Volume 65 - Number 4 - Winter 1999

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

65:40762 Agadjanian, Victor. Post-Soviet demographic paradoxes: ethnic differences in marriage and fertility in Kazakhstan. Sociological Forum, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1999. 425-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The dramatic and generalized socioeconomic and political crisis that followed the collapse of the socialist system has produced unique demographic responses in the former Soviet Union. This study addresses the differences in nuptiality and early fertility before and after the onset of the crisis and between the indigenous and European-origin population in Kazakhstan. Drawing on data from the 1995 Kazakhstan Demographic and Health Survey, this study finds that, contrary to the logical expectation, European-origin women are significantly more likely to marry earlier than indigenous women, and this difference has become even more pronounced during the crisis. However, the crisis is also associated with a longer interval between first marriage and first birth among European-origin women. The analysis shows that European-origin women prolong this interval through increasing use of contraception and abortion. The study attempts to link these findings to the sociopolitical and ethnic climate in Kazakhstan and to changing meanings of and attitudes toward marriage and childbearing."
Correspondence: V. Agadjanian, Arizona State University, Department of Sociology, Tempe, AZ 85287-2101. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40763 Aghajanian, Akbar; Moghadas, Ali A. Correlates and consequences of divorce in an Iranian city. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, Vol. 28, No. 3-4, 1998. 53-71 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the recent trends in divorce in Iran and analyzes data about the determinants and consequences of divorce drawn from a divorce survey in a large urban center. Review of trends in divorce for the last three decades in Iran suggests that the divorce rate has been changing in response to social and legal changes and eight years of war. Urban background, education, work status of women, and religiosity are significantly related to divorce. Women who are divorced, compared to married women, suffer economically and experience more psychological problems. Children of divorced women show indications of a higher level of emotional disturbance and delinquency."
Correspondence: A. Aghajanian, Fayetteville State University, Department of Sociology, 1200 Murchison Road, Fayetteville, NC 28301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40764 Avdeev, Alexandre; Monnier, Alain. Russian nuptiality: a little-understood and complex phenomenon. [La nuptialité russe: une complexité méconnue.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1999. 635-76 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The first part of this article takes the form of a presentation of the fundamental characteristics of Russian nuptiality over the last three decades. Russia was for long characterised by an early and high nuptiality, in contrast to what was observed in the West. Up to the end of the 1980s, getting married at the end of education or national service marked an essential step in the passage to adulthood. However, the rising level of divorce throughout the period under review suggests that marriage in Russia is also a fragile institution. In the second part of the article survey data is used to re-interpret the less well-known aspects of union formation and the family in Russia. The high levels of prenuptial conceptions, extra-marital births and cohabitation indicate that Russian nuptiality is less monolithic than might be thought. Finally, attention focuses on the recent decline in nuptiality, in the context of the current political, social and economic changes."
Correspondence: A. Avdeev, Moscow University, Department of Economics, Center for Demographic Studies, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119899, Russia. E-mail: avdeev@ns.econ.msu.ru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40765 Bah, Sulaiman. The improvement of marriages and divorces statistics in South Africa: relevance, registration issues and challenges. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 99-2, ISBN 0-7714-2178-8. Feb 1999. 11 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"With the recent passing by parliament of the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act, 1998 (Act 120 of 1998), it is now possible to increase the coverage of registered marriages and divorces in South Africa.... The aim of the paper is to explore ways of making sure that these marriages in particular and marriages in general, are adequately registered."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. E-mail: SulaimanB@StatsSA.pwv.gov.za. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40766 Basu, Alaka M. Anthropological insights into the links between women's status and demographic behaviour, illustrated with the notions of hypergamy and territorial exogamy. In: The methods and uses of anthropological demography, edited by Alaka M. Basu and Peter Aaby. 1998. 81-106 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Some aspects of marriage and kinship patterns in India are analyzed from an anthropological perspective in order to help explain some of the findings that have resulted from demographic research. "In particular, it looks at marriage systems in terms of the hypergamy and territorial exogamy that characterize much of North India and tries to relate these to differences between North and South India in gender relations as well as in the demographic variables of interest." The demographic variables considered include reproductive behavior, child mortality, and differential mortality by sex.
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-6501. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40767 Bélanger, Alain; Turcotte, Pierre. The influence of socio-demographic characteristics on Quebec women's initial entry into conjugal life. [L'influence des caractéristiques sociodémographiques sur le début de la vie conjugale des Québécoises.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 173-97, 361-2, 366 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Based primarily on data from the 1995 General Social Survey (GSS), this study assesses the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on Quebec women's likelihood of entering into a first cohabitation or marriage. After a brief descriptive analysis, the authors present the results of a multivariate analysis, which is especially helpful in assessing the changing influence of characteristics linked to the `independence hypothesis', i.e. education level and activities such as working or attending school. The analysis did not entirely confirm the hypothesis: women who are working or attending school generally show a greater tendency to cohabit and are less likely to marry, which concurs with the hypothesis, but the effect on first marriages only applies to Quebec women born before 1951. Moreover, a higher education level does not reduce the likelihood of entering into a first marriage for all generations of Quebec women studied."
Correspondence: A. Bélanger, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Main Building, Room 1708, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. E-mail: belaala@statcan.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40768 Berrington, Ann; Diamond, Ian. Marital dissolution among the 1958 British birth cohort: the role of cohabitation. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 1, Mar 1999. 19-38 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the effect of previous cohabitation on marital stability among the 1958 British birth cohort. Prospective data from the National Child Development Study are used to investigate the way in which family background factors and early lifecourse experiences, including cohabitation, affect the risk of first marriage dissolution by age 33. Discrete time logistic regression hazards models are used to analyse the risk of separation in the first eight years of marriage. Many socio-economic and family background factors are found to act through more intermediate determinants, such as age at marriage and the timing of childbearing, to affect the risk of separation. Previous cohabitation with another partner and premarital cohabitation are both associated with higher rates of marital breakdown. The effect of premarital cohabitation is attenuated but remains significant once the characteristics of cohabitors are controlled, and cannot be explained by the longer time spent in a partnership."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Berrington, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40769 Birrell, Bob; Rapson, Virginia. A not so perfect match: the growing male/female divide, 1986-1996. ISBN 0-7326-2039-2. Oct 1998. viii, 64 pp. Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research: Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"This study examines partnering and ever-married levels for women and men over the decade 1986 to 1996 in Australia. It then explores the factors shaping the major declines in these rates.... The study proceeds to an analysis of linkages between declining partnering and marriage rates and the parallel rises in the numbers of ex-nuptial births, sole parent families and males isolated from family settings."
Correspondence: Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40770 Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Klijzing, Erik; Pohl, Katherina; Rohwer, Götz. Why do cohabiting couples marry? An example of a causal event history approach to interdependent systems. Quality and Quantity, Vol. 33, No. 3, Aug 1999. 229-42 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a causal approach to interdependent systems based on two empirical investigations. These examples demonstrate (1) the study of two highly interdependent processes: entry into first marriage as the dependent process and the process of first birth/first pregnancy as the explaining one; (2) an interdependence occurring mainly in a very specific phase of individuals' lives (i.e. during the period of first family formation); (3) the involvement of time lags between cause and its effect (e.g. time until detection of conception); and (4) the highly dynamic character of an unfolding effect over time (i.e. the effect of first pregnancy/first birth on first marriage strongly depends on the progress of pregnancy and the time since the birth has taken place)." The geographical focus is on Germany.
Correspondence: H. P. Blossfeld, Universität Bielefeld, Fakultät für Soziologie, 4800 Bielefeld, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40771 Bougheas, Spiros; Georgellis, Yannis. The effect of divorce costs on marriage formation and dissolution. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug 1999. 489-98 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Exploiting the theoretical parallels between the matching of workers to jobs in the labour market and the matching of individuals in the marriage market, we use a search theoretic model of marriage formation and dissolution to examine the effect of divorce costs on both decisions. By introducing learning at both stages of the marital decision process, we show that divorce costs not only affect the probability of divorce but also the probability of marriage."
Correspondence: S. Bougheas, Staffordshire University, Division of Economics, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 2DF, England. E-mail: s.bougheas@staffs.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40772 Brien, Michael J.; Lillard, Lee A.; Waite, Linda J. Interrelated family-building behaviors: cohabitation, marriage, and nonmarital conception. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 4, Nov 1999. 535-51 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 are used to estimate a series of models of entry into marriage, entry into cohabitation, and nonmarital pregnancy. Our models account explicitly for the endogeneity of one outcome as a predictor of another by taking into account both heterogeneity across individuals due to unmeasured factors that may affect all these outcomes and the correlation in the unmeasured factors across processes. We find that these heterogeneity components are strongly and positively related across the outcomes. Women who are more likely to cohabit, marry, or become pregnant while unmarried are also more likely to do each of the others. Although black and white women differ in the likelihood of these behaviors, the interrelations of the behaviors are quite similar across groups."
Correspondence: M. J. Brien, University of Virginia, Department of Economics, 114 Rouss Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903. E-mail: brien@virginia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40773 Burch, Thomas K.; Bélanger, Danièle. Studying marriage, cohabitation, and other unions in demography: cross-sectional categories versus multidimensional continua and process. [L'étude des unions en démographie: des catégories aux processus.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 23-52, 359-60, 364 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper argues that unions in contemporary society are too varied and too fluid to be studied using the standard demographic approaches and tools for the study of marriage and the family. Emphasis on process, rather than on status and membership in a category, would give greater recognition to the fact that states such as marriage or cohabitation need to be seen as part of over-lapping life-course sequences. The meaning of a given union depends in part on what has preceded and what follows in the sequence. Attention to process also requires greater attention to the individual and joint decision making that underlies movement along well-defined demographic statuses. In defining and studying sexual unions, greater use needs to be made of modern quantitative classification techniques, including cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling, and the logic of fuzzy sets as well. Methods of qualitative analysis are particularly relevant for the study of process and meaning. The greatest progress will come from a conscious blending of quantitative and qualitative models."
Correspondence: T. K. Burch, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. E-mail: burch@julian.uwo.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40774 Burdett, Kenneth; Coles, Melvyn G. Long-term partnership formation: marriage and employment. Economic Journal, Vol. 109, No. 456, Jun 1999. 307-34 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Of course, marriage and employment are different. Nevertheless, a worker looking for a job, a firm looking for a worker, or a single person looking for a marriage partner face similar problems as all are seeking a long-term partner.... In the last few years, a literature has developed which focuses on issues raised due to heterogeneity of agents. Following the pioneering work of Becker (1973), who considered frictionless markets, this literature has centred on highly stylised marriage markets.... A major goal of this study is to show how this framework when there is heterogeneity can be used to add new and important insights into labour economics. To achieve this goal, simple examples of heterogeneous partnership formation are explored in some detail."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40775 Cabella, Wanda. Developments in divorce in Uruguay (1950-1995). [La evolución del divorcio en Uruguay (1950-1995).] Notas de Población, Vol. 26, No. 67-68, Jan-Dec 1998. 209-45 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in divorce in Uruguay over the period 1950-1995 are reviewed. The authors note that, in contrast to many other Latin American countries, the demographic transition that began in the late nineteenth century took place in a largely secular society that was built to take the place of the authority ceded by the Church. "The adoption of divorce laws (1907-1913) was one of the milestones in the extension of secular power. Despite that early legislation, divorce did not become a widespread practice in the first half of the century, and it increased relatively slowly until the early 1970s. However, the 1980s showed a rapid upturn, on such a scale that it has been referred to as `the divorce revolution'."
Correspondence: W. Cabella, Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Programa de Población, Avenida 18 de Julio 1968, 11200 Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40776 Calvès, Anne-Emmanuèle. Marginalization of African single mothers in the marriage market: evidence from Cameroon. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 3, Nov 1999. 291-301 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Despite a growing concern over the health and socio-economic consequences of premarital fertility in Africa, few studies have explored the effect of premarital birth on the subsequent likelihood of getting married. While some ethnographic studies have suggested that unmarried African women sometimes use childbearing as a strategy to favour or accelerate transition to marriage, this analysis of the 1991 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey shows that, overall, premarital childbearing has a strong and negative effect on a young woman's chances of first marriage. The results also reveal, however, that the effect of premarital childbearing on subsequent union varies significantly according to duration in single motherhood. While having a premarital birth makes marriage more likely in the short run, it significantly jeopardises the marriage chances of single women in the long run."
Correspondence: A.-E. Calvès, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40777 Charton, Laurence. From legalized union to legalized birth: the changing link between marriage and a first child in Switzerland. [De l'union légalisée à la naissance légalisée: évolution du lien entre mariage et premier enfant en Suisse.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 151-72, 361, 366 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In the variety of forms of conjugal life, Switzerland shows many traits in common with other Western countries: a decline in fertility and the marriage rate, marriages occurring at a later age, and an increase in cohabitation. Switzerland also shows some interesting characteristics of its own, particularly a low fertility level outside marriage. The author uses her analysis of a 1994-1995 study on the family to describe the links between marriage and a first child, and to interpret the persistence of a high level of births in the context of marriage at a time when the number of common-law unions is on the rise. The findings show that premarital conceptions are frequent but almost always followed by marriage. These conceptions, once more often seen in women not living with the child's father, are now largely occurring among women in a situation of cohabitation. Once seen as a remedy for an unwanted pregnancy, marriage is becoming associated with the desire to have a child."
Correspondence: L. Charton, Universitaire de Paris I, Institut de Démographie, 22 rue de Rosheim 67000 Strasbourg, France. E-mail: LCharton@aol.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40778 Corijn, Martine. Divorce in Flanders. [Echtscheiding in Vlaanderen.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1999. 59-89 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of divorces increased strongly, but at a different rate, in the three parts of Belgium. The change in the divorce legislation in 1994 that shortened the divorce procedure led to a peak number of divorces in 1995. Studies on divorce in Belgium are rare. An analysis of the Fertility and Family Survey of 1991 reveals that the determinants of divorce in Flanders are similar to those found in other Western European countries. Implications of the quality of the data on divorce and of the determinants of divorce are discussed. Plans for further research are presented."
Correspondence: M. Corijn, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40779 Cretser, Gary A. Cross-national marriage in Sweden: immigration and assimilation 1971-1993. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, Summer 1999. 363-80 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Sweden, once considered a nation of emigration, has experienced a great deal of immigration and is now a multi-ethnic state. National data on marriages performed in Sweden between 1971 and 1993 are examined to analyze the rates and patterns of cross-national unions. Comparisons are made between Swedish men and women in their tendency to intermarry with particular nationalities over time. These intermarriage trends and patterns are discussed in relation to data on immigration to Sweden during approximately the same period. Findings show there has been a substantial increase in cross-national marriage in Sweden."
Correspondence: G. A. Cretser, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40780 de Graaf, Paul M.; Kalmijn, Matthijs. Differences in divorce rates among Dutch municipalities: an explanation from a sociological and demographic perspective. [Verschillen in echtscheidingscijfers tussen Nederlandse gemeenten: een verklaring vanuit sociologisch en demografisch perspectief.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 47, No. 11, Nov 1999. 15-24 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Among municipalities in the Netherlands, large differences exist in the divorce rate: not only between big cities and small towns, but also between municipalities of the same size in different regions.... We try to explain the differences in the divorce rate by examining the role of four factors: cultural differences (religiosity, political climate), economic differences (male and female labor force participation, income), social differences (city size, immigration, and geographic isolation), and demographic differences. We use data on 625 municipalities in four years (1993-1996) and use multilevel regression models to estimate the effects of these four factors on the divorce rate."
Correspondence: P. M. de Graaf, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Vakgroep Sociologie, Postbus 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, Netherlands. E-mail: pdegraaf@mailbox.kun.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40781 De Vos, Susan. Comment of coding marital status in Latin America. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 1, Winter 1999. 79-93 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng.
The author attempts to clarify and make sense of the concept of marital status in the context of Latin America, where various other forms of union to the traditional Catholic marriage are prevalent, and problems exist in categorizing data on such unions in censuses and surveys. A case is made for changing the way marital status is coded throughout Latin America. "Latin America has the rather distinctive category of `consensual union', as a marital status but it should go further or use different criteria to evaluate union type. There could be marital status categories for customary and common-law marriages, visiting unions, and separation from a consensual or visiting union as well as categories for single (never married), consensual union, civil and/or religious marriage, separation from civil and/or religious marriage, divorce (or annulment), and widowhood. Alternately, customary and common-law marriages could be considered types of marriage instead of a type of `consensual union'. With a more detailed categorization, the comparative analyst could use the different categories in a way that makes most sense given the topic, while different categorization could make true comparisons more possible."
Correspondence: S. De Vos, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40782 Emmerling, Dieter. Divorces, 1998. [Ehescheidungen 1998.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 12, Dec 1999. 934-41 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Divorce statistics for 1998 are presented for Germany, for the former East and West Germany, and for each state. Retrospective data from 1960 to 1998 are included for comparative purposes. Information is given on duration of marriage, the legal grounds for divorce, nationality, and number of children.
For a previous report concerning 1997, see 65:20365.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40783 Everett, Craig A. Divorce and remarriage: international studies. ISBN 0-7890-0319-8. LC 97-5224. 1997. 228 pp. Haworth: Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
This is a selection of studies on aspects of divorce and remarriage around the world and was previously published as Volume 26, Nos. 3-4, of the Journal of Divorce and Remarriage in 1997. There are studies about Australia, Chile, Germany, China, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom and Wales, as well as an international study on the correlates of worldwide divorce rates.
Correspondence: The Haworth Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghampton, NY 13904-1580. Location: Princeton University Library.

65:40784 Feng, Du; Giarrusso, Roseann; Bengtson, Vern L.; Frye, Nancy. Intergenerational transmission of marital quality and marital instability. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2, May 1999. 451-63 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We used longitudinal [U.S.] data involving parents and children to investigate the intergenerational transmission of marital quality and instability and the effects of parental divorce on children's marital quality. Results indicated that parental divorce increased daughters' likelihood of divorce, that some life course factors mediate the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that parental divorce had little impact on children's marital quality, and that the transmission of marital quality is moderated by parent and child gender. We discussed possible mechanisms for the intergenerational transmissions of marital instability and marital quality."
Correspondence: D. Feng, Texas Tech University, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Box 41162, Lubbock, TX 79409. E-mail: dfeng@hs.ttu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40785 Forsyth, Craig J.; Gramling, Robert. Socio-economic factors affecting the rise of commuter marriage. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 28, No. 2, Autumn 1998. 93-106 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the causes for the increase in the numbers of commuter marriages (marriages in which each spouse maintains...separate residences usually because of career options). Data on the estimates of commuter marriages are given, Several micro and macro factors related to the rise in the number of commuter marriage are discussed." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: C. J. Forsyth, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Department of Sociology, USL Station, Lafayette, LA 70504. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40786 Glenn, Norval D. Further discussion of the effects of no-fault divorce on divorce rates. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 3, Aug 1999. 800-9 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by J. L. Rodgers, P. A. Nakonezny, and R. D. Shull in which those authors introduced a new method for estimating the effects of no-fault divorce on U.S. divorce rates. A response by Rodgers, Nakonezny, and Shull is included (pp. 803-9).
Correspondence: N. D. Glenn, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. E-mail: ndglenn@mail.la.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40787 Guo, Zhigang; Deng, Guosheng. Impact of change in age structure on marriage. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1998. 175-85 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study is an attempt to analyze the marital environment for those born [in China] between the late 1950s and early 1960s and their marital behavior and status, to demonstrate the impact of the change in age structure on marriage, to ascertain the pattern of the related demographic development on the basis of historical events, and to predict the country's trend in marriage and likely development."
Correspondence: Z. Guo, People's University of China, Institute of Demographics, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100872, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40788 Harmsen, C. N. Cross-cultural marriages. Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 47, No. 12, Dec 1999. 17-20 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Of about 13 percent of all married couples in the Netherlands at least one partner was born outside the Netherlands. The divorce rates of these couples are higher than those of couples in which both partners were born in the Netherlands."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40789 Hassan, Khalid El-S. Socioeconomic determinants of age at first marriage in urban upper Egypt. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 318-35 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This study has as its objectives "to examine the impact of each socio-economic determinant of age at first marriage (AFM) in urban Upper Egypt (UUE). To determine the relative importance of each socio-economic variable in explaining the variation in AFM in UUE. To arrange the socio-economic determinants of AFM in UUE according to their importance.... The main source of data is the 1993 Egypt Use Effectiveness of Contraceptives Survey..., which was conducted by [the] Cairo Demographic Center (CDC) in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40790 Hirsch, Jennifer S. En el norte la mujer manda: gender, generation, and geography in a Mexican transnational community. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,332-49 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This study explores generational and migration-related changes in gender and marriage in two locations of a transnational community of Mexicans: the sending community in western Mexico and the receiving community in Atlanta [Georgia].... A generational paradigm shift in marital ideals has occurred, from an ideal of respeto (respect) to one of confianza (trust).... Although women on both sides of the frontera (border) share this companionate ideal, economic opportunities, more privacy, and some legal protection from domestic violence gave women in Atlanta more leverage to push for these companionate marriages."
Correspondence: J. S. Hirsch, Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40791 Hoem, Jan M. Systematic patterns of zero exposures in event-history analysis. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 132, ISBN 91-7820-135-7. Mar 1999. 18 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"An early study of the formation of cohabitational unions by Swedish women enrolled in education in the 1960s and 1970s failed to detect any effect of educational attainment.... There were effects of age, birth cohort, and social origin, but it seemed that high-school pupils and university students...of the same age entered consensual unions at the same rates once one controlled for year of birth and social background. When the finding is presented in these terms, we see right away that there must be a problem with it, for in general you cannot be enrolled in university-level studies at ages when most young Swedes go to high school (17-19). The `same-age' assumption is largely fictitious for parts of the age range, and the analysis should account for this but did not. In technical terms, a data set that includes educational attainment and covers the age range between...16 and 24 years, will include zero-valued exposures at least for factor-level combinations that involve low age and high attainment, and this should be recognized in the analysis."
Correspondence: J. M. Hoem, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40792 Hussain, R. Community perceptions of reasons for preference for consanguineous marriages in Pakistan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct 1999. 449-61 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Although the recent Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) shows that two-thirds of marriages in Pakistan are consanguineous, the sociocultural determinants of such marriages remain largely unexplored. This paper examines the relative importance of the three commonly perceived reasons for such marriages: religious, economic and cultural. The analysis is based on qualitative data collected in 1995 from multi-ethnic and multi-religious communities in Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan. Results show that consanguineous marriages are preferred across all ethnic and religious groups to a varying degree, and that parents continue to be the prime decision-makers for marriages of both sons and daughters. The major reasons for a preference for consanguineous marriages are sociocultural rather than any perceived economic benefits.... Despite the reported sociocultural advantages of consanguineous marriages, such unions are perceived to be exploitative as they perpetuate the existing power structures within the family"
Correspondence: R. Hussain, University of Wollongong, Department of Public Health and Nutrition, P.O. Box 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40793 Janssen, Jacques P. G.; de Graaf, Paul M.; Kalmijn, Matthijs. Heterogamy and divorce: an analysis of Dutch register data, 1974-1994. [Heterogamie en echtscheiding: een analyse van Nederlandse registergegevens 1974-1994.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1999. 35-57 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Do marriages in which partners do not resemble each other with respect to age, religion, nationality, and former marital status have larger probabilities of divorce than marriages in which partners have similar characteristics? To answer this question, [the authors] employ marriage and divorce registration data as collected by Statistics Netherlands. These data allow them to assess whether all new marriages between 1974 and 1984 have ended in divorce between 1974 and 1994. The analysis of this data set shows that several forms of heterogamy affect the divorce risk. Couples in which spouses differ in age (especially if the wife is older than her husband), couples in which husband and wife have different religions, and couples with different nationalities have higher divorce risks than homogamous couples."
Correspondence: J. P. G. Janssen, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Vakgroep Sociologie, P.B. 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40794 Jeng, Wei-Shiuan; Mckenry, Patrick C. A comparative study of divorce in three Chinese societies: Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 29, No. 2, Autumn 1999. 1-17 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong are three of very few areas of the world which have high rates of economic growth along with low divorce rates. However, the divorce rates in these countries has increased rapidly since 1970.... [This] cross-societal, comparative study drawing on secondary data applied the concepts of the social exchange theory to analyze the cost of divorce in the target societies and its impact on divorce rates. Findings suggest that, while industrialization triggers change similar to the West, cultural values, the physical environment, the legal system and the public policies affect the range and the direction of family response and change. The differences indicate that researchers should carefully consider cultural variations before applying Western based theory to other societies."
Correspondence: W.-S. Jeng, Ohio State University, Department of Human Development of Family Science, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40795 Kanazawa, Satoshi; Still, Mary C. Why monogamy? Social Forces, Vol. 78, No. 1, Sep 1999. 25-50 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The authors challenge the theory that monogamy is the result of a compromise among men after the advent of democracy whereby rich and powerful men receive support from poor men by giving up their multiple wives. They advance an alternative theory suggesting that the institution of marriage emerges spontaneously out of women's choices to marry polygynously or monogamously. "If resource inequality among men is great, women choose to marry polygynously and the polygynous institution of marriage emerges. If resource inequality among men is small, women choose to marry monogamously and the monogamous institution of marriage emerges. The theory explains the historical shift from polygyny to monogamy as a result of the gradual decline of inequality among men. Computer simulations uphold the internal logical consistency of the theory, and the analysis of cross-cultural data from a large number of countries strongly supports our female choice theory and offers no support for the male compromise theory."
Correspondence: S. Kanazawa, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, Lincoln Hall, Indiana, PA 15705-1087. E-mail: kanazawa@grove.iup.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40796 Kiernan, Kathleen; Mueller, Ganka. The divorced and who divorces? CASEpaper, No. 7, May 1998. iv, 40 pp. London School of Economics, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion: London, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of divorce in the United Kingdom, which asks two basic questions: What are the characteristics of the currently divorced? and Who divorces? Data from the Family Resources Survey are used to answer the first question, and data from two longitudinal studies, the British Household Panel Survey and the National Child Development Study, the second. "From these relatively rich data sets we were able to identify only a few important and direct factors associated with divorce. People who embark on partnerships at an early age, cohabitants, those who have experienced parental divorce, and those who are economically, somatically and emotionally vulnerable had higher risks, but beyond these factors, which in several instances pertain only to small sub-sets of the population, there was little else that clearly distinguished between those who divorce and those who do not."
Correspondence: London School of Economics and Political Science, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40797 Kiernan, Kathleen. The legacy of parental divorce: social, economic and demographic experiences in adulthood. CASEpaper, No. 1, Oct 1997. ii, 42 pp. London School of Economics, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion: London, England. In Eng.
"This study addresses three questions. Firstly, to what extent does divorce during childhood have long-term consequences for the educational attainment, economic situation, partnership formation and dissolution, and parenthood behaviour in adulthood? We show that in most of these domains children who experience parental divorce in childhood have more negative experiences than children reared by both their parents. However, in answering our second question, as to whether child and family characteristics preceding divorce attenuates the relationship between the divorce itself and adult outcomes, we show that for the non-demographic ones there is evidence of powerful selection effects operating, particularly to do with financial hardship.... The third question was--if parents remain together until their children are grown up before separating does this lessen the legacy of divorce on their adult children's lives?" The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: London School of Economics and Political Science, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40798 Kiernan, Kathleen E.; Cherlin, Andrew J. Parental divorce and partnership dissolution in adulthood: evidence from a British cohort study. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 1, Mar 1999. 39-48 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"From a longitudinal survey of a British cohort born in 1958 this study finds that, by age 33, off-spring of parents who divorced are more likely to have dissolved their first partnerships. This finding persists after taking into account age at first partnership, type of first partnership (marital, pre-marital cohabiting union, and cohabiting union), and indicators of class background and childhood and adolescent school achievement and behaviour problems. Some of these factors are associated with partnership dissolution in their own right, but the association between parental divorce and second generation partnership dissolution is largely independent of them. Demographic factors, including type of and age at first partnership, were important links between parental divorce and partnership dissolution."
Correspondence: K. E. Kiernan, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Social Policy and Demography, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40799 Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Le Bourdais, Céline; Marcil-Gratton, Nicole. Living as a couple for the first time: the significance of the choice of cohabitation in Quebec and Ontario. [Vivre en couple pour la première fois: la signification du choix de l'union libre au Québec et en Ontario.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 199-227, 362, 367 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The authors examine the significance of cohabitation in relation to the values associated with it, by contrasting the behaviours and attitudes of Quebec and Ontario men and women regarding the formation of conjugal unions and families. The findings, based on Statistics Canada's 1995 General Social Survey, show that young couples opting for cohabitation rather than marriage are more likely to exhibit attitudes that tend to redefine what conjugal union represents: less stress is placed on living as a couple and on children, marriage itself is given very little importance as a source of happiness, and less significance is assigned to the stability of the couple. In this regard, Quebec couples seem to be ahead of Ontario couples."
Correspondence: E. Lapierre-Adamcyk, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. E-mail: LAPIERA@ERE.UMONTREAL.CA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40800 Liang, Zai; Ito, Naomi. Intermarriage of Asian Americans in the New York City region: contemporary patterns and future prospects. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1999. 876-900 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census, as well as in-depth interviews, this article examines the intermarriage patterns of five Asian-American groups in the New York City region: Chinese, Koreans, Indians, Japanese and Filipinos. Intermarriage patterns for all five Asian groups are analyzed, according to gender, nativity and education. American-born Asians are much more likely to intermarry than foreign-born Asians. Asian women are much more likely to intermarry than Asian men. We also find little evidence for Robert Merton's hypothesis that minority men exchange their high socioeconomic status for a white woman's 'high' social status. Evidence strongly indicates that intermarried individuals share educational homogeneity."
Correspondence: Z. Liang, City University of New York, Queens College, Department of Sociology, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367. E-mail: liang@troll.soc.qc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40801 Liefbroer, Aart C.; Corijn, Martine. Who, what, where, and when? Specifying the impact of educational attainment and labour force participation on family formation. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1999. 45-75 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article studies the impact of educational attainment and labour force participation on the timing of entering a union, marriage, and parenthood, using data from Flemish and Dutch young adults born between 1961 and 1965.... As expected, educational attainment has a stronger negative effect of women's entry into parenthood than on their entry into a union, a stronger negative effect on women's entry into marriage and parenthood in the Netherlands than in Flanders, and a stronger effect during the early stages of young adulthood than later on. Men's educational attainment did not show the expected positive effect on family formation. Enrollment in full-time education delays family formation, but more so in Flanders than in the Netherlands. Unemployment delays family formation among men, but only in Flanders."
Correspondence: A. C. Liefbroer, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: liefbroer@nidi.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40802 Lievens, John. Family-forming migration from Turkey and Morocco to Belgium: the demand for marriage partners from the countries of origin. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 3, Fall 1999. 717-44 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the intensity and trend of marriages of Turks and Moroccans living in Belgium to partners from their countries of origin (`imported partners') and the motives for marrying such partners. Using data from the 1991 Belgian census, we show that large proportions of the migrant groups choose a partner from the country of origin and that marrying such a partner is certainly not dying out. Furthermore, the results of logit analyses reveal that marrying an imported partner is more than merely an act of traditional behavior: women may marry an imported partner in order to satisfy `modern' goals."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. Lievens, University of Ghent, Department of Population Studies and Social Science Research Methods, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 49, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. E-mail: john.lievens@rug.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40803 Madrigal, L.; Ware, B. Mating pattern and population structure in Escazú, Costa Rica: a study using marriage records. Human Biology, Vol. 71, No. 6, Dec 1999. 963-75 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The authors "study the mating pattern of a small, clearly established breeding population in Costa Rica (Escazú) during 1800-1839 and 1850-1899. We found that a large proportion of marriages involved individuals who were members of longstanding or core families. Indeed, 27 families provided 56% of all consorts throughout the period under study. When new surnames appeared in the records (presumably as a result of immigration), they were introduced more frequently by males, indicating that more males than females migrated into the community. The core families did not mate preferentially among themselves but appear to have readily accepted the migrants."
Correspondence: L. Madrigal, University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Tampa, FL 33620. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40804 Miller, R. Robin; Browning, Sandra L. Marriage systems in transition: a multicultural approach. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep 1999. 123 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
This is a special issue devoted to the multicultural approach to marriage and the family. Articles included are as follows: The importance of the multicultural approach, by R. Robin Miller and Sandra L. Browning; Marriage and family law in a changing Vietnam, by Steven K. Wisensale; The prayer of a married man is equal to seventy prayers of a single man: the central role of marriage among upper-middle-class Muslim Egyptians, by Bahira Sherif; Marital messages: the case of black women and their children, by Sandra L. Browning and R. Robin Miller; Gender stratification and the contemporary marriage market in India, by Kakoli Banerjee; Relational maintenance behaviors, marital satisfaction, and commitment in Tartar, Russian, and mixed Russian-Tartar marriages: an exploratory analysis, by Deborah S. Ballard-Reisch, Daniel J. Weigel, and Marat G. Zaguidoulline; The transition from cohabitation to marriage: a longitudinal study of the propensity to marry in Sweden in the early 1990s, by Ann-Zofie E. Duvander.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. E-mail: order@sagepub.com. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40805 O'Leary, Richard. Change in the rate and pattern of religious intermarriage in the Republic of Ireland. Economic and Social Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr 1999. 119-32 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"Earlier attempts to estimate the rate and to establish the patterns of religious intermarriage in the Republic of Ireland have been limited by a lack of data. This paper presents new findings on intermarriage using previously unavailable Census of Population and survey data. In addition, it is argued that post-Vatican II changes in Roman Catholic Church teaching on intermarriage have had an observable impact on intermarriages with respect to the types of wedding ceremony and conversions."
Correspondence: R. O'Leary, University of Oxford, Nuffield College, Oxford OX1 1NF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40806 Parker, Robyn. Repartnering following relationship breakdown. Family Matters, No. 53, Winter 1999. 39-43 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"At some point following the breakdown of a marriage or long-term de facto relationship, the issue of whether or not to embark on another partnership is bound to arise. What factors are likely to influence men and women in their decision to remain single or to repartner?.... The first part of this article discusses some of the research literature that has identified the characteristics of those who repartner, and the perceived benefits of repartnering. The second part reports the findings from the Australian Family Life Course Study, conducted by the Australian Institute of Family Studies, which asked unattached respondents about their future relationship intentions."
Correspondence: R. Parker, Australian Institute of Family Studies, 300 Queen Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40807 Pullum, Thomas W.; Peri, Andres. A multivariate analysis of homogamy in Montevideo, Uruguay. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 3, Nov 1999. 361-77 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper develops multivariate models to describe homogamy or, more generally, marriage preferences, for corresponding characteristics of brides and grooms. The purpose of these models is to obtain interpretable measures of the degree of homogamy (or marriage preference) on one dimension and to adjust these measures for homogamy on other dimensions. The models are applied to a sample of marriages in Montevideo, Uruguay, with pairs of corresponding variables for the brides and grooms. The analysis estimates the unadjusted and adjusted levels of homogamy on previous marital status, age, education, religion, and location. Homogamy on location, or propinquity, is the single most important variable. Previous marital status and age describe the readiness or eligibility to marry and are associated in their effect on homogamy. Education and religion describe vertical and horizontal differentiation of marriage partners, respectively. The multivariate analysis verifies that these dimensions are largely independent of each other."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: T. W. Pullum, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40808 Qian, Zhenchao. Who intermarries? Education, nativity, region, and interracial marriage, 1980 and 1990. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 4, Autumn 1999. 579-97 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study examines interracial marriage among whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans, using PUMS (Public Use Microdata Sample) data from the 1980 and the 1990 [U.S.] censuses. The level of interracial marriage is related inversely to the size of the racial group and to the proportion of the racial group in each region. Demographic structure, however, does not fully explain the racial differences in interracial marriage. Hispanics and Asian Americans have higher levels of interracial marriage than African Americans, despite the greater prevalence of immigrants in the former two groups. Interracial marriage differs by educational attainment for each racial group, but spousal educational differences are similar among different types of interracial marriages."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Z. Qian, Arizona State University, Department of Sociology, Tempe, AZ 85287-2101. E-mail: zqian@asu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40809 Quilodrán, Julieta. Cohabitation in Latin America: recent characteristics of an age-old phenomenon. [L'union libre en Amérique latine: aspects récents d'un phénomène séculaire.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 53-80, 360, 364 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Cohabitation is an old and widespread form of conjugality in Latin America. It could even be said to be the most distinctive form of nuptiality on this subcontinent.... The main purpose of this study is to present the characteristics of `traditional' cohabitation in Latin America, and particularly in Mexico, as they have emerged since 1950. Population studies over the past twenty-five years highlight the common features of a phenomenon that shows spatial and temporal variations: couples who are cohabiting seem to have begun to do so at an earlier age and are less stable than couples who have chosen to marry. They are also less educated and perform less specialized jobs."
Correspondence: J. Quilodrán, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. E-mail: jquilo@colmex.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40810 Ralson, Helen. Arranged, "semi-arranged" and "love" marriages among South Asian immigrant women in the diaspora and their non-migrant sisters in India and Fiji: a comparative study. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 27, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 43-68 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Qualitative data gathered during semi-structured interviews are drawn on to explore marriage experience and preferences among first and second generation South Asian immigrant women in three Pacific Rim countries--Canada (Atlantic Canada, 126 women; British Columbia, 100 women); Australia (50 women); and New Zealand (10 women). Their experience and preferences are compared with those of a sample of 28 [of] their non-migrant sisters in India and Fiji. A feminist theoretical perspective and qualitative methodology is employed to bring together several important theoretical concerns namely, (1) conceptualization of live experience and its methodology; (2) theories of migration, border-crossing, identity and culture construction; (3) theorizing on the interconnections of race, class, caste and gender; and (4) conceptions of integration, marginality and centrality, hybridity, and third space."
Correspondence: H. Ralston, Saint Mary's University, Department of Sociology, Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40811 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. Timing, sequences, and variations in separation and divorce of Canadian men. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 99-3, ISBN 0-7714-2179-6. Mar 1999. 13, [5] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"In this study, we examine separation and divorce [in Canada] in a life course perspective.... We confine ourselves to examining the events which we consider as commonly occurring at mid-life, namely, birth of last child, home-leaving of first child, separation, divorce, and remarriage. In particular, we examine the occurrences of mid-life events, the timing of separation and divorce, and the trajectories involving these two events."
This paper was originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40812 Romaniuc, Anatole; Chuiko, Liubov. Matrimonial behaviour in Canada and Ukraine: the enduring hold of culture. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, Summer 1999. 335-61 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The study compares a century-long matrimonial experience in Canada and Ukraine in terms of such criteria as intensity (universality), timing (age), stability and integrity of marriage. The study reveals a culture of early and universal marriage in Ukraine and that of marriage at more mature ages and one that is not nearly as universal in Canada, thus confirming the existence of Hajnal's Western and Eastern marriage pattern divide. Perhaps the most striking feature which appears from this comparative study is the tenacity of matrimonial culture in the face of the many unsettling events the two countries have experienced over the century."
Correspondence: A. Romaniuc, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, 1977 Highridge Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 5H1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40813 Savaya, Rivka; Cohen, Orna. A qualitative cum quantitative approach to construct definition in a minority population: reasons for divorce among Israeli Arab women. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1998. 157-79 pp. Kalamazoo, Michigan. In Eng.
A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods are used to analyze reasons for divorce among Israeli Arab women. "The findings support the authors' initial intuition that the reasons that lead Israeli Arab women to divorce are different from those that motivate middle class Western women. While the latter tend to be motivated by emotional reasons, from poor communication and desire for self-fulfillment, the Muslim Arab women who divorce are moved by really extreme marital misery brought on by a high degree of physical violence, sexual torment, emotional abuse, and/or the mental illness or addiction of their partners, as well as by the active intervention of their in-laws to break up their marriage."
Correspondence: R. Savaya, Tel Aviv University, Bob Shapell School of Social Work, 69 978 Tel Aviv, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40814 Schoenmaeckers, Ronald C.; Lodewijckx, Edith; Gadeyne, Sylvie. Marriages and fertility among Turkish and Moroccan women in Belgium: results from census data. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1999. 901-28 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The patterns of family formation and fertility behavior of Turkish and Moroccan women in Belgium are changing rapidly. The census data (1991) indicate a fertility decline. The reasons are changes in the nuptiality patterns, contraceptive behavior and migratory flows. The changes are not identical in both communities. Young cohorts postpone their marriage, but this is most prominent among Moroccan women. On the other hand, young Turkish women have a clear preference for smaller families. The changes also differentiate according to migrant 'generation' and level of education. The changes are not restricted to Belgium but are also observed in the countries of origin."
The original version of this paper was presented at the 1998 annual meetings of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. C. Schoenmaeckers, Center for Population and Family Studies, Flemish Community, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: cbgs@wvc.vlaanderen.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40815 Suro, Roberto. Mixed doubles. American Demographics, Vol. 21, No. 11, Nov 1999. 56-62 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
The growing popularity of interracial and interethnic marriage in the United States is analyzed using official data from the Census Bureau.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40816 Thiriat, Marie-Paule. Cohabitation in Sub-Saharan Africa. [Les unions libres en Afrique subsaharienne.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 81-115, 360, 365 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Attempting to apply the concept of cohabitation to Africa increases the ever-present risk of ethnocentrism for researchers examining the area of marriage and the family. And yet, the fundamental issue in cohabitation involves compromises between the aspirations of the individual and the couple, on the one hand, and community and legal constraints, on the other. In Togo, the development of premarital sexuality, the growing tendency for individuals to choose their own spouses, and changes in the procedures involved in entering into a conjugal union testify to a gradual weakening of familial control over the conclusion of unions. The increase in informal unions, where the partners often do not cohabit, is probably one of the effects of the economic crisis and the fragility of the social structure."
Correspondence: M.-P. Thiriat, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40817 Uruguay. Dirección General de Estadística y Censos [INE] (Montevideo, Uruguay). Vital statistics, special edition: marriages and divorces 1989-1997. [Estadísticas vitales, edición especial: matrimonios y divorcios 1989-1997.] 1999. 184 pp. Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa.
This publication presents data for Uruguay on marriages and divorces for the period 1989-1997. Tables provide information on marriages by geographic area, age, nationality, employment status, and previous marital status, and information on divorces by duration of marriage, place of marriage, and year.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, C.A.O. 054-11.100 Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40818 Vossen, Ad P. Preferences of young adults regarding their partner's age: specific patterns and the underlying argumentation. Results from a Dutch survey. Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1999. 65-85 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"The long-term trend toward age homogamy among spouses came to an end some decades ago. Positing that preferences--to some extent--are useful predictors for behaviour, the central aim of this article is to investigate preferences among young adults regarding the age of their (future) partner.... Survey data were collected among about 600 young Dutch adults in the age group of 18-25 years old. It appears that age preferences of younger men are significantly more egalitarian (age homogeneous). In addition, they show a greater indifference regarding their partner's age."
Correspondence: A. P. Vossen, Tilburg University, Faculty of Social Science, Research Unit on Demographics and Work, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40819 Xu, Xiaohe. The social origins of historical changes in freedom of mate choice under state socialism: the case of urban China. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 28, No. 2, Autumn 1998. 107-32 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The extent to which the Chinese Communist Revolution, the subsequent development of the one-party socialist state, and the recent implementation of economic reforms have affected marriage patterns in urban China are reviewed. The primary focus is on how these changes have affected the process of mate selection.
Correspondence: X. Xu, Mississippi State University, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, P.O. Drawer DB, Mississippi State, MS 39762. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40820 Zavodny, Madeline. Do men's characteristics affect whether a nonmarital pregnancy results in marriage? Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 3, Aug 1999. 764-73 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"A decline in the likelihood that a nonmarital pregnancy results in marriage has contributed to the dramatic rise in the nonmarital birth ratio since the 1960s in the United States. This study examines the effect of men's characteristics on whether they marry in the event of a nonmarital pregnancy and whether changes in average characteristics and in the effect of men's characteristics have contributed to the decline in the probability of legitimation.... Changes over time in men's behavior and in men's average characteristics appear to have lowered the probability of legitimation among White men, but changes in men's behavior appear to have contributed to the decline in legitimation among Black men."
Correspondence: M. Zavodny, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Research Department, 104 Marietta Street NW, Atlanta, GA 30303. E-mail: madeline.zavodny@atl.frb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40821 Zhang, Junsen; Chan, William. Dowry and wife's welfare: a theoretical and empirical analysis. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 107, No. 4, Aug 1999. 786-808 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Becker attributes the existence of marital transfers to inflexibility in the division of joint product within the marriage. If that were the only reason, we would not have observed the coexistence of dowries and bride-prices. This paper offers an alternative analysis. While Becker's interpretation is retained for bride-prices, a dowry is now represented as a premortem bequest by altruistic parents for a daughter. It not only increases the wealth of the new conjugal household but also enhances the bargaining power of the bride in the allocation of output within that household, thereby safeguarding her welfare. Using micro data from Taiwan, we found that a dowry improves the bride's welfare whereas a bride-price has no effect. These empirical results support the theoretical predictions of the model."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.

65:40822 Arias, Elizabeth; Palloni, Alberto. Prevalence and patterns of female headed households in Latin America: 1970-1990. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 2, Spring 1999. 257-79 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Our goal in this paper is to describe levels and trends of female headed households in Latin America during the past twenty years. The data available to us do not support the idea that the breakup of the traditional family, the advent of massive rural-urban migratory flows, and the disruptions produced by rapid urbanization and industrialization leads inevitably to increases in female headship. Female headship does increase by a small amount in three countries but declines or remains invariant everywhere else. We find remarkable similarities across countries in the age-patterns of female headship as well as in the compositional factors accounting for it, namely, marital status, education, poverty and urban-rural residence."
Correspondence: E. Arias, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40823 Becker, Gary S. A treatise on the family. ISBN 0-674-90698-5. LC 90-4975. 1993. xii, 424 pp. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
This is an enlarged edition of the author's seminal book on the economic or rational choice approach to the family, in which he analyzes marriage, births, divorce, division of labor in households, prestige, and other nonmaterial behavior with the tools and framework developed for material behavior. "This volume uses the assumptions of maximizing behavior, stable preferences, and equilibrium in implicit or explicit markets to provide a systematic analysis of the family. I build on my research during the past two decades to analyze the allocation of time to children and to market work, marriage and divorce in polygynous as well as monogamous societies, altruism in addition to selfishness in families, intergenerational mobility, and many other aspects of the family."
Correspondence: Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40824 Behrman, Jere R. Intra-household allocation of resources: Is there a gender bias? In: Too young to die: genes or gender? 1998. 223-42 pp. UN Population Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present chapter considers evidence from developing countries on sex differentials in the intra-household allocations of goods and services to infants and children.... A framework for analysing sex differences in intra-household allocations of goods and services that affect infant and child mortality is first discussed.... The analytical framework is then applied to a review of evidence on sex differentials in intra-household allocations that are relevant to infant and child mortality and related behaviours. A summary of what is known and what is not known regarding links between intra-household allocations and sex differentials in infant and child mortality is presented in the conclusion."
Correspondence: J. R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40825 Bien, Walter; Schneider, Norbert F. Child yes, marriage no? Status and change in the living conditions of children born out of wedlock or children with unmarried parents. [Kind ja, Ehe nein? Status und Wandel der Lebensverhältnisse von nichtehelichen Kindern und Kindern in nichtehelichen Lebensgemeinschaften.] Deutsches Jugendinstitut Familien-Survey, Vol. 7, ISBN 3-8100-2043-5. 1998. 240 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
On the basis of several government-funded studies, this book aims to analyze living conditions and life courses of children in unmarried households in Germany. There are chapters by various authors on the extent and legal situation of nonmarital childbearing, the situation of unmarried women who become mothers, life courses of children growing up in unmarried households, the relationship of such children to their biological father, comparisons between children of divorce and children in unmarried households, kinship networks of children with unmarried parents, and demographic and social characteristics of such households. The results seem to indicate that unmarried households with children are rarer than perceived, and that such situations generally are not due to conscious planning, but rather tend to occur as a consequence of various external factors.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Straße 27, Postfach 300406, 5090 Leverkusen 3, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40826 Bornat, Joanna; Dimmock, Brian; Jones, David; Peace, Sheila. Stepfamilies and older people: evaluating the implications of family change for an ageing population. Ageing and Society, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar 1999. 239-61 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The changing nature of family life has become a major issue in contemporary Britain. Concerns that change will bring moral decline and social fragmentation are countered by a more optimistic view which focuses on a future of more equitable and flexible family ties. Research drawing on area-based data in Luton amongst older, middle-aged and younger people with experience of family change suggests that so far as inter-generational relations, caring, and transfers of family wealth are concerned, traditional attitudes towards blood ties, household independence and care and support survive alongside new step relationships. The research also suggests that although several respondents had more than one generation of experience of family change, the language of step relationships is still one which is not yet completely accepted, or one with which people feel completely at ease."
Correspondence: J. Bornat, Open University, School of Health and Social Welfare, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, England. E-mail: j.bornat@open.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40827 Bourguignon, François. The cost of children: May the collective approach to household behavior help? Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1999. 503-21 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The collective approach to household consumption behavior tries to infer from variables supposed to affect the general bargaining position of household members information on the allocation of consumptions goods and tasks among them. This paper investigates the extension of previous work to the case where children may be considered as a public consumption good by the two adult members of a household. The main question being asked is whether it is possible to retrieve from the aggregate consumption behaviour of the household and the relative earnings of the parents information on the allocation of goods between them and children. This alternative approach to the estimation of the `cost of children' is contrasted with the conventional approach based on a `unitary' representation of and demographic separability assumptions on household consumption behaviour."
Correspondence: F. Bourguignon, DELTA/E.N.S., Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 48 Boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris, France. E-mail: bourg@delta.ens.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40828 Brines, Julie; Joyner, Kara. The ties that bind: principles of cohesion in cohabitation and marriage. American Sociological Review, Vol. 64, No. 3, Jun 1999. 333-55 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A vast literature addresses the correlates of marital stability, but little is known about what unites cohabiting partners over time. Although a specialized division of labor might increase the benefits of marriage and strengthen ties between husband and wife, transactional considerations make specialization unattractive for cohabitors. Drawing from work on the emergence of commitment, we argue that cohabitors are more likely to remain together under conditions of equality. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we test these ideas by modeling the stability of married and long-term cohabiting unions in the United States. We find that married couples who adopt a more specialized division of labor are less likely to divorce, but the effect is modest. Among cohabitors, partners whose employment and earnings are increasingly similar face sharply reduced risks of breaking up, but the effect is asymmetric: Inequality is more disruptive when the female cohabitor earns more than her partner."
Correspondence: J. Brines, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail: brines@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40829 Canada. Quebec (Province). Ministère de la Famille et de l'Enfance (Quebec, Canada); Canada. Quebec (Province). Conseil de la Famille et de l'Enfance (Quebec, Canada); Canada. Quebec (Province). Bureau de la Statistique du Québec (Quebec, Canada). A statistical portrait of families and children in Quebec. [Un portrait statistique des familles et des enfants au Québec.] ISBN 2-551-19120-3. 1999. 206 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
A selection of data on families and children in the Canadian province of Quebec is presented, based on both censuses and surveys. The data are organized under nine subject headings: Population, households, and families; The demographic context; Family characteristics; The family environment of children; Child care and school attendance; Parents and the labor market; Families, their incomes, and their expenditures; Housing and the elements of household comforts; and How time is used.
Correspondence: Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec, 200 Chemin Sainte-Foy, 2e Etage, Quebec, Quebec G1R 5T4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40830 Caputo, Richard K. Age-condensed and age-gapped families: coresidency with elderly parents and relatives in a mature women's cohort, 1967-1995. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1999. 77-95 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey, Mature Women's Cohort, this study found that not only is a sizable minority of mature women likely to reside with their aging parents and relatives in any given survey year, but that this trend increases over time. Unexpectedly, black women were found to be more likely than white women to reside in age-gapped families, signifying that they were more likely than white women to delay childbirth. Black women also were found to have greater frequencies and prevalence of residing in intergenerational families than white women."
Correspondence: R. K. Caputo, Barry University, School of Social Work, 11300 NE 2nd Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161-6695. E-mail: rcaputo@mail.barry.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40831 Chadwick, Bruce A.; Heaton, Tim B. Statistical handbook on the American family. 2nd ed. ISBN 1-57356-169-X. LC 98-42669. 1999. xvi, 326 pp. Oryx Press: Phoenix, Arizona. In Eng.
This statistical handbook contains tables and charts that illustrate various aspects of family life in the United States. Data are primarily from official sources, supplemented by other published sources. There are chapters titled. Quality of marriage and family life; Divorce and separation; Children; Sexual attitudes and behaviors and contraceptive use; Living arrangements and kinship ties; Working women, wives, and mothers; Demographic and economic context; and Child care. "All of the tables, figures, and illustrations contained in this second edition are new. A few tables from the original [publication] have been extended to include information from 1996 or 1997. In addition, a new section on family demographics and economic context has been added. Information about family income, assets, and debts is presented, as well as home ownership, health insurance, and consumer patterns. Also, statistics concerning poverty and public assistance are reported."
For the first edition, published in 1992, see 58:30402.
Correspondence: Oryx Press, 4041 North Central at Indian School Road, Phoenix, AZ 85012-3397. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40832 Chamberlain, Mary. The family as model and metaphor in Caribbean migration to Britain. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1999. 251-66 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The evolution of families of Caribbean origin in Britain is explored. The study "explores the role of the family in Caribbean migration, and the impact of migration on the family. It suggests that while individuals migrated, the wider family were implicated in the endeavour either at the point of departure or destination. In the process, family values of support, obligation and responsibility were reinforced and continue to be retained across the oceans, and the generations.... The family therefore provides...a model for migrant behaviour; this model however stresses the importance of siblings and kin peers who provide the basis of social networks and act as a metaphor in settlement and organisation. These two processes may be regarded as the avenues through which Caribbean peoples have `indigenised' in the countries of settlement."
Correspondence: M. Chamberlain, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP, England. E-mail: mcchamberlain@brookes.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40833 Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Marsh, Robert. Changes in living arrangement and familial support for the elderly in Taiwan: 1963-1991. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, Summer 1999. 523-37 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from two cross sectional household surveys conducted in 1963 and 1991 in the city of Taipei are used to study the effect of industrialization, urbanization and economic growth on intergenerational co-residence and family support for the elderly. Changes in attitude toward intergenerational living arrangement and financial support from children are also examined enabling the assessment of the strength of cultural factors in maintaining people's attitude toward elderly support during a period of rapid economic change. Our results show that intergenerational co-residence has declined significantly. However, this does not necessarily jeopardize the welfare of the elderly as son's increased income transfers to parents, compensating for non-co-residence. The study also indicates that attitudinal change in respect of financial support has been much more drastic than that in respect to co-residence."
Correspondence: A. Chattopadhyay, Kansas State University, Department of Sociology, 204 Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40834 Cliquet, Robert; Avramov, Dragana. The future of the family: a sociobiological approach. [De toekomst van het gezin: een sociobiologische benadering.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1999. 1-34 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Modernisation has fundamentally changed family structures, family functions and family life. This has raised the question whether the family still has a future. This contribution starts with a discussion of the origin and the fundamental functions of the family from a sociobiological point of view. Subsequently, the background of the modernisation and its implications for the family are analysed. Several possible futurist scenarios are discussed on the basis of a confrontation of the family related human biogram within the framework of a further developing modernisation. Finally the policy implications of the analysis are dealt with."
Correspondence: R. Cliquet, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Vlaamse Wetenschappelijke Instelling, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40835 Dasgupta, Satadal; Hennessey, Seana; Mukhopadhyay, Rajat S. Caste, class and family structure in West Bengal villages. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 4, Autumn 1999. 561-77 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper examines the influences of caste and class status on family structure in rural India. Analysis of the data collected from three villages of the West Bengal state in India shows that caste status continues to be significantly related to the family structure. However, class status--whether based on occupation or landownership--has a stronger and statistically more significant relationship with family structure. Further analysis of the data shows that both occupational classes and caste structure are strongly related to landownership and also show statistically significant relationship with each other."
Correspondence: S. Dasgupta, University of Prince Edward Island, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40836 David, Patricia H. High fertility and short birth spacing: the poverty consequences of family-building patterns. In: Population and poverty in the developing world, edited by Massimo Livi-Bacci and Gustavo De Santis. 1999. 103-19 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the effects of family size and birth spacing on the chances of family members being able to participate fully in society and to have a reasonable expectation of a healthy and productive life.... The first section...reviews and summarizes the evidence that large families restrict the opportunities available to their members.... The second section...examines the empirical evidence that mortality risks increase for children born into large or closely-spaced families."
Correspondence: P. H. David, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40837 de Graaf, A.; Steenhof, L. Partnership and family formation of cohorts 1945-1979: results of the Netherlands Fertility and Family Survey 1998. [Relatie- en gezinsvorming van generaties 1945-1979: uitkomsten van het Onderzoek Gezinsvorming 1998.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 47, No. 12, Dec 1999. 21-37 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on the results of the 1998 Family and Fertility Survey held by Statistics Netherlands it is shown that the kind of transitions made [including leaving home, cohabiting, marrying, and becoming a mother] and the age at which these occur have changed between cohorts born shortly after the Second World War and cohorts born in the fifties, sixties and seventies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40838 Du, Peng. Changes in living arrangements of the elderly in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1998. 231-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Drawing on the data from a project called `A Multi-dimensional, Diachronic Study of Aging in Beijing', conducted by the Beijing Research Center for Gerontology from 1992 to 1994, this study analyzes, from various perspectives, the ways in which the changes in living arrangements of a group of elderly people in Beijing took place during a period of two years. Through the analysis we found that even within a period as short as two years, the types of living arrangements of the elderly had undergone great many changes. The percentages of the elderly who are no longer willing to live with their grown-up children, and of the elderly who still hold to the traditional belief that `one raises children for support in old age' are rising."
Correspondence: P. Du, Chinese People's University, Institute of Demography, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40839 Dubreuil, Christianne. De facto unions in Quebec: nonexistence in the Quebec Civil Code. [L'union de fait au Québec: inexistence dans le Code civil.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 229-36, 362, 367 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this brief overview, the author looks at the status of de facto unions in the Quebec Civil Code. She concludes that this form of union does not exist in the Code, despite its growing popularity and the fact that it has been recognized in many pieces of social legislation. The consequences of this situation are described for cohabiting spouses and their children, compared to the situation for married couples."
Correspondence: C. Dubreuil, Université de Montréal, Faculté de Droit, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40840 Engstler, Heribert. The family as reflected in official statistics: life forms, family structures, economic situation of families, and the demographic development of the family in Germany. [Die Familie im Spiegel der amtlichen Statistik: Lebensformen, Familienstrukturen, wirtschaftliche Situation der Familien und familiendemographische Entwicklung in Deutschland.] 5th ed. Jan 1999. 183 pp. Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend: Bonn, Germany. In Ger.
This report by the German government's ministry for families, seniors, women, and youth summarizes data about German families covering the period from 1972 to 1996. Information is provided on household composition, nest leaving, the institutionalized population, families with children, one-parent families, consensual unions, one-person households, foreign families, marriages and divorces, births including mother's age, adoptions, parents' employment, child care, and the economic situation of families.
Correspondence: Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend, Postfach 20 15 51, 53145 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40841 Goldscheider, Frances; Goldscheider, Calvin; St. Clair, Patricia; Hodges, James. Changes in returning home in the United States, 1925-1985. Social Forces, Vol. 78, No. 2, Dec 1999. 695-720 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Returning home in young adulthood has increased from a rare to a common occurrence [in the United States]. We examine the effects of historical events, such as World War II, and longer-term changes in the attractiveness of the parental feathered nest, family structure, the growth of second-rate jobs, and convergence by gender and ethnicity. We show that these factors affected leaving home but had little effect on the likelihood of returning home. Instead, changes in returning home are linked to changes in leaving home: the declining age at leaving home and increases in leaving home before marriage. The route that increased returning home most is `independence', because it has grown as a route out and it has shown the most rapid increase in likelihood of a return of any route." Data are from a 1987-1988 National Surveys of Families and Households sample of 13,009 adults.
Correspondence: F. Goldscheider, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40842 Heath, D. Terri. Single mothers, single fathers. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul 1999. 427-587 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
"Whereas single parenting has become commonplace [in the United States], relatively little scholarly attention has been paid in two areas: gender similarities/differences between single fathers and single mothers and the resiliency of single parent families. This special issue is devoted to these gaps in our current understanding of this common family form. Six studies are included."
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. E-mail: order@sagepub.com. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40843 Huang, Chien-Chung. A policy solution to reduce poverty in single-mother families? An examination of the child support assurance system. Journal of Population Studies, No. 20, Oct 1999. 93-124 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"Single-mother families significantly increased since the end of the 1980s in Taiwan, however, a great proportion of them [are] living [in] poverty. Although a large body of studies has examined the issues of single-parent families in Taiwan, none of them have proposed a policy solution to resolve the disadvantageous economic status of these single-mother families. The Child Support Assurance System (CSAS) is designed with the dual goal of preventing poverty and promoting independence for single-mother families. Using the 1992-1994 Family Income and Expenditure Survey in Taiwan, this paper empirically examined the effectiveness of implementing CSAS in Taiwan. The results indicate that enforcing the CSAS should produce a high effectiveness with low costs. The most important benefit is the reduction in the poverty rate of these single mother families and the improvement in their family income, which in turn improves their economic independence."
Correspondence: C.-C. Huang, Columbia University, School of Social Work, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40844 Japan. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (Tokyo, Japan). Studies which are applied to the data from the National Survey on Family in Japan, NSFJ. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 54, No. 3, Sep 1998. 120 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng; Jpn.
This special issue contains four articles that use data from the National Survey on the Family in Japan. The articles are: Determinants of parent-adult child coresidence: the case of Japanese elderly women, by Rokuro Tabuchi; Urbanism and personal network of married women, by Tokuko Tateyama; Husband's housework and wife's marital satisfaction: a comparison of Japan and the United States, by Kei Suemori and Kunio Ishihara; Men's domestic role and the gender system: determinants of husband's household labor in Japan, by Hachiro Nishioka. The articles are in Japanese, except for the article by Nishioka, which is in English.
Correspondence: National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, 1-2-3 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0013, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40845 Jarrett, Robin L.; Burton, Linda M. Dynamic dimensions of family structure in low-income African American families: emergent themes in qualitative research. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 2, Spring 1999. 177-87 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper outlines several fundamental dimensions of family structure that should be considered in studies of economically disadvantaged African American families. Using data from two qualitative community-based studies of African American families, we delineate four key dimensions of family structure--extended family networks; the socioeconomic structure of extended family networks; the pace of change in family structure; and the age structure of family members."
Correspondence: R. L. Jarrett, University of Illinois, Department of Human and Community Development, 269 Bevier Hall, 905 South Goodwin Street, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40846 Juang, Linda P.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit. Predictors of leaving home in young adults raised in Germany: a replication of a 1991 study. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2, May 1999. 505-15 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study replicates and expands a previous study conducted by Silbereisen, Meschke, and Schwarz (1996) that examined the timing and correlates of leaving home in former East and West Germany using data gathered in 1991. With data collected in 1996, we show that East Germans were more likely to leave home earlier than West Germans. Furthermore, predictors of home leaving (e.g., parental divorce) differed somewhat, depending on the region. East and West Germans were more similar in the pattern of predictors in 1996 than in 1991. This offers support for the hypothesis that under reunification, these two regions were moving toward greater similarity in this transition to adulthood."
Correspondence: L. P. Juang, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Department of Developmental Psychology, Am Steiger 3/1, 07743 Jena, Germany. E-mail: s7juli@rz.uni-jena.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40847 Juby, Heather; Le Bourdais, Céline. Where have all the children gone? Comparing mothers' and fathers' declarations in retrospective surveys. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1999. 1-20 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the extent of male under-reporting of children among parents who were living apart at the time of the General Social Survey on Family, conducted by Statistics Canada in 1995. We first describe how children reported by their fathers differ from those reported by their mothers, and then analyse the factors likely to affect the probability of children being declared by their fathers. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed in the conclusion."
Correspondence: H. Juby, Université de Montréal, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Interuniversitaire d'Etudes Démographiques, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40848 Kanchanakitsakul, Madee. Factors affecting satisfaction of Thai senior citizens living with their children. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1999. 143-62, 168-9 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"This study has three main objectives as follows: to study living arrangements of senior citizens [in Thailand]; to investigate satisfaction of senior citizens living with their children; [and] to examine factors affecting the satisfaction of senior citizens living with their children."
Correspondence: M. Kanchanakitsakul, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Salaya, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40849 Kaufmann, Franz-Xaver; Kuijsten, Anton; Schulze, Hans-Joachim; Strohmeier, Klaus P. Family life and family policies in Europe. Volume 1: structures and trends in the 1980s. ISBN 0-19-823327-2. 1997. xxi, 423 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume is the product of an international project looking at differences in family characteristics and family life among the countries of Europe, and their consequences for the harmonization of European family policies. It contains chapters on 10 countries, along with a general introduction to family life and family policy in Europe, as well as a concluding overview. The countries discussed are Denmark, France, Germany (both East and West), Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library.

65:40850 Kiernan, Kathleen. Cohabitation in western Europe. Population Trends, No. 96, Summer 1999. 25-32 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines for a range of European countries: the extent to which men and women are not forming partnerships and how this has changed over time; the number of partnerships experienced; type of first partnership in terms of whether it commences with marriage or cohabitation and, if the latter, whether it converts into marriage; as well as the duration of different types of cohabiting unions. It also includes an examination of the risk of breakdown amongst first unions that commence with cohabitation or marriage and the variation in type of first union according to background characteristics, including: educational attainment, religious observance and experience of parental divorce in childhood."
Correspondence: K. Kiernan, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Social Policy, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40851 Kim, Ik Ki; Park, Keong-Suk; Kojima, Hiroshi. Geographic family network of elderly parents in contemporary Korea and Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 54, No. 4, 1998. 63-84 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper compares Korea and Japan with regard to geographic proximity between elderly parents and their children. In view of [the] cultural context of Confucian heritage and rapid social changes in Korea and Japan, this study examines the extent to which needs, desirability, and kinship of elderly parents and regional constraints influence intergenerational geographic proximity in the two societies.... For Korean elderly parents, advanced economic and health conditions contribute to acting on their preference for intergenerational coresidence, whereas for Japanese elderly parents, coresidence with children is more likely to occur in response to their disadvantaged economic and unmarried status."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40852 Kritz, Mary M.; Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina. Determinants of women's decision-making authority in Nigeria: the ethnic dimension. Sociological Forum, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1999. 399-424 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from a 1991 survey of five ethnic groups in Nigeria, we look at the determinants of wife's decision-making authority. Our analysis shows that ethnicity plays a very important role in shaping wife's decision-making authority and is even more important than wife's individual-level characteristics as a determinant of authority. The ethnic effect occurs both by shaping the levels of resources that women achieve and by shaping the relationships of wife's achieved characteristics to family decision-making. To the extent that characteristics other than ethnicity make a difference for authority, we find that wife's contributions to household expenditures are important. That factor significantly increases wife's authority, as does wife's formal education, age, and work for pay outside the home. The findings underscore the importance of looking at ethnic social differentiation in the African context and advancing educational and employment opportunities for women."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. M. Kritz, Cornell University, Population and Development Program, Ithaca, NY 14853. E-mail: mmk5@cornell.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40853 Kuijsten, Anton. Households, families and kin networks. In: Population issues: an interdisciplinary focus, edited by Leo J. G. van Wissen and Pearl A. Dykstra. 1999. 87-122 pp. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, New York/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Trends over time in household and family structure reflect changes in the timing and occurrence of major life transitions such as marriage and parenthood. The focus in this chapter is on trends in the Netherlands, but data from other European countries are presented for comparative purposes.... The chapter describes the ways in which the combined outcomes of these trends show up in patterns of household composition...and family structure.... The chapter addresses not only past and ongoing trends, but also possible developments in the future, using the results of microsimulations of kin networks."
Correspondence: A. Kuijsten, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40854 Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne. Cohabitation. [L'union libre.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. v, 368 pp. Association des Démographes du Québec: Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This special issue contains eight articles by various authors on cohabitation. The articles cover many dimensions of the topic, from the theoretical and methodological implications of cohabitation for the field of demography to analyses of cohabitation in Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Canada.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Association des Démographes du Québec, C.P. 403, Succursale Côte-des-Neiges, Montreal, Quebec H3S 2S7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40855 Lejealle, Blandine. The history of couples: the place of consensual union in the family picture in Luxembourg. [Histoire des couples: la place de l'union libre dans le paysage familial luxembourgeois.] Population et Emploi, No. 2/99, Jul 1999. 8 pp. Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [STATEC]: Luxembourg. In Fre.
The relative importance of consensual unions in Luxembourg is reviewed using official data. Recent changes in marriage patterns and the characteristics of households are first described. A final section analyzes trends in consensual unions, which remain relatively uncommon in the Duchy, but are increasingly found among the young and those without children.
Correspondence: Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, B.P. 304, 6 Boulevard Royal, 2013 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40856 Liefbroer, Aart C. From youth to adulthood: understanding changing patterns of family formation from a life course perspective. In: Population issues: an interdisciplinary focus, edited by Leo J. G. van Wissen and Pearl A. Dykstra. 1999. 53-85 pp. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, New York/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Past decades have witnessed the postponement of important family-life events like marriage and parenthood and the rise in popularity of unmarried cohabitation and living alone. The transition from youth to adulthood has become much less predictable as a result of these changes. This chapter suggests that these developments are driven by changes in young adults' preferences about family formation and in their constraints and opportunities.... The life course approach offers a promising framework for studying the impact of individual time, social time, historical time and linked lives on the family-life decisions made by young adults." The geographical focus is on the Netherlands.
Correspondence: A. C. Liefbroer, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40857 Lloyd, Cynthia B. Household structure and poverty: What are the connections? In: Population and poverty in the developing world, edited by Massimo Livi-Bacci and Gustavo De Santis. 1999. 84-102 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter assesses household structure and function as factors in the well-being or poverty of individuals.... Because welfare is essentially experienced individually, this review assesses the structure and function of the household from the point of view of its returns to individual members and contrasts this approach with a more corporate view in which its collective resources are assumed to be fully shared by all members.... The chapter begins with a discussion of the economics of the household and its potential implications for the measurement of poverty. This is followed by some data illustrating the variety of patterns that appear when comparing the economic well-being of different types of households using household-based measures of living standards. The third section discusses household-family links and their implications for the relationship between household structure and the distribution of poverty among individuals. The final section reviews the key points emerging from a growing literature on the internal distribution of household resources as it relates to household structure and individual poverty. The chapter concludes with some thoughts about the appropriateness of the household as our demographic and economic unit of measure and some suggestions for alternative approaches."
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40858 Malpas, Nicole. European couples: Who are they? [Les couples européens: qui sont-ils?] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 117-49, 360-1, 365 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This study is based on data from a 1993 survey, dubbed the Eurobaramètre, on attitudes toward the couple and the family, carried out in the 12 countries of the European Community. "The survey results show that most of the 12,800 individuals queried felt that mutual respect and love were necessary for couples to live together happily. As for Europeans' attitudes on cohabitation and the rights of homosexuals to live as a couple, marry, adopt children and inherit property, one finds a fairly clear demarcation line between two generations: the older generation tends to oppose the idea of couples not marrying and that of different types of couples, and places more importance on the homogamous values underlying conjugal unions in the past. The younger generation places less emphasis on these values and more on the conditions that best fulfill individual aspirations."
Correspondence: N. Malpas, NM Consultants, 26 rue Wilmart, 4032 Chênée-Liège, Belgium. E-mail: nmconsultants@pophost.eunet.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40859 McLaughlin, Diane K.; Gardner, Erica L.; Lichter, Daniel T. Economic restructuring and changing prevalence of female-headed families in America. Rural Sociology, Vol. 64, No. 3, Sep 1999. 394-416 pp. Bellingham, Washington. In Eng.
"Industrial restructuring has altered economic circumstances in the U.S., but the influences of these changes on family structure are not clear. This study examines whether industrial restructuring influences female headship and whether these effects differ in nonmetro and metro counties. Results based on data from the 1980 and 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing Summary Tape Files...suggest that linkages between industrial restructuring and family structure do exist, although the models are less able to explain changes in female headship in nonmetro than in metro counties."
Correspondence: D. K. McLaughlin, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-5600. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40860 McQuillan, Kevin; Belle, Marilyn. Lone-father families in Canada, 1971-1996. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 99-8, ISBN 0-7714-2194-X. Jun 1999. 13, 11 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"We seek to describe the growth and change among lone-father families in Canada over the last generation. Drawing on the public use micro-files of the Canadian censuses, we will examine the changing demographic and economic characteristics of lone fathers and the families they head. We will also compare the situation of lone fathers with that of lone mothers, and end with some comments on the issues that need to be explored in the years ahead."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40861 Mindel, Charles H.; Habenstein, Robert W.; Wright, Roosevelt. Ethnic families in America: patterns and variations. 4th ed. ISBN 0-13-531328-7. LC 97-24844. 1998. x, 518 pp. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. In Eng.
This is a selection of essays by various authors that examine family characteristics in the United States from an ethnic perspective. "In addition to developing historical context, the contributors were asked to discuss four major areas of ethnic family life in which ethnic culture might be generated, sustained, or have an impact. First were demographic characteristics: How is the ethnic culture specifically expressed in fertility, marriage, and divorce rates? How does the group cope with intermarriage?" The ethnic families considered are grouped into five categories, which are: "(1) European ethnic minorities, (2) Hispanic ethnic minorities, (3) Asian ethnic minorities, (4) historically subjugated ethnic minorities, and (5) socioreligious ethnic minorities."
Correspondence: Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:40862 Morrison, Peter A. Family policies and demographic realities. In: America's demographic tapestry: baseline for the new millennium, edited by James W. Hughes and Joseph J. Seneca. 1999. 34-9 pp. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
Some recent changes in the family in the United States are reviewed. The focus is on the extent to which social policies can be developed to help solve some of the problems affecting families in the light of current demographic trends.
Correspondence: P. A. Morrison, RAND Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40863 Muñiz, Patricia; Hernández, Daniel. Attributes of the head of a household. [Los atributos de la jefatura del hogar.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 14, No. 2, May-Aug 1999. 383-409, 513 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Household surveys tend to employ the term `head' as a guiding principle, without explaining the concept of headship to the informant. Using the 1995 National Family Planning Survey (Conapo), this article analyzes the factors associated with the designation of heads of household, for both men and women, and those linked to headship on the basis of individuals' roles as income contributors and decision-makers, commonly identified as attributes of the head of a household."
Correspondence: P. Muñiz, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40864 Necchi, Silvia. Men, family formation and reproduction. IUSSP Policy and Research Paper, No. 17, ISBN 2-87108-074-7. 1999. 29 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This policy monograph on men, family formation, and reproduction is based on a seminar organized by the IUSSP's Committee on Gender and Population. There are sections titled: Changes in the visualisation of men; Men, masculinity; Male sexuality; The role of men in family planning; Family formation; and Men at home, fatherhood, child rearing.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. E-mail: iussp@iussp.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40865 Popenoe, David. American family decline: public policy considerations. In: America's demographic tapestry: baseline for the new millennium, edited by James W. Hughes and Joseph J. Seneca. 1999. 173-83 pp. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The extent to which the family as an institution has declined in the United States is examined. The author first presents the evidence for the decline. He then reviews possible policy initiatives that might help to halt this decline and make the family stronger.
Correspondence: D. Popenoe, Rutgers University, Department of Sociology, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40866 Rajulton, Fernando; Ravanera, Zenaida R. Life course trajectories before and after retirement. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 99-7, ISBN 0-7714-2193-1. Jun 1999. 19, [8] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"In this paper we [examine] the late life stages [in the family life course] that include...changes in social roles that happen around and after age 50, such as end of parenting (or home-leaving of last child), activity limitation widowhood and/or separation and divorce, and retirement.... We use the data gathered through the [Canadian] General Social Survey 1995 and confine ourselves to a total of 1,673 men and 1,905 women who were aged 50 and over at the time of survey.... We consider the following six late-life stages: Living Alone, Retirement, Activity Limitation, End of Parenting, Separation or Divorce, and Widowhood."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40867 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. Age-uniformity in life course transitions: What does the 1995 GSS tell us? Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 99-6, ISBN 0-7714-2192-3. May 1999. 9, [4] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the age ranges at transition to early life events of school completion, start of regular work, first union, first marriage and first birth. These are examined by gender, cohorts, and type of events. Although not very useful in detecting cohort dissimilarities, we include family life events at mid- and late-life (birth of last child, home-leaving of first and of last child) as they are useful for noting differences in age ranges by gender and types of events.... This study uses data from the General Social Survey of the Family (GSS95) conducted in Canada in 1995."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40868 Roloff, Juliane; Dorbritz, Jürgen. Family formation in Germany in the early nineties. Demographic trends, individual attitudes, and socioeconomic conditions. Results from the German Family and Fertility Survey. [Familienbildung in Deutschland anfang der 90er Jahre. Demographische Trends, individuelle Einstellungen und sozio-ökonomische Bedingungen. Ergebnisse des deutschen Family and Fertility Survey.] Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts für Bevölkerungsforschung, Vol. 30, ISBN 3-8100-2485-6. 1999. 306 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
This monograph, which contains chapters by the editors and various other authors, describes the situation of the family in Germany. Particular attention is given to the question of the family's future survival and to future fertility trends. The research is based on the most important results from the Family and Fertility Surveys (FFS) and from the Population Policy Acceptance Survey.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Straße 27, 51379 Leverkusen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40869 Roloff, Juliane. The income situation of German and foreign married couples with children in West Germany, 1997. [Die Einkommenslage deutscher und ausländischer Ehen mit Kindern in Westdeutschland 1997.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1999. 281-300 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This article examines the income situation of families of foreign origin living in Germany and compares it with the situation of native families. Data are from the 1997 microcensus, and only married couples with children are considered. The analysis shows that the financial situation of families of foreign origin is worse than that of native families. The author suggests that this is due, on the one hand, to foreign mothers' lower employment rate, and on the other, to the lower income levels of foreigners in Germany.
Correspondence: J. Roloff, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 4, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40870 Saunders, Peter. Budget standards and the costs of children. Family Matters, No. 53, Winter 1999. 62-70 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
In August 1995 the Australian Social Policy Research Centre (SPRC) was commissioned "to develop a set of indicative budget standards for a range of households that would, among other things, `examine the costs of children in different family circumstances'. This article describes that research and its findings in relation to the costs of children, and explains current research being undertaken within the SPRC to extend what has already been done."
Correspondence: P. Saunders, University of New South Wales, Social Policy Research Centre, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40871 Shoieb, Farouk T.; Ali, Alyaa A. Characteristics of female-headed households in Egypt. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 455-73 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The characteristics of female-headed households in Egypt are analyzed using data primarily taken from the1986 census and the 1991 survey The Characteristics of the Household and the Role of Egyptian Women in the Family.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40872 Sundström, Marianne; Duvander, Ann-Zofie E. Family division of child care: Why do--or don't--Swedish fathers take parental leave? Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 139, ISBN 91-7820-145-4. Oct 1999. 28 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this paper we analyze the division of child-care time between mothers and fathers and its determinants using register data on days of parental leave used by parents of a large sample of Swedish children born in 1990 and in 1994.... Father's parental leave resembles...unpaid child care in generally replacing mothers' time in child care, but differs from unpaid care in requiring leave of absence from the job.... We follow each cohort of children for 21 months. In particular, we investigate how the relative earnings of fathers and mothers affect their propensity to share the parental leave."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Author's E-mail: Marianne.Sundstrom@suda.su.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40873 Valenzuela, M. Rebecca. Costs of children in Australian households. Family Matters, No. 53, Winter 1999. 71-6 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This article calculates estimates of the money costs of children based on actual expenditures incurred by [Australian] families in the years 1984, 1988-89 and 1993-94. The costs of children are estimated by comparing the expenditure of families with children to those without children to determine the child's share of family expenditure. These money-cost estimates (also known as equivalence scales) are used to show how much income families with different numbers and ages of children would need to achieve comparable standards of living."
Correspondence: M. R. Valenzuela, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40874 van Poppel, Frans; Smith, Daniel S. Naming practices, family structures, and kinship change. History of the Family, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1999. 229-365 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: New York, New York/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This special issue originated in a session of the Social Science History Association Meeting held in Chicago, Illinois, in 1996. The five papers presented here examine the links between demographic processes and the naming patterns of children. Specifically, they anaylze how historical studies on giving names to children throw light on changes in family structure and the changing relationships among lineages, kin, and the wider community. The studies concern France, the Netherlands, Iceland, Japan, and the United States.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Elsevier Science, 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010-5107. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40875 Volkov, A. G.; Soroko, E. L. Family and household typology in Russia: development and analysis (based on 1994 microcensus data). [Tipologiya semei i domokhozyaistv v Rossii: razvitie i analiz (po dannym mikroperepisi 1994 goda).] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 5, 1999. 40-52 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The characteristics of families and households in Russia are analyzed using data from the 1994 microcensus. The focus is on the differences between households and families. Some problems concerning the data from this source are also addressed.
Correspondence: A. G. Volkov, Goskomstat Rossii, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40876 Wéry, René; Oppong, Christine. Household labour allocation and mobility in times of crisis. In: Population and poverty in the developing world, edited by Massimo Livi-Bacci and Gustavo De Santis. 1999. 161-88 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter is concerned with a variety of `coping mechanisms' adopted to combat poverty at the household or individual level. Two related types of adaptation are dealt with: geographical mobility (temporary and permanent) and the changes in volume, types, distribution, and allocations of household labour."
Correspondence: R. Wéry, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40877 Winchester, Hilary P. M. Interviews and questionnaires as mixed methods in population geography: the case of lone fathers in Newcastle, Australia. Professional Geographer, Vol. 51, No. 1, Feb 1999. 60-7 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A mixed method approach was adopted to study the experiences of lone fathers, using a classic triangulation approach of interview and questionnaire data. This study utilized an empirical realist framework of scientific enquiry, with the `soft' individual interview data seen as an adjunct to the `hard' aggregate quantitative methods. A review of this study found that the interviews worked well as pilot study in a classic mixed methods framework. The questionnaires provided a range of information about the characteristics of this group of lone fathers, but it was the interviews which provided astonishing depth on the causes of marital breakdown and post-marital conflict, and on the discourses and other structures which sustain social processes."
Correspondence: H. P. M. Winchester, University of Newcastle, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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