that life expectancy in developed countries at age 65 is likely to increase by one year each decade, assuming no major breakthroughs in biomedical technology. "This suggests that, for the United States, in a hundred years male life expectancy at age 65 will increase from about 15.6 to 25.6 years and female life expectancy from 19.0 to 29.0 years."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41223 Mayer, Karl U.; Baltes, Paul B. The Berlin study on aging. [Die Berliner Altersstudie.] ISBN 3-05-002574-3. 1996. 672 pp. Akademie Verlag: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This volume presents the results of the Berlin study on aging, carried out from 1990 to 1993. Data from 516 people aged 70 to 100 living in West Berlin were collected in 14 sessions that included interviews, physical examinations, and survey questions. The first section is devoted to methodology; using a variety of data-collecting methods, the Berlin study gathered information on a wide range of subjects, including demography, sociology, psychology, economics, and medicine. The second section details findings in particular disciplines: morbidity and functionality, psychiatric health, psychological status, and socioeconomic situation and inequality. The third and largest section reports results on particular issues of interest, which include economic situation; social networks, personality, and cognition; sensory, health, and dental effects of age; functionality and dependency; subjective well-being; social integration; and sex differences.
Correspondence: Akademie Verlag bei Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Postfach 80 13 60, 81613 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41224 Ram, Rati. Forty years of the life span revolution: an exploration of the roles of "convergence", income, and policy. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jul 1998. 849-57 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this study is to undertake an exploratory analysis of some obvious factors that are likely to have affected the magnitude of the increases in life expectancy in various countries during the 40-year period 1950-90. The focus of the work is on modeling the observed increases in life expectancy, not on studying the consequences of these increases. The basic framework is that of a quadratic convergence model that includes an income term."
Correspondence: R. Ram, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61761. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:41225 Vaupel, James W. Demographic analysis of aging and longevity. [Demografische analyse van de veroudering en de langlevendheid.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1998. 19-46 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The author starts by pointing [out] the central importance of demography with respect to the social sciences on the one hand and the biological sciences on the other hand.... The paper is `a blend of mathematics and statistics with policy analysis and insights from the biological sciences with insights from the social sciences'. The central theme of the paper is the decline of mortality at older ages which questions the so-called biological limit. The author then turns to the causes for longevity. The increased survival at older ages is seen as part of the mortality pattern at all ages and regarded in the context of the issue of selection."
Correspondence: J. W. Vaupel, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Doberaner Straße 114, 18057 Rostock, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population, and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation.

65:41226 Anand, Sudhir; Morduch, Jonathan. Poverty and the "population problem" In: Population and poverty in the developing world, edited by Massimo Livi-Bacci and Gustavo De Santis. 1999. 9-24 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we address three aspects of poverty and the population problem from an economic perspective. First, we investigate the statistical basis for the oft-cited positive correlation between poverty and household size. Second, we re-examine the conflicting economic and demographic interpretations of this correlation. And third, we examine whether restricting attention just to the household level misses an important aspect of the problem. We cite evidence from Bangladesh to suggest that many of the most pressing issues are at the level of individuals, and concern the deprivation of girls and women within households."
Correspondence: S. Anand, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41227 Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, Susanna; Whitehead, Margaret. Lone mothers in Sweden: trends in health and socioeconomic circumstances, 1979-1995. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 12, Dec 1999. 750-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data from the annual Survey of Living Conditions (ULF) are used to analyze trends in health and socioeconomic well-being of single mothers in Sweden from 1979 to 1995. The results indicate that "the socioeconomic conditions of lone mothers deteriorated during the period 1979-1995, with increasing unemployment and poverty rates. Lone mothers had worse health status than couple mothers throughout the period."
Correspondence: B. Burström, Karolinska Institutet, Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41228 Burtless, Gary. Effects of growing wage disparities and changing family composition on the U.S. income distribution. European Economic Review, Vol. 43, No. 4-7, 1999. 853-65 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"U.S. income inequality soared after 1979. The present paper estimates the contribution of increased earnings inequality to the surge in overall income inequality between 1979 and 1996. The direct contribution of increased earnings inequality is surprisingly modest. Even if male and female earnings inequality had remained unchanged at their 1979 levels, about two thirds of the observed increase in overall U.S. inequality would have occurred. Other factors contributing to higher overall inequality include the growing correlation of husband and wife earned incomes and the increasing percentage of Americans who live in single-adult families, families that typically have much more unequal incomes than husband-wife families."
Correspondence: G. Burtless, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: gburtless@brook.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41229 Djamba, Yanyi K.; Goldstein, Sidney; Goldstein, Alice. Migration and occupation change during periods of economic transition: women and men in Vietnam. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 99-06, Aug 1999. 24 pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of migration on gender differences in occupational mobility, after the introduction of economic reform (Doi Moi) in Vietnam. Data derived from a survey conducted in 1997 in six provinces of Vietnam provide the basis for comparing the experience of permanent migrants, temporary migrants, and non-migrants. The results show that migration reduces gender differences in occupational distribution, by increasing women's participation in traditionally male occupations. But men's relative advantage in occupational mobility over women's remains, especially among permanent migrants."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41230 Eastwood, Robert; Lipton, Michael. The impact of changes in human fertility on poverty. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 36, No. 1, Oct 1999. 1-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Household survey data for developing and transitional economies are used to estimate the effect of fertility (crude birth rate net of infant deaths) on private consumption poverty. Cross-national regressions indicate that higher fertility increases poverty both by retarding economic growth and by skewing distribution against the poor. Our median country in 1980 had `dollar-a-day' poverty incidence of 18.9 per cent; had it reduced its fertility by four per 1,000 throughout the 1980s (the sample median fall), it is estimated that incidence would have been reduced to 13.9 per cent, the growth and distribution effects being roughly equally responsible for this reduction."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41231 Ekberg, Jan. Immigration and the public sector: income effects for the native population in Sweden. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug 1999. 411-30 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The subject for this article is, in what direction and to what extent the public sector redistributes incomes between immigrants and natives in Sweden. The first aim is to present an empirical investigation on whether the native population of Sweden received positive or negative additional incomes through the public sector during the year 1991 and the year 1994 due to the presence of the immigrants in the country. The second aim is to estimate how the immigrants' net contribution to the public sector changes when their employment rate changes."
Correspondence: J. Ekberg, Växjö University, Centre of Labour Market Policy Research, 351 95 Växjö, Sweden. E-mail: Jan.Ekberg@ehv.hv.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41232 Gabriel, Stuart A.; Rosenthal, Stuart S. Location and the effect of demographic traits on earnings. Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 29, No. 4, Jul 1999. 445-61 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"With mobile workers and competitive markets, equilibrium nominal wage rates rise with the local costs of living but fall with the value of local amenities. Earnings and wage regressions that ignore such effects may suffer from omitted variable bias because observed education and demographic attributes affect both worker skill levels and location choice. Geographic fixed effects can be used to control for unobserved locational attributes provided that their scope is at least as narrow as the underlying labor markets, but not so narrow as to introduce simultaneity problems arising from the endogenous choice of location on the basis of income. Estimates from the 1985-1989 American Housing Survey suggest that SMSA-level fixed effects control for unobserved locational attributes without introducing simultaneity problems."
Correspondence: S. A. Gabriel, University of Southern California, Marshall School of Business, Department of Finance and Business Economics, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1421. E-mail: sgabriel@marshall.usc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41233 Glick, Jennifer E. Economic support from and to extended kin: a comparison of Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 3, Fall 1999. 745-65 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article explores the prevalence of economic exchanges with extended kin within the Mexican-origin population in the United States. Data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 1990 Panel Study of Income Dynamics--Latino Sample are employed to compare the characteristics of those contributing income to and receiving income from coresident extended relatives and extended family members in other households. The results suggest that immigrants, particularly recent immigrants, are more likely to participate in exchanges with relatives both within and beyond their household."
Correspondence: J. E. Glick, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41234 Hadi, Abdullahel. Overseas migration and the well-being of those left behind in rural communities of Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1999. 43-58 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article reveals that the flow of remittances, along with the diffusion of secular values, are the key processes through which various forms of migration operate to improve the socio-economic well-being of the household members left behind. It argues not only that the flow of remittances contributes to raising economic well-being but also that the social and cultural aspects of overseas migration have the potential to modify the livelihood and behaviour of the sending communities through the interaction of secular ideas with traditional values." The geographic focus is on Bangladesh.
Correspondence: A. Hadi, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, Research and Evaluation Division, 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. E-mail: shirsha@bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41235 Hurd, Michael D. Mortality risk and consumption by couples. NBER Working Paper, No. 7048, Mar 1999. 38, [11] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper proposes and analyzes a life-cycle model of consumption by couples. The model is considerably more complicated than the standard model for singles because it has to account for the welfare of a surviving spouse.... The analysis shows how consumption and the rate of change of bequeathable wealth [vary]...and it compares the consumption level of a single person to a couple. Summaries of wealth change and consumption in panel data are given which offer general support for the life-cycle model."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: mhurd@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41236 Kalbach, Madeline A.; Kalbach, Warren E. Persistence of ethnicity and inequality among Canadian immigrants. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1999. 83-105 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"1991 [Canadian] Census data support earlier findings that immigrants who indicate some degree of `ethnic-connectedness' are more likely to be disadvantaged with regard to education and economic achievement in a secular society than the less ethnically connected individuals. The analysis also supports earlier findings that regardless of origin, those immigrating to Canada when relatively young have acculturated more readily and achieved higher educational and economic status than those arriving as teenagers; and within any ethnic origin group, being more ethnic is still negatively associated with educational achievement and economic success."
Correspondence: M. A. Kalbach, University of Calgary, Department of Sociology, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41237 Krieg, R. G. Occupational change and differing returns to migration by gender. Journal of Socio-Economics, Vol. 25, No. 5, 1996. 591-9 pp. Greenwich, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper I explore the consequences of migration on the earnings of individuals by gender and marital status. Microdata taken from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics are used to measure the financial returns to intercounty migration for individuals in a temporal framework accounting for gains that accrue over time. Earnings are estimated for a pooled sample of migrants and nonmigrants in a two-stage procedure correcting for self-selection bias. In order to explain initial losses often incurred by migrants, employer and occupational change are interacted with migration status in earnings estimations. Results indicate that the impact of migration and occupational change vary by gender and marital status."
Correspondence: R. G. Krieg, University of Northern Iowa, Department of Economics, Cedar Falls, IA 50614. E-mail: krieg@cobra.uni.ed. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:41238 Lee, Jennifer. Retail niche domination among African American, Jewish, and Korean entrepreneurs: competition, coethnic advantage and disadvantage. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,398-416 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Do immigrant entrepreneurs who open businesses in predominantly Black [U.S.] neighborhoods take business opportunities away from African Americans in the community? The article examines why African Americans, Jews, and Koreans enter different retail niches and explores the coethnic advantages and disadvantages of niche domination. The article also illustrates how niches remain closed to outsiders, resulting in business disadvantage or exclusion from certain niches."
Correspondence: J. Lee, University of California, Department of Sociology, 2201 Hershey Hall, Box 951551, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1551. E-mail: jlee@soc.ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41239 Lee, Sharon M. Do foreign birth and Asian minority status lower Canadian women's earnings? Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1999. 159-82 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the effects of foreign birth and Asian minority status on Canadian women's earnings. Four groups are compared: native- and foreign-born European- and Asian-origin women. The paper finds that while foreign birth and Asian ethnicity lower women's earnings, the negative effect of foreign birth is twice as large. Asian ethnicity is not consistently negative: returns to native-born Asians' human capital are comparable to European-origin women's, and negative effects associated with foreign birth are not consistently larger for Asian immigrants. The effects of nativity and Asian ethnicity on earnings are becoming more complex as immigration continues to alter Canadian society."
Correspondence: S. M. Lee, Portland State University, Department of Sociology, Portland, OR 97207. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41240 Levy, Frank. How big is the income dilemma? In: America's demographic tapestry: baseline for the new millennium, edited by James W. Hughes and Joseph J. Seneca. 1999. 101-34 pp. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author uses data from the Current Population Survey and other official sources to analyze recent trends in U.S. incomes and household living standards. Consideration is also given to the main sources of data on incomes and the problems they pose, as well as to public perceptions on incomes and whether the standard of living is improving or not. Particular attention is given to how different kinds of families are affected by these trends.
Correspondence: F. Levy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41241 Lipton, Michael. Population and poverty: How do they interact? In: Population and poverty in the developing world, edited by Massimo Livi-Bacci and Gustavo De Santis. 1999. 25-48 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter explores what `poverty' is, and which `population' variables interact with it." To set up a framework for the discussion, the author first lists some population variables that interact with poverty: population size, density, structure, and growth; and numbers, age distribution, and location of births and deaths. He also posits four indirect poverty-related variables: private consumption per person; its distribution; other components of real GNP such as investment, health, and education; and their distribution. The rest of the chapter focuses on a few of these variables: household size and poverty, fertility, and economic growth; and poverty as a driver of demographic trends. The author concludes that there is generally reciprocal causation between low birth rates and low poverty.
Correspondence: M. Lipton, University of Sussex, Poverty Research Unit, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41242 Livi-Bacci, Massimo; De Santis, Gustavo. Population and poverty in the developing world. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-829300-3. LC 98-28485. 1999. x, 305 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book is the result of a conference on population and poverty initiated by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), the Child Development Centre of Unicef, and the University of Florence. It was convened in Florence, Italy, in March 1995. "Demographers, economists, and, more generally, social scientists all tried to find a common basis, including a common language, from which to start to make their [perspectives on poverty] clear.... [The goal was] a deeper understanding of the nature, causes, and consequences of poverty and destitution, with the ultimate goal of its eradication." Eleven papers by various authors are included in this volume.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41243 Macunovich, Diane J. The fortunes of one's birth: relative cohort size and the youth labor market in the United States. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 2, May 1999. 215-72 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Using two different measures of relative cohort size...it has been possible to isolate strong effects of the population age structure on wages in the United States over the past thirty-three years. These effects have been strong enough that virtually all of the observed change in the experience premium, and a substantial proportion of the changes in the college wage premium, can be explained by the relative cohort size variables alone. Even changes in the amount of within-group variance in wages appear to be largely a function of changing age structure, and absolute wage levels have been strongly affected by these demographic changes, suggesting that population growth can have positive effects on the economy."
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, Syracuse University, Maxwell Center for Policy Research, Syracuse, NY 13244. E-mail: dmacunov@maxwell.syr.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41244 Macunovich, Diane J. The role of relative cohort size and relative income in the demographic transition. Population and Environment, Vol. 21, No. 2, Nov 1999. 155-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper summarizes the results of other analyses by the author with regard to the importance of relative cohort size (RCS) in determining male relative income (the income of young adults relative to prime-age workers) and general patterns of economic growth, and in turn influencing fertility in the currently more-developed nations. It then goes on to demonstrate that these same effects appear to have been operating in all of the one hundred-odd nations which have experienced the fertility transition since 1950. Parameter estimates based on the experience of all 189 countries identified by the United Nations between 1950 and 1995 are used to simulate the effects on fertility of migration from Third to First World countries. This exercise suggests that we get the best of all possible outcomes with migration: population is reduced in `overcrowded' Third World nations, total world population growth is substantially reduced, and scores of children are given the opportunity of growing up with all the educational and health advantages of U.S. residents."
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, Columbia University, Barnard College, Department of Economics, 3009 Broadway, New York, NY 10027. E-mail: diane.macunovich@alum.mit.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41245 Marpsat, Maryse. An advantage with its limitations: women have a lower risk of becoming homeless. [Un avantage sous contrainte: le risque moindre pour les femmes de se trouver sans abri.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 885-932 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Reasons why women are relatively rare among the homeless in France, although they are over-represented in the population experiencing poverty, are explored. "This article explores the different factors which combine to give women a relative protection against the risk of becoming homeless. The author links these factors to the representations of the roles of men, women and, especially, mothers, whereby women enjoy secondary advantages associated with a subordinate position. An examination of the actual form taken by this relative advantage, however, leads to a partial revision of the idea of `more favourable situation'."
Correspondence: M. Marpsat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: marpsat@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41246 McDonald, James T.; Worswick, Christopher. The earnings of immigrant men in Australia: assimilation, cohort effects, and macroeconomic conditions. Economic Record, Vol. 75, No. 228, Mar 1999. 49-62 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the earnings of immigrant men in Australia using data from Income Distribution Surveys for 1982, 1986 and 1990. The paper expands on the standard approach used in the literature to evaluate immigrant earnings adjustment by considering the impact of current labour market conditions and conditions at labour market entry on current earnings. Immigrants from non-English speaking backgrounds have significantly lower earnings on arrival in Australia compared with native-born males, and this gap is not narrowed as years in Australia increase. However, poorer macroeconomic conditions at entry are found to have a significantly smaller negative effect on the earnings of immigrants from non-English speaking backgrounds than native-born males."
Correspondence: J. T. McDonald, University of Tasmania, School of Economics, G.P.O. Box 252-85, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41247 Mertens, Noortje; Van Doorne-Huiskes, Anneke; Schippers, Joop; Siegers, Jacques. Women's wage rates and the timing of children. A simultaneous analysis. Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 1, Nov 1998. 61-77 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng.
The relationship between paid employment and the timing of childbirth in the Netherlands is explored using data from a 1992 survey of 2,716 women. "The research described here focuses on the relation between wage rates and the age when the first child is born. It examines whether and if so to what extent women's wage rates, i.e. gross hourly wages at the time of the interview, are affected by the women's age when the first child is born. Attention is devoted to the intermediary role of education and the effect of wage rates on the timing of the first child. To allow for the possibility of reciprocal causation between wage rates and the timing of the first child, a simultaneous equations model has been constructed and estimated."
Correspondence: N. Mertens, University of Utrecht, Economics Institute, Kromme Nieuwegracht 22, 3512 HH Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41248 Montgomery, Mark R.; Gragnolati, Michele; Burke, Kathleen; Paredes, Edmundo. Measuring living standards with proxy variables. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 129, 1999. 66 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study is based on data on household consumption and income from the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study surveys carried out in five developing countries (Ghana, Jamaica, Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania) and the Encuesta Guatemalteca de Salud Familiar. The authors ask what hypotheses can be tested using proxy variables to measure standards of living and evaluate the performance of proxy variables in relation to consumption expenditures. "We find that the proxy variables commonly employed in demographic research are very weak predictors of consumption per adult, having partial [R squared] values that are extremely low. Nevertheless, when other factors are taken into account, we show that tests based on proxy variables are likely to be sufficiently powerful to merit consideration. In an examination of fertility, child mortality, and children's schooling, we compare coefficient estimates based on consumption per adult to alternative estimates based on proxies, and find that the proxy-based estimates provide generally reliable guidance to the sign and magnitude of the preferred estimates."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Author's E-mail: mmontgomery@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41249 Murdock, Steve H.; Zhai, Nanbin; Saenz, Rogelio. The effect of immigration on poverty in the southwestern United States, 1980-1990. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 80, No. 2, Jun 1999. 310-24 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The effects of immigration are compared to the effects of other determinants of poverty for the total population and for three ethnic minority groups in 58 areas in the southwestern United States.... The results show significant direct and indirect effects of immigration on poverty in the total population but not in the minority subpopulations, and smaller relative direct effects for immigration than for other determinants of poverty.... The fact that the largest effects of immigration are indirect through other socioeconomic factors, coupled with the lack of effects in the ethnic subgroups, suggest...that the effects of immigration on poverty are likely to result from change in the countries of origin of the immigrant pool rather than from increases in the number of poor immigrants from traditional countries of origin."
Correspondence: S. H. Murdock, Texas A&M University, Department of Rural Sociology, Special Services Building, College Station, TX 77843-2125. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41250 Osmani, Siddiqur R. Famine, demography, and endemic poverty. In: Population and poverty in the developing world, edited by Massimo Livi-Bacci and Gustavo De Santis. 1999. 61-83 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The connections between famine and poverty are examined, with a focus on how famines can lead to endemic or "structural" poverty.
Correspondence: S. R. Osmani, University of Ulster, School of Public Policy, Economics, and Law, Jordanstown, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41251 Park, Jin Heum. The earnings of immigrants in the United States: the effect of English-speaking ability. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 58, No. 1, Jan 1999. 43-56 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article I find evidence consistent with the hypothesis that English-speaking ability is an important determinant of the earnings of immigrants in the United States. Immigrants who do not speak English well acquire English proficiency as well as other skills, and experience faster earnings growth, than immigrants who are fluent in English. For those immigrants whose first language is English or who speak English very well, fluency in English is valuable because it facilitates the transfer to the U.S. labor market of schooling and labor market experience obtained abroad. Documenting and studying the importance of local efforts to teach English to immigrants--such as the English as a second language classes offered by the Chinese American Civic Association, Jewish Vocational Services, and El Centro De Cardenal--will be an important future research task."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41252 Spain, Daphne. Balancing act: if you've got the money, honey, I've got the time. In: America's demographic tapestry: baseline for the new millennium, edited by James W. Hughes and Joseph J. Seneca. 1999. 161-72 pp. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
Some implications of recent trends in American families are examined, with emphasis on the growth of women's employment. The author makes the case that, although both men and women who are married now have incomes, neither of them have sufficient time to enjoy them. Possible social policy initiatives that could increase the time available for families are considered.
Correspondence: D. Spain, University of Virginia, School of Architecture, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41253 Srinivasan, K.; Kumar, Sanjay. Economic and caste criteria in definition of backwardness. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 42-43, Oct 16-29, 1999. 3,052-7 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"While the [National Family Health Survey] was conducted with the primary objective of collecting data on reproductive status, it has generated considerable data on caste and economic conditions [in India]. An analysis of this data set shows that there are wide differentials in the economic conditions of the socially backward castes and classes."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41254 Stecklov, Guy. Evaluating the economic returns to childbearing in Côte d'Ivoire. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 1, Mar 1999. 1-17 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes a method of measuring the economic returns from the average child over the entire parental life-cycle. The method is then applied to detailed household economic data from Côte d'Ivoire [Ivory Coast]. The results indicate that parents give more to their children than they receive and that the economic returns from children are negative. Overall, we estimate that the average child provides an annual rate of return of roughly -8 per cent. Our results shed light on how the returns from childbearing vary according to the age of the parents at time of birth. The results also offer a potential economic explanation of why older couples are often first to adopt modern contraception."
Correspondence: G. Stecklov, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41255 Tiefenthaler, Jill. The sectoral labor supply of married couples in Brazil: testing the unitary model of household behavior. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1999. 591-606 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"An assumption of the unitary model of household decision-making is that household members maximize one household utility function. This assumption implies that households pool their income and, therefore, the ownership of nonwage income has no effect on household demand. In this paper, this implication is tested by estimating multi-sector labor supply equations for men and women in Brazil. The results indicate that the unitary model is rejected in the informal and self-employment sectors for men and the formal and informal sectors for women; in these cases own nonwage income has a significantly negative effect on labor supply while spousal nonwage income has no significant effect."
Correspondence: J. Tiefenthaler, Colgate University, Department of Economics, Hamilton, NY 13346. E-mail: tiefenthaler@mail.colgate.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41256 van Dalen, Hendrik P.; Verbon, Harrie A. A. Work, savings and social security in a life course perspective. In: Population issues: an interdisciplinary focus, edited by Leo J. G. van Wissen and Pearl A. Dykstra. 1999. 123-57 pp. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, New York/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This chapter describes how work, savings and social security shape the course of people's lives and at the same time how structural factors (e.g. birth cohort conditions, the legal system and the rise of the welfare state) influence work and savings decisions. The general picture emerging from cohort histories is that the labor force participation of men has decreased, whilst the participation of women has increased. Each successive cohort seems to be better off in terms of net lifetime income, but the current social security system is increasingly becoming a burden for current and future cohorts as population aging will lead to fewer workers who have to pay for an increasing number of social security beneficiaries." The geographical focus is on the Netherlands.
Correspondence: H. P. van Dalen, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41257 Wilder, Lisa; Benedict, Mary E.; Viies, Marie. A demographic analysis of income distribution in Estonia. Comparative Economic Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, Spring 1999. 96-113 pp. Tempe, Arizona. In Eng.
"This paper identifies the head of household demographic characteristics associated with the Estonian distribution of income. Using measures of income inequality and regression analysis on 1995 household data, we examine how household income is distributed by the age, gender, race, and education level of the heads of household. The Gini coefficient estimates indicate that the household incomes associated with female and elderly heads have an equalizing effect. Households headed by younger males or those who are educated contribute to greater income disparity. The regression analysis confirms these results and suggests that social transfers for households headed by women, the disabled, and the elderly, have an equalizing effect on the income distribution. We also find that farm households appear to lag far behind their urban counterparts in earnings and income."
Correspondence: M. E. Benedict, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

65:41258 Alba, Richard D.; Logan, John R.; Stults, Brian J.; Marzan, Gilbert; Zhang, Wenquan. Immigrant groups in the suburbs: a reexamination of suburbanization and spatial assimilation. American Sociological Review, Vol. 64, No. 3, Jun 1999. 446-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"For a number of contemporary immigrant groups, suburbanization is occurring at high levels, and either increased or remained stable during the 1980s, a decade of high immigration. We investigate whether these settlement patterns are consistent with spatial-assimilation theory. Using Public Use Microdata from the 1980 and 1990 U.S. censuses, we examine the link between suburban residence and life-cycle, socioeconomic, and assimilation characteristics for 11 racial/ethnic groups, including those growing most from contemporary immigration as well as non-Hispanic whites. We find support for some aspects of the theory. The determinants of suburban residence are consistent between the 1980 and 1990 models, with some important exceptions: Among several groups, especially Asian groups, the effects of very recent immigration and linguistic assimilation have weakened. Our findings indicate that barriers to the entry of new immigrants to suburbia are now lower than before. The growing numbers of recent immigrants there suggest the emergence of new ethnic concentrations and infrastructure."
Correspondence: R. D. Alba, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. E-mail: r.alba@albany.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41259 Asami, Yasushi; Ishizaka, Koichi; Oe, Moriyuki; Koyama, Yasuyo; Segawa, Sachiko. Low fertility and housing costs. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1997. 15-31 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The authors examine the relationship between low fertility and housing costs in Japan. Particular attention is given to the impact of the changing age structure of the population on the demand for housing of different kinds.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41260 Bhattacharji, Sukumari. A rereading of historical material: an alternative account of the position of women in ancient India. In: The methods and uses of anthropological demography, edited by Alaka M. Basu and Peter Aaby. 1998. 153-76 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines some of the ancient Indian classical texts to see the extent to which they can yield information of demographic relevance on, for example, the status of women, age at marriage, and ideal family size.
Correspondence: S. Bhattacharji, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700 032, West Bengal, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41261 Blakely, Edward. Separate and not equal: America's diversity crisis. In: America's demographic tapestry: baseline for the new millennium, edited by James W. Hughes and Joseph J. Seneca. 1999. 187-202 pp. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author makes the case that, although racial discrimination has been outlawed in the United States for more than three decades, Americans are increasingly segregated by race and ethnicity, and women's economic progress has been arrested at relatively low levels. The primary focus is on the situation facing African Americans, and their problems with regard to residential segregation, family values, crime, and poverty. The extent to which new social policies can be developed in order to help tackle these problems is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41262 Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED] (Paris, France); Union pour l'Etude de la Population Africaine [UEPA] (Dakar, Senegal); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO] (Paris, France). A guide to the exploitation and analysis of census and survey data on education and schooling. [Guide d'exploitation et d'analyse des données de recensements et d'enquêtes en matière de scolarisation.] Les Documents et Manuels du CEPED, No. 9, ISBN 2-87762-120-0. Oct 1999. 112 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This report, developed by a network of researchers working in the area of family determinants and scholarization and belonging to the African Union for the Study of Population, examines the extent to which data from secondary sources, such as censuses and surveys, can be used to analyze the problems associated with education and schooling in Africa. The focus is on the methodology needed to extract useful data from such sources and on the limitations of the data. A number of table and graphs presenting these data are provided on an accompanying diskette.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41263 Clotfelter, Charles T. Are whites still "fleeing"? Racial patterns and enrollment shifts in urban public schools, 1987-1996. NBER Working Paper, No. 7290, Aug 1999. 33, [23] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The effect of interracial contact in [U.S.] public schools on the enrollment of whites has been an important concern in assessments of desegregation since the 1970s. It has been feared that `white flight'--meaning exit from or avoidance of racially mixed public schools--could undermine the racial contact that desegregation policy seeks to enhance. This study examines this question using recent data. It also expands coverage from large urban districts to entire metropolitan areas, paying attention to the spatial context within which enrollment decisions are made. To do so, it examines data for 1987 and 1996 on racial composition and enrollment in all schools and school districts in 238 metropolitan areas. The study finds that white losses appear to be spurred both by interracial contact in districts where their children attend school and by the opportunities available in metropolitan areas for reducing that contact. Implications for metropolitan segregation are examined."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: Charles.Clotfelter@Duke.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41264 Condon, Stéphanie. Housing policies and return migration: West Indians returning from France. [Politiques du logement et migrations de retour: retour des antillais de la France métropolitaine.] In: Démographie et aménagement du territoire: actes du Xe colloque national de démographie. Bordeaux--21, 22, 23 mai 1996, edited by Janine d'Armagnac, Chantal Blayo, and Alain Parant. 1999. 297-305 pp. Conférence Universitaire de Démographie et d'Etude des Populations [CUDEP]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Housing policies in the French West Indian departments are described, with particular reference to the level of migration to and from metropolitan France and how these migrations affect efforts to provide adequate housing. The need to know the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of returning migrants in order to be able to provide the right kind of housing is noted.
Correspondence: S. Condon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41265 Courbage, Youssef. Demographic transition among Muslims in Eastern Europe. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 4, 1992. 161-86 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"The presence of Islam in the Balkans, a vestige of the Ottoman Empire, is a reminder that the Mediterranean fringe is a region over which waves of cultural, economic and political exchange have ebbed and flowed for thousands of years. These waves have often led to conflict between those riding the crest and those ridden over. But their action throughout the centuries will necessarily have an integrating effect on the whole of this Mediterranean region (when this has not already been achieved). [The author] shows how, despite the lack of statistical data, it is possible to draw a picture of the Muslim populations of Eastern Europe. The fact that they represent a minority in numerical or political terms may perhaps explain their still high fertility levels, as a line of defence taken by a community which feels it must struggle for survival."
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: courbage@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41266 Eggerickx, Thierry; Poulain, Michel. An example of demographic anomie: residential developments. [Un exemple d'anomie démographique: les lotissements.] In: Démographie et aménagement du territoire: actes du Xe colloque national de démographie. Bordeaux--21, 22, 23 mai 1996, edited by Janine d'Armagnac, Chantal Blayo, and Alain Parant. 1999. 313-23 pp. Conférence Universitaire de Démographie et d'Etude des Populations [CUDEP]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Some demographic aspects of residential developments are examined using the example of six developments in the Namur region of Belgium. The authors note that such developments act as a means of population distribution and also create new and relatively homogeneous populations. The characteristics of the populations of these developments are analyzed.
Correspondence: T. Eggerickx, Université Catholique de Louvain, Centre d'Etude de Gestion Démographique pour les Administrations Publiques, Place de l'Université 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41267 El-Deeb, Bothaina; Sakhanova, Golmira. Socio-economic indicators of women in Mongolia. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 499-520 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This study aims at shedding some light on the social and economic indicators of women in Mongolia, such as education and literacy, health and infant and child mortality, labor force and working population, marriage and fertility and other aspects of socioeconomic development of women." Data are from a variety of official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41268 Gensler, Howard. Early child-bearing impacts on high school graduation rates of low-income single mothers. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 27, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 107-13 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"There are a variety of factors which influence high school graduation rates. One of the most significant events in determining whether an individual will complete high school is early child birth. By analyzing a large random sample [in] the United States, a variety of potential significant factors can be controlled while isolating the impact of early child bearing among poor single female household heads."
Correspondence: H. Gensler, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Department of Accounting, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41269 Henz, Ursula. The impact of family formation on higher education in Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 135, ISBN 91-7820-141-1. Apr 1999. 44 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The present paper addresses the question of differences in enrolment in higher education by the family circumstances. The prevailing assumption of incompatibility of full-time studies and having a family is discussed with respect to two approaches. The first one refers to gains and losses considerations and the second one refers to the family situation as a signal for attitudes and plans. As a result we expect a decreasing attachment to higher education over the sequence of being single, cohabiting, being married, and having a child.... The empirical analyses are based on the Swedish Family and Fertility Study from 1992. The results show in general a lower attachment to university studies if an individual is cohabiting, married, or has a child. But not all estimations follow this pattern. In particular, we observe a rather high enrolment of childless married men and a low interruption rate of married mothers."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Author's E-mail: Ursula.Henz@suda.su.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41270 Héran, François. Social and professional mobility in the light of the Continuous Demographic Sample: six longitudinal case studies. [La mobilité sociale et professionnelle à la lumière de l'Echantillon démographique permanent: six approches longitudinales.] Economie et Statistique, No. 316-317, 1998. 63-173, 177-84 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
This special section contains six studies based on data from the Continuous Demographic Sample, a longitudinal database that has been maintained by INSEE over the past 30 years and that contains a representative one percent sample of the population compiled from censuses taken since 1968. Comparisons are made to the British Longitudinal Study. The focus of the six studies is on social and professional mobility in France.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: F. Héran, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41271 Hirschman, Charles. The educational enrollment of immigrant youth: a test of the segmented-assimilation hypothesis. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 99-14, [1999]. 40, [viii] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"An analysis of 1990 Census data on the educational enrollment of 15 to 17 year old immigrants to the United States provides support for predictions from the segmented assimilation hypothesis and the immigrant optimism hypothesis, but there is a wide diversity of patterns that does not conform to a single theoretical interpretation. Recent Mexican immigrants who arrived as teenagers have non-enrollment rates of over 40 percent, but Mexican youth who arrived at younger ages are only somewhat less likely to be enrolled in school than are native born Americans. Most immigrant adolescents, especially from Asia, are as likely or more likely than their native born peers to be enrolled in high school."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41272 Keita, Mohamed L. Modernization and demographic behavior in Guinea. [Modernité et comportements démographiques en Guinée.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 52, ISBN 2-87762-117-0. May 1999. 42 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The article analyses changing demographic behavior in Guinea, with special focus on changes at the level of the couples. In a first step, a typology of couples was developed by applying factor analysis and classification methodology. The typology was based on various characteristics of couples: level of education of both spouses, occupation, residence and living standards. The largest group is that of traditional couples (54.1% of the sample), followed by pretransitional couples (33.4%), transitional couples (10.2%), and modern couples (2.4%). This typology appeared more robust than other approaches based on a single criteria such as level of education or residence. In a second step, the paper studies the links between the level of modernity defined by the typology and demographic knowledge, attitudes and practices. Results show a major contrast between traditional and modern couples with respect to use of antenatal care and delivery services."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41273 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Kaufman, Carol E.; Hewett, Paul. The spread of primary schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: implications for fertility change. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 127, 1999. 75 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper fills a gap in the literature using newly available Demographic and Health Survey data to assess schooling patterns and trends for 17 sub-Saharan [African] countries. As background to that assessment, the paper includes a literature review, an overview of the recent history of African education, and an evaluation of alternative sources of data on education. These data are linked to recent markers of fertility change in order to assess the potential importance of mass schooling for the fertility transition in Africa."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41274 Louchart, Philippe. The influence of housing developments on population structure and dynamics in the heart of the Ile-de-France. [De l'influence du parc de logements sur la structure et la dynamique des populations au sein de l'Ile-de-France.] In: Démographie et aménagement du territoire: actes du Xe colloque national de démographie. Bordeaux--21, 22, 23 mai 1996, edited by Janine d'Armagnac, Chantal Blayo, and Alain Parant. 1999. 325-33 pp. Conférence Universitaire de Démographie et d'Etude des Populations [CUDEP]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The changing demographic characteristics of the population of the area surrounding Paris, the Ile-de-France, in which many major new housing developments have been carried out, are analyzed. The primary focus is on the implications of these demographic changes for the planning and development of appropriate schools and colleges.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41275 Mturi, Akim J.; Makatjane, Tiisetso; Molise, Ngoakoane. Gender differentials in housing characteristics and household possessions in Lesotho urban areas. Genus, Vol. 55, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1999. 121-33 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This study uses the 1994/95 Lesotho Household Budget Survey data. The data comprises 2,014 households situated in Lesotho urban centres out of which 1,324 are male headed and 690 are female headed. Most of the females who are heads of household are either single or widowed or divorced. Both descriptive analysis and multiple regression analysis have been utilised. Generally, there are no substantial differences in the quality of urban housing by the sex of the household head. However, regarding the availability of consumer goods such as radio, refrigerators, cars, television, etc., as well as electricity and telephone facilities, male headed households are better off than female headed households. That is, male headed households are better off economically than female headed households."
Correspondence: A. J. Mturi, National University of Lesotho, Department of Statistics and Demography, P.O. Roma 180, Lesotho. E-mail: aj.mturi@nul.ls. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41276 Peach, Ceri. London and New York: contrasts in British and American models of segregation. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 319-51 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
This is a comparative analysis of the social geographies of the ethnic minority populations of London and New York. "The discussion concentrates on comparisons of the racialised minorities in London with African-Americans and Hispanics in New York. The main thrust of the argument is that London's Afro-Caribbean population is, against expectations, following a `melting pot' trajectory while South Asian groups are following a more structural pluralistic path. However, in New York, African-Americans continue to experience the hyper-segregated existence that sets the American model apart from the urban forms of the Western world, while the Latino population edges towards the `melting pot'." A comment by Nathan Glazer is included (pp. 347-51).
Correspondence: C. Peach, Oxford University, School of Geography, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB, England. E-mail: ceri.peach@geography.oxford.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41277 Peterson, Ruth D.; Krivo, Lauren J. Racial segregation, the concentration of disadvantage, and black and white homicide victimization. Sociological Forum, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1999. 465-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Discriminatory housing market practices have created and reinforced patterns of racial residential segregation throughout the United States.... Residential segregation increases the concentration of disadvantage for blacks but not whites, creating African-American residential environments that heighten social problems including violence within the black population. At the same time segregation protects white residential environments from these dire consequences. This hypothesized racially inequitable process is tested for one important type of violence--homicide. We examine race-specific models of lethal violence that distinguish residential segregation from the concentration of disadvantage within racial groups. Data are from the Censuses of Population and Federal Bureau of Investigation's homicide incidence files for U.S. large central cities for 1980 and 1990. Our perspective finds support in the empirical analyses. Segregation has an important effect on black but not white killings, with the impact of segregation on African-American homicides explained by concentrated disadvantage."
Correspondence: R. D. Peterson, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: krivo.1@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41278 Phua, Voon Chin; Kaufman, Gayle. Using the census to profile same-sex cohabitation: a research note. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, Aug 1999. 373-86 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Most studies on cohabitation have focused on opposite-sex partners. This study seeks to explore the use of census data in examining same-sex cohabitation and to examine same-sex cohabitation in comparative terms. We use the 1990 U.S. census 5% sample from the New York metropolitan area to focus on unmarried partners. The descriptive socio-economic profile suggests that same-sex cohabiting householders have high income and educational levels as well as a high percentage of home ownership and a more equitable share of the household income relative to other householders. However, there are drawbacks to using the census. First, the census data only allow the examination of cohabitors related to the householders. Second, the interpretation of whom unmarried partners are may vary among persons. Third, same-sex cohabitors are not synonymous with gay and lesbian couples."
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1996 Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: G. Kaufman, Davidson College, Department of Sociology, Davidson, NC 28036-1719. E-mail: gaKaufman@davidson.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41279 Pribesh, Shana; Downey, Douglas B. Why are residential and school moves associated with poor school performance? Demography, Vol. 36, No. 4, Nov 1999. 521-34 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The relationship between residential mobility and school performance in the United States is analyzed using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and its 1992 follow-up. "Most research on residential mobility has documented a clear pattern: Residential and school moves are associated with poor academic performance. Explanations for this relationship, however, remain speculative. Some researchers argue that moving affects social relationships that are important to academic achievement. But the association between moving and school performance may be spurious; the negative correlation may be a function of other characteristics of people who move often.... Using longitudinal data, we find that differences in achievement between movers and nonmovers are partially a result of declines in social relationships experienced by students who move. Most of the negative effect of moving, however, is due to preexisting differences between the two groups."
Correspondence: S. Pribesh, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: pribesh.1@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41280 Richards, Eric. An Australian map of British and Irish literacy in 1841. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 3, Nov 1999. 345-59 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This contribution to the study of the literacy transition in Britain, Ireland, and Australia also touches on the relationship between literacy and international migration. Some 20,000 emigrants arrived in Australia in 1841 and their literacy is here established at the individual level, and then related to regional origins, occupations, religion, sex, and family status in the British Isles. The new Australian data offer unusual evidence to juxtapose with the prevailing account of British and Irish literacy. The paper makes systematic comparisons of the immigrant evidence with existing literacy findings for the populations of England and Wales, of Ireland, and the colonial population of Australia in the year 1841. The results also show extraordinary similarity of rank orderings between the Australian data and the conventional sources. The results show that the immigrants were consistently more literate than the home and receiving populations and indicate a substantial link between migration and literacy."
Correspondence: E. Richards, Flinders University of South Australia, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41281 Russell, Cheryl. Americans and their homes: demographics of homeownership. ISBN 1-885070-16-0. 1998. xv, 313 pp. New Strategist Publications: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
This book presents statistical information on the demographics of homeownership in the United States. The first chapter shows the number and percentage of Americans who own their home by age, income, race and Hispanic origin, household type, and other demographic characteristics. There are also chapters on the characteristics of houseowners, regional differences in homeownership, owners of new homes, owners who have moved, affluent homeowners, and spending on housing.
Correspondence: New Strategist Publications, P.O. Box 242, Ithaca, NY 14851. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41282 Shapiro, David. Family influences on women's educational attainment in Kinshasa. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 99-13, Oct 1999. 20 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper examines the determinants of educational attainment among adult women in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo.... The analytical portion of the paper looks at family influences on educational attainment, including parental education and survival status, number of siblings, place of residence and migration, ethnic groups, and religious background. Each of these family characteristics has important influences on the educational attainment of women. The demographic implications of these findings, as well as the consequences of the acute economic crisis that has characterized the 1990s in Kinshasa and the Congo, are discussed in the concluding section of the paper."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Author's E-mail: dshapiro@psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41283 Yamamoto, Chizuko. Living arrangements of never-married young people in Japan: 1975-1995. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 55, No. 1, 1999. 21-34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Changes in living arrangements by young people in Japan from 1975 to 1995 are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

65:41284 Addai, Isaac; Trovato, Frank. Structural assimilation and ethnic fertility in Ghana. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, Summer 1999. 409-27 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study explores the relative importance of socioeconomic and ethnic/cultural factors on possible convergence in reproduction among four...Ghanaian ethnic groups...the Twi, the Fante/Other Akan, the Ewe and the Ga-Adangbe ethnic groups [and a residual group] the Northern Groups using data from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 1993. The results derived from the analysis are more congruent with characteristics assimilation thesis because once sociodemographic differences between these groups and a standard population are equalized through statistical controls, the fertility differences virtually disappear. The cultural/ethnic hypothesis, which stresses the influence of group norms, beliefs, values and experiences in group behaviour, including reproduction, is of no importance among the groups under study."
Correspondence: I. Addai, Lansing Community College, 5500-Social Science Department, P.O. Box 40010, Lansing, MI 48901-7210. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41285 Barkan, Elliott R. A nation of peoples: a sourcebook on America's multicultural heritage. ISBN 0-313-29961-7. LC 98-41061. 1999. xv, 583 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This book presents 27 essays by various authors on ethnic groups, as defined by race, religion, or nationality, in the United States. The focus is on "the many efforts of diverse peoples seeking to determine their place in American society, to analyze the obstacles they have encountered and the extent to which they have overcome them (and the ways they have done so), to account for those they have not surmounted, and to evaluate the groups' impact on America." Specific topics addressed include the process of immigration, first-generation adaptation, economic integration, political integration, cultural integration, and the ethnic group in contemporary American society. The work is intended as an update of the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups published in 1980.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41286 Brazil. Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística [IBGE] (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The color of the population. A synthesis of indicators for 1982-1990. [Cor da população. Síntese de indicadores 1982-1990.] ISBN 85-240-0508-4. 1995. 115 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
This report contains selected data on the skin color of the population of Brazil from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) of 1990. The data are presented for the whole country and for major regions for the period 1980-1992. There are sections on population, education, employment, family, housing, and income.
Correspondence: Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Escola Nacional de Ciencias Estatísticas, Avenida Franklin Roosevelt 166, 20021-120 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41287 DellaPergola, Sergio. Italy's Jewish population in a global Jewish context. [La popolazione ebraica in Italia nel contesto ebraico globale.] In: Gli ebrei in Italia, edited by Corrado Vivanti. Storia d'Italia: Annali, Vol. 11, 1997. 897-936 pp. Einaudi: Turin, Italy. In Ita.
This chapter correlates the history of the Jews in Italy with the history of the Jews in the world as a whole. Following a discussion of data sources and quality, the author quantifies Jewish population trends in Italy from the year 1 to the present, calculating the percentage of Jews as a proportion of both the population of Italy and of the world Jewish population, and examining reasons for population fluctuations. He also discusses subjects such as population dynamics, spatial distribution, family structure, and acculturation.
Correspondence: S. DellaPergola, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Gaster Building, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41288 DellaPergola, Sergio. World Jewry beyond 2000: the demographic prospects. Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies Occasional Paper, No. 2, 1999. 80 pp. Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"It is our task to review the major social and demographic trends affecting world Jewry, to discuss some of the implications and more likely demographic scenarios emerging from them, and to suggest some general conclusions." Aspects considered include tradition, modernization, and population growth; numbers and spatial distribution of Jews; Jews in the world system; international migration; socioeconomic mobility; family characteristics; marriage patterns; fertility; age distribution; Jewish identification; and population projections.
Correspondence: Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, Yarnton Manor, Yarnton OX5 1PY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41289 Dupâquier, Jacques. Demography and nationalism in the Balkans. [Démographie et nationalisme dans les Balkans.] Population et Avenir, No. 642, Mar-Apr 1999. 14-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The extent to which demographic factors are the root cause of much of the conflict currently taking place in the countries that were formerly part of Yugoslavia is examined. The difficulty inherent in analyzing demographic differentials by ethnic group when the data are available only by political unit is acknowledged. Official sources, including the 1991 census, are used in the analysis. The author suggests that demographic differences, particularly concerning fertility, that have led to different rates of population growth among ethnic groups are a major cause of these conflicts.
Correspondence: J. Dupâquier, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Laboratoire de Démographie Historique, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41290 Frey, William H. Immigration and demographic balkanization: Toward one America or two? In: America's demographic tapestry: baseline for the new millennium, edited by James W. Hughes and Joseph J. Seneca. 1999. 78-97 pp. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
Some implications of current trends in immigration to the United States for the characteristics of the population as a whole are examined. "Current immigration along with ongoing domestic migration forces are creating a demographic balkanization that portends increasing divisions across broad regions of the country. If the new trends continue, today's multi-ethnic immigrant gateway regions may very well turn into individual melting pots in which different Hispanic, Asian, African American, Native American, and Anglo groups coexist and intermarry while still retaining some elements of their own national heritage. Although this ideal image of `one America' may be approximated in these regions, it will be less achievable nationally. In the rest of the country, which will look demographically quite distinct, different political agendas will come to the fore, and there will be a lower tolerance for the issues and concerns of ethnically more diverse populations in other regions."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 426 Thompson Street, P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41291 Gober, Patricia. Settlement dynamics and internal migration of the U.S. foreign-born population. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 231-49 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The settlement patterns and internal migration of the foreign-born population in the United States are analyzed, with particular reference to how far these trends support the theory that the recent concentrating forces of immigration have led to a demographic balkanization of the country along ethnic and racial lines. "This chapter assesses the balkanization thesis using evidence of settlement patterns and internal migration of the foreign-born population from the 1990 census. Three sets of questions are posed: (1) How concentrated are the foreign born, and did they become more or less concentrated between 1985 and 1990; (2) are the size, efficiency, and pattern of major migration streams consistent with the balkanization thesis; and (3) did individual foreign-born residents move toward greater or lesser concentrations of coethnics? Separate analyses are performed for 12 groups of foreign born, defined by place of birth."
Correspondence: P. Gober, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287-0104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41292 Hirschman, Charles; Alba, Richard; Farley, Reynolds. The meaning and measurement of race in the U.S. census: glimpses into the future. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 99-15, [1999]. 27, [ix] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"Analysis of the 1996 `Racial and Ethnic Targeted Test' (RAETT) survey data offers a glimpse of the implications of alternative measurements of race and ethnicity in the [U.S.] 2000 Census.... In this article, we appraise the varied approaches to the measurement of race and ethnicity evaluated in that test and use them to reflect on the implications of the past measurement of race and ethnicity and on those of the new one."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41293 Hudon, Solanges. The demographic situation of the Innu in Quebec, from 1973 to 1993. [Conjecture démographique des Innus du Québec, 1973 à 1993.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 237-69, 362, 367 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The Innu are one of the eleven Aboriginal peoples living in Quebec. Their ancestral territory encompasses the current regions of Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean and the Lower and Upper North Shore up to the boundaries of the Inuit and Cree territories in Northern Quebec. How has the Innu population listed in the Indian Register and living on the reserves in this territory changed from 1973 to 1993? How does its general profile shape up compared to the Quebec population as a whole? Using adjusted data from the Register as well as data from Health and Welfare Canada's medical services directorate, the author calculates the main demographic indicators for the Innu Nation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41294 Iburg, Kim M. Inuit population dynamics: a demographic analysis of North Greenland. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1999. 141-58 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of the study was to analyse population dynamics among the Inuit in Thule, North Greenland, over the period 1850-1972. A published genealogical register was used to establish a computerised integrated person register. Analysis of fertility and survival trends was conducted on a non-parametric basis in order to estimate individual intensities of transition from life to death and family formation through parity-conditioned fertility. A multivariate analysis of the birth interval structure was also carried out. Mortality risks were differentiated according to sex, age, and birth cohort. A considerable decrease in adult mortality can be ascertained since the beginning of this century.... The analysis of fertility failed to uncover substantial differences concerning birth intervals.... Thus it is unlikely that conscious family planning was being practised, as was known to have been the case among married women in West Greenland since the late 1950s."
Correspondence: K. M. Iburg, Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology, Svanemøllevej 25, 2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41295 Kaiser, Markus. Russians as minorities in Central Asia. Migration, No. 29-31, 1998. 83-117 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"The designation of the non-Russians as minorities in the Former Soviet Union has changed through a dramatic reversal of fortunes where Russians are today the `new' minorities in the post-Soviet states. As reconfigurations create `new' minorities and construct new definitions of majority identity, the article will be a brief attempt to examine the development of relations between Russians and Central Asians. The Uzbek case deserves closer study today as it is emerging as the Central Asian state which has a clearly defined national agenda. It will also look at the Russian response to the question of Russian minorities in the border lands as the `external national homeland'."
Correspondence: M. Kaiser, Universität Bielefeld, Sociology of Development Research Centre, P.O. Box 100131, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany. E-mail: markus.kaiser@uni-bielefeld.de. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:41296 Kulu, Hill. The Estonian diaspora. Trames, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1997. 277-86 pp. Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
"The present article focuses on the Estonian diaspora. Firstly, an overview of the formation of the diaspora is given, and then the changes in Estonian identity of the diaspora Estonians are analysed, and finally, the possible future trends for the diaspora are outlined. The census data from different countries are used for these purposes.... Although the number of those having strong Estonian identity is continuously decreasing in the diaspora, the number of those having weaker ties to Estonian identity will remain considerable in the near future."
Correspondence: H. Kulu, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, 202400 Tartu, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41297 Michel, Harald; Finke, Robby. Repatriates in Berlin. [Aussiedler in Berlin.] Edition IFAD, No. 50, Feb 1999. 14 pp. Institut für Angewandte Demographie: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This study examines the population of ethnic Germans who repatriated to Berlin from the former Soviet Union after the fall of the Communist bloc in 1990. Forty households, comprising a total of 133 people, were surveyed in 1998, and the results were compared with several other existing studies. The focus is on the demographic and economic characteristics of this population, and on the repatriates' integration into German society.
Correspondence: Institut für Angewandte Demographie, Sophienstraße 3, 10178 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: ifad@ifad.b.shuttle.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41298 Peach, Ceri. Ethnic groups in the British 1991 census. [Les groupes ethniques au recensement britannique de 1991.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1999. 13-37 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The 1991 British census was the first to pose a question on ethnic origin. It revealed a non-European origin population of 3 million, or 5.5% of the British population; nearly half of this number had been born in Britain.... The ethnic minorities are highly concentrated into the largest urban centres. However, there are large contrasts between the socio-economic profiles of the different groups.... There are significant differences in the degrees of ethnic segregation of the different groups."
Correspondence: C. Peach, University of Oxford, Department of Geography, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB, England. E-mail: ceri.peach@geography.oxford.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41299 Pollard, Kelvin M.; O'Hare, William P. America's racial and ethnic minorities. Population Bulletin, Vol. 54, No. 3, Sep 1999. 48 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors compare U.S. racial and ethnic groups according to various demographic characteristics. Sections are included on a history of disadvantage; size and growth of minority groups; increasing diversity; sources of population change; families and households; where minorities live; urban residence; educational achievements; working lives; income, wealth, and poverty; political participation; and minorities and U.S. culture.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: popref@prb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41300 Prada Alcoreza, Raúl. A socio-demographic analysis of the indigenous populations. [Análisis sociodemográfico de las poblaciones nativas.] Dec 1997. xii, 293 pp. Instituto Nacional de Estadística [INE]: La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This study of the indigenous populations of Bolivia is based on data from the 1992 census and a census of rural indigenous population carried out in 1994. The first part is based on the 1992 census data and examines the characteristics of the native population in each province. The second part is based on the 1994 census and focuses on the native populations of Oriente, Chaco, and Amazonia.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Plaza Mario Guzmán No. 1, Casilla No. 6129, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41301 Price, Charles. Australian population: ethnic origins. People and Place, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1999. 12-6 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Australia's ethnic make-up has changed sharply over recent years as a consequence of the new and diverse source countries feeding Australia's migration program. New estimates of `ethnic strength' for 1999 show that Australia's people remain predominantly Anglo-Celtic in origin. However, the Anglo-Celtic share has fallen from 90 per cent in 1947 to 74.5 per cent in 1988, and to 70 per cent in 1999. Projections for the future indicate that if recent immigration trends are maintained the Anglo-Celtic share will fall to 62.2 per cent in 2025."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41302 Rowland, Richard H. Nationality population distribution, redistribution and degree of separation in Moscow, 1979-1989. Nationalities Papers, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1998. 705-21 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Despite the fact that the former Soviet Union was perhaps the most multinational state in the world, until recently data were not available to undertake a systematic investigation of patterns of nationality population, distribution, redistribution and segregation within Soviet cities. However, nationality data were recently published for the 32 rayons [districts] of Moscow for the last two census years of 1979 and 1989. Accordingly, the major thrust of this article will be to assess the regional distribution and redistribution of the major nationalities of Moscow, as well as the degree of nationality segregation in Moscow in 1979 and 1989. Furthermore, it will investigate trends between 1979 and 1989."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41303 Russell, Cheryl. Racial and ethnic diversity: Asians, blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and whites. 2nd ed. ISBN 1-885070-15-2. 1998. xxi, 706 pp. New Strategist Publications: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
This book presents a selection of comparative statistical tables on ethnic groups in the United States. For each major ethnic group and for the total population there are tables providing data on education, health, households, housing, income, labor force, population size, spending, and wealth. Data are taken from various official sources, including the 1990 census. There is also a chapter containing data on attitudes.
For the first edition, published in 1996, see 64:20620.
Correspondence: New Strategist Publications, P.O. Box 242, Ithaca, NY 14851. E-mail: demographics@newstrategist.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41304 Schmidley, A. Dianne; Gibson, Campbell. Profile of the foreign-born population in the United States: 1997. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 195, Aug 1999. v, 64 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents data on a wide range of geographic, demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics of the foreign-born population of the United States. Data are from a number of official sources, including the census and the March 1997 Current Population Survey. It is noted that the foreign-born population of 25.8 million in 1997 was the largest foreign-born population reported in U.S. history and represented an increase of 6 million, or 30 percent, over the 1990 census figure.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOM, Washington, D.C. 20402. E-mail: pop@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41305 Swallen, Karen C.; Stewart, Susan L. The calculation of intercensal population estimates for Chinese, Japanese and Filipinos, San Francisco Bay area: 1973-1992. In: Studies in applied demography: proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Applied Demography, 1994, edited by K. Vaninadha Rao. 1996. 95-115 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"The goal of this project was to estimate Chinese, Japanese and Filipino intercensal populations for the San Francisco Bay Area in order to calculate cancer rates by race. Population estimates were created using the Vital Rates technique. 1970, 1980 and 1990 census data were used as fixed endpoints.... Based on the broad age groups and three censuses, yearly estimates by 5-year age groups up to age 85+ and by sex were created. Problems encountered in the estimation included: counties with very few Asians; different growth patterns in the three populations; missing information on the 85+ age group; 1991 and 1992 estimates based on projections instead of estimates; undocumented populations; and unknown race."
Correspondence: K. C. Swallen, Northern California Cancer Center, 32960 Alvarado-Niles Road, Suite 600, Union City, CA 94587. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41306 Takenaka, Ayumi. Transnational community and its ethnic consequences: the return migration and the transformation of ethnicity of Japanese Peruvians. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,459-74 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article examines the consequences of transnational community formation for immigrants' communities and ethnic identity. Focusing on a culturally, nationally, and racially mixed group of Japanese Peruvians who are dispersed across Peru, Japan, and the United States, the author examines how their communities and ethnic identity are transformed as a consequence of their migrations and transnational ties.... The author found that Japanese Peruvians across the Pacific create their own ethnic identity as Nikkei, distinct from others, by exploiting their international ties and resources. She argues, therefore, that migrants' transnational ties can accentuate their group boundaries both within the sending and receiving countries...."
Correspondence: A. Takenaka, Columbia University, Department of Sociology, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41307 Yang, Yan; Yang, Xiaotong. A study on population development of the Yutu nationality in Gansu province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1998. 293-303 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Yutus are one of the unique minority ethnic groups in Gansu Province [China]. Blessed with a long history, they inhabit primarily the middle portion of the Hexi Corridor, to the north of the Qilian Mountain. According to the 1990 census, this group had a population of 11,801 in Gansu in 1990, making up 96% of the nation's total Yutu population, with a total fertility rate of 2.17 compared with the TFR of 2.13 among the entire Yutu population in the country. Apparently, the development of the Yutu population in Gansu has a direct impact on the prosperity of the group itself and the social and economic growth of the areas which they live in."
Correspondence: Y. Yang, Lanzhou University, Department of History, Program of Nationality Studies, 298 Tianshui Road, 730000 Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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