Volume 65 - Number 4 - Winter 1999

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

65:40878 Bähr, Jürgen; Mertins, Günter. Impacts of economic crisis and economic reforms on migration behavior in Cuba. [Die Auswirkungen von Wirtschaftskrise und Wirtschaftsreformen auf das Wanderungsverhalten in Kuba.] Erdkunde, Vol. 53, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1999. 14-34 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The extent to which the economic crisis and subsequent economic reforms in Cuba have affected patterns of migration is explored using official data and other sources. "On the one hand, previous migration tendencies, as the emigration to the USA, the in-migration into the capital and the out-migration from the peripheral eastern part of the country, have noticeably increased. On the other hand, however, new migration destinations have developed. Those are not only the considerably extended or newly founded tourism centres, but also favourably situated agrarian areas...which have on the one hand hugely profited from the reform in the agrarian regions, and on the other hand have cushioned a part of the employees dismissed from state industrial firms and service enterprises. The partial liberalisation of the labour market by the admission of `Work on one's own account' has allowed labour-orientated migrations [to] come to the fore. These are likely to increase in the future and will on the whole lead to an intensified attractiveness of the bigger cities. With that, the regional disparities, which could have been to a large extent removed during the socialist era, will increase again."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40879 Bandyopadhyay, Sabari; Chakraborty, Debesh. Migration in the north-eastern region of India during 1901-1991: size, trend, reasons and impact. Demography India, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1999. 75-97 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The paper has discussed the migration in the North-Eastern region [of India] and its trend, reasons and impact. With the help of the Census data, we have studied the pattern of migration in the region by dividing it into three components--(i) Migrants to the North-Eastern region from outside of India. (ii) Migrants to [the] North-Eastern region from [the] rest of India. (iii) Migrants who undertook migratory movements within the region."
Correspondence: S. Bandyopadhyay, Jadavpur University, Department of Economics, Calcutta, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40880 Boyle, Paul; Halfacree, Keith; Robinson, Vaughan. Exploring contemporary migration. ISBN 0-582-25161-3. 1998. xiv, 282 pp. Longman: Harlow, England. In Eng.
This textbook aims to introduce the topic of migration in both developed and developing countries. Various quantitative and qualitative methods used to describe and analyze migration are discussed, and several theoretical approaches used to explain migration patterns are summarized. There are chapters on the spatial impact of migration, defining and measuring migration, contrasting conceptual approaches in migration research, migration and employment, migration and the life course, migration and the quality of life, migration and social engineering, forced migration, and migration and culture. The book includes a bibliography.
Correspondence: Addison Wesley Longman, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow CM20 2JE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40881 Boyle, Paul; Halfacree, Keith. Migration and gender in the developed world. Routledge Research in Population and Migration, ISBN 0-415-17144-X. LC 98-44333. 1999. xi, 328 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of papers by various authors focusing on gender aspects of migration in the developed countries. The papers are as follows: A longitudinal and regional analysis of gender-specific social and spatial mobilities in England and Wales 1981-91, by Tony Fielding and Susan Halford; Gender variations in migration destination choice, by David Atkins and Stewart Fotheringham; The employment consequences of migration: gender differentials, by Anne Green, Irene Hardill, and Stephen Munn; Who gets on the escalator? Migration, social mobility and gender in Britain, by Irene Bruegel; The effect of family migration, migration history and self-selection on married women's labour market achievement, by Thomas Cooke and Adrian Bailey; Family migration and female participation in the labour market: moving beyond individual-level analyses, by Paul Boyle, Keith Halfacree, and Darren Smith; Migration, marriage and the life course: commitment and residential mobility, by Norman Bonney, Alison McCleery, and Emma Forster; Residential relocation of couples: the joint decision-making process considered, by Jenny Seavers; To follow the chicken or not? The role of women in the migration of Hong Kong professional couples, by Lin Li and Allan Findlay; Gender variations in the characteristics of migrants living alone in England and Wales 1991, by Ray Hall, Philip Ogden, and Catherine Hill; On the journeys of the gentrifiers: exploring gender, gentrification and migration, by Liz Bondi; Gender issues in Irish rural out-migration, by Catriona Ní Laoire; Gender relations and identities in the colonization of "Middle England", by Martin Phillips; Residential change: differences in the movements and living arrangements of divorced men and women, by Lynn Hayes and Alaa Al-Hamad; Gender, migration and household change in elderly age groups, by Emily Grundy and Karen Glaser; Differential migrations through later life, by Anthony Warnes; and Inside and outside the Pale: diaspora experiences of Irish women, by Bronwen Walter.
Correspondence: Routledge, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40882 Findley, Sally E. Women on the move: perspectives on gender changes in Latin America. Gender in Population Studies/Le Genre dans Les Etudes de Population, 1999. 40 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This study reviews what is known about female migration in the Caribbean and Latin America. There are chapters on levels of female migration, why women migrate, profiles of female migrants, and strategies of economic insertion of female migrants.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. E-mail: iussp@iussp.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40883 Forster, Emma; McCleery, Alison. Search for a primary influence in the migration decision: preliminary evidence for life cycle as a summary measure. In: Population, Planning and Policies, edited by Lars-Erik Borgegård, Allan M. Findlay, and Erik Sondell. CERUM Report, No. 5, ISBN 91-7191-397-1. 1997. 129-52 pp. Umeå University, Center for Regional Science: Umeå, Sweden. In Eng.
This is one of the papers in a volume publishing the proceedings of a conference on population, planning, and policies hosted by Umeå University, Sweden. "This paper will attempt an analysis of motivational factors [in migration decisions] by assessing the relative importance of factors such as employment, life cycle, housing and quality of life in migration decision-making, while at the same time weighing up the consideration given to structural and individual causes.... The findings in this paper use data from the Migration and Housing Choice Survey (MHCS), co-ordinated by the Centre for Planning, Strathclyde University and the Department of Social Sciences, Napier University." The geographical focus is on Scotland.
Correspondence: E. Forster, Napier University, Department of Psychology and Sociology, Redwood House, 66 Spylaw Road, Edinburgh EH10 5BR, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40884 Guest, Philip. Mobility transitions within a global system: migration in the ESCAP region. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1999. 57-72 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article focuses on the context within which migration occurs in the ESCAP region. It covers the patterns of migration according to countries' stage in the demographic transition process and level of economic development. It points out that, although international migration is receiving increased attention, it is internal migration that makes up the vast majority of moves. Internal migration is characterized by a high proportion of temporary migrants, a significant proportion of whom are female, and people moving from rural to urban areas. The article also discusses urbanization and international migration as well as the impacts of these processes. It concludes with a number of predictions about the pattern of migration in the first quarter of the twentieth century, during which migration is expected to come to the forefront as a demographic, economic, social and political issue."
Correspondence: P. Guest, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40885 Hochstadt, Steve. Mobility and modernity: migration in Germany, 1820-1989. ISBN 0-472-10944-8. LC 98-40110. 1999. xviii, 331 pp. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The relationship between mobility and modernization is examined using data on German migrations over the past 200 years. "Migration rates in Germany rose continuously throughout the nineteenth century, and have fallen during the twentieth century. Mobility, [the author] argues, was not an unprecedented accompaniment to industrialization, but a traditional rural response to specific economic changes. [The author's]...analysis of urban in- and outmigration shows the mechanism of urbanization to have been the migration of families rather than the much greater, but also more circular, migration of single men and women."
Correspondence: University of Michigan Press, 639 Greene Street, P.O. Box 1104, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:40886 Hugo, Graeme. Gender and migrations in Asian countries. Gender in Population Studies/Le Genre dans Les Etudes de Population, ISBN 2-87108-071-2. 1999. 37 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The increasing participation of women in Asian migration is examined in this paper. There are chapters on data considerations, internal migration involving women, international migration, explaining female migration, the migration of women and exploitation, and migration and female empowerment.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. E-mail: iussp@iussp.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40887 Illés, Sándor; Tóth, Pál P. Migration. [Migráció.] ISBN 963-7109-73-0. 1998. 310; 238 pp. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
These two volumes contain a selection of articles by various authors on aspects of migration in Hungary. The first volume has articles on both historical migration and migration immediately after World War II in Hungary and neighboring countries; there are also articles on internal migration by age, rural-urban migration, suburbanization near Budapest, urbanization, internal migration in Italy, and migration of families or households. The second volume contains articles on changes in the regulations governing foreign travel, the impact of emigration on the demography of Hungary, international labor migration, the brain drain, and other international migration topics.
Correspondence: Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Károly Utca 5-7, 1024 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40888 Lin, Ji-Ping; Liaw, Kao-Lee. Return and onward migrations of the young labor force in Taiwan: evidence from the data of the 1990 census. Journal of Population Studies, No. 20, Oct 1999. 63-92 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper [seeks] to identify and assess the determinants of 1985-90 interprefectural return and onward migrations of the young non-native labor force (aged 25-29 in 1990) in Taiwan.... The following are the main findings. First, disappointments are more likely to result in return migrations.... Second, the U-shaped effect of previous migration distance in the return/onward model...supports the disappointment hypothesis.... Third, return migration is selective of the less educated labor force... Fourth, agricultural workers are particularly prone to remigrate and choose return option from prefectures with a high non-agricultural share of total employment. Fifth, the relative sensitivity of male and female labor force...[is] substantially affected by the patriarchal ideology; within this value system, breadwinners are (1) more prone to move onward, (2) less prone to return, and (3) more responsive to the pushes and pulls of market forces than non-breadwinners."
Correspondence: J.-P. Lin, Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40889 Lu, Max. Do people move when they say they will? Inconsistencies in individual migration behavior. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 5, May 1999. 467-88 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study investigates behavioral inconsistencies in migration using data drawn from the 1985, 1987 and 1989 rounds of he American Housing Survey (AHS). Mobility is inferred by comparing occupants of the same housing units in two consecutive surveys. The results show that a substantial number of people do not realize their intention to move and many move unexpectedly; with or without prior intentions to move, movers and stayers appear to differ significantly in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics. The extent to which individuals act consistently with their intentions also differs along with their attributes (e.g., tenure, age, education and gender). The paper discusses possible reasons for behavioral inconsistencies in migration based on recent developments in social psychological theories of human behavior."
Correspondence: M. Lu, Kansas State University, Department of Geography, Dickens Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40890 Lucassen, Jan; Lucassen, Leo. Migration, migration history, history: old paradigms and new perspectives. International and Comparative Social History, No. 4, ISBN 3-906762-14-9. 1999. 454 pp. Peter Lang: Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Eng.
"During the last decade studies have indicated that migration has been a normal, structural element of human societies throughout history. Progress in migration and settlement studies under this new paradigm has been so substantial that a new state of the art is needed. This book presents a reconsideration of current theoretical perspective encompassing enlightened insights in diverging specialisms in the field of migration history, such as slavery studies, ethnic history, macro-economic migration studies, and gypsy studies. The seventeen essays in this volume, written by leading scholars in the field, collectively represent a pioneering effort in migration and settlement studies. They address the problems of ongoing specialization (and hence the need for synthesis) and the difficulties of integrating the consequences of this new paradigm into general histories."
Correspondence: Peter Lang, Eschborner Landstraße 42-50, Postfach 940225, 60460 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40891 McCleery, Alison; Forster, Emma. Developing a Scottish Migration Monitor: a co-operative approach. IASSIST Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 4, Winter 1995. 12-22 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"The Migration and Housing Choice (Scotland) Survey was conducted in the early nineties by researchers from two Scottish Universities; Strathclyde and Napier. The purpose of the survey was to discover the intentionality, namely, the motivation behind household migration patterns, to use the data for academic research and to inform decision making by urban and regional planning agencies in both the public and private sector. We regard the work done to date as a large pilot study for what may become an ongoing Scottish Household Migration Monitor. This paper contains descriptions of the following: context of the survey; conduct of the survey; data handling issues; the role of Edinburgh University Data Library; [and] assessment of strategy and future plans."
Correspondence: A. McCleery, Napier University, Department of Economics, 219 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH14 1DJ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40892 Milazi, Dominic. Migration within the context of poverty and landlessness in southern Africa. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume I: Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 145-64 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
The relationship between landlessness and emigration in rural communities in Lesotho and South Africa is explored. The author describes the high dependence of these communities on incomes derived from migrant labor because of population pressure on limited land supply, poor natural resources, and extreme poverty. The importance of resolving problems associated with land ownership in the post-apartheid era is noted.
Correspondence: D. Milazi, University North West, Faculty of Social Sciences, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40893 Ogden, Philip; Charbit, Yves. Migration and ethnicity in the United Kingdom. [Migration et ethnicité au Royaume-Uni.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1999. 187 pp. Association pour l'Etude des Migrations Internationales [AEMI]: Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This is a special issue on migration and ethnicity in the United Kingdom. Articles are included on ethnic groups in the census, geographical patterns of internal migration, and international migration flows and regimes.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, MSHS, 99 avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. E-mail: remi@mshs.univ-poitiers.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40894 Pieke, Frank N.; Mallee, Hein. Internal and international migration: Chinese perspectives. ISBN 0-7007-1076-0. 1999. xi, 354 pp. Curzon Press: Richmond, England. In Eng.
This collective work is the product of a workshop held in Oxford, England, July 3-5, 1996, and contains 16 papers on aspects of both internal and international migration concerning China. They are: Introduction: Chinese and European perspectives on migration, by Frank N. Pieke; The "static" decades: interprovincial migration in pre-reform China, by Diana Lary; Internal migration in China: a dualistic approach, by Kam Wing Chan; Selectivity, migration reasons and backward linkages of rural-urban migrants: a sample survey of migrants to Foshan and Shenzhen in comparative perspective, by Thomas Scharping; Migrant construction teams in Beijing, by Victor Yuan and Xin Wong; The floating population and the integration of the city community: a survey on the attitudes of Shanghai residents to recent migrants, by Jinhong Ding and Norman Stockman; Issues in the fertility of temporary migrants in Beijing, by Caroline Hoy; Moving stones from China to Europe: the dynamics of emigration from Zhejiang to Europe, by Mette Thunø; "To get rich quickly in Europe!"--reflections on migration motivation in Wenzhou, by Li Minghuan; Patterns of migration from Zhejiang to Germany, by Karsten Giese; Zhejiang village in Beijing: creating a visible non-state space through migration and marketized networks, by Xiang Biao; Chinese organizations in Hungary, 1989-1996: a case study in PRC-oriented community politics overseas, by Pál Nyíri; Exporting the "Wenzhou model" to Beijing and Florence: labour and economic organization in two migrant communities, by Luigi Tomba; Female autobiographies from the Cultural Revolution: returned Xiaxiang educated women in the 1990s, by Nora Sausmikat; Separation, reunion and the Chinese attachment to place, by Charles Stafford; Of exceptionalisms and generalities, by Ronald Skeldon and Graeme Hugo.
Correspondence: Curzon Press, 15 The Quadrant, Richmond TW9 1BP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40895 Pratten, David T. Reconstructing community: the intermediary role of Sahelian associations in processes of migration and rural development. African Rural and Urban Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1996. 49-77 pp. East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
"The position of migrant associations in Africa's social, political, and economic development has been subject to an array of contrasting and apparently contradictory interpretations. These groups, formed by migrant communities who share a common rural identity, have been described as both welfare systems for poor migrants and vehicles for a politically ambitious elite.... This article does not attempt to synthesize these positions but rather to indicate that such contrasting perspectives are not mutually incompatible, and that, in pursuing the development of their communities, rural and urban associations encompass dialectical processes."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40896 Saith, Ashwani. Migration processes and policies: some Asian perspectives. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999. 285-311 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article argues that perspectives of migration as a matter of individual choice or structural coercion are limited in explaining Asian experiences in internal and international migration. Migration experiences in Asia range from early coerced and state-mediated migrations to migrations that are mostly demand-determined. A few exceptional cases, such as that of Malaysia, Indonesia's transmigration programs, and enforced migration on account of infrastructural projects, are noted. Also highlighted is migration in China before and after 1978. The Chinese path is distinct in that before market reforms, there was little rural to urban migration despite a high rate of industrialization. After 1978, rural to urban migration and urbanization increased, but was still lower compared to the rest of Asia. Whether China will go the same way as other Asian countries and how the state will respond to the challenges of increasing migration remain to be seen."
Correspondence: A. Saith, Institute of Social Studies, P.O. Box 29776, 2502 LT The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40897 Sassen, Saskia. Guests and aliens. ISBN 1-56584-481-5. LC 98-33126. 1999. xxi, 202 pp. New Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, which is translated from the original German, is about the history of migration in Europe. "It shows the extent to which international and inter-regional labor migrations have been both a widespread and a strategic component of Europe's urbanization and industrialization history over the last three centuries, whether it was the seasonal long-distance migrations of the Hollandgänger from Westphalia to Amsterdam in the late 1700s or the migrations of Italians to build railroads and cities in Germany in the 1800s." The author considers the relevance of the historical experience of migration in Europe to attempts to develop suitable migration policies in today's world.
Correspondence: New Press, 450 West 41st Street, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40898 Sivini, Giordano. Social disintegration and migration processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. [Disgregazione sociale e processi migratori nell'Africa subsahariana.] Africa, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1998. 17-46 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Modern migrations in Sub-Saharan Africa are the consequence of social transformations caused by colonialism and by the following rural and urban crisis. The author examines the different migration flows and the consequences in the origin and destination areas. On the one hand he analyses in detail the circular migrations and on the other the urban informal sector. He asserts, on a theoretical basis, that modern migrations are a way to resist...marginalisation and to find better conditions of life."
Correspondence: G. Sivini, Università di Calabria, Dipartimento di Sociologia e di Scienza Politica, Via P. Bucci, 87030 Arcavacata di Rende, Calabria, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40899 Sjöberg, Örjan; Tammaru, Tiit. Transitional statistics: internal migration and urban growth in post-Soviet Estonia. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 51, No. 5, 1999. 821-42 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The problems associated with studying migration patterns in the Soviet-successor states in the light of inadequate and changing data collection systems are illustrated using the example of Estonia. The focus is on "identifying the consequences of a change in reporting regulations and practices. To this end a survey of individual migration histories was conducted in 1997. This exercise, to the extent that it yielded a more reliable set of data than that which official statistic afford, indicates that post-Soviet migration data are little better than their Soviet-era predecessors: different but still deficient. The contrasts between our survey returns and officially reported statistics are outlined, as are the sources of divergence."
Correspondence: Ö. Sjöberg, Stockholm School of Economics, P.O. Box 6501, 113 83 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: orjan.sjoberg@hhs.se. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40900 Skeldon, Ronald. Migration in Asia after the economic crisis: patterns and issues. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1999. 3-24 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article finds that the economic crisis that began in parts of Asia in the middle of 1997 has altered the migration patterns that emerged during the first half of the 1990s, but in unexpected ways. It provides a broad regional assessment of the economic and social impacts and concludes by drawing out implications for policy and making a number of recommendations for governments to consider in order to prevent a worsening of the situation."
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40901 Spaan, Ernst. Labour circulation and socioeconomic transformation: the case of East Java, Indonesia. NIDI Report, No. 56, ISBN 90-70990-76-8. 1999. 374, [22] pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This thesis deals with determinants and process of labour migration, within the context of East Java province, a region experiencing rapid socioeconomic change.... The main purpose of the dissertation is to explore the diversity of labour mobility, and identify the determinants, characteristic features and main consequences of these mobility patterns on the macro (national, region), meso (community) and micro level (household, individual). We have compared three different areas in East Java, which differ in their agro-ecological, developmental and socio-cultural features."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: Info@Nidi.NL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40902 Trager, Lillian. Mobility, linkages, and "local" institutions in African development. African Rural and Urban Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1996. 7-23 pp. East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
"African peoples have moved from one place to another for a variety of reasons; much of the history of the continent depends on the movement and interaction of peoples in time and space. In the colonial and post-independence eras, those movements became central to the existence of people in many parts of the region, ranging from labor migration to mines in central and southern Africa, to coastal movements of young men in the Sahel, to urban migration throughout all of sub-Saharan Africa. Older forms of movement, such as pastoralism, have continued as well. And in recent years, the movements of refugees fleeing natural and man-made disasters, especially war, have added to the image of a continent of people on the move.... This...essay briefly reviews the study of African mobility and linkages.... It then considers...how our understanding of African development can be enhanced by comprehending the importance of movement and connections for large numbers of African people"
Correspondence: L. Trager, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Box 2000, 900 Wood Road, Kenosha, WI 53141-2000. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40903 Vitkovskaya, Galina. Potential migration of Russian-speaking populations from central Asia to Russia. In: Population under duress: the geodemography of post-Soviet Russia, edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya. 1999. 149-75 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This analysis of the potential for further migration of the Russian-speaking population in the states of the former Soviet Union is based on a 1994-1995 survey of 1,080 families of non-titular populations in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan. The author estimates that about 2.5 million Russian speakers will seek to leave these three countries to migrate to Russia over the next five years.
Correspondence: G. Vitkovskaya, Moscow Carnegie Center, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40904 Wein, Norbert. Demographic changes in Asiatic Russia: migratory flows in Siberia and the Far East after the collapse of the Soviet Union. [Bevölkerungsbewegungen im asiatischen Rußland: Migrationsströme in Sibirien und im Fernen Osten nach dem Zusammenbruch der Sowjetunion.] Osteuropa, Vol. 49, No. 9, Sep 1999. 908-22 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger.
Despite significant regional migration since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990, the total population of Siberia and Russia's Far East has remained fairly constant. There have, however, been significant migratory flows within the region which have altered the population distribution. There was a reverse migration to more rural regions from the impoverished cities. Ethnic Russians are migrating into Russia from the autonomous regions and republics, while non-Russians are migrating back into these areas. The more northern and remote regions have lost population, while Western Siberia has gained inhabitants. Finally, emigrants to foreign countries constitute a "brain drain" for the Russian Federation, while labor migrants from south-east Asia are increasing the potential for social conflict in an already precarious economy.
Correspondence: N. Wein, University of Düsseldorf, 4000 Düsseldorf, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

65:40905 Adepoju, Aderanti. Emigration dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume I: Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 17-34 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This chapter summarizes some of the main findings from the joint United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and International Organization for Migration (IOM) research project, carried out over the period 1993-1997, on the emigration dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa. Topics covered include poverty and landlessness, conflict and loss of state capacities, ethnicity and ethnic conflicts, population policies, regional economic cooperation, and international legal treaties.
Correspondence: A. Adepoju, IDEP, Population, Human Resources and Development in Africa, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40906 Afolayan, A. A. Emigration dynamics in Nigeria: landlessness, poverty, ethnicity and differential responses. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume I: Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 35-68 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is: to describe, analyse and evaluate the socioeconomic factors of landlessness, poverty and ethnicity as these influence emigration dynamics in Nigeria through a study of selected representative sample communities; to identify, analyse and evaluate differential emigration responses to the socioeconomic factors of landlessness, poverty and ethnicity in the selected communities; and to make relevant findings for the use of governments of both donor and recipient countries of the Nigerian emigrants."
Correspondence: A. A. Afolayan, University of Ibadan, Department of Geography, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40907 Akgündüz, Ahmet. Migration to and from Turkey, 1783-1960: types, numbers and ethno-religious dimensions. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1998. 97-120 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Migratory movements to and from Turkey during the period between 1783 and 1960 are analysed by grouping them under two headings: non-economic migrations and economic migrations. The size, ethno-religious composition and causes of each movement are considered. The article pays special attention to the mass economic migration from Turkey (the Ottoman Empire) to North and South America. Turks were represented in very small numbers in this migration given that they constituted the largest group within the Ottoman population.... The article also considers whether there is any continuity or relationship between the migrations of the pre-1960 period and the post-1960 labour migration to Western Europe."
Correspondence: A. Akgündüz, University of Amsterdam, Institute of Migration and Ethnic Studies, Rokin 84, 1012 KX Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: akgunduz@pscw.uva.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40908 Alders, M.; de Beer, J. Forecasts of international migration 1998-2050. [Migratieprognose 1998-2050.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 47, No. 12, Dec 1999. 38-47 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"It is [predicted] that immigration [to the Netherlands] will stabilise in the long run due to two counteracting forces. The growing immigration pressure from poor countries is assumed to be balanced by...increasingly restrictive immigration policy. Emigration rates are assumed to decline.... Nevertheless the absolute number of emigrants will increase from 82 thousand in 1997 to over 100 thousand in the long run, due to the increase in population size. As a result net migration will decline from 40 thousand in the late 1990s to less than 25 thousand in the long run. It is assumed that the odds are two to one that net migration in 2015 will be between 13 thousand and 48 thousand."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40909 Angenendt, Steffen. Asylum and migration practices in the European Union. ISBN 3-7713-0577-2. 1999. 345 pp. Europa Union Verlag: Bonn, Germany; Forschungsinstitut der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik E.V. [DGAP]: Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This collective work is about the growing importance of the European Union as a preferred destination for both migrants and refugees. Although many of the issues of migration policy are dealt with at the European level, individual countries have continued to make decisions on many important migrant-related issues, including who to admit and how to integrate new immigrants. Following a general introduction, in which structures, challenges, and policies concerning asylum and migration are examined in a comparative perspective, the situation in each member country is described in a separate chapter.
Correspondence: Europa Union Verlag, Postfach 1529, 5005 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40910 Appleyard, Reginald. Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume I: Sub-Saharan Africa. ISBN 1-84014-554-4. LC 98-73509. 1998. xi, 365 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This is one of four volumes devoted to the results of a joint research project of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on emigration dynamics between 1993 and 1997. This volume contains nine papers by various authors on emigration dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Ashgate Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40911 Appleyard, Reginald. Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume II: South Asia. ISBN 1-84014-553-6. LC 98-73509. 1998. xiv, 293 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This is one of four volumes devoted to the results of a joint research project of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on emigration dynamics between 1993 and 1997. This volume contains nine papers by various authors on emigration dynamics in Southern Asia.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Ashgate Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40912 Appleyard, Reginald. Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume III: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. ISBN 1-84014-551-X. LC 98-73885. 1999. xi, 334 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This is one of four volumes devoted to the results of a joint research project of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on emigration dynamics between 1993 and 1997. This volume contains nine papers by various authors on emigration dynamics in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Ashgate Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40913 Appleyard, Reginald. Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume IV: the Arab region. ISBN 1-84014-552-8. LC 99-73629. 1999. xii, 277 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This is one of four volumes devoted to the results of a joint research project of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on emigration dynamics between 1993 and 1997. This volume contains six papers by various authors on emigration dynamics in the Arab countries of the Middle East. The contents are: New perspectives on political economy of migration in the Middle East, by Nazli Choucri; Emigration dynamics in Egypt, by Mayar Farrag; Emigration dynamics in Maghreb, by Nadji Safir; Emigration dynamics in Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon, by Seteney Shami; Migration dynamics in the GCC countries, by Lynne Evans and Ivy Papps; and Conceptualizing and simulating emigration dynamics, by Charles W. Stahl and Wylie Bradford.
Correspondence: Ashgate Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40914 Arif, G. M.; Irfan, Mohammad. Population mobility across the Pakistani border: fifty years experience. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 36, No. 4, Part II, Winter 1997. 989-1,009 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"This paper describes population mobility across borders experienced by Pakistan during the past fifty years.... The dichotomy of this population mobility into inward and outward flow reveals that while the former can be traced to political factors like the partition of the Subcontinent and the Afghan war, the latter mostly represents a job-oriented move.... Differences emanate from the pattern of permanent or temporary settlement abroad, characteristics of the emigrants particularly in terms of human capital endowments and the nature of links maintained with families in Pakistan which have a bearing on the inflow of remittances." A comment by S. I. Cohen (pp.1,006-9) is included.
Correspondence: G. M. Arif, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40915 Auerbach, Alan J.; Oreopoulos, Philip. Generational accounting and immigration in the United States. NBER Working Paper, No. 7041, Mar 1999. 26, [8] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper reconsiders the fiscal impact of immigrants [in the United States] over time, using the technique of generational accounting.... (1) Because new immigrants represent a larger fraction of future generations than of present ones, shifting the burden onto future generations also shifts it, relatively, onto new immigrants.... (2) When a policy of `fiscal responsibility' is followed, whether there is a fiscal gain from immigration depends on the extent to which government purchases rise with the immigrant population [and] (3) The impact of immigration on fiscal balance is extremely small relative to the size of the overall imbalance itself. Thus, immigration should be viewed neither as a major source of the existing imbalance, nor as a potential solution to it."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: auerbach@econ.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40916 Azam, Farooq-I. International migration dynamics in high and low migration districts of Pakistan. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume II: South Asia, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 147-75 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"The aim of the present study is to delineate what constitutes the migration dynamic in a labour sending country [Pakistan]. Understanding factors which cause migration is the first step towards finding durable solutions for economic and social autonomy of a country, and essential for incorporating such an important phenomenon as labour migration into the planning framework. Both economic and social conditions (such as the nature and structure of economy, employment opportunities, etc.) at macro level and individual characteristics (such as age, educational attainment, skills level, etc.) at micro level, may interact to produce the migration dynamic in a given geographical area which would reflect its migration potential. The study attempts to provide a model which could be followed for determining this migration potential." The data for the study are from two districts, one with high levels and one with low levels of migration.
Correspondence: F.-I. Azam, Overseas Pakistanis Division, Welfare and Services Division, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40917 Baganha, Maria I.; Góis, Pedro. International migrations to and from Portugal: What do we know and where do we go? [Migrações internacionais de e para Portugal: o que sabemos e para onde vamos?] Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, No. 52-53, Nov-Feb 1998-1999. 229-80 pp. Coimbra, Portugal. In Por.
This is a general review of the published literature on international migration trends affecting Portugal since the end of World War II, with emphasis on the most recent 20 years. The article is in two parts, the first dealing with emigration and the second with immigration.
Correspondence: M. I. Baganha, Universidade de Coimbra, Faculdade de Economia, Avenida Dias da Silva 165, 3004-512 Coimbra, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40918 Baganha, Maria I. Portuguese emigration and international migration trends (1855-1974): a historical synthesis. [A emigração portuguesa e as correntes migratórias internacionais (1855-1974): síntese histórica.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 13, No. 38, Apr 1998. 29-55 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The article reviews Portuguese emigration in the nineteenth and twentieth century within [the] world context. Portugal becomes a mass migration country from the third quarter of the nineteenth century onwards; two different cycles being clearly distinguishable: overseas migrations until 1930 and European migrations afterwards. Portugal comes into the picture of European migrations in the sixties, after signing agreements with France, the Netherlands and Germany. The evolution of the Portuguese legal [frameworks] for migration is analyzed, the criteria that dictated them and their relation to clandestine migration [discussed]. Finally the emigration flows as per period, origin and destination are considered, as well as social and economic patterns of migrants."
Correspondence: M. I. Baganha, Universidad de Coimbra, Faculdade de Economia, Avenida Dias da Silva 165, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40919 Baldwin-Edwards, Martin; Arango, Joaquin. Immigrants and the informal economy in southern Europe. South European Society and Politics, Vol. 3, No. 3, ISBN 0-7146-4925-2. Winter 1998. 274 pp. Frank Cass: Portland, Oregon/London, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains 10 articles by various authors, which together make up an interim assessment of the evolution of the immigration situation in the countries of southern Europe, together with a comparative analysis of how the governments of the recipient countries have responded to immigration. The papers are: Where free markets reign: aliens in the twilight zone, by Martin Baldwin-Edwards; A survey of the economics of illegal migration, by Andreas Jahn and Thomas Straubhaar; Illegality, enlightenment and ambiguity: a hot Italian recipe, by Giovanna Zincone; The mass legalization of migrants in Italy: permanent or temporary emergence from the underground economy?, by Emilio Reyneri; Immigrants in the Spanish labour market, by Ubaldo Martínez Veiga; Italian and Spanish labour leaders' unconventional immigration policy preferences, by Julie R. Watts; Multicultural insertions in a small economy: Portugal's immigrant communities, by David Corkill and Martin Eaton; Immigration, clandestine work and labour market strategies: the construction sector in the metropolitan region of Lisbon, by Jorge Macaísta Malheiros; Greece: the contours of a fragmented policy response, by Martin Baldwin-Edwards and Rossetos Fakiolas; Socio-spatial dynamics and exclusion of three immigrant groups in the Athens conurbation, by Theodoros Iosifides and Russell King; and Trafficking for sexual exploitation and the sex business in the new context of international migration: the case of Italy, by Giovanna Campani.
Correspondence: Frank Cass Publishers, Newbury House, 900 Eastern Avenue, London IG2 7HH, England. E-mail: info@frankcass.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40920 Bandiyono, Suko; Raharto, Aswatini; Romdiati, Haning. Legal or illegal? The choice facing migrants from Flores to Malaysia. Development Bulletin, No. 48, Apr 1999. 37-40 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This article will report on a case study of an Eastern Indonesian population which regularly migrates overseas in search of work. This is the population of East Flores, which has developed a pattern of migrating to the state of Sabah in Malaysia. This case study will be used as the basis for considering issues of migration policy."
Correspondence: S. Bandiyono, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Center for Population and Manpower Studies, PPT-LIPI, Gedung Widya Graha Lt. X, Jalan Gatot Subroto 10, Djakarta Selatan, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40921 Berliner Institut für Vergleichende Sozialforschung (Berlin, Germany). The former Soviet Union. Migration, No. 29-31, 1998. 148 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
This collection of articles examines various aspects of migration flows in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Verlagsabteilung des Berliner Instituts für Vergleichende Sozialforschung, Edition Parabolis, Schliemannstraße 23, 10437 Berlin, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:40922 Blanc-Chaléard, Marie-Claude. Immigration and national logic. [Immigration et logiques nationales.] Le Mouvement Social, No. 188, Jul-Sep 1999. 160 pp. Les Editions de l'Atelier/Editions Ouvrières: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This special issue contains seven papers on aspects of immigration in Europe, with particular emphasis on France. The issue is a product of a seminar held in October 1997 at the University of Orleans, France. The emphasis is on the role of the state in receiving countries and the consequences of policy decisions for the immigrants in those countries.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Les Editions de l'Atelier/Editions Ouvrières, 12 avenue Soeur-Rosalie, 75013 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40923 Böcker, Anita; Groenendijk, Kees; Havinga, Tetty; Minderhoud, Paul. Regulation of migration. International experiences. ISBN 90-5589-095-2. 1998. 279 pp. Spinhuis: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This book brings together researchers from various countries and disciplines, including history, political science and sociology of law. They discuss the attempts by different governments to regulate migration flows and to assess the effects of the instruments they use to do so. The book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with the regulation of migration in a historical perspective, particularly the socio-economic context of regulation and the short-term and long-term effects of immigration policy. The second part presents case studies of successful and unsuccessful regulation and means to provide an explanation of the effects. The last part is devoted to the East-West migration in Europe and the current developments in the region."
Correspondence: Het Spinhuis Publishers, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: spinhuis@pscw.uva.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40924 Bonifazi, Corrado; Cerbara, Loredana. Foreign immigrants: Italian public opinion and attitudes. [Gli immigrati stranieri: valutazioni, conoscenze e giudizi degli italiani.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 36, No. 133, Mar 1999. 3-38 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The results of three official surveys carried out in Italy in 1987-1988, 1991, and 1997 on the attitude and opinions of Italians concerning immigrants are presented. The emphasis is on changes in attitudes over time. Particular attention is given to the results of the most recent survey. The analytical methods employed include cluster analysis in order to identify the characteristics of people with similar opinions.
Correspondence: C. Bonifazi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40925 Bös, Mathias. Migration as a problem of open societies: globalization and social change in Western Europe and North America. [Migration als Problem offener Gesellschaften: Globalisierung und sozialer Wandel in Westeuropa und Nordamerika.] ISBN 3-8100-1697-7. LC 97-143603. 1997. 230 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
The development of international migration flows to and from the United States, Germany, and France are analyzed with the aim of developing a sociological theory linking the internal institutions of nation states with global migration systems. Chapter 1 lays the theoretical groundwork by discussing theories of endogenous and exogenous factors of social change, especially as they pertain to globalization and the opening and closing of boundaries. It also looks at migration theories and "ethnicization". Chapter 2 examines the development of migration systems and citizenship laws. Chapter 3 covers the interaction between globalization tendencies, expressed in migration systems, and the closing and opening of social and national boundaries.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Straße 27, 51379 Leverkusen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40926 Botelho, Vera L. International migration and transnationalism: an empirical account. Danish Center for Demographic Research, Research Report, No. 8, ISBN 87-90736-08-7. Mar 1999. 22 pp. Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research: Odense, Denmark. In Eng.
"Recent studies on international migration have stressed the rise of new patterns of immigrants. A theoretical framework, termed `transnationalism' has been developing to account for this new phenomenon.... This study is an attempt to provide a relevant test of the empirical bases of transnationalism. For this, we have taken the Brazilian immigration to British Columbia (Canada) as a case study, focusing our analysis on two aspects of the migration process: adaptation and maintenance of ethnicity."
Correspondence: Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research, Hollufgaard, Hestehaven 201, 5220 Odense SØ, Denmark. Author's E-mail: vera@statdem.ou.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40927 Braga Martes, Ana C. Brazilians in Massachusetts. [Brasileños en Massachusetts.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 13, No. 39, Aug 1998. 257-88 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Brazilian emigration to countries in North America, Europe, Latin America and Asia, a movement unseen so far, started in the 1980s. This movement was first registered by the media, but received little attention from scholars. This article aims at providing a deeper knowledge on Brazilian emigration regarding the following aspects: Who are the Brazilian emigrants? Why are they leaving their country? To answer these questions, data collected on field work in Massachusetts, where the second greatest concentration of Brazilian immigrants exists, are analyzed."
Correspondence: A. C. Braga Martes, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40928 Brown, Mary E. Shapers of the great debate on immigration: a biographical dictionary. Shapers of the Great American Debates, No. 1, ISBN 0-313-30339-8. LC 98-21664. 1998. xxv, 322 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Natives and immigrants, men and women, people from all regions, races, and religions, and people from all walks of life have brought varying perspectives to the long-running debate on immigration. Drawing from a large cast of characters--from Thomas Jefferson, Booker T. Washington, and Cesar Chavez to Jane Addams, Henry Ford, and Patrick McCarran--this book introduces students to people who have contributed to U.S. immigration policy from the Revolution to the present. Showing how each person's opinion drew from personal experience and thus added a new dimension to the debate, the book encompasses such issues as immigration and economics, partisan politics, culture, public opinion, and ethics."
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40929 Cagiano de Azevedo, Raimondo. International migrations as a factor of security and cooperation in Europe. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1997. 21-33 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
Some of the problems that are raised by current immigration trends in Europe are examined. The focus is on the development of cooperative agreements among the countries of origin and destination to deal with these problems.
Correspondence: R. Cagiano de Azevedo, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Facoltà di Economia, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40930 Canada. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (Ottawa, Canada). Canada...the place to be: annual immigration plan for the year 2000. [Le Canada...pays par excellence: plan d'immigration pour l'an 2000.] ISBN 0-662-64552-9. 1999. 17, 17 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This document lays out, as required by law, the immigration plan for Canada for the year 2000. It includes estimates of the total number of immigrants, including refugees, to be admitted during the year. Data on immigration for the period 1996-1998 are also included.
For the 1999 immigration plan, see 64:40446.
Correspondence: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Communications Branch, Jean Edmonds Tower South, 365 Laurier Avenue West, 19th Floor, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1L1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40931 Capaldi, Nicholas. Immigration: debating the issues. Contemporary Issues, ISBN 1-57392-142-4. LC 97-6542. 1997. 324 pp. Prometheus Books: Amherst, New York. In Eng.
This book contains a selection of pieces by various authors that argue the case for and against immigration in the United States. "Divided into five parts, this volume covers several controversial areas: why there is a debate about immigration, immigration's historical and legal background, the economics and politics of immigration, the cultural challenge of immigration, and English as the national language."
Correspondence: Prometheus Books, 59 John Glenn Drive, Amherst, New York 14228-2197. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:40932 Carter, Susan B.; Sutch, Richard. Historical perspectives on the economic consequences of immigration into the United States. NBER Working Paper Series on Historical Factors in Long Run Growth, No. 106, Dec 1997. v, 48, [30] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper highlights the distinctive features of the theoretical approach taken by scholars who analyzed the impacts of the mass migration into the United States in the two decades preceding World War I. Broadly speaking, this literature was couched in terms of the `aggregate production function,' and emphasized advancing technology, productivity change, and changes in factor proportions. Attention was focused on the close interrelatedness among the many diverse elements in the economy. A notable difference between the historical studies and the recent literature on the impacts of immigration is the propensity of the current literature to concentrate only on the first-round consequences. It is easy to show that these will be harmful to resident workers who face direct competition. Economic historians writing about the earlier period of high immigration went beyond the first-round effects. Taking a long-run perspective, they identified many aspects of the mass immigration that were beneficial from the point of view of the resident population."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: susan.carter@ucr.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40933 Carter, Thomas J. Illegal immigration in an efficiency wage model. Journal of International Economics, Vol. 49, No. 2, Dec 1999. 385-401 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper studies illegal immigration using an efficiency wage/dual labor market model. The illegal immigrants are endogenously sorted, completely or incompletely, into secondary labor markets. The effects of immigration on native workers are more complex than in standard models of factor mobility. As illegals first enter the country, natives may gain because the number of primary sector jobs rises. With enough illegals in the country, natives are hurt because the migrants increasingly take those primary sector jobs. Enforcing immigration laws by deporting migrants who work in primary sector jobs is Pareto-superior to other forms of enforcement." The geographical focus is on the United States and other host countries.
Correspondence: T. J. Carter, Oklahoma City University, Department of Economics, 2501 North Blackwelder, Oklahoma City, OK 73106. E-mail: tcarter@frodo.okcu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40934 Castillo García, Manuel A.; Palma Calderón, Silvia I. Central American international emigration: trends and impacts. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume III: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1999. 285-331 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"The present study is based upon the model proposed by the IOM/UNFPA research project to analyse recent emigration trends and changes compared with previous courses of emigration. Recent developments have greatly influenced the social dynamics of each Central American country, as well as their emigration patterns. For the purposes of this study, we define Central America as comprising Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.... One hypothesis in this study addresses the relation between the degree of insecure and unstable living conditions of the population and the emergence of emigration as an option for survival."
Correspondence: M. A. Castillo García, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40935 Castles, Stephen. Globalisation and migration: some pressing contradictions. 1997. 9 pp. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO]: Paris, France. In Eng.
This is a keynote address delivered to the Intergovernmental Council of Unesco on aspects of globalization and international migration. The focus is on what the author identifies as nine fundamental contradictions in the process of globalization, and on the recent rapid growth in international migration. The full text is available on the Web at http://www.unesco.org/most/igc97cas.htm.
Correspondence: UNESCO Publishing, Promotion and Sales Division, 1 rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France. E-Mail: publishing.promotion@unesco.org.

65:40936 Castles, Stephen; Miller, Mark J. The age of migration: international population movements in the modern world. 2nd ed. ISBN 1-57230-381-6. LC 98-16000. 1998. xvi, 336 pp. Guilford Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study provides a global perspective on the nature of migration movements, why they take place, and their effects on countries as different as Britain and the USA, Australia and Germany, and Canada and France. Showing how migration almost always leads to formation of ethnic minorities, the book examines how growing ethnic diversity affects economies, cultures, and political institutions and challenges existing forms of citizenship and national identity. This second edition has been completely revised and updated, including increased coverage of new migrations in Africa and Latin America and a new chapter on the Asia-Pacific region."
For the first edition, published in 1993, see 60:20424.
Correspondence: Guilford Publications, 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40937 Chamberlain, Mary. Caribbean migration: globalised identities. ISBN 0-415-16580-6. LC 97-45099. 1998. xi, 272 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on aspects of migration from the Caribbean to other parts of the world. The 16 studies are organized into six parts, which are entitled: Rethinking diaspora; Migration narratives; Ethnicity and identity; Family and identity; Caribbean migration cultures; and Gender, socialisation and survival in Caribbean communities. "This anthology brings together a multidisciplinary approach to Caribbean migration from historians, anthropologists, sociologists and geographers. It takes a comparative perspective on the migration experiences of Caribbeans not only within the Caribbean, but to North America and to the European metropoles of Britain, France and the Netherlands. It shifts the focus away from the causes of migration, towards the nature and meaning of the migration experience, a shift which has radical implications for those concerned with the consequences of migration and its future. It investigates migration as a continuing historical event which has been informed by, and continues to inform, a vibrant culture of transnational and circular migration, in the `home' and in the `host' countries."
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40938 Chastanet, Monique. Soninke migration over the long term: strategies and identities. [Les migrations soninkées dans la longue durée: stratégies et identités.] Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, Vol. 39, No. 153, 1999. 169-77 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a review article of two recent books about international migration by the Soninke people originally from Mali, Senegal, or Mauritania. The two books are Willing migrants: Soninke labor diasporas, 1848-1960, by François Manchuelle; and Les Soninké en France. D'une histoire à l'autre, by Mahamet Timera. The author describes how this migration has changed over time, and how the settlement patterns of migrants in the countries of destination are also changing.
Correspondence: M. Chastanet, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, (UPRESA 8054), Centre de Recherches Africaines, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40939 Chau, Nancy H.; Stark, Oded. Migration under asymmetric information and human capital formation. Review of International Economics, Vol. 7, No. 3, Aug 1999. 455-83 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We study the migration of skilled workers, along with the skill acquisition incentives created by the prospect of migration. We trace out the dynamics of migration as foreign employers accumulate experience in deciphering the skill levels of individual migrants. It is found that migration by the relatively highly skilled is followed by return-migration from both tails of the migrant skill distribution; that the possibility of migration induces skill acquisition at home; that until the probability of discovery reaches its steady state equilibrium, migration consists of a sequence of moves characterized by a rising average skill level; and that migration of skilled workers can entail a home-country welfare gain."
Correspondence: O. Stark, University of Oslo, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 1095, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40940 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. Immigration and the population of the United States. [L'immigration et le peuplement des Etats-Unis.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1999. 611-34 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The settling of the United States is a recent event. Unlike the colonization of South America, where a small minority of Europeans imposed its law upon several million Amerindian occupants, the colonization of North America was based on the early importation of African slaves (roughly 400,000, most of whom were introduced in the eighteenth century) and above all the massive arrival of Europeans (nearly 40 million), which reached its maximum between 1845 and 1915.... Following a period in which the frontiers were relatively closed (1915-1965), immigration resumed, with racial preference eliminated. In 1998, the population of the United States reached 270 million inhabitants. Its ethnic composition is undergoing far-reaching changes: in a few years, Hispanics will outnumber Blacks, a development that is causing concern over linguistic unity, previously based on English and now threatened by the spread of Spanish. In a state like California, the traditional `White non-Hispanic' majority is about to be overtaken by the `minorities' (Hispanics, Blacks, Asians, Amerindians)."
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: chesnais@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40941 Chesney, Marc; Hazari, Bharat R.; Sgro, Pasquale M. Immigration, unemployment and welfare. International Economic Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, Summer 1999. 59-74 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Eng.
"The recent flows of immigrants to many countries has been categorised by both legal/illegal migrants. Such migration flows have occurred despite the presence of domestic unemployment of various categories of labour. It has also been observed that migration has lowered the reward of unskilled workers. These problems are analysed on the basis of two alternative models: (i) where skilled workers and (ii) where unskilled workers are unemployed. It is shown that migration may raise both skilled/unskilled employment and welfare under plausible factor intensity conditions. More importantly, illegal migration may help in lowering the relative price of the non-traded good while the impact of migration on structural adjustment is ambiguous."
Correspondence: M. Chesney, Groupe HECS Department of Economics, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40942 Clark, William A. V. Regional outcomes of large-scale migration in postindustrial America. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 95-112 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter focuses on the nature and outcome of recent large-scale migration to the United States. "Most national research, however, does not deal with outcomes at the regional level. How are migrants doing in specific regions? Are there variations across the major immigrant states, and what do regional patterns say about future trajectories of the most recent waves of immigrants? The research reported in this chapter focuses on these questions, on changes in wages, education, poverty and dependency levels across five major immigrant states--Arizona, California, Florida, New York, and Texas."
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, University of California, Department of Geography, 1255 Bunche Hall, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1524. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40943 Clarke, James A.; Dobson, Janet A.; Salt, John. International migration flows and regimes in the United Kingdom. [Flux et régimes des migrations internationales au Royaume-Uni.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1999. 145-66 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
This article gives a summary of the relevant policy governing international migration concerning the United Kingdom, as well as an introduction to the sources of data on the topic. Three main streams of immigration are identified: those seeking employment, those seeking asylum, and those with historical British connections due to the country's colonial and imperial past. Trends in these three streams over time are analyzed.
Correspondence: J. A. Clarke, University College London, Department of Geography, London WC1, England. E-mail: jclarke@geography.ucl.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40944 Coleman, David; Wadensjö, Eskil; Jensen, Bent; Pedersen, Søren. Immigration to Denmark: international and national perspectives. ISBN 87-7288-775-3. 1999. 348 pp. Aarhus University Press: Aarhus, Denmark; Rockwool Foundation Research Unit: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"As in other Western European countries, immigration has been one of the hottest and most enduring issues in the political debate in Denmark. But what are the overall conditions under which immigration takes place, and what are the economic implications of immigration for the Danish welfare state?" In this book, the authors "place immigration in an international framework, describing the importance of global population trends for international migration, together with the main destinations of these migrations, and, in particular, the migration streams to Europe. [They] also discuss international treaties and national laws as means of regulating migration towards the European continent."
Correspondence: Aarhus University Press, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40945 Cotesta, Vittorio. Mass media, ethnic conflicts, and immigration: a research project based on the content of Italian newspapers in the 1990s. [Mass media, conflitti etnici e immigrazione: una ricerca sulla comunicazione dei quotidiani nell'Italia degli anni novanta.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 36, No. 135, Sep 1999. 387-559 pp. Centro Studi Emigrazione: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This special issue contains a selection of papers on how Italian newspapers covered the subject of immigration over the course of the 1990s. The contents are as follows: Mass media, migration, and ethnic conflicts in Italy: a quantitative analysis, by Mauro Cotesta and Simone De Angelis; Names and images of "the other": a multidimensional analysis of the information on migration, by Sabrina Stoppiello; Mass media, ethnic conflicts, and identity of the Italians, by Vittorio Cotesta; Ethnic conflicts, solidarity, and attitudes in the Italian newspapers, by Massimo Pendenza; Italy in the context of Mediterranean migration, by Michela C. Pellicani; and Maternity and abortion in the experience of immigrant women in Milan, by Patrizia Farina and Laura Terzera.
Correspondence: Centro Studi Emigrazione, Via Dandolo 58, 00153 Rome, Italy. E-mail: cser@pcn.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40946 Coughlan, James E.; McNamara, Deborah J. Asians in Australia: patterns of migration and settlement. ISBN 0-7329-4562-3. 1997. vi, 338 pp. MacMillan Education: South Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This study attempts to provide the relevant data and an objective analysis of Asian immigration in Australia. It "includes overview chapters of the politics of Asian migration over the years, the patterns of migration, where Asians have found jobs, and the characteristics of Asian students in Australia. These are followed by detailed chapters on the patterns of migration and settlement of the major migrating Asian communities. The book concludes with an analysis of the results of research contained in earlier chapters, identifying areas of success and problems within the broader Asian community in Australia."
Correspondence: MacMillan Education, 107 Moray Street, South Melbourne, Victoria 3205, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library.

65:40947 Cozzani de Palmada, María R. Foreign immigrants: City dwellers of the world at the end of the millennium? [Inmigrantes extranjeros: ┐Ciudadanos del mundo globalizado de fin del milenio?] Revista Geográfica, No. 123, Jan-Dec 1996-1997. 93-106 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The international migration phenomenon has acquired a different dimension because its effects--demographic changes and different cultural expressions--on receptive states or unions of states are added to the effects of the process of transnationalization of strong economies, which advances on national identities.... The purpose of this paper is to analyze current migratory flows, to measure their impact on areas of attraction and to show different alternatives of frontier permeability."
Correspondence: M. R. Cozzani de Palmada, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, Parque General San Martín, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40948 Delaunay, Daniel; Tapinos, Georges. The extent of illegal migration in Europe. Volume 1: summary report. [La mesure de la migration clandestine en Europe. Volume 1: rapport de synthèse.] EUROSTAT Working Paper, Vol. 3, No. 7, Mar 1998. 104 pp. European Communities, Statistical Office [EUROSTAT]: Luxembourg. In Fre.
The focus of this study is on measuring the extent of illegal immigration in Europe in general and in the European Union in particular, and on how to arrive at better estimations of the number of illegal immigrants. The work consists of a synthesis of country reports from nine member countries. There are sections on the methodology for collecting data and the available data sources, the methods used in various European countries to estimate the number of illegal immigrants, and possible ways to improve these estimates in the future.
For Volume 2, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: European Communities, Office for Official Publications, 2985 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40949 Delaunay, Daniel; Tapinos, Georges. The extent of illegal migration in Europe. Volume 2: the experts' report. [La mesure de la migration clandestine en Europe. Volume 2: rapport des experts.] EUROSTAT Working Paper, Mar 1998. [200] pp. European Communities, Statistical Office [EUROSTAT]: Luxembourg. In Eng; Fre.
The focus of this study is on measuring the extent of illegal immigration in Europe and on how to arrive at better estimations of the number of illegal immigrants. This volume presents country reports, in either English or French, for the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Greece, the Netherlands, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, and the Czech Republic.
For Volume 1, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: European Communities, Office for Official Publications, 2985 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40950 Devoto, Fernando J. Migrations from Marche to Argentina, the question of scale and the possibilities of building a regional typology (1882-1927). [Las migraciones de Las Marcas a la Argentina, la cuestión de la escala y las posibilidades de una tipología regional (1882-1927).] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 13, No. 38, Apr 1998. 69-107 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis of migration from the Italian province of Marche to Argentina over the period 1882-1927. Trends in emigration from the province are compared with contemporary emigration trends from Italy as a whole. Differences in emigration patterns within the province during this period are also identified.
Correspondence: F. J. Devoto, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto Ravignani, 25 de Mayo 217, 2o piso, 1002 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40951 DeWind, Josh. Immigration studies and the Social Science Research Council. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,280-4 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"The Social Science Research Council (SSRC) has twice mobilized scholars to promote the study of immigration to the United States. Although 70 years apart, the Committee on Scientific Aspects of Human Migration (1924-1927) and the Committee on International Migration (1994-present) were formed within similar demographic and political contexts.... [The author discusses] how immigration studies have developed into a subfield within the social sciences during the 20th century and suggests some future research goals."
Correspondence: J. DeWind, Social Science Research Council, International Migration Program, 810 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40952 Dirks, Gerald E. Factors underlying migration and refugee issues: responses and cooperation among OECD member states. Citizenship Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1998. 377-95 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"As the twentieth century concludes, international migratory pressures are more intense than in any previous era. What distinguishes this period from earlier ones is that the supply of willing receiving destinations for would-be migrants has fallen far behind the demand. This article sets out to examine the more significant root causes behind international migration, to identify the reasons explaining the rapid rise of migration issues on the agendas of OECD governments, to discuss the varied responses to these pressures from these same governments, and to speculate about how the global migration phenomenon will continue to evolve and what stance will be adopted by concerned governments in both sending and probable and actual receiving states."
Correspondence: G. E. Dirks, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario LS2 3A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:40953 Djamba, Yanyi K. African immigrants in the United States: a socio-demographic profile in comparison to native blacks. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1999. 210-5 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1980 and 1990 U.S. censuses (5% Public Use Microdata Samples), this paper provides the socio-demographic profile of African immigrants in comparison to native blacks. The results show that the number of Africans living in the United States has increased by 6% per year between 1980 and 1990, but the growth has been greater for blacks (11%) than for whites (4%). This racial difference in growth changed the composition of the African immigrant population from predominantly white (60%) in 1980, to predominantly black (47%) in 1990; other races counted only for 11% in 1980 and 9% in 1990. Compared to native blacks, black and white African immigrants are more educated, less likely to be on welfare, more heavily concentrated in some states, more likely to be married, and more employable. These characteristics are key determinants of the future conditions of native blacks and African immigrants in the United States."
Correspondence: Y. K. Djamba, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40954 Douki, Caroline. Lucchesi at work or Italian emigrants? Identities confronted by transnational mobility, 1850-1914. [Lucquois au travail ou émigrés italiens? Les identités à l'épreuve de la mobilité transnationale, 1850-1914.] Le Mouvement Social, No. 188, Jul-Sep 1999. 17-41 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis of the large-scale international migration from the Lucca area of central Italy that took place between 1850 and 1914. The focus of the study is on how the growing concept of the national state affected this migration over time. "These new constraints on mobility came to rebuild social identities: declining inherited local identities were combining with a new emerging citizenship and a more precise sense of transnational spaces, at a time when the nation-state legal norms and ideology were being enforced. These migratory experiences generated as many misunderstandings and tensions as adaptations allowing both local, social and national identities. So, we see once again that the concept of identity can only operate once historicized."
Correspondence: C. Douki, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Fontenay-Saint-Cloud, Saint-Cloud, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40955 Dyatlov, Viktor I.; Dorokhov, Dimid A.; Lyustritski, Dmitri G.; Palyutina, Yelena V. The new Chinese diaspora in Irkutsk and the receiving society. Migration, No. 29-31, 1998. 63-82 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"In the past few years, the CIS countries have been integrated into the global migration system and the Russian Federation in particular, almost unnoticed by the western public, has become a country of immigration not only for migrants from the former Soviet Union. The authors make this clear in their article on the restoration of a Chinese diaspora in the eastern Siberian town of Irkutsk on Lake Baikal. They sketch a vivid picture of the migration routes and the settlement, occupational and business strategies of the Chinese migrants."
Correspondence: V. I. Dyatlov, Irkutsk State University, ul. Levitana 17, kv. 10, 664054 Irkutsk, Russia. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:40956 Escobar Latapí, Augustín; Bean, Frank D.; Weintraub, Sidney. The dynamics of Mexican emigration. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume III: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1999. 18-116 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
An attempt is made to identify the major factors affecting current international migration patterns between Mexico and the United States. The focus is on the changes that might be occurring in the dynamics of this migration and in the relative importance of the factors that affect it. Factors considered include the rapid rise in the population of working age in Mexico in the 1980s and the exacerbated pressure on an economy that was already in trouble, economic restructuring, changes in U.S. migration policy, and changes in trade relations and patterns. Particular attention is given to the impact of economic restructuring on migration.
Correspondence: A. Escobar Latapí, Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, Avenida Juárez 975, Sector Juárez, 44100 Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40957 Espenshade, Thomas J. The challenge of illegal immigration. In: America's demographic tapestry: baseline for the new millennium, edited by James W. Hughes and Joseph J. Seneca. 1999. 61-77 pp. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The challenge that illegal immigration poses for the United States is explored. The author first spells out the demographic dimensions of current illegal immigration. He then analyzes the determinants and consequences of illegal immigration, and describes changes in public opinion about this migration. Finally, he reviews the history and effectiveness of policy attempts to control illegal migration.
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40958 Fassmann, Heinz; Hintermann, Christiane. Potential East-West migration. Czech Sociological Review, Vol. 6, No. 1, Spring 1998. 59-72 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng.
"This article is based on a large survey which tries to identify the migration potential in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. More than 4,000 persons were asked if they want to migrate, which steps they have undertaken to realise the migration, what their social circumstances are and what they expect of staying and working abroad. One main result was the fact that all scenarios that predict an imminent exodus of people from East and Central Europe are exaggerating the real dimension of East-West migration. The migration potential in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary is somewhere between a possible 4 million and a more likely 700,000 persons."
Correspondence: H. Fassmann, Technical University, Geographical Department, Arcisstrasse 21, 80290 Munich, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40959 Feldman, David. Immigration, immigrants, and the state in Great Britain in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [L'immigration, les immigrés et l'état en Grande-Bretagne aux XIXe et XXe siècles.] Le Mouvement Social, No. 188, Jul-Sep 1999. 43-60 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This essay examines the relationship between the state and immigrants in Britain in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It focuses not only on attempts by the state to restrict immigration but also on the treatment of immigrants under successive welfare systems. In doing so it questions whether the nineteenth century really was a golden age for immigrants. In the twentieth century the state has promoted increasingly strict laws against immigration, but the success of these laws has been limited. However, the growth of the central state has led not only to the exclusion of potential immigrants but also to the inclusion of immigrants within the welfare system. Moreover, in the nineteenth century applications by immigrants to poor law authorities and to charities could lead to expulsion from the country."
Correspondence: D. Feldman, University of London, Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40960 Findley, Sally; Sow, Salif. From season to season: agriculture, poverty and migration in the Senegal River Valley, Mali. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume I: Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 69-144 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
The authors examine factors affecting the decision to emigrate in the Upper Senegal River Valley region at the borders of Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania. The focus is on the relationships among landlessness, unemployment, poverty, and migration. The authors analyze how the Soninke people use their land and how the decisions they make about land use enter into family or individual decisions to migrate.
Correspondence: S. Findley, Columbia University, School of Public Health, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40961 Firat, Düzgün. Migration as a stressor of Turkish families: effects on social identity and the family system. [Die Migration als Belastungsfaktor türkischer Familien: Auswirkungen auf die soziale Identität und das Familiensystem.] ISBN 3-86064-453-X. LC 97-125326. 1996. 210 pp. Kovac: Hamburg, Germany. In Ger.
This study is concerned with the impact of migration on Turkish families, especially those who have emigrated to Germany. After an overview of Turkish family structure in Turkey and a brief section on migration, the author borrows from other disciplines such as sociology and political science to examine interfamily relations, child-raising practices, health, social networks, ethnic identity, housing, and employment among Turks living in Germany. A theoretical section introduces the results of a survey conducted among Turkish families in Turkey and Germany.
Correspondence: Verlag Dr. Kovac, Arnoldstraße 49, 22763 Hamburg, Germany. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:40962 Forrest, James; Johnston, Ron. Disadvantage, discrimination and the occupational differentiation of migrant groups in Australia. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1999. 277-96 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"There is a substantial debate in the literature regarding the occupational differentiation of migrant groups within their host country's labour market. Are migrants simply disadvantaged because of their educational qualifications, skills, linguistic abilities, and so on, or are they also discriminated against? This paper explores that question using recently obtained data for the 52 largest migrant groups in Australia. It finds clear evidence of disadvantage related to educational qualifications and, particularly, facility with the English language--although these operate differentially for males and females--plus differences that reflect the particular programmes under which recent migrants have entered the country."
Correspondence: R. Johnston, University of Bristol, School of Geographical Sciences, University Road, Bristol B58 1SS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40963 France. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE] (Paris, France). A look at immigration since 1945. [Regards sur l'immigration depuis 1945.] Synthèses, No. 30, ISBN 2-11-067384-2. Oct 1999. 64 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This publication includes five studies on aspects of immigration to France since 1945. The studies are: Fifty years of family reunification in France, by Catherine Kohler and Suzanne Thave; Political asylum: 121,000 refugees live in France, by Alexis Spire; The regularization of undocumented foreigners, by Guy Lucas and Suzanne Thave; Acquisitions of French nationality since 1945, by Alexis Spire and Suzanne Thave; and Waves of immigration and of return migration, by Suzanne Thave.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40964 Frejka, Tomas; Okólski, Marek; Sword, Keith. In-depth studies on migration in Central and Eastern Europe: the case of Ukraine. Economic Studies, No. 12, Pub. Order No. GV.E.99.II.E.5. ISBN 92-1-116707-8. 1999. x, 146 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was to draw a comprehensive picture of international population movements/mobilities in Ukraine, to determine the key factors influencing migratory movements, to elucidate the nature, trends and patterns of international migration, and migration behaviour, as well as assessing the consequences of migration." The study covers the period 1975-1994, with the focus on 1992-1994. The methods used are based on the ethnosurvey methodology developed by Massey and others for the study of Mexican-U.S. migration. The survey included some 440 households containing around 1,500 individuals. The results suggest that between 30 and 40 percent of households surveyed had individuals with recent international migration experience.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40965 Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento (Lisbon, Portugal). Metropolis International Workshop, proceedings. Lisbon, September 28-29, 1998. ISBN 972-97246-9-5. Jun 1999. 319 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of an international workshop on the place of immigrants and ethnic minorities in cities of the Mediterranean region. The papers are: Spatial concentration and mobility in Milan, by Antonio Tosi and Marco Lombardi; Immigrant integration in the United States: still a model for emulation?, by Mark J. Miller; Prospects for future migration from the Maghreb to Europe: impact of economic policies, by Donatella Giubilaro; Immigrants and the labour market: the Portuguese case, by Maria I. Baganha, João Ferrão, and Jorge M. Malheiros; Modes of insertion of illegal migrants in the labour market: the case of Greece, by Maria Frangouli-Papantoniou; The city as context: approaches to immigrants and cities, by Caroline B. Brettell; Minority residential histories in the city: context, process and outcome, by Paul White; Immigration, social-spatial marginalisation and urban planning in Lisbon: challenges and strategies, by Maria L. Fonseca; Ethnic minorities and housing problems, by María J. Lago Avila; Immigrants in Europe: between integration and exclusion, by Joaquín Arango; Portugal and migration in global and European perspectives, by Martin O. Heisler; Children of immigrants: a situation in flux between tensions and integration, by David Justino, Maria M. Marques, Tiago Ralha, Susana Palácio, and Hugo de Seabra; and Identity, rights and claims-making: changing dynamics of citizenship in postwar Europe, by Yasemin Soysal.
Correspondence: Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento, Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40966 Gaillard, Anne M.; Gaillard, Jacques. International migration of the highly qualified: a bibliographic and conceptual itinerary. CMS Bibliographies and Documentation Series, ISBN 1-57703-007-9. 1998. 142 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
This is an unannotated bibliography of 1,816 references to both published and unpublished works written between 1954 and 1995 on the international migration of highly qualified workers. An introductory essay analyzes the main characteristics of the works included in the bibliography.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1122. E-mail: cmslft@aol.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40967 Gaillard, Anne M.; Gaillard, Jacques. The international circulation of scientists and technologists: A win-lose or win-win situation? Science Communication, Vol. 20, No. 1, Sep 1998. 106-15 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"The dramatic contrasts in opinion about the effects of international scientific migration are traced to its intrinsic character as a polymorphic, recurrent phenomenon whose costs and benefits have never been successfully evaluated. The tendency to assign countries the status of `winner' or `loser' in migration patterns is shown to be of dubious usefulness in an era of changing economic paradigms and increased interconnection of scientists via electronic communication networks. Nevertheless, those countries with neither improving economies nor easy and inexpensive network connections may still find themselves at a disadvantage in the global flow of scientific talent."
Correspondence: J. Gaillard, International Foundation for Science, Grev Turegatan 19, 114 38 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: jga@ifs.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40968 Gaillard, Jacques; Gaillard, Anne M. Brain drain, returns, and diasporas. [Fuite des cerveaux, retours et diasporas.] Futuribles, No. 228, Feb 1998. 25-49 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The consequences of the brain drain of technically qualified professionals from developing to developed countries for the countries of origin are explored. The authors note that these consequences vary considerably from country to country, and that some countries have found a way to profit from this trend by finding ways to draw on the pool of scientific and technical experience that the expatriate elite provides. Ways in which the countries of origin, particularly those that are experiencing rapid rates of development, are able to use this expatriate expertise or even encourage the return migration of expatriates are described.
Correspondence: J. Gaillard, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. E-mail: jacques.gaillard@ifs.se. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40969 Gaillard, Jacques; Gaillard, Anne M. The international mobility of brains: Exodus or circulation? Science, Technology and Society, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1997. 195-228 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This article is an introduction to a special issue on the brain drain. It consists of a historical review of the circulation and mobility of scientists through the ages, and briefly summarizes the papers included in the issue.
Correspondence: J. Gaillard, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, LSSD, 32 avenue Henri Varagnat, 93143 Bondy Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40970 Gallo, Gerardo. Changes in international mobility and relevant Italian migration in Germany. [La transizione della mobilità internazionale e l'attualità dell'emigrazione italiana in Germania.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 36, No. 133, Mar 1999. 147-54 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Recent trends in Italian emigration are examined based on a review of the relevant literature. The focus is on emigration to other European Union countries.
Correspondence: G. Gallo, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40971 Gans, Herbert J. Filling in some holes: six areas of needed immigration research. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,302-13 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
The author identifies "six main `holes' or areas of needed immigration research. Three of these concern processes of immigrant incorporation: the persisting question of selectivity in emigration and immigration...; intergenerational differences in adaptation...; and macrolevel economic, political, and societal factors shaping those patterns of adaptation. Three other areas involve the field of immigration scholarship itself: insider versus outsider roles among immigration researchers, the need for more empirical research on the choices (and omissions) of topics and groups that draw the attention of immigration scholars, and the role of funding agencies in shaping the field of study...."
Correspondence: H. J. Gans, Columbia University, Department of Sociology, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40972 Ghosh, Bimal. Huddled masses and uncertain shores: insights into irregular migration. Refugees and Human Rights, Vol. 2, ISBN 90-411-0531-X. 1998. xvi, 201 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: The Hague, Netherlands; International Organization for Migration [IOM]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This study attempts to analyze worldwide trends in irregular, or illegal, migration. "It seeks to provide within a single framework a reasonably comprehensive analysis of irregular migration in its different aspects and dimensions: its nature, characteristics and magnitude; its causes, conditions and consequences; and the inadequacies of existing policies and measures. Against the backdrop of this analysis, the study in its last chapter puts forward a set of specific proposals which can be woven into a coherent and comprehensive strategy to combat irregular migration."
Correspondence: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Postbus 58, 9700 MB Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:40973 Goza, Franklin. Brazilian immigration to Ontario. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1999. 765-89 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This analysis of migration from Brazil to Canada is based on interviews with 205 Brazilian immigrants in Toronto in 1991. "A large proportion of the immigrants who arrived after 1987, the year a visa requirement was initiated for Brazilians, gained entry by claiming to be `refugees'. Because of numerous court system delays, this strategy permitted them to work, study and collect social benefits until all their appeals, no matter how spurious, were exhausted. Meantime, many acquired English skills and on-the-job training which enabled them to score high enough on the Canadian immigrant point scale to become legal permanent residents."
Correspondence: F. Goza, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40974 Greenwood, Michael J.; McDowell, John M. Legal U.S. immigration: influences on gender, age, and skill composition. ISBN 0-88099-190-9. LC 99-38679. 1999. xii, 295 pp. W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research: Kalamazoo, Michigan. In Eng.
The authors aim to analyze the factors influencing the composition of the legal immigrant pool in the United States, and to describe the economic effects of this immigration. "The research that is described here is based on a `human capital' approach to immigration. Although we attempt to account for factors such as political conditions and religion in source countries, much of our focus is on the benefits and costs of migrating legally to the United States.... Perhaps the most unique type of variable included in the study is a vector or set of source-country social program indicators.... The study is organized as follows. [After an introductory chapter,] Chapter 2 sketches the history of U.S. immigration policy, and Chapter 3 provides a brief history of U.S. immigration. Chapter 4 provides details on the data that underlie the models that are estimated in Chapters 5 through 8. Chapter 5 discusses a model of the determinants of overall U.S. immigration. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 develop models of the gender, age, and occupational composition of U.S. immigration, respectively;... Chapter 9 provides a summary and conclusions."
Correspondence: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 300 South Westnedge Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49007-4686. E-mail: wyrwa@we.upjohninst.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40975 Gross, Dominique M. Immigration flows and regional labor market dynamics. IMF Working Paper, No. 98/47, Apr 1998. 29 pp. International Monetary Fund: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The paper analyzes the ability of a regional labor market [British Columbia, Canada] to absorb growing flows of immigrant workers with declining levels of skills during relatively high unemployment. The impact of the size of the flow and the skill characteristics of the immigrants are analyzed. It is found that immigration is positively related to unemployment in the short run but in the long run is negatively related. Also, a higher skill level among immigrants makes them more effective in their job search in the short run. Finally, increasing the discrepancy between the skill distribution of immigrants and that of the existing workforce is desirable, as both types of labor appear to be complements in the short-run."
Correspondence: International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20431. Author's E-mail: dgross@imf.org. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

65:40976 Gunatilleke, Godfrey. Macroeconomic implications of international migration from Sri Lanka. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume II: South Asia, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 113-46 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"The main objectives of this study are to examine and analyse current trends in labour migration [from Sri Lanka] in relation to the domestic labour market; assess the implications of the outflow for the national development strategy which is being pursued and which aims at high economic growth and rapid employment creation; examine the impact of high economic growth on the outflow of labour for employment abroad; and on the basis of this analysis to draw conclusions that are relevant for migration policies."
Correspondence: G. Gunatilleke, Marga Institute, P.O. Box 601, 93/10 Dutugemunu Mawatha, Colombo 6, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40977 Gunatilleke, Godfrey. The role of networks and community structures in international migration from Sri Lanka. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume II: South Asia, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 71-112 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
Aspects of international migration from Sri Lanka are explored. "This study examines the way in which informal networks and community structures operate in two processes of migration, legal and illegal. It analyses factors that have worked to motivate, facilitate and promote migration and examines the processes which maintain the home country-host country link and act as a stabilizing factor in the return flow. Although the study intended originally to cover both economically driven and politically motivated migration, it was decided to concentrate on the economically driven migration." The data are for a purposively selected sample of 37 returning migrants, 16 of whom were illegal migrants.
Correspondence: G. Gunatilleke, Marga Institute, P.O. Box 601, 93/10 Dutugemunu Mawatha, Colombo 6, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40978 Hanson, Gordon H.; Spilimbergo, Antonio. Illegal immigration, border enforcement, and relative wages: evidence from apprehensions at the U.S.-Mexico border. American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 5, Dec 1999. 1,337-57 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine illegal immigration in the United States from Mexico. We address two questions. The first is, how responsive is illegal immigration to changes in U.S. and Mexican real wages? While long-run U.S.-Mexico wage differences create obvious pressures for immigration from Mexico, short-run movements in relative wages may also contribute to immigration by encouraging Mexican residents to ride out Mexican economic downturns in the United States. The second question is, what effect does enforcement of the border have on illegal immigration? Current U.S. policy is predicated on the idea that border enforcement reduces attempts at illegal entry, in part by demonstrating that the cost of crossing the border is too high to be worthwhile. We do not know in practice whether such a deterrent effect exists or how costly border enforcement is as a means to control illegal entry."
Correspondence: G. H. Hanson, University of Michigan, Department of Economics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40979 Hatton, Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. The age of mass migration: causes and economic impact. ISBN 0-19-511651-8. LC 97-1305. 1998. ix, 301 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study examines the causes and effects of the mass migration of about 55 million Europeans to the New World of the Americas that occurred between 1850 and 1914. Among the questions considered are: "Why did a nation's emigration rate typically rise with early industrialization? How did immigrants choose their destinations? Where international labor markets segmented? How successfully did migrants assimilate in host country labor markets? Did immigrants `rob' jobs from locals? [and] Did emigration improve the lot of those left behind?" A major conclusion is that this mass migration made an important contribution to the striking convergence of living standards between poor and rich countries.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40980 Hugo, Graeme. Asia and the Pacific on the move: workers and refugees, a challenge to nation states. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, Vol. 38, No. 3, Dec 1997. 267-86 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the last 30 years international migration has been transformed from being of little or no significance in Asia to being of substantial economic, social, political and demographic importance. Two types of migration which have increased greatly in significance since the 1970s are international labour migration and refugee movements.... It is argued that two elements, proliferating migrant social networks and the emergence of a vibrant immigration industry, have given a momentum to international migration which to some extent limits the power of nation states to control it. There is some concern among countries in the region that the increase in migration is creating excessive economic dependence upon the export of labour. Fears that migration threatens social cohesion depend upon the extent to which migrants settle permanently in destination areas."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. E-mail: ghugo@arts.adelaide.edu.au. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:40981 Ibrahim, Salim. The issue of "foreigners" in Germany: facts, gaps, and necessary actions. [Die "Ausländerfrage" in Deutschland: Fakten, Defizite und Handlungsimperative.] ISBN 3-88864-242-6. LC 98-215729. 1997. 200 pp. Verlag für Akademische Schriften [VAS]: Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Ger.
In the first section of this book, the author gives an overview of the history of migration from and to Germany, noting continuities with the present and describing the economic and social significance of migration for Germany. The second section is titled "Social structure and immigration situation of the resident foreign population in Germany". It contains chapters on the demography, social structure, and legal situation of foreigners, including nationality, education, income, households, and spatial distribution; employment and occupations, including unemployment; and permanence and integration of immigrants and their offspring. The third section makes some recommendations in the areas of immigration and integration policy.
Correspondence: Verlag für Akademische Schriften, Kurfürstenstraße 18, 60486 Frankfurt-Bockenheim, Germany. E-mail:069776419@t-online.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40982 Iglicka, Krystyna; Sword, Keith. The challenge of East-West migration for Poland. Studies in Russia and East Europe, ISBN 0-312-21423-5. LC 97-52374. 1998. xix, 237 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume is based on papers prepared for a seminar series held at the University of London's School of Slavonic and East European Studies in 1997. The focus is on the impact on Poland of international migration between countries to the east and Western Europe. "The book contains not only a large amount of statistical and factual material concerning the movement of population through Polish territory on an east-west axis during the first decade after the collapse of the communist system, but also the results of the most recent empirical studies on foreigners in Poland and the perception of Polish society towards them."
Correspondence: St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:40983 International Labour Office [ILO] (Geneva, Switzerland). Labour migration to South Africa in the 1990s. ILO/SAMAT Policy Paper, No. 4, ISBN 92-2-111285-3. 1998. ii, 73 pp. International Labour Organization: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This paper, which was prepared by ILO's South African Multidisciplinary Advisory Team, examines labor migration to South Africa over the course of the 1990s. There are chapters on patterns of migration to South Africa, the political and economic context of migration to South Africa, the impact of migration on South Africa and the labor sending countries, past and present politics of South African migration, and conclusions and recommendations.
Correspondence: International Labour Office Publications, 4 Route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40984 International Organization for Migration [IOM] (Geneva, Switzerland). CIS migration report 1996. ISBN 92-9068-065-2. 1997. 160 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The aim of this volume is to "provide the international community with a complete, accurate and up-to-date picture of the migration situation in each of the CIS countries, as well as of legislative and institutional developments, governmental policies and practices, and the work of international and non-governmental organizations in these countries in the migration field.... The CIS Migration Report will be published on a yearly basis. In this first issue, information relating to the entire 1989-1996 period is presented.... Owing to the permanence of the Soviet registration system in these countries, some statistical data include the Baltic states."
Correspondence: International Organization for Migration, 17 route des Morillons, Case Postale 71, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. E-mail: hq@iom.int. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40985 Iontsev, V. A. International population migration: Russia and the contemporary world. [Mezhdunarodnaya migratsiya naseleniya: Rossiya i sovremennyi mir.] No. 2, ISBN 5-89209-452-9. 1999. 124 pp. Dialog-MGU: Moscow, Russia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
This is a collection of articles by various authors on aspects of international migration concerning Russia, some East-Central European countries, and Turkey. The focus is on migration among the countries that formed part of the former Soviet Union. Trends in this migration are analyzed from the 1870s to the present. Consideration is also given to the government policies and legal regulations governing migration in Russia.
Correspondence: Dialog MGU, Vorob'evy Gory, 119899 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40986 Iontsev, V. A. International population migration: the theory and history of studies. [Mezhdunarodnaya migratsiya naseleniya: teoriya i istoriya izucheniya.] No. 3, ISBN 5-89209-488-X. 1999. 370 pp. Dialog-MGU: Moscow, Russia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Some conceptual definitions concerning international migration are presented, together with a review of theoretical issues and explanatory concepts. There is also a detailed analysis of international migration affecting Russia from the eighteenth century to the present day, as well as a projection of possible future migration trends. The work includes a glossary of terms used in Russian-language demographic studies on migration.
Correspondence: Dialog MGU, Vorob'evy Gory, 119899 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40987 Joppke, Christian. How immigration is changing citizenship: a comparative view. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 22, No. 4, Jul 1999. 629-52 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article compares the impact of post-war immigration on citizenship in three Western states: the United States, Germany and Great Britain. While focusing on national variations in the immigration-citizenship relationship, this comparison suggests some general implications for the institution of citizenship in liberal states: citizenship remains indispensable for integrating immigrants; the content of citizenship may change, in deviation from nationhood traditions; and citizenship is becoming increasingly multicultural."
Correspondence: C. Joppke, European University Institute, Department of Political and Social Sciences, Badia Fiesolana, Via dei Roccettini 9, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40988 Joske, Stephen. A comment on the recent debate on the economics of immigration. People and Place, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1999. 7-10 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"A recent study...has shown that the lower immigration flowing from the [Australian] Government's 1996 reforms is compatible with higher average living standards. This is consistent with a large body of research which indicates that immigration does not have a substantial positive effect on living standards. Rather, the effect is small and could be positive or negative. The difficulty of boosting skilled immigration without lowering average skill levels reduces the economic attractions of higher immigration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40989 Karapin, Roger. The politics of immigration control in Britain and Germany: subnational politicians and social movements. Comparative Politics, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jul 1999. 423-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
An explanation of how anti-immigrant pressures develop in economically advanced countries is presented. The "article offers a theoretical account of how antiimmigration mobilization grows and influences national policy through the leadership of subnational politicians and social movement organizations. It further argues that their actions are substantially autonomous from socioeconomic factors. The method used here is a comparison following a most different systems design, in which four cases of immigration restrictions under very different background conditions, in Britain and Germany, are analyzed in order to identify necessary conditions."
Correspondence: R. Karapin, City University of New York, Hunter College, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021. E-mail: rkarapin@hunter.cuny.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40990 Karras, Georgios; Chiswick, Carmel U. Macroeconomic determinants of migration: the case of Germany 1964-1988. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1999. 657-77 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Macroeconomic determinants of immigration are analysed with pooled cross-country and time series data on net immigration to Germany from European countries during 1964-1988. Results demonstrate clearly that both high and low frequency determinants have been important. Long run trends are determined by the degree and speed of per capita income convergence between the sending and receiving countries, while year-to-year changes in net immigration flows are dominated by cyclical economic conditions."
Correspondence: G. Karras, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, Box 4348 University Hall, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40991 King, Russell; Black, Richard. Southern Europe and the new immigrations. ISBN 1-898723-61-3. LC 97-38086. 1997. viii, 210 pp. Sussex Academic Press: Brighton, England. In Eng.
This book presents revised versions of papers presented at a workshop held at the Sussex Centre for Migration Research at the University of Sussex in Brighton on December 6-7, 1996. "Focusing primarily on the theme of links between migration and economic development, this workshop was devoted to the study of Southern Europe as a major region of immigration in the late twentieth century."
Correspondence: Sussex Academic Press, 18 Chichester Place, Brighton BN2 1FF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:40992 Krassinets, Eugene. Illegal migration and employment in Russia. International Migration Papers, No. 26, Nov 1998. [35] pp. International Labour Office: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Through the analysis of the illegal employment of foreign workers in Russia, this work highlights, not only the urgent need to design and implement a more sophisticated immigration policy but also to create adequate means for its enforcement. Due to the nature of the subject, an attempt was made to use key informants to develop a picture of the dimension of illegal migration and its causes, and the questions they raise for immigration policy reform. The author of this report is rather pessimistic on the present ability of the Russian Federation to orderly monitor the massive inflow of illegal migrants. He emphasizes that further delays in the setting up of sound immigration policies may lead to major disruptions in the [Russia's] national security."
Correspondence: International Labour Office, Conditions of Work Branch, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

65:40993 Kraszewski, Piotr. Polish economic emigration, 1870-1939: facts and theories. [Polska emigracja zarobkowa w latach 1870-1939: praktyka i refleksja.] ISBN 83-85376-08-9. 1995. 356 pp. Polska Akademia Nauk, Zaklad Badan Narodowosciowych w Poznaniu: Poznan, Poland. In Pol.
Trends in emigration from Poland for economic reasons are analyzed over the period 1870-1939. In the first part, attention is given to the various ways that the Polish authorities attempted to influence this migration over time, to migration policies, and to the institutions involved with the migration. The second part concentrates on the changing ideologies and attitudes toward emigration in Poland and their impact on migration.
Correspondence: Zaklad Badan Narodowosciowych PAN, Stary Rynek 78/79, 61-772 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40994 Kravets, Natalya; Voronkov, Victor. Repatriation of Russian citizens from Lithuania: the experience of compact resettlement. Migration, No. 29-31, 1998. 133-48 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This article "describes the process and problems of repatriation of the Russian speaking population living in Mazheikyai, Lithuania, to the village of Vsevolozhsk in Russia. For the most part such repatriations have not been very successful for various reasons but in the case studied by the authors, due to the engagement of a self-help group called the `Committee for Resettling Citizens', some problems in the process were avoided.... The authors come to the conclusion that those resettlers who already have friends or relatives in Russia adapt more easily to the new situation due to the support they receive from them. Finally the authors look into the question of whether those Russian speaking persons who are still in Lithuania will leave or stay."
Correspondence: N. Kravets, Centre for Independent Social Research, P.O. Box 55, 191002 Saint Petersburg 2, Russia. E-mail: Centre@indepesocres.spb.su. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:40995 Lassalle, Didier. Citizenship and naturalization in the United Kingdom (1986-1997). [Citoyenneté et naturalisation au Royaume-Uni (1986-1997).] Population, Vol. 54, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1999. 791-800 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This research note provides a historical overview of nationality and citizenship laws in the United Kingdom from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the present. Particular emphasis is put on the period 1986-1997 and data are provided on the number of applicants seeking citizenship during that period, the number of citizenships granted and refused, and the criteria for the granting of citizenship.
Correspondence: D. Lassalle, Université de Paris XIII, IUT de Villetaneuse, avenue J.-B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse, France. E-mail: lassalle@iutv.univ-paris13.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40996 Lazaridis, Gabriella; Poyago-Theotoky, Joanna. Undocumented migrants in Greece: issues of regularization. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1999. 715-40 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article studies migration from Albania into Greece and schematically looks at the socio-economic integration and/or exclusion of Albanians. It explores the issue of regularization: first, providing an explanation for the choices made by a government by using a simple gam-theoretic framework and, second, it outlines the current efforts made towards regularization of undocumented migrants in Greece."
Correspondence: G. Lazaridis, University of Dundee, Department of Political Science and Social Policy, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40997 Leggewie, Claus. Turks, Kurds, and Germans. The history of a migration: from social stratification to cultural differentiation, 1961-1990. [Turcs, Kurdes et Allemands. Histoire d'une migration: de la stratification sociale à la différenciation culturelle, 1961-1990.] Le Mouvement Social, No. 188, Jul-Sep 1999. 103-18 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"At around two million, people of Turkish descent and origin make up the largest ethnic minority in today's Federal Republic of Germany. The largest proportion of Turks living in Germany has already been residing there legally for two or more decades, often already in the second or third generation. The overwhelming majority of younger Turks was born in Germany, but owing to Germany's anachronistic citizenship law (jus sanguinis), they do not possess German nationality, even if a growing number has dual citizenship. Still, there is not only an ethnic line of conflict and cleavage between Germans and Turks, but also a divide within the community of Turkish citizens living inside Germany (and in other European societies). Since the end of the Seventies, above all, many `Turks' have discovered and played up their Kurdish origins. The article asks why a big part of former Turkish guest workers became Kurds, not Germans, and why at all self-identification with a transnational ethnic community abroad overwhelmed political inclusion as German citizens `at home'."
Correspondence: C. Leggewie, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Ludwigstrasse 23, 35390 Giessen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40998 Lobo, Arun P.; Flores, Ronald; Salvo, Joseph. Immigration to the New York metropolitan region in the 1990s. Migration World, Vol. 27, No. 5, 1999. 13-23 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
Recent trends in international migration to the New York metropolitan area are analyzed. Specifically, the authors look at "the patterns of residential settlement of immigrants arriving in the 1990s, highlighting the major destinations in the region, and examines the effects of race and class background on settlement patterns. We argue that similar to the residential experiences of immigrants earlier this century, the increased flow of immigrants to areas outside New York City is a product of the ecological processes of residential invasion-succession and of assimilation."
Correspondence: A. P. Lobo, New York City Department of City Planning, 22 Reade Street, New York, NY 10007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40999 Machado, Fernando L. Immigrants and social structure. [Imigrantes e estrutura social.] Sociologia--Problemas e Práticas, No. 29, Mar 1999. 51-76 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
Using official data, the author analyzes the changing characteristics of the immigrant population in Portugal over the period 1986-1996. The characteristics analyzed include country of origin and socio-professional qualifications. Significant regional differences in immigrant characteristics are identified.
Correspondence: F. L. Machado, ISCTE, Departamento de Sociologia, Avenida das Forças Armadas, 1649-026 Lisbon, Portugal. E-mail: fernando.machado@mail.iscte.pt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41000 Mahmood, Raisul A. Bangladeshi clandestine foreign workers. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume II: South Asia, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 176-220 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"The present study aims to understand the process through which illegal migration begins and is perpetuated, and to delineate its various linkages with selected macro level factors and policy regimes pursued by both labour sending and receiving countries. The study focuses on the major stages and actors involved in the process of illegal migration, the mutualities of interests of different actors which help sustain the process, and complementarities that exist between labour-sending and -receiving economies." The data concern illegal immigrants from Bangladesh interviewed by the author in Singapore, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), and Bangkok (Thailand) in 1995-1996.
Correspondence: R. A. Mahmood, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41001 Maier, Elizabeth. Women and environmental culture: poor immigrants on the border between Mexico and Belize. [Mujer y cultura ecológica: inmigrantes pobres en la frontera de México con Belice.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 18, Oct-Dec 1998. 143-73 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The present article analyzes the environmental culture of poor, rural, female immigrants to the sugar cane plantation region of Mexico's southern border with Belize. The primary objective of the essay is to explore the mega-components of the relationship between women and environment, and at the same time examine the concrete manifestations of this relation with particular women, in a specific environment."
Correspondence: E. Maier, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41002 Maingot, Anthony P. Emigration dynamics in the Caribbean: the cases of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume III: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1999. 178-231 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
The conceptual model designed for the IOM/UNFPA Project on Emigration Dynamics is used to analyze international migration from Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The main theme of this study is that demographic and economic conditions combine with a set of social, political, and historical factors to create a migration situation best described as structural, as distinct from time or event fixed. "Direction of flow may shift occasionally, and magnitude may vary, but because pressures are constant, high rates of emigration will probably continue in the near future. The five important dimensions of the structural features of migration from the Caribbean to the U.S. are: the self-contained geographical space which is the Caribbean; the creation of networks over a long period; the successful assimilation of Caribbean migrants in the U.S.; the continuing role of U.S. policy regarding ethnicity; and U.S. law and sentiment which provide enduring support for family reunion."
Correspondence: A. P. Maingot, Florida International University, Department of Sociology/Anthropology, University Park, Miami, FL 33199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41003 Markel, Howard; Stern, Alexandra M. Which face? Whose nation? Immigration, public health, and the construction of disease at America's ports and borders, 1891-1928. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,314-31 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article examines medical inspections of immigrants arriving to U.S. ports and borders from the period 1891 to 1928. Comparing the activities of the U.S. Public Health Service at four immigration stations, the authors emphasize the importance of regional differences in the history of immigration and public health. In addition, they argue that categories of medical exclusion emerged in conjunction with early-20th-century attitudes toward skin color and nationality, increasing stringent citizenship laws, and immigrant groups' varying relationships to the labor market. Finally, the authors argue that medical labels became more flexible over time, moving from clearly infectious and quarantinable diseases to more chronic conditions of physical and/or mental disability."
Correspondence: H. Markel, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41004 Martin, Philip. Emigration dynamics in Mexico: the case of agriculture. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume III: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1999. 117-77 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"This chapter develops a model in which patterns of change in migration between Mexico and the U.S. are linked to developments in the agricultural sectors of both nations.... This chapter has seven sections. The first lays out the model, tailoring it to the migration associated with the evolution of Mexico-U.S. agriculture over the twentieth century. The second summarizes current Mexico-U.S. migration patterns linked to agriculture, followed by an analysis of developments in Mexican agriculture, the evolution of those parts of U.S. agriculture that depend on Mexican workers, and an exploration of how both countries' agricultural systems and migration patterns are likely to be changed by NAFTA and other 1990s developments. The final section offers three migration scenarios for the twenty-first century."
Correspondence: P. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41005 Martin, Philip; Midgley, Elizabeth. Immigration to the United States. Population Bulletin, Vol. 54, No. 2, Jun 1999. 44 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine "current immigration patterns and policies in the United States, [review] the peaks and troughs of immigration flows, and [provide] a historical perspective on contemporary trends." Sections are included on patterns and policies, four waves of immigration, U.S. immigration policies, immigration and U.S. population, economic effects, naturalization and politics, and immigrants in U.S. society.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: popref@prb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41006 Mitchell, Colleen; Zappalà, Gianni; Castles, Stephen. Post 1947 migration to Australia and modes of socio-political mobilisation. Migration and Multicultural Studies Program Working Paper, No. 4, ISBN 0-86418-511-1. 1998. iv, 48 pp. University of Wollongong, Research Institute of Social Change and Critical Inquiry, Migration and Multicultural Studies Program: Wollongong, Australia. In Eng.
"This chapter examines how immigrants [to Australia] were incorporated into various sub-systems of society in two key periods, 1947 to 1972 (the era of assimilation and integration) and 1973 to 1996 (the era of multiculturalism).... We briefly outline some of the main features in the development of the nation and national identity in Australia from British colonisation in 1788 to 1947."
Correspondence: University of Wollongong, Research Institute of Social Change and Critical Inquiry, Migration and Multicutural Studies Program, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. E-mail: mms@uow.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41007 Moore, Stephen. A fiscal portrait of the newest Americans. ISBN 0-9645220-1-2. Jul 1998. 32 pp. National Immigration Forum: Washington, D.C.; Cato Institute: Washintgon, D.C. In Eng.
"This study investigates the fiscal impact of the 25 million immigrants--legal immigrants, refugees, and undocumented immigrants--now living in the United States. The study reviews the findings of more than two dozen recently published studies from the nation's most prestigious universities and research institutions. The study also derives new fiscal estimates based on the latest 1996 data recently released from the U.S. Census Bureau to help answer two critical public finance issues related to immigrants. First: How much in total taxes do immigrants pay each year? Second: Do the taxes immigrants pay cover the cost of the public services they use?" The results suggest "first, that the American economy is greatly enriched by immigrants of all educational levels and ethnicities and, second, that immigrants are a fiscal bargain for American taxpayers."
Correspondence: National Immigration Forum, 220 I Street NE, Suite 220, Washington, D.C. 20002-4362. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41008 Moretti, Enrico. Social networks and migrations: Italy 1876-1913. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 3, Fall 1999. 640-57 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The pattern of Italian migration to the Americas does not conform to the standard [neoclassical economic model of migration]. I propose an alternative model in which the probability of migrating to a country depends positively on the social networks that link the migrant to that country. Econometric evidence suggests that both the timing and the destination of Italian migration between 1876 and 1913 can be explained by the presence of social networks in the destination country."
Correspondence: E. Moretti, University of California, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41009 Myers, Dowell. Upward mobility in space and time: lessons from immigration. In: America's demographic tapestry: baseline for the new millennium, edited by James W. Hughes and Joseph J. Seneca. 1999. 135-57 pp. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The implications of large-scale immigration to the United States are analyzed using the example of southern California, a major immigrant destination. The focus is on three of the main indicators of upward mobility by immigrants, which are mobility out of the central city, the rise out of poverty, and the movement into home ownership.
Correspondence: D. Myers, University of Southern California, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41010 Nair, P. R. Gopinathan. Dynamics of emigration from Kerala: factors, trends, patterns and policies. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume II: South Asia, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 257-91 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of international labor migration from the Indian state of Kerala, which supplies about half of India's migrants to the oil-producing countries of the Middle East. The topics covered include the characteristics of migrants, remittances, return migration, the impact of the Gulf War on migration, and the economic impact of migration on the state of origin. The implications of this migration for both state and national migration policy are considered.
Correspondence: P. R. G. Nair, University of Kerala, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695034, Kerala, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41011 Okólski, Marek. Migration pressures on Europe. In: European populations: unity in diversity, edited by Dirk van de Kaa et al. 1999. 141-94 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author "considers the question of international migration affecting Europe. Europe's recent demographic history may be characterized by increased migration pressures on the continent, but at the same time, the attraction of foreign migrants differs among specific European countries." Topics considered include globalization and European migration; European migration of "privileged" ethnic minorities; patterns and puzzles of integration; transnationalism; migration business and its undesirable consequences; probable effects of EU enlargement; and does Europe still need migrants?
Correspondence: M. Okólski, Centre of Migration Research, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41012 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). Trends in international migration: Continuous Reporting System on Migration. Annual report, 1999 edition. 24th ed. ISBN 92-64-17078-2. 1999. 328 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
This report presents recent information on international migration affecting 30 countries, most of which are developed. "Part I describes the overall trends in international migration. It focuses on the magnitude, the nature and the direction of flows. Special attention is given to changes in the foreign or immigrant population in OECD countries and to the role of immigrants in the labour market and in the various sectors of economic activity. This section is completed by an overview of migration policies, in particular those relating to the control of flows, the integration of immigrants in host countries and international co-operation. Part II is composed of country notes describing recent developments in migration flows and policies in twenty-seven OECD countries (New Zealand and Iceland are not covered) and three non-member countries (Bulgaria, the Slovak Republic and Romania). A note on the Baltic States is presented for the first time. Part III analyses the economic and political issues surrounding clandestine immigration in OECD countries.... The statistical annex presents the most recent available data on foreign and immigrant populations, foreign workers, migration flows and naturalisations."
For a previous report in this series, see 61:40224.
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41013 Oucho, John O. Regional integration and labour mobility in eastern and southern Africa. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume I: Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 264-300 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
Migration among the various countries of eastern and southern Africa is analyzed in the context of the various regional and subregional associations aimed at promoting economic development in the countries concerned. The author notes that migration in these two regions is influenced by the relative success or failure of various efforts to link these countries by economic agreements. He concludes that so far, southern Africa has had more success in regional cooperative initiatives than eastern Africa.
Correspondence: J. O. Oucho, University of Botswana, International Training Programme in Population and Sustainable Development, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41014 Pedraza, Silvia; Rumbaut, Rubén G. Origins and destinies: immigration, race, and ethnicity in America. ISBN 0-534-21444-4. 1996. xix, 550 pp. Wadsworth: Belmont, California. In Eng.
This is an interdisciplinary collection of 36 original articles by various authors on aspects of immigration, race, and ethnicity in the United States. "This rich anthology depicts the myriad ways in which the unequal destinies of American racial and ethnic groups reflect their diverse origins--from the conquest of indigenous peoples to massive waves of both voluntary and involuntary immigration from Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. It seeks to grasp the extraordinary diversity and complexity of issues posed by immigration, race, and ethnicity in American life, past and present, in a way that is at once comprehensive and comprehensible. And it shows how the dynamics of immigration, racialization, and ethnic stratification continue today, as the United States undergoes its most profound demographic transformation in a century."
Correspondence: Wadsworth Publishing, 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, CA 94002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41015 Pérez-López, Jorge; Díaz-Briquets, Sergio. The determinants of Hispanic remittances: an exploration using U.S. census data. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, Aug 1998. 320-48 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article explores whether a data set on demographic and economic characteristics of Hispanic-origin persons in the United States from the 1990 U.S. Population Census can inform the discussion on the determinants of remittances from this population to selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Parts 1 and 2 of the article discuss available data on remittances flows to selected Latin American countries and on the characteristics of persons of Hispanic origin in the United States, respectively. Part 3 reviews the literature on the determinants of remittances. Part 4 discusses demographic and economic characteristics of migrants from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico residing in the United States in 1990. Part 5 uses graphic and simple statistical techniques to test some hypotheses regarding remittances-sending behavior."
Correspondence: J. Pérez-López, U.S. Department of Labor, Division of Immigration Policy and Research, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20210. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41016 Pickus, Noah M. J. Immigration and citizenship in the twenty-first century. ISBN 0-8476-9220-5. LC 98-27248. 1998. xxxiii, 237 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of six essays, together with appropriate responses, on aspects of immigration and citizenship in the United States. The papers are organized under three topics: The meaning of Americanization; Nationalism and citizenship; and Multiple memberships. Articles are as follows: The promise of American citizenship, by Charles R. Kesler, with a response by Kwame A. Appiah; "Am I an American or not?" Reflections on citizenship, Americanization, and race, by Juan F. Perea, with a response by John J. Miller; Nationalism, cosmopolitanism, and the United States, by David A. Hollinger, with a response by Linda S. Bosniak; To make natural: creating citizens for the twenty-first century, by Noah M. J. Pickus, with a response by Joseph H. Carens; Plural citizenships, by Peter H. Schuck, with a response by Michael Jones-Correa; and Alienage classifications in a nation of immigrants: three models of "permanent" residence, by Hiroshi Motomura, with a response by Daniel J. Tichenor.
Correspondence: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41017 Piper, Nicola. Labor migration, trafficking and international marriage: female cross-border movements into Japan. Asian Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1999. 69-99 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Eng.
"This paper draws on the author's previous research on international labor migration and international marriage. It contributes a viewpoint on labor migration by introducing a gender-specific analysis that goes beyond conventional definitions of labor by including in the discussion the issue of an international marriage market and trafficking in women, set within the broader context of a gendered political economy and a global patriarchal system. The paper argues for the abandonment of the strict distinction between voluntary labor migration and trafficking in women. A more flexible approach in immigration policies is needed to cater for the complex situations of female migrants and to protect their human rights."
Correspondence: N. Piper, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Leifsgade 33, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. E-mail: nicola@nias.ku.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41018 Pittau, Franco; Colaiacomo, Alberto; Forti, Oliviero; Melchionda, Ugo. Foreign immigrants in Italy at the beginning of 1999: a first statistical appraisal. [L'immigrazione straniera in Italia all'inizio del 1999: un primo quadro statistico.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 34, No. 133, Mar 1999. 135-46 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
The characteristics of the resident legal immigrant population of Italy are analyzed using official data. Attention is given to country and region of origin, region of residence, and religion. There are sections on new trends in 1998, the regularization of illegal immigrants, the concentration of immigration on Milan and Rome, and immigration and crime.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41019 Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Migration and pension with international capital mobility. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 74, No. 1, Oct 1999. 141-50 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Being relatively low earners, migrants are net beneficiaries of the welfare state. Therefore, in a static set-up, migration may be resisted by the entire native-born population. However, it is shown that in a dynamic set-up, with a pension system (which is an important pillar of any welfare state) migration is beneficial to all income (high and low) and all age (old and young) groups."
Correspondence: A. Razin, Tel Aviv University, Eitan Berglas School of Economics, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 Tel Aviv, Israel. E-mail: razin@econ.tau.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41020 Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Unskilled migration: a burden or a boon for the welfare state. NBER Working Paper, No. 7013, Mar 1999. 23 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In a static setup, migration of unskilled labor may be resisted by the entire native-born population because, being relatively low earners, migrants are net beneficiaries of the fiscal system. However, the paper shows that with a pay-as-you-go pension...the dynamics are such that migration is beneficial to low and high income groups and the old and the young, provided that the economy has a good access to the world capital markets.... The pro-migration feature of the dynamic model is however weakened and possibly overturned when access to the world capital market is limited. In the case of low elasticity of substitution between capital and labor, earnings of native-born may be significantly affected, and the factor price effects can dwarf the effects of the migrants' giving to or taking from the welfare state on the native-born population."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: Razin@econ.tau.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41021 Reginato, Mauro. Emigration and demographic behaviors. Italians who emigrated to Santa Izabel and Italians who stayed home. [Emigrazione e comportamenti demografici. Italiani emigrati a Santa Izabel e Italiani rimasti in patria.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 29, 1998. 145-56 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
This article compares the demographic behavior of the Italians who emigrated to the colony of Santa Izabel in Espirito Santo State, Brazil, in the nineteenth century, and the Italian population in Piedmont, Italy, where most of the Italian colonists originated.
Correspondence: M. Reginato, Istituto di Statistica, Piazza Arbarello 8, 10122 Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41022 Reimers, David M. Unwelcome strangers: American identity and the turn against immigration. ISBN 0-231-10956-3. LC 97-52683. 1998. xii, 199 pp. Columbia University Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author presents arguments for both increasing and decreasing current levels of immigration to the United States.
Correspondence: Columbia University Press, 562 West 113th Street, New York, NY 10025. Location: Princeton University Library.

65:41023 Reniers, Georges. On the history and selectivity of Turkish and Moroccan migration to Belgium. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1999. 679-713 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
An attempt is made to add the concept of selectivity to the analysis of labor migration from Turkey and Morocco to Belgium. "By using a combination of different data sources, a systematic comparison is made of leavers and stayers with respect to their region of origin and educational attainment. The (self-) selection of the immigrants is, in other words, the empirical angle that is chosen to compare and characterize both migration systems.... Implicit in this article is a plea for the added value of the empirical operationalization of selectivity in terms of understanding migration systems. However, such an approach requires comparable data on the sending and receiving countries. In this case, data were combined from two national surveys conducted in Belgium between 1994 and 1996, with aggregated data from national statistical institutes of the sending countries, for the analysis of selection with respect to the region of origin. The same survey data were used in combination with the DHS surveys for Morocco (1992) and Turkey (1993) for the analysis of selection with respect to educational level."
Correspondence: G. Reniers, University of Ghent, Department of Population Studies and Social Science Research Methods, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 49, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41024 Rivera-Salgado, Gaspar. Mixtec activism in Oaxacalifornia: transborder grassroots political strategies. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,439-58 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article analyzes the experience of indigenous migrant workers from the state of Oaxaca who have formed permanent communities in northern Mexico and in California.... First, it will discuss the theoretical implications of transnational approaches to migration. It will also provide the political context of the transnational activism of indigenous migrant farm-workers. The article will then explain in more detail the context of indigenous migration from Mexico to the United States. Finally, it will discuss specific examples of transnational activism and its impact on politics in the communities of origin and [destination]."
Correspondence: G. Rivera-Salgado, University of California, Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41025 Roberts, Bryan R.; Frank, Reanne; Lozano-Ascencio, Fernando. Transnational migrant communities and Mexican migration to the U.S. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1999. 238-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this article we explore the variability of U.S.-Mexico migration, positioning the emerging discourse on transnational migration within a migration systems approach. Looking at factors in the social and economic structures of Mexico and the U.S. we evaluate the prevalence of transnational migration patterns among Mexican migrants in conjunction with past patterns of temporary and permanent migration. Transnational migration and the communities it creates are conceived of as a different path of adjustment for migrants and, using Hirschman's concept of the Exit, Voice, and Loyalty, we illustrate the reasons underpinning the predominance of transnational migrant communities among migrants of rural origin. Finally, we introduce original fieldwork that explores the prevalence of different migration patterns among urban migrants and validates the highly differentiated nature of Mexican migration."
Correspondence: B. R. Roberts, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41026 Rumbaut, Rubén G. Immigration research in the United States: social origins and future orientations. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,285-301 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
The author "reports some revealing empirical findings from the first [U.S.] National Survey of Immigration Scholars (NASIS), which provide valuable clues about their social origins and research orientations. The survey is based on a large sample of scholars who are immigration specialists in a wide variety of disciplines.... The sample also includes substantial numbers of other researchers whose doctoral training was in other disciplines."
Correspondence: R. G. Rumbaut, Michigan State University, Department of Sociology, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41027 Rumbaut, Rubén G.; Foner, Nancy; Gold, Steven J. Transformations: immigration and immigration research in the United States. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,253-474 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
"Four decades into a new era of mass immigration, it has become commonplace to observe that the United States is undergoing its most profound demographic transformation in a century. Much less evident is the extent to which the social scientific study of immigration is itself being transformed in the process. This issue...seeks to provide a glimpse of these dual transformations.... It reflects the work of established scholars who have directed the Social Science Research Council's (SSRC) International Migration Committee since its formation in 1994 and especially that of younger scholars from a wide range of disciplines who were awarded postdoctoral and predoctoral research fellowships under the SSRC's International Migration Program."
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. E-mail: order@sagepub.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41028 Sanchez, George J. Race and immigration history. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,271-5 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"The task for the next generation of historians is to weave together the insights of previous generations to begin to tell a whole story of immigration to the United States that excludes no one while taking into account the diversity of conditions that brought newcomers to the United States as well as the varieties of factors that influenced their adaptation to American society.... The issue of race is likely to continue to emerge as a fundamental source of contention in analyzing immigrant adaptation...."
Correspondence: G. J. Sanchez, University of Southern California, Program in American Studies and Ethnicity, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41029 Sarrible, Graciela. On migration within and from outside the European Community: against exclusion as a generic qualification. [Sobre las migraciones comunitarias y extracomunitarias: contra la exclusión como calificativo genérico.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 13, No. 39, Aug 1998. 239-56 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Description of migrant groups in European Parliament documents is of a negative nature: it refers to marginality. However, definition of an `international emigrant', depends on who is considered as such. If in Spain all foreigners are included therein, even EC-members, the image of exclusion cannot be applied to describe or qualify the entire group. This article provides evidence to prove that such images cannot be applied indiscriminately to the community of foreign residents, and that Spanish reality is different from that of other receiving countries and has been so for decades."
Correspondence: G. Sarrible, Universidad de Barcelona, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Diagonal 690, Barcelona 08034, Spain. E-mail: sarrible@eco.ub.es. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41030 Saxenian, AnnaLee. Silicon Valley's new immigrant entrepreneurs. ISBN 1-58213-009-4. LC 99-28139. 1999. xvii, 93 pp. Public Policy Institute of California: San Francisco, California. In Eng.
"This study examines the economic contributions of Silicon Valley's highly skilled immigrants, focusing in particular on the region's Chinese and Indian computer scientists and engineers, who are generating jobs and wealth for the California economy. In 1998, firms started by Chinese and Indians between 1980 and 1998 collectively accounted for nearly $17 billion in sales and over 58,000 jobs.... The study's findings suggest that the policy debate over immigration must be widened to include the evolving relationship between immigrants, trade, and economic development in an increasingly global economy. Restricting the immigration of skilled workers...could have far-reaching consequences for economic development, affecting not only the supply of such workers but also the rate of entrepreneurship, the level of international investment and trade, and the health of California's economy."
Correspondence: Public Policy Institute of California, 500 Washington Street, Suite 800, San Francisco, CA 94111. E-mail: info@ppic.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41031 Schwarz, Thomas. Migration configurations in the former Soviet Union and the international regime. Migration, No. 29-31, 1998. 5-28 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"With the opening of the Iron Curtain, the successor states of the Soviet Union became integrated in the international migration context. But instead of taking the form of gigantic waves of emigration as feared, the bulk of the migration that took place was inside the borders of the former empire. As the product of a research project that went on for several years, the author presents a typology of the numerous migration movements in that region.... Migration regimes--refugee and migrant aid agencies--have been established in recent years at both the local and the international level. The author's thesis is that the CIS has...become a testing-ground for new concepts and amended mandates for international organizations."
Correspondence: T. Schwarz, Berlin Institute for Comparative Social Research, Schliemannstraße 23, 10437 Berlin, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:41032 Shah, Nasra M. Emigration dynamics in South Asia: an overview. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume II: South Asia, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 17-29 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
The aim of this overview is to highlight major findings from the joint International Organization for Migration(IOM)/United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) project on emigration dynamics for the countries of South Asia. The focus is on identifying linkages among the various phenomena that affect migration. The author concludes that labor migration from South Asia is likely to continue for the next few years, but that eventual return of these migrants to their countries of origin is inevitable, and therefore planners should not place too much reliance on this so-called safety valve to reduce pressures in those countries.
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Kuwait University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Science, P.O. Box 24923, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41033 Shah, Nasra M. The role of social networks among South Asian male migrants to Kuwait. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume II: South Asia, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 30-70 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
The role of social networks among immigrants from South Asia in Kuwait is explored. The "objective is to gain specific knowledge on the role of informal (friends/relatives) networks in the migration to, and subsequent adjustment of, South Asian males moving to Kuwait. For the purposes of this study, South Asia is defined to include Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The specific research questions addressed are: (a) in what ways do networks facilitate the move itself; (b) does migration through the network lower the cost of migration; (c) when compared with migration through more formal channels such as recruiting agents, do the dynamics of migration differ; (d) does migration through the network result in clustering of migrants in specific occupations, and what are the salary implications of this; (e) does migration through the friends/family network enable greater success and mobility in the host country, or does it result in unemployment and failure; (f) in terms of attitudes towards migration, can we predict the `self-perpetuating' nature of migration; [and] (g) does the sponsorship of migration and degree of connectedness affect the duration of stay in Kuwait?"
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Kuwait University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Science, P.O. Box 24923, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41034 Shamshur, Oleg. Migration situation in Ukraine: international cooperation related aspects. Migration, No. 29-31, 1998. 29-44 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
This study examines "the new dimension of migration in the Ukraine due to the process of transformation from primarily internal to international migration and the diversification of migration. These changes have made it more necessary to establish a comprehensive migration policy. The author analyses the development of international cooperation, focusing on the international CIS conference in Geneva on 30-31 May 1996, which gave a decisive impetus to international cooperation."
Correspondence: O. Shamshur, Kiev University, Institute of International Relations, Centre for Migration and Social Studies, Kiev, Ukraine. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:41035 Söllner, Fritz. A note on the political economy of immigration. Public Choice, Vol. 100, No. 3-4, Sep 1999. 245-51 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this note it is shown that the different attitudes towards immigration can be explained in terms of economic interest, although the public immigration debate is dominated by moral and political arguments. On the one hand, immigration supporters are mainly found among those who may expect economic gains from immigration--skilled workers and especially members of certain professions. On the other hand, unskilled workers who stand to lose economically because they can be easily substituted for by immigrants are for the most part opposed to immigration." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: F. Söllner, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Department of Economics, 98684 Ilmenau, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41036 Spain, Daphne. America's diversity: on the edge of two centuries. PRB Reports on America, Vol. 1, No. 2, May 1999. 12 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report on America's diversity will highlight how demographic data from the edge of two centuries can be used to inform public policy.... We lack comparable survey data from the end of the last century, but anecdotal evidence suggests a long history of ambivalence toward immigration and diversity that continues to drive all kinds of change in American society. This report places contemporary concerns about immigration and race relations, and assimilation and pluralism, in historical perspective by reviewing similarities and differences between the 1890s and the 1990s--the edge of two centuries."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: popref@prb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41037 Stahl, Charles W. Trade in labour services and migrant worker protection with special reference to East Asia. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1999. 545-68 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article argues that the East Asia international labour market is bet viewed as bisected along productivity lines.... The central concern of the article is that protection of migrant workers is also bisected along productivity lines with [highly-skilled and professional] workers given special consideration under international policy, while measures to protect and facilitate the movement of low-skilled workers are virtually non-existent."
Correspondence: C. W. Stahl, University of Newcastle, Centre for Asia Pacific Social Transformation Studies, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41038 Stolcke, Verena. New rhetorics of exclusion in Europe. International Social Science Journal, No. 159, Mar 1999. 25-35 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The spread of hostility and violence in Europe against immigrants from the Third World has provoked much soul-searching in the past decade over the resurgence of the old demon of racism in a new guise. However, a perceptible shift in the rhetoric of exclusion can be detected. From what were once assertions of the differing endowment of human races, there has risen, since the 1970s, a rhetoric of inclusion and exclusion that emphasizes the distinctiveness of cultural identity, traditions and heritage between groups and assumes the closure of culture by territory.... In this article, I intend first to examine this shift in the way in which European anti-immigrant sentiment is phrased. Then I will trace its social and political roots. I will conclude by contrasting the ways in which the national political repertoires of Britain and France have been employed to legitimate mounting animosity against immigrants."
Correspondence: V. Stolcke, Universidad de Autónoma de Barcelona, Departamento de Antropologia Social y Prehistoria, Campus Universitari, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: verena@cc.uab.es. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41039 Straubhaar, Thomas; Wolburg, Martin R. Brain drain and brain gain in Europe: an evaluation of the East-European migration to Germany. Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, Vol. 218, No. 5-6, May 1999. 574-604 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
Unpublished Eurostat data are used to analyze the implications of the migration of professionals from Eastern Europe to Germany. "With the help of a panel data analysis we... estimate a European production function and find that the share of highly qualified persons in the population has a significant and positive effect on the explanation of income differentials across the [12 European Union] countries. Using the obtained parameters of the production function for the East European countries we calibrate the welfare effects of the brain drain. Our major findings are: First, Germany gains from migration from Eastern Europe whereas Eastern European countries lose from free migration because the average stock of human capital is lowered. Second, the overall increase in income is positive, thus international welfare increases. Third, taking remittances into account does not alter the qualitative findings."
Correspondence: T. Straubhaar, Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Institut für Wirtschaftspolitik, Holstenhofweg 85, 22043 Hamburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41040 Tabanera García, Nuria. Celebrations and historiography: studies on Spanish emigration to Latin America on the occasion of the fifth centennial. [Conmemoración e historiografía: los estudios sobre emigración española a América Latina en el quinto centenario.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 13, No. 38, Apr 1998. 3-15 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This is a review of studies of emigration from Spain by Spanish scholars since 1936. The author notes that research on this topic was severely restricted for political reasons under the Franco regime, and was subsequently influenced for the worse by focusing on the negative impacts of such emigration for the country of origin. Some recent research initiatives on this topic developed in Spain are described.
Correspondence: N. Tabanera García, Universitat de Valencia, Nave 2, 46003 Valencia, Spain. E-mail: NuriaTabanera@uv.es. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41041 Tacoli, Cecilia. International migration and the restructuring of gender asymmetries: continuity and change among Filipino labor migrants in Rome. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 3, Fall 1999. 658-82 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the different factors which may explain gender-selectivity among Filipino labor migrants in Rome, where women are around 70 percent of this nationality group. Following the analysis of labor demand in the domestic service sector, it explores `supply' aspects, ranging from economic conditions within the Philippine labor market to noneconomic constraints, such as ideologies and expectations of gender. The research findings show that migrant women's commitments and obligations toward their households in home areas are generally stronger than those of their male counterparts."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41042 Tapinos, Georges. Clandestine immigration: economic and political issues. In: Trends in international migration: Continuous Reporting System on Migration, annual report, 1999 edition. ISBN 92-64-17078-2. 1999. 229-51 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]: Paris, France. In Eng.
Some of the economic and political issues arising from clandestine, or illegal, immigration are addressed. The geographical focus is on Europe and Northern America. The author first examines ways to measure this kind of migration. Next, its economic impact is assessed, including the behavior of labor supply and demand, undocumented migrant workers and the hidden economy, the impact on the labor market, and macroeconomic impacts on distribution and taxation. Ways to combat clandestine immigration are also reviewed.
For the report that includes this chapter, see elsewhere in this issue.
For the report which includes this chapter, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: G. Tapinos, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, 27 rue Saint-Guillaume, 75337 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41043 Tatyanchenko, Olena O. Some aspects of international migration in Ukraine, 1994. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 610-29 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This study will have a special focus on international migration levels and differentials in Ukraine and needs to assess it quantitatively. More specifically, the main objectives of this study are as follows: [to] describe and analyze the present level, trend and pattern of international migration in Ukraine; [to] attempt to explore international migration differentials in Ukraine according to urban-rural areas and ethnic groups.... The present study depends mainly on the information and data published by the National Academy of Science of Ukraine."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41044 Témime, Emile. French policy toward immigration from Algeria: the weight of colonization. [La politique française à l'égard de la migration algérienne: le poids de la colonisation.] Le Mouvement Social, No. 188, Jul-Sep 1999. 77-87 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Reviewing the various stages of Algerian immigration from its origin at the beginning of the century, the article argues about the French policy towards that immigration which began in colonial times and became massive after 1945. Between the first period of strictly controlled entrance of the first workers and the measures taken to regulate the flow and control the migrants after Algeria's independence, a contradictory and wavering policy gradually emerges with consequences that unsettled the original society. Above all can be felt the persistence of a colonial vision and management of the Algerian migrant. As a French subject he is from the start a peculiar migrant, an `immigrant worker' before the word till 1939, then specially controlled and protected, never meant to [settle permanently]. The children of Algerian immigration in France have to bear the burden of a history catching them up from the past."
Correspondence: E. Témime, Université d'Aix-Marseille I, 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseilles Cedex 3, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41045 Thomas-Hope, Elizabeth. Emigration dynamics in the anglophone Caribbean. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume III: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1999. 232-84 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
An analysis of international migration affecting the Anglophone countries of the Caribbean is presented. The author argues that "migration...is not necessarily, or always, a decision in response to negative conditions; national circumstances provide opportunities which are extended by the migration option. The environments of small Caribbean island states are extended to incorporate a `wider world' outside. Within the context of language and educational systems based on former colonial linkages, traditions have evolved in which emigration has become a well-established institution. Indeed, migration is not an isolated situation in the lives of the family or individual; accessibility to flows of information, especially via networks, determines how likely a person is to follow a particular type of behaviour at different stages of the life cycle, although volume and direction of migration are obviously restricted by legislation in receiving countries."
Correspondence: E. Thomas-Hope, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41046 Tribalat, Michèle. How many people in France are of foreign descent? Population: An English Selection, Vol. 4, 1992. 55-73 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"The populations of the United States and Canada are to a large extent the fruit of centuries of immigration from overseas. These countries have thus naturally, for many years, used their censuses to measure how successive migration streams have contributed to building their population. In France, there is no equivalent direct source of information on the geographic or national origins of parents, grandparents and beyond. [The author] has used the existing data to measure the impact of a century of immigration, and to estimate how many of the present-day French population have foreign roots."
Correspondence: M. Tribalat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41047 Valentini, Alessandro. The influence of migration on Italian population: alternative scenarios compared. [Impatto delle immigrazioni sulla popolazione italiana: confronto tra scenari alternativi.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 36, No. 133, Mar 1999. 63-79 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The article presents alternative scenarios built upon different demographic hypotheses in connection with the evolution of the Italian population and the immigration dynamics between the years 1996 and 2046. By taking into consideration the complexity and variability of the observed phenomena, this study simulates theoretical scenarios, based on hypothetical demographic tendencies. However, they constitute a valid indication of the impact that international migrations could have on the Italian population, whose increasing reduction is constant because of low fertility and ageing of the structure. Therefore, the closing of frontiers does not seem to be a rational solution on a demographic level, for it would worsen the already delicate problem of the decline. On the other hand, the policy of entry visas should not be disconnected from the family policies, in order to [encourage] increased fertility."
Correspondence: A. Valentini, Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Statistica e Matematica Applicata all'Economia, Lungarno Pacinotti 43-45, 56100 Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41048 Van Hear, Nicholas. New diasporas: the mass exodus, dispersal and regrouping of migrant communities. Global Diasporas, ISBN 0-295-97712-4. LC 98-12125. 1998. xv, 298 pp. University of Washington Press: Seattle, Washington; UCL Press: London, England. In Eng.
"Recent profound changes in the world political and economic order have generated large movements of people in almost every region. As migration has proliferated, so too has the formation of diaspora or transnational communities, leading to increasing numbers of people with allegiances straddling their places of origin and their new homelands. At the same time many expatriates have been forced to return home and other previously scattered populations have regrouped, leading to the weakening or un-doing of diasporas. This book charts the connections between migration crises and transnational communities--their formation, their demise and their social, economic and political fall-out. Drawing on original research and a wide range of case material, [the author] looks in detail at ten migration crises in the contemporary world.... He examines the factors that are accelerating--and constraining--the growth of transnational communities in an ever more volatile world migration order."
Correspondence: University of Washington Press, P.O. Box 50096, Seattle, WA 98145-5096. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41049 Vedder, Richard; Gallaway, Lowell; Moore, Stephen. The immigration problem: then and now. Independent Review, Vol. 4, No. 3, Winter 2000. 347-64 pp. Oakland, California. In Eng.
The concept that current levels of immigration to the United States are a problem is examined in the context of the evolution of attitudes toward immigration from colonial times to the present day. The authors note that recent concerns about levels of immigration are a result of the policy changes adopted in 1965, which did away with ethnic and national preferences for potential immigrants. The extent to which immigrants are a welfare burden or an economic asset is examined, and the authors conclude that "the evidence cited to prove that immigrants are now taking undue advantage of the welfare state is exaggerated or just plain wrong."
Correspondence: R. Vedder, Ohio State University, Department of Economics, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:41050 Vermeulen, Hans. Immigration, integration and the politics of culture. Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1999. 6-22 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng.
The concept of culture is examined from an anthropological aspect in the context of immigration and the assimilation of immigrants. "First, I address the problematic nature of the concept of culture in this field of study. Then I discuss the relation between cultural homogeneity and heterogeneity and the nation-state. Lastly I examine the notion of multiculturalism and the crisis it is going through." The primary geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: H. Vermeulen, University of Amsterdam, Institute of Migration and Ethnic Studies, Rokin 84, 1012 KX Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: vermeulen@pscw.uva.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41051 Vertovec, Steven. Migration and social cohesion. International Library of Studies on Migration, No. 7, ISBN 1-85898-868-3. LC 99-14857. 1999. xxxvii, 534 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Northampton, Massachusetts/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of previously published studies on aspects of immigration and its impact on the societies into which immigrants are moving. "This volume includes a variety of key works which explore this relationship between migration and social cohesion. The articles by some of the foremost writers in the field cover models and frameworks of immigrant incorporation, debates in multicultural policy, immigrant and ethnic minority political participation, citizenship, entrepreneurship and language and sociocultural adaptation." The primary geographical focus is on the developed countries.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, Glensanda House, Montpellier Parade, Cheltenham GL50 1UA, England. E-mail: info@e-elgar.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41052 Volovitch-Tavares, Marie-Christine. The Catholic Church in France and the reception of Portuguese immigrants (1960-1975). [L'Eglise de France et l'accueil des immigrés portugais (1960-1975).] Le Mouvement Social, No. 188, Jul-Sep 1999. 89-102 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes the role that the Roman Catholic Church was able to play in helping the hundreds of thousands of both legal and illegal immigrants that came to France from Portugal between 1960 and 1975.
Correspondence: M.-C. Volovitch-Tavares, Lycée du Parc de Vilgénis, Massy, Essonne, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41053 Wahba, Jackline. The transmission of Dutch disease and labour migration. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1998. 355-65 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of the oil-boom in the Gulf states in the framework of a Dutch disease model. The model indicates that labour immigration may offset the effects of Dutch disease in the Gulf states [Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Qatar]. However, this may effectively shift the symptoms of Dutch disease to labour-exporting countries. Consequently, the theoretical model shows that through labour migration, Dutch disease can be transmitted to sending countries."
Correspondence: J. Wahba, University of Southampton, Department of Economics, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

65:41054 Wendt, Hartmut. Immigration to Germany--processes and challenges. [Zuwanderung nach Deutschland--Prozesse und Herausforderungen.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 94, 1999. 127 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This is a collection of six talks given in October 1998 in Kiedrich, Germany, at the first meeting of the working group "Migration--Integration--Minorities" under the aegis of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, the German Demographical Society. The first contribution, by Hartmut Wendt, summarizes the background and issues addressed by the group. The remaining papers are: Identification and integration--the subjective perspective of repatriates 15 years after their return, by Marek Fuchs; Repatriates--migration and spatial distribution using the example of the city of Mannheim, by Frank Swiaczny; Spatial mobility and migratory flows within Germany 1995--models for statistics on migration, marriage, and mortality, by Jürgen Mimkes; Illegal migration in Germany--types, numbers, and trends, by Harald W. Lederer; and Immigration into Germany and employment of foreigners, by Erika Schulz.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 4, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41055 White, Gregory. Encouraging unwanted immigration: a political economy of Europe's efforts to discourage North African immigration. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 4, Aug 1999. 839-54 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"It is often asserted that pressures for North African migration to Europe would be reduced if the European Union encouraged economic development on the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Such arguments prompt questions about the efficacy of past and present endeavours by Europe to support economic development in North Africa. This article argues that the European Union's efforts have ironically encouraged a form of economic development in its southern neighbours that abets, rather than discourages, migration. Deeper economic reform is necessary by the European Union itself--within the economic space that Europe dominates--if genuine progress is to be made on North African migration pressures."
Correspondence: G. White, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41056 Wilson, Tamar D. Anti-immigrant sentiment and the process of settlement among Mexican immigrants to the United States: reflections on the current wave of Mexican immigrant bashing. Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 31, No. 2, Jun 1999. 1-26 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"After reviewing literature which correlates economic crises with immigrant scapegoating and shows the former functionality of Mexican undocumented immigrants for U.S. capitalism, I argue that the anti-immigrant sentiments arising globally today have a new dimension that is closely related to the restructuring of the world system as well as to the qualitatively different character of immigration. Immigrant bashing is partially a reaction to the `deterritorialization' and increasing delegitimization of the nation-state as a viable `encapsulating' entity. Such deterritorialization represents a qualitative change in immigration patterns: immigrants from underdeveloped to core capitalist countries have progressively formed `daughter communities' and become settlers instead of temporary, circular migrants, thus becoming economically less functional for U.S. capital."
Correspondence: T. D. Wilson, Condominiums Aloha 301-E, Paseo San José s/n, 23448 San José de los Cabos, BCS, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41057 Wilson, Tamar D. Weak ties, strong ties: network principles in Mexican migration. Human Organization, Vol. 57, No. 4, Winter 1998. 394-403 pp. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. In Eng.
"Five network principles are elaborated from literature on Mexican immigrants and from research that I conducted on immigration from a rancho in Jalisco state to a variety of destinations within the United States. These principles are, first, that networks are multilocal, encompassing a number of geographical destinations.... Second, the anchoring points at any given geographical location are the work sites where immigrants find employment.... Third, new geographical locations are often accessed through the `strength of weak ties', leading to geographic dispersion.... Fourth, both dense networks and diffuse, weak-tie, or acquaintance networks constitute `social capital' for their members. Fifth, given the geographical dispersion at the work site and/or work type clustering found among immigrants from any particular source community, the latter can best be explained by job recruitment primarily through dense network members, especially close relatives."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41058 Yáñez Gallardo, Cesar. Economic aspects of Catalonian overseas migration before 1870. [Economía de las migraciones catalanas ultramarinas anteriores a 1870.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 13, No. 38, Apr 1998. 17-28 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
International migration trends from the Catalonian region of Spain prior to 1970 are analyzed. The author notes that much of this emigration was related to the international trade of the region that developed in association with its industrialization and the need for trustworthy representatives overseas. "The article draws a profile of the typical Catalonian emigrants, young, male, unmarried, usually with some degree of professional qualification, their position overseas depending partially on their parents' standing at home. The decision was made within the family, and not individually by the would-be emigrants. Thus familiar resources--cultural, social and monetary in nature--were channeled to favour the young migrant's settling and progress in America, and he was expected, in turn, to send part of the profit home."
Correspondence: C. Yáñez Gallardo, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Departament de Historia Económica, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41059 Zahniser, Steven S. One border, two transitions: Mexican migration to the United States as a two-way process. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,350-80 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article employs a unique logit model developed by Yamaguchi to study Mexican migration to the United States.... Migration is found to be a persistent phenomenon for its participants. Legal residents of the United States and persons with more dependent children are inclined either to remain in the United States or to participate in migration year after year. Female migrants are less likely to return to Mexico, whereas married migrants tend to follow a year of migration with 1 or more years spent entirely in Mexico. Surprisingly, macroeconomic indicators of expected wage differentials between the two countries explain little of migration behavior."
Correspondence: S. S. Zahniser, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Resources and Technology Division, Economic Research Service, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41060 Zavodny, Madeline. Determinants of recent immigrants' locational choices. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1999. 1,014-30 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"High levels of immigration to the United States have caused the size of the foreign-born population to increase dramatically in recent years. Recent immigrants are concentrated in several states, particularly California. This article examines the determinants of the intended state of residence of new recipients of legal permanent resident status and new refugees from 1989 to 1994. The presence of other foreign-born people is the primary determinant of the locational choices of new legal permanent residents, but there are some differences among immigrant groups by admission category and by country of origin. Only refugees' locations appear to be sensitive to welfare generosity."
Correspondence: M. Zavodny, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, 104 NW Marietta Street, Atlanta, GA 30303. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

65:41061 Andreev, E. M.; Rakhmaninova, M. V. Internal migration in Russia: past and present. [Vnutrennyaya migratsiya v Rossii: proshloe i nastoyashchee.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 5, 1999. 53-63 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Recent and past trends in internal migration in the Russian Federation are reviewed using data from the 1994 microcensus and other official sources. The focus is on a cohort analysis of regional migration trends.
Correspondence: E. M. Andreev, Goskomstat Rossii, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41062 Baccaïni, Brigitte. An analysis of internal migration and an estimate of the external migration balance at the local level with the help of census data. [Analyse des migrations internes et estimation du solde migratoire externe au niveau local à l'aide des données censitaires.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1999. 801-16 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This research note uses census data to estimate the balance between internal and external migration at the regional levels of communes and departments in France during the period 1982-1990.
Correspondence: B. Baccaïni, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41063 Beenstock, Michael. Internal migration by immigrants in the short-run: Israel 1992-1994. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1999. 1,098-106 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Econometric investigation of the Immigrant Employment Survey for the years 1991-4 suggests that internal migration by immigrants from the former USSR during their first years in Israel is unrelated to labor market status and ethnicity. While initial location depends on republic of origin, the same does not apply on the whole to internal migration. However, housing status is a predictor of internal migration. Finally, immigrants have tended to migrate to the periphery."
Correspondence: M. Beenstock, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41064 Bell, Martin; Rees, Philip; Blake, Marcus; Duke-Williams, Oliver. An age-period-cohort data base of inter-regional migration in Australia and Britain, 1976-96. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 99/02, Nov 1999. iv, 69 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"Relatively little attention has been given to the ways in which within country migration changes over time. In countries that do not have a comprehensive population register and its accompanying compulsory change-of-address recording system, the reason for this neglect is the difficulty of assembling consistent and accurate time series from partial data.... This paper sets out the procedures for constructing parallel APC [age-period-cohort] databases for Australia and Britain as part of a project comparing inter-regional migration in the two countries. We set out technical details of...APC databases of interregional migration for Australia and Britain covering the period 1976 to 1996."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Author's E-mail: mbell@arts.adelaide.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41065 Birg, H.; Flöthmann, E.-J.; Heins, F.; Reiter, I. Migration analysis: empirical longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses on the basis of micro- and macro-models for Germany. [Migrationsanalyse: empirische Längsschnitt- und Querschnittanalysen auf der Grundlage von Mikro- und Makromodellen für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland.] IBS-Materialien, Vol. 43, ISBN 3-923340-37-0. 1998. 148 pp. Universität Bielefeld, Institut für Bevölkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik [IBS]: Bielefeld, Germany. In Ger.
This study combined statistical migration data with individual biographical survey data to analyze internal migration flows among the 320 urban and rural regions of Germany. The causes and consequences of this migration are discussed.
Correspondence: Universität Bielefeld, Institut für Bevölkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41066 Brown, Lawrence A.; Lobao, Linda; Digiacinto, Scott. Economic restructuring and migration in an old industrial region. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 37-58 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The impact of economic restructuring on migration in the United States is examined. "First, we consider post-1960s socioeconomic restructuring and some of its implications for migration systems. Attention then turns to empirical analysis. Our study area is the Ohio River Valley (ORV), which, as a portion of the American Manufacturing Belt, exemplifies an old industrial region.... In this regard, the chapter's second section describes the ORV region, its characteristics, and its evolution. Third, focus turns to patterns of net migration, their spatial attributes, and their relationship to structural characteristics of the economy at the county level. The final section presents a discussion of findings, general observations, and conclusions."
Correspondence: L. A. Brown, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1361. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41067 Cai, Fang. Economic reasons for migration, the organization of the labor force and the selection of jobs. Social Sciences in China, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring 1998. 77-84 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
This article, translated from the original Chinese, examines aspects of internal labor migration in China. "This paper is designed to reveal the micro-rationality of rural laborers' migration and selection of jobs, to counteract the perception of `blind migration' and to reflect on existing policies on labor migration."
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

65:41068 Cai, Fang. Spatial patterns of migration under China's reform period. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999. 313-27 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"With the hukou (household registration) system in place since the1950s, migration in China was limited to officially approved registration changes. Economic changes resulting from the introduction of economic reforms in the late 1970s and changes in the household registration system gave rise to the mobility of rural labor. Initially confined to rural areas, rural labor later expanded to urban migration in response to regional disparities in employment and income. This article presents and analyzes data showing the relationship between spatial patterns of migration and regional disparities."
Correspondence: F. Cai, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population Studies, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41069 Chan, Kam Wing; Liu, Ta; Yang, Yunyan. Hukou and non-hukou migrations in China: comparisons and contrasts. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 425-48 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
Data from the 1990 one percent sample are used to analyze trends in internal migration in China. The focus is on differences between official migration that is recorded in the household registration (hukou) system, and informal migration that is not recorded in this system. "We first compared the socioeconomic characteristics and geographical patterns of long-distance hukou and non-hukou migratory flows, and developed a framework of dual migration circuits. With this framework, we used a statistical model to evaluate migration rates in relation to both origin and destination variables. It was found that these two types of migrants shared some general demographic characteristics, but displayed substantial socioeconomic differences."
Correspondence: K. W. Chan, University of Washington, Department of Geography, Box 353550, Seattle, WA 98195-3550. E-mail: kwchan@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41070 Cross, Catherine; Mngadi, Tobias; Mbhele, Themba. Constructing migration: infrastructure, poverty and development in KwaZulu-Natal. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 15, No. 4, Summer 1998. 635-59 pp. Halfway House, South Africa. In Eng.
"Migration and population movement are probably the most neglected of the significant dynamics behind rural poverty in South Africa. Little is known about how people move from place to place, and much of what we thought we knew may be incorrect. In KwaZulu-Natal job search is no longer the single dominating reason given for migration. Instead, infrastructure ties with it for first place today, with land close behind. The first article in this two-part report notes that as many as two thirds of the province's disadvantaged families have broken away from their communities of origin and moved at least once during their lifetimes. Perhaps three million have migrated in the last fifteen years...."
Correspondence: C. Cross, University of Natal, Centre for Social and Development Studies, Rural Urban Studies Programme, George V Avenue, Durban 4001, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41071 Cushing, Brian. Migration and persistent poverty in rural America. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 15-36 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter presents a case study of a six-county region in southern West Virginia, a part of Central Appalachia. [The author] begins with a brief overview of the region, focusing particularly on employment and population change since the mid-1970s. Following this I analyze the patterns of in- and out-migration for the region during the 1985-1990 period and the demographic changes in the region between 1980 and 1990. The discussion then focuses on the characteristics of the region's poverty population, particularly the working-age poor. I end by considering implications for the future prospects of the region, as well as for the success of recent welfare reform initiatives."
Correspondence: B. Cushing, West Virginia University, Department of Economics, Morgantown, WV 26506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41072 Dang, Nguyen Anh. Market reforms and internal labor migration in Vietnam. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999. 381-409 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article considers the nature and patterns of labor migration in Vietnam since the introduction of market reforms or Doi Moi in 1986. Using data from the 1989 census, the article examines provincial or area characteristics and human capital resources in determining migration. Migration was found to play a role in providing human resources to labor-scarce areas and it has also become a means for people to improve their life chances. Among others, the findings indicate the selective impacts of market reforms on the migration propensities of men and women. Possible explanations for the findings and [the] policy implications of the results are discussed."
Correspondence: N. A. Dang, National Center for Social Sciences, Institute of Sociology, 24 Tran Xuan Soan, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41073 De Jong, Gordon F. Choice processes in migration behavior. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 273-93 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The author attempts to identify the driving forces that will influence internal migration patterns in the United States over the course of the twenty-first century. "Are there choice theory frameworks and behavioral demography concepts that are useful in articulating a general model of migration decisionmaking? What does the longitudinal research evidence show about the determinants of individual-level migration intentions and behavior? The objective of this chapter is to explore these issues. The thesis is that the intentions-behavior relationship is fundamental to understanding migration decisionmaking. Placing this relationship in the context of a general model derived from choice theory and the microlevel literature in the discipline of demography is the strategy used to help advance our understanding of why people move."
Correspondence: G. F. De Jong, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41074 Djamba, Yanyi; Goldstein, Alice; Goldstein, Sidney. Permanent and temporary migration in Viet Nam during a period of economic change. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1999. 25-48 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the patterns of migration in Viet Nam following economic restructuring. Data from a survey conducted about 10 years after initiation of a market economy are used to document differences between non-migrants, those who changed residence permanently and those who were classified as temporary migrants. New economic opportunities, especially in urban places, stimulated heavy rural-to-urban migration; temporary migrants, in particular, sought to take advantage of this situation to obtain urban jobs and to improve the quality of their lives. Logistic regression models indicate that permanent migrants tend to be older, better educated and are more likely to be married than temporary migrants. There are also substantial differences in determinants of migration by gender, suggesting that opportunities for women and men vary by type of urban destination."
Correspondence: Y. Djamba, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41075 Dureau, Françoise. Two examples of event history questionnaires applied in Bogotá and three oil cities in Casanare. [Dos ejemplos de cuestionarios biográficos aplicados en Bogotá y en tres ciudades petroleras de Casanare.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1999. 631-73, 783 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article, the author attempts to show that it is possible to undertake an empirical study using a set of conceptual innovations concerning the subject of spatial mobility. On the basis of a method of observation, the author attempts to narrow the gap that has traditionally existed between transversal observations of intra-urban displacements and the internal migrations that constitute a longitudinal dimension but which view the city in a global fashion, ignoring intra-urban displacements." The geographical focus is on Colombia.
Correspondence: F. Dureau, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41076 El Gaddal, Manal; El-Kader, Magdy A. Levels, trends and differentials of internal migration, Khartoum region, 1983-1993. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 583-609 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The objectives of this paper are: to examine volume and rates of in, out and net migration to the Khartoum region during 1983 and 1993; to examine the directions of migration (migration streams) to [the] Khartoum region during 1983 and 1993; to identify the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the migrants as compared to non-migrants."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41077 Erdmann, Georg. Migration as a disequilibrium process--a theoretical and empirical analysis for Switzerland. [Wanderungen als Ungleichgewichtsprozess--eine theoretische und empirische Analyse für die Schweiz.] Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft, No. 14-15, 1995. 31-55 pp. Göttingen, Germany. In Ger.
"Unbalanced migrations which change the relative importance of regions in a country indicate that the regional structure is not in equilibrium. In this case migrational data are representations of a disequilibrium process. It seems reasonable to analyze such data by assuming economically rational behaviour of migrants but it is impossible to do this by means of an economic equilibrium model. Instead, the original gravity model derived from classical mechanics and some modifications derived from statistical mechanics are used to analyze the relative attractiveness of regions and the implied regional long-term equilibrium structure. The interregional migration between the 16 labour market regions of Switzerland during the period from 1975 to 1980 is used as an example."
Correspondence: G. Erdmann, Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, ETH, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

65:41078 Fan, C. Cindy. Migration in a socialist transitional economy: heterogeneity, socioeconomic and spatial characteristics of migrants in China and Guangdong Province. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1999. 954-87 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
Aspects of contemporary migration patterns in China are explored. "Using the 1990 Census data on reasons for migration, and an empirical analysis of both national patterns and migration in Guangdong, I document the socioeconomic characteristics and spatial patterns of major types of migration, focusing on migration for employment in industry and business, male migration due to job transfer, and female marriage migration. I argue that the multitude of migration types, and the contrasts among them, are products of the combination of state-planning and market mechanisms. The findings highlight institutional explanations for migration, and show that the 'plan'-'nonplan' dichotomy is more meaningful than the economic-social dichotomy for understanding population movements in China."
Correspondence: C. C. Fan, University of California, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA 90095. E-mail: fan@geog.ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41079 Finnie, Ross. The patterns of inter-provincial migration in Canada 1982-95: evidence from longitudinal tax-based data. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1999. 205-35 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper presents the results of an empirical analysis of the patterns of inter-provincial migration [in Canada] 1982-95 using the recently available Longitudinal Administrative Database (`LAD'). Rates of out-migration have been generally inversely related to a province's population size, strongly related to age, and somewhat greater for men than women, while movements have tended to be towards provinces which have been nearby, large, or further west. Net migration rates generally conform to expectations, but there is perhaps greater variability in these trends than might have been expected, and a few clear surprises. Overall, there was a slight downward trend in migration rates over time."
Correspondence: R. Finnie, Queen's University, School of Policy Studies, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41080 Forbes, Jean; McCleery, Alison; Forster, Emma. Household migration in Scotland: a preliminary analysis of movements and motivations. Social Science Working Paper, No. 16, ISBN 1-873869-16-9. Feb 1995. [39] pp. Napier University: Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"This working paper is based upon preliminary findings from a study which sampled, by postal questionnaire, private sector movers over the whole of mainland Scotland in 1990, obtaining their preferences for housing type as location and the motivation for their recent move.... The objective of the paper is twofold. Firstly it will describe preliminary results of trends in migration at an all-Scotland level with some inter-regional comparison. Secondly it will attempt an analysis of motivational factors by assessing the relative importance in migration decision-making of factors such as employment, life cycle, housing, and quality of life. A growing body of evidence, including the results from this survey, point to the maximisation of quality of life as an increasingly important element in the decision to migrate."
Correspondence: Napier University, Department of Social Sciences, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, Scotland.

65:41081 Forster, Emma. An examination of the processes behind migration flows in Scotland. Social Science Working Paper, No. 24, ISBN 1-873869-24-X. Nov 1997. iii, 35, [3] pp. Napier University: Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"Firstly, this paper presents an overview of the Migration and Housing Choice Survey.... This survey sampled private sector movers in 1990 over the whole of mainland Scotland by postal questionnaire, obtaining their preferences for housing type and location and the motivation for their recent move.... Secondly the paper describes initial results from this survey illustrating how an examination of motivations reveals that there are clusters of migrants with particular motivations, moving into particular areas.... Finally this paper illustrates how these results can be applied."
Correspondence: Napier University, Department of Economics, Sighthill Court, Edinburgh EH11 4BN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41082 Frey, William H.; Liaw, Kao-Lee. Internal migration of foreign-born Latinos and Asians: Are they assimilating geographically? In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 212-30 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"The present analysis examines 1990 [U.S.] census migration data to determine whether more recent internal migration patterns of Latinos and Asians portend a dispersion of these groups away from the traditional port-of-entry areas. The chapter addresses the following questions: (1) Are U.S.-born Latinos and Asians more likely to disperse than their foreign-born counterparts? (2) Are the more educated members of these groups more likely to disperse than those with high school education or less?"
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 426 Thompson Street, P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41083 Huang, Cen. Management of migrant labor in overseas Chinese enterprises in South China. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999. 361-79 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The migration of labor into overseas Chinese enterprises in South China has been a significant phenomenon in internal migration in China since the early 1980s. This phenomenon has not only changed the structure of traditional Chinese labor markets but has also reduced urban-rural differences in the country. This massive migration, [undertaken] mostly by young women of peasant background, has also contributed to the rise of a new migrant working class in China. This article explores the management of migrant labor in overseas Chinese enterprises. Specific issues examined are characteristics of migrant workers and employer-managers, management practices and the impact of management and worker's education in the workplace."
Correspondence: C. Huang, International Institute for Asian Studies, Nonnensteeg 1-3, 2311 VJ Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41084 Jaramillo, Samuel. Migration and regional interrelationships in Colombia, 1973-1993. [Migraciones e interracción regional en Colombia, 1973-1993.] Territorios, No. 1, Aug-Jan 1998-1999. 95-117 pp. Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1973 and 1993 censuses of Colombia are used to analyze migration trends over time. "The first part of the article explores migration behavior among the four large, sociocultural regions which have been the long-term bases of Colombian sociospatial structure (adding to them a fifth region, resulting from the expansion of the socioeconomic frontier), and tries to define recent patterns of territorial unification. The second part analyzes the interaction between departments and proposes a model for defining sociospatial hierarchies and interaction in the two periods studied."
Correspondence: S. Jaramillo, Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Economía, Carrera 1A No. 18-A-70, Apartado Aereo 4976, Bogotá, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41085 Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.; Ferguson, Mark R. The aggregated spatial choice model vs. the multinomial logit: an empirical comparison using migration microdata. Canadian Geographer/Géographe Canadien, Vol. 42, No. 3, Autumn 1998. 218-30 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Frequently, in spatial interaction analysis, researchers are forced to use destinations that are zonal aggregates of the `real' destinations perceived by the participants in the interaction process. Previous simulation studies demonstrated that, under certain circumstances, the aggregated spatial choice model can outperform the popular ordinary multinomial logit model, both in explanatory power and predictive ability. In this paper the two models are compared with interprovincial migration microdata for the time period 1990-91, obtained from the 1991 Canadian census. Since this is not meant to be a migration study, the analysis is limited to outmigrants from Ontario. The results indicate that, at least with the data used, the multinomial logit model performed reasonably well. The paper, however, highlights some practical advantages that can accrue from the use of the aggregated model."
Correspondence: P. S. Kanaroglou, McMaster University, School of Geography and Geology, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. E-mail: pavlos@mcmail.cis.mcmaster.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41086 Lawson, Victoria. Questions of migration and belonging: understandings of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1999. 261-76 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I explore alternative understandings and experiences of migration, drawing on in-depth interviews with urban-destined migrants in Ecuador to argue that mobility produces ambivalent development subjects. Recent research is retheorising the places of migration as deterritorialised households, labour markets and communities that explode singular concepts of uniform and contiguous origins or destinations of migration. Building from this work, I argue that in contrast to a dualistic and discrete treatment of the relationships between origins and destinations, migration research can develop a nuanced, imaginative, dialectical understanding of the interplay of identity and subjectivity, of desire and longing, across the places of migration."
Correspondence: V. Lawson, University of Washington, Department of Geography, Box 352550, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41087 Lee, Seong Woo; Roseman, Curtis C. Migration determinants and employment consequences of white and black families, 1985-1990. Economic Geography, Vol. 75, No. 2, Apr 1999. 109-33 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This study examines the determinants and employment consequences of white and black family interstate migration within the United States during the period 1985-90.... We show that various socioenvironmental and fiscal factors are significantly and disproportionately associated with the location choices of family migrants for both whites and blacks. Expected economic benefits are more important to destination choices by black families than they are for white families. Consistent with traditional family migration theory, the employment prospects of migrant wives seem to play a lesser role than the husbands' employment in family migration decisions for both blacks and whites."
Correspondence: S. W. Lee, Seoul National University, Division of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41088 Levine, Phillip B.; Zimmerman, David J. An empirical analysis of the welfare magnet debate using the NLSY. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug 1999. 391-409 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper examines the extent to which differences in welfare generosity across states leads to interstate migration. Using microdata from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) between 1979 and 1992, we employ a quasi-experimental design that utilizes the categorical eligibility of the welfare system. The pattern of cross-state moves among poor single women with children, who are likely to be eligible for benefits is compared to the pattern among other poor households. We find little evidence indicating that welfare-induced migration is a widespread phenomenon."
Correspondence: P. B. Levine, Wellesley College, Department of Economics, Wellesley, MA 02138. E-mail: plevine@lucy.wellesley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41089 Liaw, Kao-Lee; Rogers, Andrei. The neutral migration process, redistributional potential, and Shryock's preference indices. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 25, Dec 1999. 3-14 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"The theoretical concept of the neutral migration process is examined in this paper and is used to (1) assess the relative importance of the departure and destination choice processes in determining the redistributional effect of interregional migration, and (2) reveal the basic properties of Shryock's preference indices, offering a better alternative in the process. These objectives are demonstrated with data on U.S.-born (and foreign-born) migration between the four regions of the United States. Our reason for using a small number of regions instead of the 50 states or hundreds of economic areas is to simplify the visualization of the entire procedure and its empirical results."
Correspondence: K.-L. Liaw, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

65:41090 Lin, Ge. Assessing changes in interstate migration patterns of the United States elderly population, 1965-1990. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 411-24 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This study examines temporal changes in elderly interstate migration in the United States. All of the interstate movers who were 60 and over are selected from the Public Use Micro-Samples (PUMS) of the 1970, 1980 and 1990 censuses, and three interstate mobility tables are constructed. A triply-constrained gravity model is used to compare the propensities of moving to southern destinations while controlling population sizes for origins, destinations and sample years. The results show that the propensity for moving from cold regions to warm regions has declined by 2.5% since 1980."
Correspondence: G. Lin, University of Victoria, Centre on Aging, P.O. Box 1700, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada. E-mail: glin@uvic.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41091 Millington, Andrew; al-Hussein, Salem; Dutton, Roderic. Population dynamics, socioeconomic change and land colonization in northern Jordan, with special reference to the Badia Research and Development Project area. Applied Geography, Vol. 19, No. 4, Oct 1999. 363-84 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The paper reports on preliminary observations from northern Jordan aimed at testing the view that people migrate from areas of relatively high potential for cultivation to the marginal semi-arid/arid frontier because of social differentiation, political factors or environmental constraints. Cultivated areas have been mapped from multi-date remotely sensed imagery, a typology of fields in the area has been constructed, and their dynamics between 1972 and 1992 analysed. In addition, semi-structured interviews with farmers attempted to understand the reasoning behind village growth, changing farming systems and cultivation practices. The findings are discussed in the context of the area's demography and national and regional shifts in economic policy."
Correspondence: A. Millington, University of Leicester, Department of Geography, Leicester LE1 7RH, England. E-mail: acm4@le.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41092 Morrill, Richard; Falit-Baiamonte, Anthony. Social and economic change and intrametropolitan migration. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 59-94 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
In this chapter, the authors address some questions concerning the relationship between inequality and migration in the United States. "How does internal migration influence the social and economic character of subregions of the modern American metropolis? Is there a spatial restructuring that manifests forces of social and economic restructuring in the wider society? Does migration have the net impact of equilibrating--that is, reducing polarization of well-being across the urban landscape--as in simple theory it should, or can it, in fact, aggravate and reinforce differences?"
Correspondence: R. Morrill, University of Washington, Department of Geography, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41093 Mulder, Clara H.; Hooimeijer, Pieter. Residential relocations in the life course. In: Population issues: an interdisciplinary focus, edited by Leo J. G. van Wissen and Pearl A. Dykstra. 1999. 159-86 pp. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, New York/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The life course perspective has proved to be a powerful instrument in developing a general theoretical framework to interpret a variety of phenomena pertaining to residential relocation. The first phenomenon is that relocations are instrumental to goals arising from a specific life course trajectory or `Career'.... The second phenomenon is that even those careers that are not the actual trigger for the move, are still pertinent to the relocation decision.... The third phenomenon is that residential relocation, which has a positive effect on the triggering career, can have a detrimental effect on other careers or on the careers of other household members." The focus is on the Netherlands.
Correspondence: C. H. Mulder, University of Utrecht, Urban Research Centre Utrecht, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41094 Owen, David. Geographical patterns of recent migration and population change for minority ethnic groups within Great Britain. Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1999. 39-75 pp. Poitiers, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper relates the migration of people from minority ethnic groups within Great Britain to spatial population change during the 1980s. The estimated geographical pattern of population change by ethnic group between 1981 and 1991 is described, demonstrating the continuing counter-urbanisation of white people and the rapid growth of minority ethnic group populations in the larger cities. The shift of population to smaller, more rural and remote places was dominated by the outward migration of white people."
Correspondence: D. Owen, University of Warwick, Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. E-mail: D.W.Owen@warwick.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41095 Pandit, Kavita; Withers, Suzanne D. Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective. ISBN 0-8476-9392-9. LC 99-10342. 1999. viii, 354 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
This volume brings together a selection of the papers presented at a roundtable held at the University of Georgia in May 1997 entitled Migration and Restructuring in the U.S.: Towards the Next Millennium. The 16 papers are organized into three sections: Migration and economic restructuring; Migration and demographic restructuring; and Methodological frontiers in migration research.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41096 Perkyns, Audrey. Migration and mobility in six Kentish parishes, 1851-81. Local Population Studies, No. 63, Autumn 1999. 30-70 pp. Colchester, England. In Eng.
Data from census enumerators' books and parish registers are used to analyze patterns of migration in six adjacent parishes in the English county of Kent from 1851 to 1881.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41097 Peru. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática [INEI] (Lima, Peru); United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Internal migration in Peru. [Migraciones internas en el Perú.] Pub. Order No. 779-95-SG-OEPI. Sep 1995. 253 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This is an analysis of internal migration in Peru based on data from the 1993 census. The socioeconomic factors affecting migration are first described. Internal migration trends from 1981 to 1993 are then analyzed, with consideration given to changes in the spatial distribution of the population, the impact of internal migration at the departmental and provincial levels, and the impact of migration on the cities. A final chapter examines migration policy issues.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Avenida 28 de Julio No. 1056, Lima 1, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41098 Plane, David A. Migration drift. Professional Geographer, Vol. 51, No. 1, Feb 1999. 1-11 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"For perhaps the first time since the founding of the United States the net direction of interstate migration was to the east rather than the west for the period 1992-1993 through 1994-1995. This and other findings, such as a general slowdown in the southward tendency of U.S. population movement over the period 1980-1981 to 1994-1995, are highlighted using the concept of migration drift. I propose the migration drift measure to summarize the net directionality and distance moved by migrants in any country's population system. Like the concept of a center of population or a population centroid, migration drift is an intuitive one. Unlike the population centroid, however, migration drift summarizes the pure effects of population movement without confounding those influences with spatial variations in birth, death, and net foreign immigration rates."
Correspondence: D. A. Plane, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41099 Plane, David A. Time series perspectives and physical geography analogies in migration research. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 313-35 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
Time series data on U.S. internal migration created by linking data from the Internal Revenue Service and the Bureau of the Census for the period 1980-1995 are used to explore time trends in interstate migration streams. "After briefly describing the construction of my database and displaying sample graphs of adjusted IRS-Bureau of the Census migration time series, I set forth a methodology for benchmarking each series to take into account the influence on observed migration flow levels of changes in origin and destination populations over the study period. I then calculate z-scores from the population-benchmarked flows and analyze coefficients of variation calculated for each state-to-state stream of movement over the fifteen-year study period. This analysis highlights the most volatile and the most stable interstate migration streams. I then use the z-scores to carry out a frequency analysis similar to those used by hydrologists to examine the recurrence intervals of extremal events in rivers and streams. In this fashion it is possible to define numerically the levels of flow that represent migration floods (and, similarly, migration droughts)."
Correspondence: D. A. Plane, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41100 Portnov, Boris A. The effect of regional inequalities on migration: a comparative analysis of Israel and Japan. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1999. 587-615 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article posits three main questions: is there a general `mechanism' through which disparities in regional development affect patterns of cross-district migration? Which aspects of regional inequalities...have the most profound effect on rates and direction of inter-area migration? Which planning policies and strategies are conducive to increasing the migration attractiveness of peripheral development regions? In an attempt to answer these questions, the 1985-1995 statistical data for two relatively small and densely populated countries--Israel and Japan--are used."
Correspondence: B. A. Portnov, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Center for Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Sede-Boker Campus, 84990 Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41101 Premi, Mahendra K. Impact of internal migration in India on the dynamics of international migration. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume II: South Asia, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 221-56 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"This chapter concentrates on interstate migration [in India], identifying net inmigrating and net outmigrating states, the quantum of in- and outmigration, and changes therein. The `culture of migration' clearly differs between regions in the country and is partly reflected in sex ratios among the interstate migrants. Analysis of reasons for migration at the state level, particularly in the four migration streams (rural-to-rural, rural-to-urban, urban-to-rural, and urban-to-urban) is likely to reflect the culture of migration. The linkages between internal migration flows and indicators of economic and social development have also been examined." Data are primarily taken from the Indian census.
Correspondence: M. K. Premi, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41102 Preuhs, Robert R. State policy components of interstate migration in the United States. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 52, No. 3, Sep 1999. 527-47 pp. Salt Lake City, Utah. In Eng.
"This article examines the effects of state policy on net interstate migration [in the United States]. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression on aggregate cross-sectional data, state policy factors are found to be significant determinants of the net interstate migration levels of the states. In addition, two previously untested variables, state ideology and an investment-consumption ratio, are found to be significant. The analysis indicates that states with low taxation levels, high investment-consumption ratios, and more liberal ideologies relative to other states, tend to experience more population growth via interstate migration. The results suggest that a consumer-voter model explains a significant portion of the variation in aggregate migration behavior."
Correspondence: R. R. Preuhs, University of Colorado, Department of Political Science, Ketchum 106, Campus Box 333, Boulder, CO 80309-0333. E-mail: preuhs@colorado.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:41103 Price-Spratlen, Townsand. Livin' for the city: African American ethnogenesis and Depression era migration. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 4, Nov 1999. 553-68 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Urban ethnogenesis is a process by which a group creates and maintains social networks and communication patterns as the basis for institutional and communal life in urban areas. Ethnogenesis is a foundation upon which most historical, urbanward migrations have been built, including the `Great Migration' of African Americans during the first half of this century. Although a period of decreased migration, the Depression was marked by sizeable movement in which nearly 10% of the total [U.S.] African American population moved interregionally. Ethnogenic measures such as NAACP activism, the number of community newspapers directed at African Americans, and the longevity of a chapter of the National Urban League significantly increase migration flows."
Correspondence: T. Price-Spratlen, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: TPS+@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41104 Rogers, Andrei; Sweeney, Stuart. Measuring the spatial focus of migration patterns. Professional Geographer, Vol. 50, No. 2, May 1998. 232-42 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The changing territorial concentration of migration flows is of interest to many geographers, yet we still do not have a widely accepted index of spatial focus. The much used index of migration efficiency has been shown to be an inadequate index of such spatial concentration, and two candidates have been suggested to replace it: the Gini index and the coefficient of variation. Both are examined in this paper, and a comparative assessment is offered. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 [U.S.] censuses are used to illustrate the two measures. An examination of the findings reveals that the coefficient of variation measure indicates higher levels of spatial focus than does the Gini index for states with highly concentrated flows."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41105 Roseman, Curtis C.; Lee, Seong Woo. Linked and independent African American migration from Los Angeles. Professional Geographer, Vol. 50, No. 2, May 1998. 204-14 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper examines African American migration from Los Angeles County, 1985-1990, utilizing Census Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS) data to identify linkages between Los Angeles migrants and others in destination households. Increased migration to suburban counties and to regions outside of the South, since 1975-1980, suggests an overall diversification of African American migration. The majority of outmigrants were `independent' because they moved into 1990 destination households that contained only migrants from the same origin, Los Angeles County. Others were linked either to nonmovers or to migrants from other places in destination households. A discriminant analysis suggests that many migrants linked to nonmigrants were moving for assistance, depending on others at the destination for housing and financial resources. In contrast, independent migrants have the personal resources to set up their own destination households."
Correspondence: C. C. Roseman, University of Southern California, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0255. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41106 Solinger, Dorothy J. Citizenship issues in China's internal migration: comparisons with Germany and Japan. Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 114, No. 3, Autumn 1999. 455-78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Comparisons are made between the way that migrants to the cities of China from rural areas are treated and the way immigrants are treated in Germany and Japan. The author notes that, in all three countries included in the study, in-migrants are needed for economic reasons but prevented in various ways from fully integrating into the host community. She makes the case that, in fact, foreign immigrants in Germany and Japan are treated better and have more rights than rural migrants in the cities of China.
Correspondence: D. J. Solinger, University of California, Department of Political Science, Irvine, CA 92217. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41107 Tan, Shen. Gender difference in the migration of rural labor. Social Sciences in China, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring 1998. 70-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
This article, translated from the original Chinese, examines differences in rural labor migration by sex in China. Data are from the 1990 census and a study of 75 villages carried out by the Center for Agricultural Research of the Ministry of Agriculture, covering the period 1988 to 1994. The impact of marriage on migration is analyzed, as are occupational differences by sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

65:41108 Thrush, Glenn. Something in the way we move. American Demographics, Vol. 21, No. 11, Nov 1999. 48-55 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
The author makes the case that future migration trends in the United States will be driven by the desire of people to live in attractive environments, particularly those with natural scenic beauty.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41109 Watkins, John F. Life course and spatial experience: a personal narrative approach in migration studies. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 294-312 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The extent to which an individual's life-course experience influences migration behavior is examined. "This chapter presents a more detailed inspection of the life course than can normally be found in migration research. One goal is to illustrate how `unimposed' life-course trajectories and transitions play into the migration decision, which means I will be examining the diversity of times, ages, and events that influence individual spatial behavior. This is in contrast to an `imposed' life course in which individuals are slotted in stages defined primarily by an age range and often bounded by selected events such as graduation from school, marriage, or retirement. A second goal is to examine the spatial nature of the life course: the sources and extent of spatial knowledge and how that knowledge is incorporated into mobility decisions. These goals are achieved through a critical examination of narrative life histories, a form of qualitative research that, although now common in such disciplines as psychology, history, and allied health fields, has been lacking among tools used by migration researchers." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: J. F. Watkins, University of Kentucky, Department of Geography, Lexington, KY 40506-0027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41110 Zhu, Yu. "Formal" and "informal" urbanisation in China: trends in Fujian Province. Third World Planning Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1998. 267-84 pp. Liverpool, England. In Eng.
"This paper, using Fujian Province as an example, divides China's urbanisation process into `formal' and `informal' patterns; it argues that `informal urbanisation' is often neglected, being ignored by official definitions, and differs from the traditionally understood concepts of urbanisation. However, the `formal' de jure urbanisation sponsored by the Chinese government has become less important, while the `informal' quasi-urbanisation driven by local economic development and market forces has become increasingly important. `Informal urbanisation' has been mainly encouraged by the development of township and village enterprises, the creation of many small urban centres and the arrival of many temporary residents."
Correspondence: Y. Zhu, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: zhu300@coombs.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

65:41111 Adekanye, J. 'Bayo. Conflicts, loss of state capacities and migration in contemporary Africa. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume I: Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 165-206 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"This study analyses interactions between the conflict-generating pressures of debt and adjustment, loss of state capacities and migration in contemporary Africa. It is conducted against the background of observable descent into anarchy or the situation of 'statelessness' general to the continent and which cases such as Somalia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Rwanda and Burundi most vividly help to illustrate." The focus is on the massive size and rate of refugee flows and forced population displacements generated by these situations, particularly since 1985.
Correspondence: J. 'B. Adekanye, University of Ibadan, Department of Political Science, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41112 Black, Richard; Koser, Khalid. The end of the refugee cycle? Refugee repatriation and reconstruction. Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Vol. 4, ISBN 1-57181-987-8. LC 98-50558. 1999. vi, 275 pp. Berghahn Books: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This collective work contains 13 studies by various authors on aspects of refugee repatriation and reconstruction in their countries of origin. The focus is on the repatriation that has occurred over the course of the 1990s following the end of the Cold War. "The changing constructions and realities of refugee repatriation provide the backdrop for this book which presents new empirical research on examples of refugee repatriation and reconstruction. Apart from providing up-to-date material, it also fills a more fundamental gap in the literature which has tended to be based on pedagogical reasoning rather than actual field research. Adopting a global perspective, this volume draws together conclusions from highly varied experiences of refugee repatriation and defines repatriation and reconstruction as part of a wider and interrelated refugee cycle of displacement, exile and return. The contributions come from authors with a wealth of relevant practical and academic experience, spanning the continents of Africa, Asia, Central America, and Europe."
Correspondence: Berghahn Books, 604 West 115th Street, New York, NY 10025. E-mail: BerghahnUS@juno.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41113 Cohen, Roberta; Deng, Francis M. Masses in flight: the global crisis of internal displacement. ISBN 0-8157-1512-9. LC 98-8939. 1998. xxi, 414 pp. Brookings Institution Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a general review of the problems associated with internal displacement, or forced internal migration, around the world. It is estimated that such migrations now involve between 20 and 25 million people, and that almost all regions of the world are affected by this problem. The focus is on developing appropriate "normative and institutional frameworks for the international protection and assistance of these populations". The author offers proposals for filling the gaps in existing legal norms for the internally displaced.
Correspondence: Brookings Institution Press, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: BIBOOKS@brook.edu. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:41114 Havinga, Tetty; Böcker, Anita. Country of asylum by choice or by chance: asylum-seekers in Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1999. 43-61 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article seeks to illuminate the reasons underlying an asylum-seeker's choice of country of refuge. An examination of the statistics on asylum applications in the countries of the European Union reveals some specific patterns of origin and destination. Why, for example, do so many asylum-seekers go to the Netherlands? The authors consider the question of just how much choice the asylum-seeker has. Next, the importance is analysed of three groups of factors in explaining the patterns of destination of asylum-seekers: (1) ties between the country of origin and the country of asylum, (2) the characteristics of the countries of destination and, (3) events during the actual flight and journey which might influence the destination of the asylum-seeker."
Correspondence: T. Havinga, University of Nijmegen, Institute for the Sociology of Law, P.O. Box 9049, 6500 KK Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41115 Indra, Doreen. Engendering forced migration: theory and practice. Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Vol. 5, ISBN 1-57181-134-6. LC 98-28455. 1998. xx, 390 pp. Berghahn Books: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"As the millennium approaches, war, political oppression, desperate poverty, environmental degradation and disasters, and economic underdevelopment are sharply increasing the number of the world's twenty million forced migrants. In this volume, eighteen scholars provide a wide-ranging, interdisciplinary look beyond the statistics at the experiences of the women, men, girls, and boys who comprise this global flow, and at the highly gendered forces that frame and affect them. In theorizing gender and forced migration, these authors present a set of descriptively rich, gendered case studies drawn from around the world on topics ranging from international human rights, to the culture of aid, to the complex ways in which women and men envision displacement and resettlement."
Correspondence: Berghahn Books, 604 West 115th Street, New York, NY 10025. E-mail: BerghahnUS@juno.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41116 Korel, Ludmilla V. Refugees and forced migrants in Siberia. Migration, No. 29-31, 1998. 45-61 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"The author...examines the new (mostly forced) immigration to Siberia in the nineties and its impact on the region. Most of the migrants are Russians from the new Central Asian states of the former Soviet Union, especially the neighbouring North-Eastern Kazakhstan.... The demographic structures of the immigrant population which is relatively young, vigorous and highly educated [are analyzed]. The composition of migrant groups in respect of sex, age etc. as well as their living conditions differ depending on the causes and conditions of migration and especially on whether their migration is voluntary or involuntary.... [The article] ends with a description of future immigration scenarios for Siberia."
Correspondence: Author's E-mail: uoni@hg.soan.nsk.su. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:41117 Koser, Khalid. European migration report. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1996. 151-8 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This report focuses on "the flow of people to Europe rather than the stocks of those admitted. This is an important distinction since the former poses problems for migration control, while the latter prompts a concern for repatriation or the conditions under which a continuing presence may be permitted. The author shows that those claiming asylum are by no means a homogenous group."
Correspondence: K. Koser, University of Utrecht, European Research Center on Migration and Ethnic Relations, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:41118 Le Troquer, Yann; Al-Oudat, Rozenn H. From Kuwait to Jordan: the Palestinians' third exodus. Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 28, No. 3, Spring 1999. 37-51 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"With the Gulf crisis of 1991, some 300,000 Jordanians, overwhelmingly of Palestinian origin, `returned' from Kuwait to Jordan, where their repatriation both strained resources and stimulated the economy. Initiatives to help the returnees--both by the government and the UN Compensation Commission--ultimately proved less effective than the returnees' own efforts. While there are a number of obstacles to integration into Jordan, including attitudes among the returnees, the long-term prospects for such integration seem promising."
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

65:41119 Martin, Michael T. "Fortress Europe" and third world immigration in the post-Cold War global context. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 4, Aug 1999. 821-37 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the conjuncture of economic and political developments in the world economy and demographic and environmental factors that, in the aftermath of the Cold War, have caused millions of immigrants and refugees to migrate worldwide, increasingly to the EU [European Union] and North America where they are marginalised and have become, with greater frequency, victimised by right-wing political groups. Factors under study include the proliferation of civil wars and ethnic conflicts; the increase of inequalities and poverty on a world scale; the effects of neoliberal economic policies on Third World development; overpopulation, urbanisation and environmental degradation in peripheral sites of the world economy; and the impact of economic conditions in the EU on immigrant and native workers."
Correspondence: M. T. Martin, Bowling Green State University, Department of Ethnic Studies, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0216. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41120 Muus, Philip. Exclusion and inclusion of refugees in contemporary Europe. Comparative Studies in Migration and Ethnic Relations, No. 3, ISBN 90-75719-04-3. 1997. 215 pp. Utrecht University, European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations: Utrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This collective work is a product of a multi-disciplinary workshop held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in May 1995, on the implications of the wave of asylum applications in Europe that has developed in recent years. The 14 papers are organized into three parts, which are: Legal, political and moral aspects; Country studies of refugee policies; and Empirical case studies.
Correspondence: Utrecht University, European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41121 Newbold, K. Bruce. Evolutionary immigrant settlement patterns: concepts and evidence. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 250-70 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter seeks to extend the understanding of immigrant adjustment within the United States by exploring the temporal settlement patterns of immigrant groups, along with reasons for their spatial adjustment.... The first part of the chapter introduces three proposed settlement patterns: the intended settlement pattern..., the initial settlement pattern..., and the established settlement pattern.... Throughout, immigrants can be either legal immigrants or refugees, and distinctions between the two groups are made as needed. Evidence drawn from the existing literature and the 1990 census supporting these distinctions is presented in the second section.... The third part of this chapter...presents three alternative hypotheses linking the immigrant-migrant-settlement system based on existing migration and immigration theory. The concluding section offers suggestions for future research in this area."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41122 Nnoli, Okwudiba. Ethnicity, ethnic conflict and emigration dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume I: Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 207-63 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"Ethnic conflicts have peculiar characteristics which affect the number, type and quality of emigration which they generate. Often these conflicts are especially violent, fought with a great deal of emotion and tend to be protracted and difficult to resolve. Consequently, those fleeing from them are often victims of abuses from their ethnic enemies and tend to remain in exile for a long time.... Partly because of these reasons, and especially because of the collective nature of ethnicity, emigrants from ethnic conflicts tend to be refugees in neighbouring countries.... Various types of ethnic conflict produce different volumes, quality and experiences of emigrants. Eight types of ethnic conflicts have been identified: irredentism, secession, nativism, corporatism, interest demands, autonomy, hegemonic demands, and fundamentalism. Of these, corporatism has produced the greatest number of violent ethnic conflicts and the greatest number of refugee situations."
Correspondence: O. Nnoli, Pan African Centre for Research on Peace and Conflict Resolution, Enugu, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41123 Quesnel, André; Vignikin, Kokou; Zanou, Benjamin; N'Guessan, Koffi; Vilquin, Eric. Population dynamics in rural areas freed from onchocerciasis in West Africa. ISBN 2-910053-20-2. 1999. x, 127 pp. Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]: Rome, Italy; Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Coopération et Francophonie: Paris, France. In Eng.
This is a study of the population dynamics of the West African region that has benefited from a major campaign to eradicate onchocerciasis (river blindness). It is primarily a summary of the results of an international cooperative research programme which involved nine country studies. The focus is on the process of resettlement of the rural areas that are now free of the disease. The importance of continuing migration in the region is noted.
Correspondence: Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: cicred@cicred.ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41124 Tishkov, Valery A. Forced migrants: integration and return. [Vynuzhdennye migranty: integratsiya i vozvrashchenie.] ISBN 5-201-13725-3. LC 98-100377. 1997. 308 pp. Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk, Institut Etnologii i Antropologii: Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
This work contains a collection of papers by various authors on the forced migrations that occurred among the countries that made up the former Soviet Union following its dissolution in the early 1990s. The contents are as follows: Socio-demographic characteristics and general problems of forced migration in Russia, by O. D. Komarova; Legal regulation of migrations in Russia, by N. A. Voronina; Adaptation of Russian forced migrants from the countries of "New Abroad", by E. I. Filippova; Experience of compact settlements of migrants in Russia, by E. I. Filippova; Socio-psychological aspects of acculturation of the new Russian diaspora, by N. M. Lebedeva; Problems of ethnic co-existence in Crimea, by V. V. Stepanov; The return and integration of Crimean Tatars in Crimea, 1990s, by S. M. Chervonnaya; Russians in Moldova: potential migrants and stable population, by L. V. Ostapenko and I. A. Subbotina; Russians in Estonia: alternatives and prospects, by I. A. Subbotina; Integration of Russians in Latvia, by B. Zepa and M. Y. Ustinova; Russians in Lithuania: labor market and the problems of adaptation, by L. V. Ostapenko; Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan: re-migration--reality or fantasy?, by V. I. Bushkov and G. Y. Sitnyansky; Russian media on forced migration, by O. V. Koulbatchevskaya; and Mapping the forced migrations (maps, charts), by O. V. Koulbatchevskaya.
Correspondence: Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk, Institut Etnologii i Antropologii, Leninskij Prosp. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41125 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR] (Geneva, Switzerland). Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR: 1998 statistical overview. Jul 1999. ii, 84 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Data are presented on refugees around the world in 1998 based primarily on information provided by the governments concerned. There are chapters on the total refugee population of concern to UNHCR, changes in the refugee population over time, age and sex of refugees, and global asylum applications and refugee status determination.
Correspondence: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Statistical Unit, 94 rue de Montbrillant, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. E-mail: HOVY@UNHCR.CH. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41126 Whitaker, Reg. Refugees: the security dimension. Citizenship Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1998. 413-34 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"In the 1990s doors have been closing in the Western world against refugee claimants. Although there are multiple causes for declining generosity towards refugees, arguments that refugees pose security problems to host nations have been particularly prominent. An historical analysis reveals that the so-called `golden age' of postwar refugee settlement from the 1940s to the mid-1970s was a by-product of Cold War security and propaganda considerations. The end of the Cold War and the pressures of refugee movements generated by Third World and former Communist block conflicts had restructured Western refugee discourse. Refugees now tend to be seen as importers of external political conflicts into the West. At the same time growing European and North American resentment of `foreigners' competing for declining job opportunities and reduced social services have encouraged anti-immigrant political movements. By tightening barriers and controls over refugees on security grounds, Western governments are able to respond in part to these pressures."
Correspondence: R. Whitaker, York University, Department of Political Science, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

65:41127 Byron, Margaret. The Caribbean-born population in 1990s Britain: Who will return? Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1999. 285-301 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"As the Caribbean-born population in Britain ages, the issue of return migration of labour migrants becomes pertinent. The migratory cycle model is examined in the context of this postwar movement of labour to Britain. Return migration is revealed to be a very complex issue and is only one option which migrants consider. While return is considered a less desirable option by some migrants, others are denied this option due to a lack of capital. The close relationship between mobility and wealth is clearly demonstrated here. Meanwhile, the length of time over which migrants have remained in Britain has affected their lives and links with this country while their places of origin in the Caribbean have also altered considerably. Migration from the region has widened the geographical range of migrant contacts and, at times, dilutes the ties to the place of origin. Caribbean migrants appear to embody the notion of the `transnational community'."
Correspondence: M. Byron, University of London, King's College, Department of Geography, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, England. E-mail: margaret.byron@kcl.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41128 Dustmann, Christian. Temporary migration, human capital, and language fluency of migrants. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 101, No. 2, 1999. 297-314 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates human capital investment of immigrants whose duration in the host country is limited, either by contract or by their own choice. The first part of the paper develops a model which distinguishes between temporary migrations where the return time is exogenous or optimally chosen. The analysis has a number of interesting implications for empirical work, some of which are explored in the second part of the paper. The analysis focuses on language capital and tests the hypothesis that country specific human capital investments are sensitive to the duration in the host country's labour market. The results show that the acquisition of language capital is sensitive to the intended duration in the host country." The data used for the empirical analysis are from the German Socio-Economic Panel, which has data on migrants coming to Germany between 1955 and 1973.
Correspondence: C. Dustmann, University College London, Mortimer Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41129 Gouider, Nelly. Long-distance mobility of households in 1994. The Transport and Communication Survey, 1993-1994. [La mobilité à longue distance des ménages en 1994. Enquête "Transports et communications 1993-1994"] INSEE Résultats: Démographie-Société, No. 72-73-74, ISBN 2-11-067385-0. Oct 1999. 507 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Information is presented on long-distance travel in France. The data are from a survey carried out in 1993-1994 and concern all trips of over 100 kilometers undertaken in the three months prior to the survey. Information is included on reasons for the trip, primary method of transport used, total distance covered, dates of departure and return, duration of trip, place of stay during the trip, and origin and destination. The characteristics of the person undertaking the trip are also included.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41130 Hampshire, Kate; Randall, Sara. Seasonal labour migration strategies in the Sahel: Coping with poverty or optimising security? International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 367-85 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This study considers the relationships between seasonal labour migration and poverty for different Fulani populations in northern Burkina Faso, who represent the spectrum of production systems from pure pastoralist through agro-pastoralism to cultivation. There is a general trend of increasing participation in seasonal labour with increasing household wealth; limited financial and human resources mean that many of the poorer households are excluded from this option."
Correspondence: S. Randall, University College London, Department of Anthropology, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41131 Lorenzo-Hernández, José. The Nuyorican's dilemma: categorization of returning migrants in Puerto Rico. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1999. 988-1,013 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This study investigated self and social categorization of Puerto Rican returning migrants. A sample of 121 returning migrants (`Nuyoricans') and 121 non-migrant students evaluated adolescents described as raised in the mainland as more agitated, bolder and more independent than those raised in Puerto Rico. In-group favoritism was observed for intelligence and carefulness."
Correspondence: J. Lorenzo-Hernández, University of Puerto Rico, Department of Social Sciences, P.O. Box 250160, Aguadilla, PR 00604-0160. E-mail: J_Lorenzo@cora.upr.clu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41132 Lowell, B. Lindsay. Foreign temporary workers in America: policies that benefit the U.S. economy. ISBN 1-56720-227-6. LC 98-18500. 1999. vii, 285 pp. Quorum Books: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This collection of 12 studies by various authors examines the impact on the U.S. labor market of highly skilled temporary workers and students in the United States. Both the positive and negative impacts of these workers on the firms and institutions that employ them are considered. The research included in this volume suggests that the overall impact of temporary workers and foreign students on the U.S. economy is positive. A variety of policy options designed to deal with these temporary migrants are discussed.
Correspondence: Quorum Books, Greenwood Publishing Group, 88 Post Road West, P.O. Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881-5007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41133 Rain, David. Eaters of the dry season: circular labor migration in the West African Sahel. ISBN 0-8133-3616-3. LC 99-21974. 1999. xiv, 266 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a study of seasonal migration in the desert margins of West Africa bordering the Sahara. "The subjects are farmers and herders, traders and beggars, men and women--all of whom share the habit of circulating between their villages of origin and a small city on the border between Niger and Nigeria." The study is based on a combination of survey-interviews and participant observation. "My goal is to illuminate real situations faced by individuals as they move through their everyday lives. I examine the settlement history of the region, population dynamics, changes in farming and land-use practices, and the spread of market relations. These are the realities that have contributed to the popularity of circular mobility in the region."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:41134 Sakka, Despina; Dikaiou, Maria; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris. Return migration: changing roles of men and women. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1999. 741-64 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The study concerns Greek returnees from the Federal Republic of Germany and explores changes in task sharing behaviour and gender role attitudes resulting from changes in cultural environments. A group of return migrants was compared with a group of non-migrants, both living in villages in the District of Drama, Greece. Groups were interviewed to investigate the extent to which each spouse shared house tasks as well as their attitudes towards gender roles in the family."
Correspondence: D. Sakka, Demokritos University of Thrace, Department of Primary Education, Str. 17, 691 00 Komotini, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41135 Tsuda, Takeyuki. The motivation to migrate: the ethnic and sociocultural constitution of the Japanese-Brazilian return-migration system. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 48, No. 1, Oct 1999. 1-31 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The return migration of Brazilians of Japanese origin to Japan as unskilled foreign labor, which began in substantial numbers in the 1980s, is analyzed. The author notes that the size of this migrant population had grown to about 220,000 by the end of the 1990s and that it continues growing at a steady pace. In undertaking the analysis, the author develops a comprehensive migration systems approach, which includes cultural and ethnic variables as well as the usual economic variable.
Correspondence: T. Tsuda, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41136 Yang, Xiushi; Guo, Fei. Gender differences in determinants of temporary labor migration in China: a multilevel analysis. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1999. 929-53 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Data from a 1988 migration survey in Hubei province [China] are used to examine gender differences in the determinants of temporary labor migration from a multi-level perspective. We find that community level factors play a key role in temporary labor migration; models omitting community-level variables are poor in predicting temporary labor migration. Significant gender differences exist in determinants of temporary labor migration. For men, temporary labor migration is mainly a response to community level factors; individual or household characteristics have little predictive power. For women, by contrast, temporary labor migration is predominantly determined by individual characteristics; community level factors are not as important."
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1997 annual meetings of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: X. Yang, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

65:41137 Agesa, Jacqueline; Agesa, Richard U. Gender differences in the incidence of rural to urban migration: evidence from Kenya. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 35, No. 6, Aug 1999. 36-58 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines gender differences in the incidence of rural to urban migration in developing countries, particularly those of Sub-Saharan Africa. The study distinguishes itself from current migration literature by suggesting that the gain in returns to observable attributes, as a result of migration, may differ by gender and could provide an explanation for gender differences in migration. Using data from Kenya, we estimate the urban-to-rural wage gap, separately for each gender, and decompose the gap into the components due to urban to rural differences in observable attributes and differences in returns to observable attributes. We find that the portion of the wage gap that is due to the gain in returns to observable attributes is larger for males, suggesting that males receive larger monetary returns as a result of migration and, consequently, have greater incentive to migrate to urban areas."
Correspondence: R. U. Agesa, North Carolina A&T State University, Department of Economics, Greensboro, NC 27411. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41138 Ben Jelili, Riadh; Mzali, Hassen. Rural-urban migration and self-selection in Tunisia. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 77, No. 4, Oct 1998. 347-60 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"With its theoretic robustness and intuitive appeal, the human capital model of labor migration has been successful in explaining several empirical regularities of the migration process. While adhering to a similar approach, the purpose of this article is to estimate, using survey data from Tunisia, a model of returns to rural-urban migration which accounts for self-selection of migrants.... The results lead to the conclusion that by purely statistical assessment the expected monetary gains effect is significantly different from zero, but that by economic considerations it is small.... This finding supports the notion that non-migrants in the [rural] population choose their status because they fail to perceive more favorable returns elsewhere." Data are from a micro data set developed by the Office des Tunisiens à l'Etranger in 1987, involving about 50,000 individuals and 10,000 households.
Correspondence: R. Ben Jelili, Université de Bretagne Sud, Faculte de Droit, des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion, 1 rue de La Loi, 56000 Vannes, France. E-mail: benjr@club-internet.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:41139 Chan, Kam Wing; Zhang, Li. The hukou system and rural-urban migration in China: processes and changes. China Quarterly, No. 160, Dec 1999. 818-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the hukou system of population registration in China, with particular reference to its relationship to internal migration patterns. "The first section of this article examines the role of the hukou system in the complicated administration of rural-urban migration in mainland China. The second section reviews the changes of hukou policies since 1978. This includes analysing the array of new hukou categories created in the last two decades, which has not been systematically examined elsewhere, and discussing the major consequences of the policy adjustments with respect to the rise in rural-urban migration. The final section examines some major issues and explores the prospect of future hukou system reforms."
Correspondence: K. W. Chan, University of Washington, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41140 Chase, Jacquelyn. Exodus revisited: the politics and experience of rural loss in Central Brazil. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1999. 165-85 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Aspects of rural-urban migration in Brazil are explored. The data are from qualitative interviews with families living in peripheral neighborhoods of Rio Verde and a small urban district 30 miles to the east. The focus is on the factors that lead to these people being forced to leave their land and migrate to the city.
Correspondence: J. Chase, University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41141 Fernandez-Stembridge, Leila. Labor allocation of Chinese rural migrant workers in urban areas: Job election or job enforcement? Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999. 329-41 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"China has experienced significant rural-to-urban migration since the launching of economic and social reforms in the early 1980s. This paper discusses the factors that led to the emergence of the `floating population', describes the characteristics of the employment market of rural migrant workers, and proposes some alternatives for a more efficient labor distribution. Rural migrant workers remain as `outsiders' in urban areas, despite their contributions to economic dynamism in the destination areas. The paper concludes that labor allocation seems to be a combination of choice and enforcement factors: migrant workers exercise some choice in their jobs, but their choices are limited to only a few job possibilities."
Correspondence: L. Fernandez-Stembridge, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41142 Johnson, Kenneth M. The rural rebound. PRB Reports on America, Vol. 1, No. 3, Sep 1999. 19 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
In the United States, "more people are moving from urban to rural areas and fewer rural people are leaving.... Why, after so many decades of rural population loss, has one of the country's most enduring demographic trends reversed itself?" Sections are included on rural trends, metropolitan America, explanations, selective deconcentration, county snapshots, and future trends.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: popref@prb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41143 Krichel, Thomas; Levine, Paul. The welfare economics of rural-to-urban migration: the Harris-Todaro model revisited. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 39, No. 3, Aug 1999. 429-47 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper we extend the Harris-Todaro model of rural-to-urban migration to include urban agglomeration effects, some urban real wage flexibility, and a government budget constraint. Without employment subsidies laissez-faire migration is excessive unless real wage flexibility and agglomeration effects are high. Laissez-faire migration is too low compared with the first-best outcome supported by subsidy, if its financing involves no costs. Simulations suggest that such a program would imply a substantial increase in taxation. If, as seems likely, an increase of this magnitude involves economic costs then the optimal outcome falls well short of first-best."
Correspondence: T. Krichel, University of Surrey, Department of Economics, Guildford GU2 5XH, England. E-mail: T.Krichel@surrey.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41144 Pellegrini, P. A.; Fotheringham, A. S. Intermetropolitan migration and hierarchical destination choice: a disaggregate analysis from the U.S. Public Use Microdata Samples. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 31, No. 6, Jun 1999. 1,093-118 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the authors describe the application of spatial choice models to microlevel intermetropolitan migration destination choice data from the U.S. Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS) for the period 1985-90.... The focus of the modelling exercise is to examine the performance of competing-destinations migration models which are based on the assumption that migrants process spatial information hierarchically.... The authors provide information on the determinants of intermetropolitan migration within the USA and on the validity of the theoretical foundations of the competing-destinations framework. Traditional spatial choice models are shown to be severely misspecified and the distance-decay parameter estimates from such models to be potentially biased in such a manner that they exhibit the well-known 'spatial structure' effect. This effect does not appear when the parameters are estimated from competing-destinations models."
Correspondence: P. A. Pellegrini, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, 1036 Derby Hall, 154 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1361. E-mail: ppellegr@geography.ohio-state.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:41145 Rozelle, Scott; Guo, Li; Shen, Minggao; Hughart, Amelia; Giles, John. Leaving China's farms: survey results of new paths and remaining hurdles to rural migration. China Quarterly, No. 158, Jun 1999. 367-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"One of the striking outcomes of China's economic reforms is the emergence of inter-regional labour markets as rural workers have poured into the nation's urban and rural economies.... The overall goal of this article is to...estimate the volume of labour flow, describing the composition of the labour force and analysing the determinants of labour flow.... We seek to answer several questions about the contribution of four factors to migration: the income level of those who choose to migrate, chain migration, rural institutions and human capital."
Correspondence: S. Rozelle, University of California, Department of Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41146 Tammaru, Tiit; Sjöberg, Örjan. On the move: explaining migration patterns in Estonia during the transition period. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1999. 241-60 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Contrary to the indications of official statistics, recent research suggests that internal migration in Estonia may in fact be predominantly urban-bound. Applying a loosely structurationist approach to analyse sample survey data collected in 1997, this paper attempts to explore why urban areas are attractive as a destination, and why many migrants moving to urban areas, unlike those leaving for the countryside, fail to register. Differential urban-rural and regional development are the important factors helping to explain the nature and direction of migratory flows in Estonia during the transition period, while the (partial) removal of constraints operating in urban housing markets facilitates the decision to move."
Correspondence: Ö. Sjöberg, Stockholm School of Economics, P.O. Box 6501, 113 83 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: orjan.sjoberg@hhs.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41147 Zhang, Heather X. Female migration and urban labour markets in Tianjin. Development and Change, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan 1999. 21-41 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Aspects of rural-urban migration in China are explored. "Using qualitative research methods, this article presents the experiences and perceptions of the Chinese rural female migrants as narrated by themselves. It attempts to identify by this means the major forces behind rural women's out-migration and the institutional changes and structural barriers that have shaped women's lives and experiences in the migratory process. The author argues that women are actors and agents in this unprecedented economic and social transformation. Through their active engagement in the urban labour market, female migrants have challenged both the traditionally defined gender roles and the spatial and socio-economic boundaries that have been structurally designated to them. Their actions may catalyse a radical rearrangement of the social, political and sexual orders."
Correspondence: H. X. Zhang, University of East Anglia, School of Development Studies, Norwich NR4 7TJ, England. E-mail: heather.zhang@uea.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41148 Zhu, Junming. Multilevel analysis of rural outmigration in Guandong, China. Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies Working Paper Series, No. 97.03, May 1997. 30 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper, the author first reviewed studies of migration and development in developing countries. Then, by linking the macro- and micro- approaches, he presented a multilevel contextual analysis of migration based on a baseline survey in the rural areas of Guangdong province, China in 1995 to evaluate the impacts of migration policy, rural community development, individual and household characteristics on rural outmigration. The results suggest that migration decision is highly related to individual education levels, marital status, and household registration status, household dependency ratio and income level, and community development level. Finally, the policy implications on migration and development policies in China were discussed."
Correspondence: Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138.


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