Volume 65 - Number 4 - Winter 1999

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

65:40409 Abbink, Jon G. Violence, ritual, and reproduction: culture and context in Surma dueling. Ethnology, Vol. 38, No. 3, Summer 1999. 227-42 pp. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Through a study of the ceremonial stick-dueling of the Surma people of southern Ethiopia, this article explores the sociocultural context of ritual violence in a small-scale agropastoralist society and its relation to social reproductive concerns." The author notes that "contrary to sociobiological predictions, combat success is neither valued for its own sake nor shows itself to be reproductively advantageous in a statistical sense."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40410 Abernethy, Virginia D. A Darwinian account of the fertility opportunity hypothesis. Population and Environment, Vol. 21, No. 2, Nov 1999. 119-48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Reproduction is a sine qua non for the continuance of any gene pool. Therefore, it would be strange if natural selection failed to act on reproductive patterns, even among humans where the most characteristic adaptations are cognitive and culturally-mediated. In fact, the regularity of human fertility rate responses to variation in the opportunity structure has been documented in many contexts. Humans appear to be alert to environmental signs that indicate whether conditions for childbearing and nurture are more or less optimal, given the possibilities. Specifically, a perception that economic opportunity is expanding, so that relatively many children could probably be successfully raised to maturity, is associated with early marriage and larger family size."
Correspondence: V. D. Abernethy, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, 209 Oxford House, Nashville, TN 37232-4245. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40411 Aghajanian, Akbar; Mehryar, Amir H. Fertility transition in the Islamic Republic of Iran: 1976-1996. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1999. 21-42 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article analyses data related to the Iranian fertility transition that took place during the period 1976-1996. The study found that the demographic factors behind the decreasing crude birth rates are lower exposure to marriage through an unprecedented increase in the female age at marriage and decreases in marital fertility. The fertility decline is explained by demand and ideational factors including a broad reduction in infant mortality and persistent economic pressure. The increase in the educational level of women of reproductive age has also played a role. The most important ideational factor is the changing social atmosphere about having smaller families and using contraception."
Correspondence: A. Aghajanian, Fayetteville State University, Department of Sociology, 1200 Murchison Road, Fayetteville, NC 28301. E-mail: aghajani@chil.uncfsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40412 Al-Mashrafi, Hamad R. H. Determinants of fertility and contraceptive use in the Republic of Yemen. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 172-92 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The objectives of this study are "to identify levels and patterns of fertility in the Republic of Yemen; to analyze some relevant differentials of cumulative fertility; to analyze factors associated with fertility and contraceptive prevalence." Data are from the Demographic Maternal and Child Health Survey conducted in Yemen in 1991-1992.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40413 Andersson, Gunnar. Childbearing trends in Sweden 1961-1997. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1999. 1-24 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to update a system of annual indices of birth rates and to display trends in childbearing for Swedish women over the years since 1961.... Swedish fertility has shown strong fluctuations during our study period and these fluctuations have been particularly dramatic during recent years. A postponement of the age at first birth and a sudden shift to shorter birth intervals are important components in the fertility trends. A peak in the level of childbearing at the beginning of the present decade has now been followed by a sharp drop in the propensity to give birth. This change in behaviour pertains to women of all parities."
Correspondence: G. Andersson, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: gua@hem2.passagen.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40414 Andersson, Gunnar. Trends in childbearing and nuptiality in Sweden 1961(71)-1997. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 133, ISBN 91-7820-137-3. Mar 1999. 32 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of a system for presenting trends in family dynamics in contemporary Sweden. We use annual indexes of birth rates in order to display trends in childbearing for Swedish women over the years since 1961. We use similar annual indexes of marriage risks and divorce risks to display nuptiality trends in Sweden since 1971. We decompose the overall trends in fertility and nuptiality and present separate period indexes for women with different numbers of children. All our indexes are produced by applying indirect standardization to register data which covers practically all of the Swedish female population. Our indexes give accurate information about changes in the propensity to give birth, to marry, and to divorce from one year to another."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Author's E-mail: gua@hem2.passagen.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40415 Andersson, Gunnar. Trends in childbearing and nuptiality in Sweden: a period analysis. Stockholm University Demography Unit, Dissertation Series, No. 2, ISBN 91-7153-976-X. Aug 1999. [198] pp. Stockholm University: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
This dissertation contains a selection of papers, several of which have been previously published and cited in Population Index, on aspects of childbearing and family dynamics in Sweden. The studies are all based on data from the Swedish population registers. "The thesis consists of seven separate papers. The first paper gives an overview of our system of period indexes. The next four papers give a more detailed presentation of various aspects of the family dynamics in Sweden. Paper number two displays trends in divorce risks over the years since 1971. A third paper presents a further examination of the effect of children on these divorce risks. Separate effects of the number of children, of premarital childbearing, and of the age of the youngest child are examined and disentangled. A fourth paper displays trends in risks of marriage formation and re-formation during the same period, and a fifth paper displays trends in childbearing over the years since 1961. A sixth paper...provides a deeper examination of patterns of childbearing and of reasons behind the recent strong fluctuations in Swedish fertility.... In a final paper/note, we examine childbearing at higher birth orders."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40416 Andreev, E. M.; Barkalov, N. B. Birth tables on sequence of births. [Tablitsy rozhdaemosti po ocherednosti rozhdenii.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 5, 1999. 64-6 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Selected data on recent fertility trends in Russia are presented. Most of the data are for the years 1988-1989.
Correspondence: E. M. Andreev, Goskomstat Rossii, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40417 Balasubramanian, K. Pace of fertility decline and prospects for population stabilisation in Andhra Pradesh. Demography India, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1999. 23-46 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The State of Andhra Pradesh [in India] has attracted the attention of demographers and development planners in recent years for two main reasons. First, the pace of fertility transition in the State has been fairly rapid.... Although the mechanisms of fertility decline have not been fully investigated, the fact remains that a significant fertility decline has occurred in the State despite slow progress in socio-economic development.... Second, the Government of Andhra Pradesh takes the pride of having been the first State Government to formulate a State Population Policy.... Using available information from the Census, Sample Registration System (SRS) and demographic sample surveys, this paper examines the pace of fertility transition in Andhra Pradesh since Independence. The prospects of achieving a sustained fertility decline in the State are assessed in light of demographic changes that have take place in recent years."
Correspondence: K. Balasubramanian, Indian Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40418 Basu, Alaka M. Fertility decline and increasing gender imbalance in India, including a possible South Indian turnaround. Development and Change, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr 1999. 237-63 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the evidence for a causal connection between fertility decline and increasing gender imbalance by looking at differences in fertility and in gender inequalities between North and South India in the past, and their increasing convergence in gender inequalities in recent years. It pays special attention to the southern state of Tamil Nadu which has been in the forefront of the country's fertility decline but is nevertheless moving towards a North Indian pattern in many aspects of women's status.... The main problem seems to be that pressures to lower fertility are occurring independently of a change in underlying son preferences and falls in fertility are being aided by technologies which allow one to manipulate not just the sex composition of living children, but also that of children as yet unborn. Some policy implications of this last situation are discussed."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, Cornell University, Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40419 Beets, Gijs. European variation in education and in the birth of the first child: FFS evidence. [Onderwijs en de geboorte van het eerste kind in Europa: FFS gegevens.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1998. 99-121 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"One of the most important variables that is supposed to influence the timing of first birth is education.... The Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS) data set, becoming available now for many countries of the ECE Region, provides us with recent insights in the link between the two topics, and yields hypotheses for the future trends in European fertility, which is expected to remain low. However, it is still too early for an in-depth analysis; moreover a fundamental methodological problem (how well can educational levels be compared internationally?) that shows up now, may hinder the analysis."
Correspondence: G. Beets, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: beets@nidi.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40420 Beets, Gijs C. N.; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Gierveld, Jenny. Changes in fertility values and behaviour: a life course perspective. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 100-20 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the viability of the life course perspective for the study of fertility attitudes and behaviour, using panel data [over the period 1987-1991] from a Dutch study about the process of social integration of young adults. First, two perspectives on the impact of life-course-related changes in values and attitudes are discussed, and some general hypotheses are derived. Next, the data set and methods used to test the hypotheses are considered, followed by a presentation and discussion of the results." The results suggest that values and attitudes vary over time according to the statuses that young adults occupy during a critical period in their life course. Different attitudes toward parenthood between the sexes are also identified.
Correspondence: G. C. N. Beets, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40421 Benefo, Kofi D. Cultural perspectives on West African fertility change. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 331-42 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author challenges the hypothesis that the cultural values of many African societies that support patriarchy, polygyny, and belief in traditional religion are not conducive to reproductive change and need to be displaced before fertility decline can occur. The author "challenges the representation of African culture as impenetrable to modernization. [He] argues that it is possible for policy to promote new ideas about fertility in African societies by using dominant African values. The challenge is to promote the ideas in such a way that they are consistent with these values. The argument is based on evidence that when West Africans have adopted Western marriage and reproductive values, they have transformed these ideas to fit into the existing cultural milieu. From this perspective the strategy of policy should be to present family planning ideas in ways that affirm, rather than delegitimate or displace, existing African values. The historical association of fertility declines with values that promote gender equality, individual autonomy, and secularity appears purely accidental."
Correspondence: K. D. Benefo, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40422 Berinde, Diana. Pathways to a third child in Sweden. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1999. 349-78 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The transition from two to three children is investigated, using data on Swedish women's fertility behaviour and labour force participation over a period of some 20 years ending in 1992/93. Two questions are examined: what is the relationship between working life and childbearing of two-child mothers? Are there differences in fertility between cohabiting and married couples? Several paths to the third child are identified, one of women with a university education and another of women with preference for more children, reflected by marriage after having the first or the second child or by persistent working experience followed by household work."
Correspondence: D. Berinde, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: dianaber@hem.passagen.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40423 Berry, Brian J. L. Fertility cycles: a note on onset and periodicity. Population and Environment, Vol. 21, No. 2, Nov 1999. 149-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The fertility transition was completed in Concord, Mass., by the end of the War of 1812. Thereafter, there has been baby boom-baby bust cyclicality, a rhythm clearly demonstrated by the use of modern methods of digital spectral analysis."
Correspondence: B. J. L. Berry, University of Texas at Dallas, School of Social Sciences, Richardson, TX 75083-0688. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40424 Birg, H.; Flöthmann, E.-J. Trends in family structures and their consequences for intergenerational burdens and transfers. [Entwicklung der Familienstrukturen und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Belastungs- bzw. Transferquotienten zwischen den Generationen.] IBS-Materialien, Vol. 38, ISBN 3-923340-32-X. 1996. 152 pp. Universität Bielefeld, Institut für Bevölkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik [IBS]: Bielefeld, Germany. In Ger.
The perinatal statistics collected for every pregnancy and birth in Germany since 1984 are analyzed in this report. The aim is to shed light on reproductive trends in Germany. Age-specific and parity-specific birth rates are presented and likely future developments are described. Intergenerational transfers, population projections, and demographic aging are also discussed in light of the analysis.
Correspondence: Universität Bielefeld, Institut für Bevölkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40425 Bledsoe, Caroline; Hill, Allan G. Social norms, natural fertility, and the resumption of postpartum "contact" in the Gambia. In: The methods and uses of anthropological demography, edited by Alaka M. Basu and Peter Aaby. 1998. 268-97 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The factors governing postpartum abstinence in the Gambia are analyzed. The focus is on the various norms governing behavior at this time, and how they can be exploited by both partners to meet their individual interests in the areas of sexual relations and healthy birth intervals. The authors note the ways in which the anthropological study of human behavior can help throw more light on demographic events such as the length of birth intervals or the adoption of contraception.
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60208-1310. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40426 Bolivia. Instituto Nacional de Estadística [INE] (La Paz, Bolivia); United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). The fertility transition in Bolivia and its determinants (1965-1995). [La transición de la fecundidad en Bolivia y sus determinantes (1965-1995).] Dec 1997. 156 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
The main objective of this report is to present sociodemographic information on fertility levels, structures, and trends in Bolivia, together with the characteristics of the female population of childbearing age, using data from the censuses of 1976 and 1992 and the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1989 and 1994. The direct and indirect determinants of fertility are analyzed separately, and consideration is given to both the cultural and socioeconomic factors that are affecting the fertility transition.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Plaza Mario Guzmán No. 1, Casilla No. 6129, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40427 Bongaarts, John. The fertility impact of changes in the timing of childbearing in the developing world. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 3, Nov 1999. 277-89 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the role of tempo effects in the fertility declines of less developed countries. These effects temporarily inflate the total fertility of a population during periods when the age at childbearing declines and deflate it when childbearing is postponed. An analysis of data from the World Fertility Surveys and the Demographic and Health Surveys demonstrates that fertility trends observed in many less developed countries are likely to be distorted by changes in the timing of childbearing. In most countries women are delaying childbearing, which implies that observed fertility is lower than it would have been without tempo changes. This pattern is most clearly documented in Taiwan, where accurate birth statistics from a vital registration system make it possible to estimate the tempo components of fertility annually from 1978 to 1993."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40428 Burch, Thomas K. Something ventured, something gained: progress toward a unified theory of fertility decline. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 99-1, ISBN 0-7714-2167-2. Feb 1999. 25 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
The author provides an overview of the principal theories of fertility decline. "I have focussed on papers published in the last decade, roughly 1987 or later.... I state the main substantive themes and methodological tendencies in point form, with a few illustrations and a brief discussion of each. I return to what seem to me the most important issues in a concluding section, and suggest where the quest for a unified theory of fertility decline may be leading us."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40429 Caldwell, John. Paths to lower fertility. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7215, Oct 9, 1999. 985-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This general review of the fertility decline that has occurred in recent years is based primarily on the author's 40 years of research into the fertility transition. "Demographic, economic, social, and administrative changes have all had a role in fertility transition. Fertility decline has never been an unconscious social process; advocacy and organisation have been important. The fertility transition has been a single global event and is an aspect of the creation of a global economy and society. Better contraception had a significant role after 1960 in developing and developed countries. The transition is far from over among large parts of the world's population, especially south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Stationary global population in the next century will probably be followed by a fall in population."
Correspondence: J. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. E-mail: Jack.Caldwell@nceph.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40430 Casterline, John B. The onset and pace of fertility transition: national patterns in the second half of the twentieth century. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 128, 1999. 63 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The pace of fertility decline over the next three decades will have substantial bearing on the size and structure of the populations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America in the twenty-first century. The experience of the past four decades demonstrates that transitions can vary tremendously in their pace: the declines in East Asia were spectacularly rapid, while leisurely rates of decline typify the transitions of countries scattered throughout other regions. A common assumption is that the pace of national fertility declines is quickening, but in fact recent declines are proceeding more slowly than earlier declines. The paper reviews the factors that affect the pace of decline. Rapid decline is often cited as evidence against theories of fertility decline that stress reductions in the demand for children as a response to changing social and economic circumstances. This argument does not hold up."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Author's e-mail: jcasterline@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40431 Das Gupta, Monica. Liberté, egalité, fraternité: exploring the role of governance in fertility decline. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 35, No. 5, Jun 1999. 1-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A secular decline in fertility has taken place across the globe within a short span of human history. The timing and pace of this decline correspond broadly with changes in socio-political institutions in different regions of the world, of Asia, and of India. We hypothesize that this shift in child-bearing behaviour is related to cognitive changes wrought by the replacement of deeply hierarchical socio-political institutions by the more egalitarian institutions of modern governance." The focus is on India.
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, World Bank, Development Research Group, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40432 Di Tommaso, Maria L. A trivariate model of participation, fertility and wages: the Italian case. Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 23, No. 5, Sep 1999. 623-40 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Italy has unusually low fertility..., accompanied by unusually low female participation in paid work. This paper addresses the issue of the empirical relationship between fertility, female participation in the labour market and wages with these Italian `peculiarities' as a [backdrop]. A trivariate model of participation, fertility and wages has been constructed and estimated using three pooled cross-sections of Italian micro data, allowing for the identification of cohort effects.... The cohort effects turn out to be significant: the point estimates do not appear to confirm actual trends, which are negative for fertility and positive for participation. The female wage is the most important variable influencing the propensity to have children and the propensity to participate in the labour market, casting doubt on suggestions that observed trends are the products of shifts in women's `tastes'."
Correspondence: M. L. Di Tommaso, University of Cambridge, ESRC Center for Business Research, Austin Robinson Building, Sidgwick Avenue, Cambridge CB3 9DE, England. E-mail: md236@econ.cam.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40433 Dorsten, Linda E. Fertility decline in a U.S. population favoring large families: a hazard-model analysis of the effect of sib death on Amish fertility. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, Aug 1999. 323-38 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper uses proportional hazards techniques and population data from a directory of the Old Order Amish of the Lancaster, PA settlement. It examines the effect of death of the immediately prior sibling on the risk of childbearing for up to 11 children. Prior research typically has pooled data for maternal cohorts. In contrast, separate models are estimated for each maternal cohort. The results are based on all reported first marriages of Amish women born between 1884-1973 (N = 4,066). Hazard models run separately for children of each birth order reveal that net of maternal age and length of the prior birth interval (and other statistical and design controls), the death of the prior sib significantly increases the risk of a subsequent birth for the lower birth orders. Separate models by maternal cohort show that sib death increases the risk primarily for later cohorts. The pattern of effects from child mortality and other variables suggests changes in fertility behavior among the Amish, who have strong, traditional norms opposing contraception and favoring large families."
Correspondence: L. E. Dorsten, State University of New York, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, W363 Thompson Hall, Fredonia, NY 14063. E-mail: dorsten@ait.fredonia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40434 Durr-e-Nayab. Fertility preferences and behaviour: a case study of two villages in the Punjab, Pakistan. PIDE Research Report, No. 173, ISBN 969-461-084-2. 1999. ii, 27 pp. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics [PIDE]: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Demand for high number of children is believed to be a major reason for high fertility levels in Pakistan. The present report, based on a micro-study, investigates the fertility preferences and fertility behaviour of the women, and how they vary with differences in their socio-economic and demographic characteristics, in two villages in the Punjab province, Pakistan. The study found that despite the preferred family size being quite high, it was exceeded by the actual family size. The actual number of children the woman had was not a product of her personal choices and decision alone but an outcome of interaction among a complex set of factors, including social, cultural, economic, religious and demographic aspects of life. The factors that affected the fertility preference and behaviour most were the educational level of the woman, and her preferred number of sons. Based on the findings of the study, this report suggests an emphasis on female education and promotion of gender equity as means to lower the existing high levels of fertility in the country."
Correspondence: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40435 El-Kader, Magdy A.; El-Maksoud, Mohamed A. Trends in excess births due to unwanted fertility in the regions of Egypt (1980-1995). In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 231-53 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Trends in the components of fertility are analyzed for the five main regions of Egypt over the period 1980-1995 in an attempt to estimate the number of excess births due to unwanted fertility and to estimate what the fertility rate would be without these unwanted births. Data are from a number of surveys carried out in Egypt, including the 1995 Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate that there are significant regional differences in the pace of the fertility decline, and that some 31.4 percent of the births occurring in 1995 were unwanted. The need to focus national family planning program efforts on regions such as rural Upper Egypt, where both the level of fertility and the number of unwanted births are high, is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40436 Fadeyi, Rhoda M.; Naguib, Mohamed. Fertility determinants and contraceptive use in Nigeria. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 193-214 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to investigate and examine the determinants of fertility in Nigeria, to describe fertility and reproductive behaviour in Nigeria, to study fertility trends, patterns and contraceptive use in Nigeria, and to recommend policy measures in order to promote family planning and socio-economic development in Nigeria." Data are from the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey of Nigeria.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40437 Faria, Vilmar E.; Potter, Joseph E. Television, telenovelas, and fertility change in north-east Brazil. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 252-72 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The role of institutional determinants of fertility change in northeastern Brazil in the complex chain of causation is examined. "The institutional determinants considered here are mainly those related to value orientations, preferences, and behavioral norms connected to family size, sexual behaviour, and reproductive behaviour.... Our emphasis will be on three other institutional developments that merit attention, at least in Brazil: (1) medical institutions, (2) social security institutions, and (3) mass media institutions (particularly television)." The authors make the case that television has played a major role in spreading new values and behavioral changes that have contributed to a decline in family size preferences and an increase in the demand for family planning.
Correspondence: V. E. Faria, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40438 Freitez, Anitza. The role of education in theories of fertility: an analysis of the debate. [El rol de la educación en el marco de las teorías de la fecundidad: análisis de sus argumentos.] Temas de Coyuntura, No. 39, Jun 1999. 5-34 pp. Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
The author analyzes the role that the educational factor plays in the various theories of fertility that have been developed over time. Particular attention is given to the contribution of Latin American scholars to this issue. The author then examines the relevance of this theoretical issue to the current situation concerning the fertility transition in Venezuela. Particular attention is given to the specific policy measures that might help the least affluent sector of the population have fewer children.
Correspondence: A. Freitez, Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales, Departamento de Estudios Demográficos, Urb. Montalbán, La Vega, Apartado 20.332, Caracas 1020, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40439 Fu, Xuanning. A longitudinal and cross-cultural analysis of fertility decline. International Review of Sociology/Revue Internationale de Sociologie, Vol. 8, No. 2, Jul 1998. 207-26 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
Some theoretical aspects of the global fertility decline are examined. Specifically, the author attempts to "make two contributions to the existing fertility literature by addressing the two criticisms on fertility theories. First, culture will be measured and examined in the context of development, and second, a modernization fertility model with culture indicators will be tested with longitudinal data." Data are from the World Bank's World Development Report and are for the period 1960-1990. The relative impact of economic development, female education, and religion on the pace of the fertility decline are assessed.
Correspondence: X. Fu, Brigham Young University, Department of Social Sciences, Laie, HI 96762. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40440 Fukuda, Nobutaka. Determinants of the timing of first childbearing in contemporary Japan: Socioeconomic or attitudinal factors? Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 55, No. 1, 1999. 1-20 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to examine determinants of the timing of fertility in contemporary Japan.....[In particular] we will investigate whether socio-economic and ideational factors do indeed affect the timing of first birth after marriage in Japan.... The results we obtained in this analysis show that socioeconomic factors play a critical role in determining the tempo of first childbearing. Compared to women with low educational qualifications, those with high educational qualifications tended to take a longer interval between marriage and first childbearing. This evidence suggests that the greater the earning capacity that women have, the later they will bear their first child. In this analysis, however, ideational factors did not appear to exert a significant effect on the timing of first birth."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40441 Hirschman, Charles; Young, Yih-Jin. The decline of fertility in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines: 1968-70 to 1988-90. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 99-12, [1999]. 28, 4, [7] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper, we offer a continuation report from a comparative study of fertility decline in [Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand] based on microlevel census data from 1970, 1980 and 1990. In earlier work, we described patterns of fertility decline and tested cross-sectional and lagged multilevel models of fertility determination...and tested a preliminary model of fertility change for one country.... Here, we broaden the empirical analyses of this framework to test several key hypotheses from classical demographic transition theory on the causes of fertility change with data from three rounds of censuses for four countries."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40442 Hoem, Jan M.; Prskawetz, Alexia; Neyer, Gerda. Third births in Austria: the effect of public policies, educational attainment, and labor-force attachment. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 134, ISBN 91-7820-139-X. Mar 1999. 49 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"Total fertility in Austria has declined slowly but persistently from about 1.7 in the late 1970s to around 1.4 in the mid-1990s, a reduction of less than twenty per cent. As we show in this paper, a much stronger reduction (over fifty per cent) occurred over the same period in the standardized rate of third births. This decline was accompanied by a gradual postponement of the third birth over the years up through 1991-92, after which there was a sudden increase in the tempo of childbearing in response to a change in the parental-leave policy that inadvertently favored women who had their second or subsequent child shortly after their previous one.... We conclude that these results mirror some of the ambiguities in public policies in Austria, especially the tension between the development of gender equality and the dominance of traditional norms."
Correspondence: J. M. Hoem, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40443 Hossain, Anwar. Infant mortality and the decline of fertility in Bangladesh. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 35, 1998-1999. 95-113 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this article is to determine the effect of infant mortality on fertility decline with a comparative review of the decline in infant mortality and fertility in Bangladesh. The possible relation and interaction between infant mortality decline and fertility decline are described, based mainly on the Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS) 1989. In addition, information from other sources will be utilized to assess consistency and to arrive at reasonable conclusions concerning the levels and trends of fertility and infant mortality and also the increasing contraceptive prevalence rate."
Correspondence: A. Hossain, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Population Research Unit, P.O. Box 18 Unioninkatu 35, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40444 Isselmou, Ahmed O. Fertility differentials in West African countries: a comparative study. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 276-95 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The main purposes of this study can be stated as follows: 1. To evaluate the fertility levels and determinants in West African countries; 2. To examine the significance of various factors in explaining the major variations in fertility levels of these societies; [and] 3. To indicate the relationship, if any, between elements of social structure and factors affecting fertility." Data are from the Demographic and Health Surveys for Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo, and from the 1991 Maternal and Child Health Survey for Mauritania.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40445 Japan. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (Tokyo, Japan). Special issue: studies on the 11th National Fertility Survey in Japan (I). Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 54, No. 4, 1998. 125 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
This issue contains a selection of articles based on the 11th National Fertility Survey, conducted in Japan in 1997. Articles are included on changes in marital fertility; reproductive intentions and fertility control behavior; women's employment, reproductive behavior, and marital status; family networks of elderly parents in Korea and Japan; and household projections for Japan, 1995-2020.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, 1-2-3 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan 100-0013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40446 Khalifa, Mona A.; Sakani, Ouahiba. Human development and fertility in the Middle East and North African countries: a comparative study. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 1-39 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This study examines differences in levels of human development among the countries of the Middle East and North Africa as well as the impact of development on fertility. The results indicate the importance of strong family planning program efforts for achieving reductions in fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40447 Klomegah, Roger. Child fostering and fertility: some evidence from Ghana. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring 1998. 75-83 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study used the 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) data to describe the relationship between education, occupation, place of residence, and child fostering as well as the relationship between fostering and fertility. The standard individual recode file of the GDHS was used. The sample comprised married women, between ages 15-49, and who have children (N=2,520). Analysis has revealed that women's educational level and type of occupation are significantly associated with the practice of fostering. No association is found between rural or urban place of residence and fostering. There is a negative association between child fostering and women's fertility in the context of communication between spouses and modern contraceptive use."
Correspondence: R. Klomegah, Malaspina University, Department of Sociology, British Columbia, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40448 Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Recent fertility trends in Denmark: a discussion of the impact of family policy in a period with increasing fertility. Danish Center for Demographic Research, Research Report, No. 11, ISBN 87-90736-11-7. Nov 1999. 28 pp. Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research: Odense, Denmark. In Eng.
"This paper presents the main features of fertility trends in Denmark and discusses the trends and changes observed in relation to contemporary social policy, norms and living conditions in the Danish society. The first part of the paper describes trends in fertility and outlines important reproductive regulations and acts since the turn of the century, dividing this extended time span into four periods according to their fertility characteristics: 1901-1933, 1933-1963, 1963-1983 and from 1983 onwards. Subsequently, the two last periods will be dealt with in more detail as regards societal changes, social policy and other factors which might have influenced the different patterns of fertility in these periods."
Correspondence: SDU-Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. E-mail: per.b@demfo.sdu.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40449 Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Murphy, Mike. Registers as data source in studies of reproductive behaviour. Danish Center for Demographic Research, Research Report, No. 12, ISBN 87-90736-12-5. 1999. 12 pp. Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research: Odense, Denmark. In Eng.
"This report describes how national registers in Denmark can be used in the creation of data sets for studies of reproductive behaviour. The most important registers in this respect are described. The usage of these data is exemplified by two ongoing studies: one about controlled fertility, in which complete information about the various types of reproductive outcome is stored, and another about inter-generational fertility patterns, in which the registers facilitate identification of individuals belonging to succeeding generations and provide information about their similarities and differences in the fertility patterns."
Correspondence: SDU-Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. Author's E-mail: lbk@demfo.ou.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40450 Leete, Richard. Dynamics of values in fertility change. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-829439-5. LC 98-26345. 1999. xiv, 378 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume is a product of a seminar on the fundamental factors that cause or inhibit fertility transitions. The seminar, jointly organized by the IUSSP Committee on the Comparative Analysis of Fertility and the Laboratoire de Démographie Economique et Sociale of the University of Geneva, was held in Sion, Switzerland, on February 16-19, 1994. The 15 papers are organized under four main topics: The value of children; The multi-dimensional nature of values and value change; Mechanisms of value change; and Gender values, religion, culture and fertility change. There is also an introduction summarizing the papers included in the volume by Richard Leete, and a concluding piece by John B. Casterline.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40451 Lehr, Carol S. Banking on fewer children: financial intermediation, fertility and economic development. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1999. 567-90 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper shows that financial intermediation can influence fertility and labor allocation decisions by raising market wages. The increase in wages induces some households to abandon `traditional' labor intensive methods of production managed at the household level and supply labor to `modern' sector firms. Since it is optimal for households in the modern sector to have fewer children, the labor allocation decision leads to lower national fertility. A panel VAR [vector autoregression] using financial intermediation, fertility and industrial employment share data in 87 counties is estimated. The empirical results show that the data are consistent with the theoretical predictions."
Correspondence: C. S. Lehr, Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Economics, Box 844000, Richmond, VA 23284-4000. E-mail: cslehr@vcu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40452 Lesthaeghe, Ron; Willems, Paul. Is low fertility a temporary phenomenon in the European Union? Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1999. 211-28, 405, 407 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article addresses two questions: (i) will the mere end of further postponement of fertility in the EU-countries lead to an appreciable rise in European fertility and bring total fertility rates closer to replacement level, as witnessed in the United States? and (ii) what are the chances that such a stop to postponement is imminent? The answer to the first question is positive, but only if there is enough recuperation of fertility at older ages.... With respect to the second question, female education and employment trends in tandem with ideational and family disruption data are used to speculate about the prospects for such an end to further fertility postponement and for fertility increases at older ages."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40453 Little, Ruth E.; Monaghan, Susan C.; Gladen, Beth C.; Shkyryak-Nyzhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Wilcox, Allen J. Outcomes of 17,137 pregnancies in two urban areas of Ukraine. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 12, Dec 1999. 1,832-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
An analysis of the outcomes of all pregnancies registered in two urban areas of Ukraine over a 19-month period from 1992 to 1994 is presented. "Sixty percent of the pregnancies were voluntarily terminated, generally before the 13th week. In pregnancies delivered at 20+ weeks, fetal mortality was 29 per 1,000, nearly 5 times the rate among Whites in the United States. There was a greater proportion of very early deliveries (20-27 weeks) in Ukraine, as well as higher death rates at all gestational ages. Perinatal mortality was estimated to be 35 per 1,000, about 3 times the U.S. rate."
Correspondence: R. E. Little, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology Branch, Mail Drop A3-05, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: little1@niehs.nih.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40454 Lodewijckx, Edith. Fertility and family surveys in countries of the ECE region: standard country report. Belgium. UN/ECE Economic Studies, No. 10k, Pub. Order No. GV.E.99.II.17. ISBN 92-1-116719-1. 1999. xi, 96 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the twelfth in the series Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS) Standard Country Reports. This survey concerns Belgium and was carried out in 1991-1992. The report has substantive chapters on economic, social, and cultural trends; population trends; and FFS findings. The chapter on population trends has sections on fertility, nuptiality, mortality, population structure, households, and population policies. The chapter on FFS findings has sections on household composition, the parental home, partnerships, children, fertility regulation, fertility preferences, values and beliefs, and female education and occupation.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40455 MacDonald, Kevin. An evolutionary perspective on human fertility. Population and Environment, Vol. 21, No. 2, Nov 1999. 223-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper illustrates evolutionary approaches to population issues. Life history theory is a general theoretical framework that incorporates environmental influences, contextual influences, and heritable variation. In general, physically or psychologically stressful environments delay maturation and the onset of reproductive competence. Perceptions of scarcity also result in lower fertility by delaying reproduction or having fewer children--a phenomenon viewed as an adaptation to ancestral environments.... The opportunity for upward social mobility typically results in delaying reproduction and lowering fertility in the interest of increasing investment in children.... Finally, I discuss the effects of between-group competition for resources on population issues. Immigration policy and group differences in fertility influence political power within and between societies, often with explosive results. Demographic expansion has often been an instrument of ethnic competition and is an important source of conflict in the contemporary world."
Correspondence: K. MacDonald, California State University, Department of Psychology, Long Beach, CA 90840-0901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40456 MacDonald, Kevin B. Perspectives on fertility and population size. Population and Environment, Vol. 21, No. 2, Nov 1999. 115-254 pp. Kluwer Academic/Human Sciences Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This special issue is the result of a symposium that took place during the meetings of the Association for Politics and Life Sciences, held in Boston, Massachusetts, in September 1998. The focus is on the analysis of the relationship between fertility and population size within the framework of evolutionary science.
Selected items are cited elsewhere in this issue of Population Index.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic/Human Sciences Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013-1578. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40457 Mahmud, Simeen. Reproductive change in Bangladesh and the latent demand hypothesis: What is the evidence? Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1-2, Mar-Jun 1997. 125-42 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
Reasons why fertility has declined significantly in Bangladesh even though no significant socioeconomic changes have occurred are analyzed. In particular, the author examines the hypothesis that a major cause of the fertility decline is the latent demand for lower fertility because Bangladeshis have never been strongly pronatalist. The importance of differences by socioeconomic status in the demand for contraceptive services is stressed.
Correspondence: S. Mahmud, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40458 Martine, George; Das Gupta, Monica; Chen, Lincoln C. Reproductive change in India and Brazil. ISBN 0-19-564291-0. 1998. xii, 419 pp. Oxford University Press: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The collective work presents a comparative analysis of the process of reproductive change and fertility decline in two large developing countries, Brazil and India. It is a product of seminars held at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies in 1995 and 1996. The 11 chapters, all by scholars from the two countries concerned, attempt to provide some fresh perspectives on the causes and consequences of reproductive change. The contrast is made between India, where large-scale state family planning programs have been operating since 1952, and Brazil, where state family planning initiatives are hesitant and capable of meeting only a small part of the effective demand. Nonetheless, "Brazil's fertility decline has been much more rapid and generalized than India's".
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110 001, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:40459 Masih, Abul M. M.; Masih, Rumi. Is a significant socio-economic structural change a pre-requisite for "initial" fertility decline in the LDCs? Evidence from Thailand based on a multivariate cointegration/vector error correction modelling approach. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug 1999. 463-87 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The authors analyze fertility "in a temporal dynamic framework in the case of a developing Asian economy such as Thailand by binding the relationship between fertility and its determinants within a cointegrated system.... The results tend to indicate that in the complex dynamic interactions, the importance of the conventional `structural' hypothesis as a significant factor in bringing fertility down in the longer term cannot be denied."
Correspondence: A. M. M. Masih, Edith Cowan University, Faculty of Business, School of Finance and Business Economics, Joondalup Campus, Perth, WA 6027, Australia. E-mail: a.masih@cowan.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40460 Matthews, Beverly J. The gender system and fertility: an exploration of the hidden links. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1999. 21-38 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Using qualitative [Canadian] data from 110 married couples and 27 divorced men and women, the connections between gender structures and fertility strategies are explored: how does the household division of labour interact with individuals' gender role orientations to influence fertility strategies and how is this mediated by the cultural gender system?... The findings reveal that women and couples have fewer children than they desire because they have been unable to establish a satisfactory gendered division of labour on a micro level, not because their belief in equality has resulted in a desire for few or no children. The evidence also provides some indication that replacement fertility can be achieved in an egalitarian gender structure."
Correspondence: B. J. Matthews, University of Lethbridge, Department of Sociology, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40461 McIntosh, James. An analysis of reproductive behaviour in Canada: results from an intertemporal optimizing model. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug 1999. 451-61 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Results based on a sample of Canadian households challenge the findings of most studies which show significant negative effects of schooling on the fertility of women under the age of 45. This is due to the application of methods to an optimization model which distinguish between those households which have completed their reproductive behaviour from those which have not. Completion status and the desired number of children are used to infer characteristics of the optimal programme which are then employed to derive a likelihood function."
Correspondence: J. McIntosh, Concordia University, Department of Economics, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8, Canada. E-mail: jamesm@vaxz.concordia.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40462 Merino Escobar, José M. Contextual effects and marital fertility: a multilevel model of parity in the Biobío region, Chile. [Efectos contextuales y fecundidad marital: un modelo de niveles múltiples de la paridez en la región del Biobío, Chile.] Notas de Población, Vol. 26, No. 67-68, Jan-Dec 1998. 55-100 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This is a multilevel analysis that [applies] a new statistical modelling method to determine contextual effects acting on the reproductive behaviour of women living in the Eighth Region of Chile, the Biobío Region.... The purpose of this study was to link data on the reproductive behaviour of fertile women...with the macro-structural properties of both the rural districts where they live...and of the comunas...where those districts are located.... The specific research topic was to determine the extent to which a dependent variable at the individual level, such as the total number of children ever born per woman, is accounted for by differences between districts and/or between comunas...; and also to determine how much was attributable, within each district, to individual variations stricto sensu. The method used was one of multilevel modelling using Poisson regression, by means of a statistical procedure known as hierarchical analysis with random effects."
Correspondence: J. M. Merino Escobar, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 20-C, Concepción, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40463 Meyer, Christine S. Family focus or career focus: controlling for infertility. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 12, Dec 1999. 1,615-22 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In order to shed light on the direction of causality between fertility timing and earnings, this paper uses medical diagnoses of infertility as instruments for age at first birth (for those women who did give birth) and childlessness among [U.S.] married women. Although multivariate ordinary least squares regression results find a positive correlation between childbirth at later ages and higher wages as well as between childlessness and increased wages, delays in childbearing due to infertility do not significantly increase a woman's wages. Thus, data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) indicate that delaying childbirth does not, by itself, guarantee higher wages in the labor market. Therefore, this study does not support the conventional notion of the `mommy track' in which career success and motherhood are incompatible."
Correspondence: C. S. Meyer, Bentley College, Department of Economics, 175 Forest Street, Waltham, MA 02154. E-mail: cmeyer@twcny.rr.com. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40464 Meyer, D. Analysis of the fertility decline since 1989 in the state of Brandenburg. [Analyse des Geburtenrückgangs seit 1989 im Land Brandenburg.] Edition IFAD, No. 7, Oct 1993. 55 pp. Institut für Angewandte Demographie: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
After a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the fertility decline in the German state of Brandenburg, which was formerly part of East Germany, the author describes a survey carried out among 215 Brandenburg residents in 1993. Some in-depth interviews were also conducted. The author concludes that while the desire for children has not decreased, the decision to have children has become conditional on factors such as job security and income. In general, the trend seems to be toward childbearing later in the life cycle.
Correspondence: Institut für Angewandte Demographie, Sophienstraße 3, 10178 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: ifad@ifad.b.shuttle.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40465 Meyer, Rachel. Which Australians are having three or more children? People and Place, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1999. 31-8 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the importance of third and higher order births in the context of replacement level fertility, and then builds a model, one for males and one for females, which identifies a set of characteristics that predicts whether people with two children go on to have three or more." The focus is on the situation in Australia, and the data are mainly from the Negotiating the Life Course Survey, a telephone survey carried out in 1996-1997.
Correspondence: R. Meyer, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40466 Michel, Harald; Finke, Robby. Institutional change and population trends: contributions to the fertility decline in the former East German states. [Institutioneller Wandel und Bevölkerungsentwicklung: Beiträge zum Geburtenrückgang in den neuen Bundesländern.] Edition IFAD, No. 11, Dec 1996. 44 pp. Institut für Angewandte Demographie: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This report contains two articles on fertility trends in the former East Germany. The first describes demographic developments from reunification in 1989 to the mid-1990s. It also presents some possible explanations for these developments based on the social and economic changes associated with the collapse of the East German state. The second article contains the results of a survey conducted in 1996 among 15,714 primary and secondary school students in a school district of the former East Germany. The students were asked about their plans for the future, focusing on family formation and the desire for children.
Correspondence: Institut für Angewandte Demographie, Sophienstraße 3, 10178 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: ifad@ifad.b.shuttle.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40467 Mohamed, Ayat. Validation of an assumption in Bongaarts' model. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 261-82 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Using Egyptian data, the author aims at "[1] Testing the validation of Bongaarts's assumption that on average, the positive fertility effect of a shortening of postpartum infecundability is offset by the negative fertility effect of a decline in the proportion of married women by analyzing the trends in the main proximate determinants of fertility during the period 1980-1993. [2] Determining the relative contribution of each of the main proximate fertility variables to the change in fertility level during the period 1980-1993." The two main data sources are the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey conducted as part of the World Fertility Survey and the 1993 Egypt Use Effectiveness of Contraceptive Survey, conducted with the support of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The author concludes that Bongaarts's assumption is not always valid.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40468 Mulay, Sanjeevanee. Demographic transition in Maharashtra, 1980-93. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 42-43, Oct 16-29, 1999. 3,063-74 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The main thrust of the article is to evaluate demographic transition in Maharashtra [India], especially during 12 years from 1980-92, on the basis of data made available by two national surveys on fertility and mortality rates, and family health. The study shows that despite high contraceptive prevalence in Maharashtra, there is a very moderate decline in birth rate.... Better reproductive health facilities leading to reduced foetal losses, lesser childlessness and reduced breast-feeding, can be said to be the main [factors contributing to high levels of fertility]. In such situation, only strengthening of IEC component of the family welfare services can result in decline in fertility in Maharashtra."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40469 Murphy, M. Is the relationship between fertility of parents and children really weak? Social Biology, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1999. 122-45 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The relationship between fertility of parents and children has been designated as `weak' by most investigators. This paper reviews the evidence over the past century and argues that, even allowing for problems with available data sources, the relationship was probably close to zero for pre-transitional populations. However, over time, the relationship has tended to become more substantial and is now of a similar order of magnitude in developed countries as other widely used explanatory variables. Possible mechanisms for the observed relationship are discussed, especially the roles of socialization and inherited factors. The types of data used are compared to the scientific questions posed, and the limitations of the common comparison of married-mother/married-daughter pairs are considered. Finally, some evidence from recent large-scale surveys in Britain and the United States is presented to show changes over recent periods and the relative effects of sibship size of fathers and mothers."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40470 Murphy, Mike. Is the relationship between fertility of parents and children really weak? Danish Center for Demographic Research, Research Report, No. 7, ISBN 87-90736-07-9. Jan 1999. 26 pp. Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research: Odense, Denmark. In Eng.
"The relationship between fertility of parents and children has been designated as `weak' by most investigators who have looked at this topic. This paper reviews the evidence over the past century.... Possible mechanisms for the observed relationship are discussed, especially the role of socialisation and inherited factors."
Correspondence: Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research, Hollufgaard, Hestehaven 201, 5220 Odense SØ, Denmark. Author's E-mail: m.murphy@lse.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40471 Nagarajan, R. Fertility transition in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu: some issues. Man and Development, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jun 1999. 81-95 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author discusses fertility trends in the Indian states of Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, with a focus on the rates of fertility decline in the two regions. Data from the National Family Health Survey are used to examine nuptiality patterns, fertility levels, and contraceptive practices and to determine causes of interstate variations in demographic behavior.
Correspondence: R. Nagarajan, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune 411 004, India. E-mail: gipe@vsnl.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40472 Nagarajan, R. The relationship between landholding and fertility in rural Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Economics, Vol. 79, No. 314, Jan 1999. 333-55 pp. Allahabad, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effect of landholding on fertility with the help of household level data collected from an agrarian community in rural Tamil Nadu [India].... According to [an] analytical model land is expected to influence intermediate variables (labour contribution of children, old age security expectations, consumption aspirations, fear about land subdivision, labour contribution of females) which in turn influence fertility."
Correspondence: R. Nagarajan, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Population Research Centre, Pune 411 004, India. E-mail: gipe@vsnl.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40473 Nakhla, Tharwat F. The impact of contraceptive prevalence on marital fertility pattern. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 161-77 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The 1971 model of natural fertility proposed by Ansley Coale is used to analyze data from a number of fertility surveys carried out in Egypt during the 1980s and 1990s. The purpose of the study is to analyze levels, patterns, and trends in marital fertility and to explore the relationship between marital fertility and family planning prevalence.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40474 Ntavyohanyuma, Pie. The mode of production and demographic behavior: a contextual and historical analysis of the fertility decline in Rwanda. [Mode de production et comportements démographiques: une analyse contextuelle et historique du déclin de la fécondité au Rwanda.] Institut de Démographie, Serie Démographie, Monographie, No. 15, ISBN 2-87209-566-7. 1999. 357 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the causes of the fertility decline that occurred in Rwanda between 1983 and 1992. It is based on a number of published sources as well as on data from official sources and demographic surveys. The focus is on the relationship between the modes of production employed in the country and the dynamics of the population. The author notes that the pressures on the available land supply that developed after 1983 because of the significant growth of population that had occurred, in the context of an economy that was overwhelmingly based on agriculture, caused a major collapse and reconstruction of the rural economy. The author concludes that the subsequent decline in fertility that occurred was a response to this agricultural crisis.
Correspondence: Academia Bruylant, Grand'Place 29, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40475 Panopoulou, Giota; Tsakloglou, Panos. Fertility and economic development: theoretical considerations and cross-country evidence. Applied Economics, Vol. 31, No. 11, 1999. 1,337-52 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The paper presents a theoretical background for the analysis of the relationship between fertility and a number of socioeconomic factors associated with the process of economic development and analyses empirically the relationship within a cross-country framework. Fertility is found to be negatively related with female education, urbanization and family planning and positively related with the levels of infant mortality and economic development, whereas no significant relationship between fertility and female labour force participation is established. Sensitivity analysis is performed and the policy implications of the empirical findings are briefly discussed." The analysis is based on data for 13 developed and 55 developing countries compiled primarily from World Bank sources.
Correspondence: P. Tsakloglou, Athens University of Economics and Business, Department of International and European Economic Studies, 76 Patision Street, Athens 10434, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40476 Patel, Tulsi. The precious few: women's agency, household progressions and fertility in Rajasthan village. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, Summer 1999. 429-51 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Male authority and dynamics of power and privilege, and women's `structural mutedness' seem apparent. However, it is also accepted that wherever there is power there is resistance. In the light of the above issues, the paper explores women's exclusive domain of childbirth in rural Rajasthan in Northern India. It adopts the processual, life cycle and household development approach to constitute women's fertility career. It highlights the significance of women's agency in their efforts at maneuvering their own fertility outcomes without overthrowing mothering or patriarchy."
Correspondence: T. Patel, University of Delhi, Delhi School of Economics, Department of Sociology, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40477 Ranjan, Priya. Fertility behaviour under income uncertainty. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1999. 25-43 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper develops a two-period stochastic model of fertility behaviour to provide a possible explanation for the recent sharp decline in birth rates in the former Soviet Republics and Eastern European countries. Due to the existence of irreversibilities associated with the childbearing decision and the option of postponing childbearing for a later time, it may be optimal for individuals to postpone childbearing during times of increased income uncertainty."
Correspondence: P. Ranjan, University of California, Department of Economics, 3151 Social Science Plaza, Irvine, CA 92697. E-mail: pranjan@uci.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40478 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Lee, Hwa Young; Rajulton, Fernando; Cho, Byung-Yup. Should a second demographic transition follow the first? Demographic contrasts: Canada and South Korea. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 47, No. 1, May 1999. 99-118 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper compares and contrasts the demographic situations in Canada and South Korea. Using a few familiar indicators, similarities and differences in demographic changes between the two countries are highlighted. In particular, the questions addressed in this paper are: Given that South Korea went through its first demographic transition quite rapidly, would it then undergo the second transition also? If yes, would its feature be similar to those of Canada (or to any other Western nation)? What factors would influence such a transition?"
Correspondence: Z. R. Ravanera, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6C 2A6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (DR).

65:40479 Retherford, Robert D.; Ogawa, Naohiro; Sakamoto, Satomi. Values and fertility change in Japan. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 121-47 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter considers how value change and underlying economic and social change have jointly affected fertility in Japan since 1950, when survey data on fertility-related values started to become available." The focus is on the period 1973-1995, during which fertility declined to a total fertility rate of 1.43. The authors suggest that fertility-related values in Japan have tended to lag behind actual changes in fertility because of the pace at which socioeconomic change has occurred.
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40480 Roloff, Juliane. The income situation of families and its effect on reproductive behavior in the former East Germany. [Zur Einkommenssituation in den Familien und ihr Einfluß auf das generative Verhalten in der ehemaligen DDR.] Edition IFAD, No. 2, Jul 1996. 44, [12] pp. Institut für Angewandte Demographie: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This study seeks to illuminate the influence, if any, of income on the reproductive behavior of East Germany's population. Data are from three different sociological surveys carried out among approximately 8,000 East Germans from 1982 to 1991 regarding household circumstances and the desire for children. Official annual statistics on the financial situation of households were also used. The conclusion is reached that the average income of East German families did not significantly decrease, and that a link between the financial situation of households and the reproductive behavior of East Germans cannot be firmly established at this point.
Correspondence: Institut für Angewandte Demographie, Sophienstraße 3, 10178 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: ifad@ifad.b.shuttle.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40481 Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Interaction, diffusion, and fertility transition in Costa Rica: quantitative and qualitative evidence. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 210-36 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the role played by diffusion through social interaction in the Costa Rican fertility transition." The focus is on the autonomous spread, or contagiousness, of fertility control as a causal agent of the fertility transition. "This chapter's central hypothesis, that social contagion shapes fertility transition, can be translated into the key proposition that the adoption of birth control by some individuals influences the likelihood of adoption by others." This hypothesis is supported by evidence collected in focus groups.
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa Centroamericano de Población/INISA, Apartado 833 2050, San José, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40482 Sackmann, Reinhold. Is an end of the fertility crisis in East Germany in sight? [Ist ein Ende der Fertilitätskrise in Ostdeutschland absehbar?] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1999. 187-211 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The unprecedented fertility decline in East Germany is an essential characteristic of the transformation crisis.... By means of cohort studies, the diverse age, period and cohort effects of the transformation process can be differentiated.... The impacts of the type of education received, the level of education, of cohort, of region and of the system change are analysed with regard to the timing of first and second births with reference to the time before and after German reunification."
Correspondence: R. Sackmann, Universität Bremen, Institut für Empirische und Angewandte Soziologie, Postfach 33 04 40, 28334 Bremen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40483 Sainz de la Maza Kaufmann, Marta. Contraception in three Chibcha communities and the concept of natural fertility. Current Anthropology, Vol. 38, No. 4, Aug-Oct 1997. 681-7 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using data collected in three pretransitional Chibcha communities in Costa Rica, this study argues for the necessity of revising the concept of natural fertility. My hypothesis is that the high pretransition or current fertility of traditional populations reflects not the absence of the notion of controlling fertility but a social, economic, and cultural choice. In the three indigenous communities studied we find contraception being practiced by young, fertile women and also reported as having formerly been practiced by women past menopause. Furthermore, there is no difference between these groups with respect to the frequency of its use, although there are differences in methods: premenopausal women use primarily modern methods, while postmenopausal women report having used traditional ones."
Correspondence: M. Sainz de la Maza Kaufmann, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departmento Antropología, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40484 Sánchez Barricarte, Jesús J. Reproductive behavior of married couples in Navarre and the Basque country. Analysis of the 1991 Spanish Sociodemographic Survey. [Comportamiento reproductivo de los matrimonios en Navarra y el País Vasco. Análisis de la Encuesta Sociodemográfica del INE de 1991.] Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, No. 83, Jul-Sep 1998. 217-35 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The 1991 Spanish Socio-demographic Survey allows us to study the fertility of women born in the first half of the Twentieth Century. The various analyses we have conducted suggest that women born in the first decade of this century already practiced effectively some method of fertility control. The indexes we used (the index m of Coale and Trussell, the age of mother at last birth, the method proposed by Weir) indicate that fertility control within marriage was practiced earlier in urban areas and in the Basque Country than in rural areas and Navarre. In addition, we have shown the influence of age at marriage on the number of children born per women's reproductive lifetime."
Correspondence: J. J. Sánchez Barricarte, Universidad de Navarra, Ciudad Universitaria, 31080 Pamplona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40485 Santow, Gigi; Bracher, Michael D. Traditional families and fertility decline: lessons from Australia's southern Europeans. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 51-77 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Using the example of immigrants in Australia from southern Europe, the authors challenge some concepts about the importance of changes in preferences from large to small families as a necessary prerequisite for a decline in fertility. "We present here a case study that conflicts with such interpretations because it shows that family size can fall without corresponding change in the values attached to the family or family life. We question whether the size of a family is necessarily related at all to the value that different family members place on family life, and suggest that it may be wrong to assume that family size is as central a defining element of the family as it is often taken to be. We do not dispute the commonly expressed notion that changes in ideas about the importance of the family may be sufficient to catalyse a reduction in family size, but we do dispute that such changes are necessary."
Correspondence: G. Santow, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40486 Sarkar, B. N.; Mukhopadhyay, B. K. Control of population growth in India: statistical review of information (1958-59 to 1992-93). 1998. iii, 64 pp. Indian Academy of Social Sciences, Survey Research Centre: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
This is a critical review of data collected in India on fertility over the period from 1958 to 1993. The focus is on data collected in the 1960s in the National Sample Survey, and in the 1990s by the Sample Registration Scheme and the National Family Health Survey. Separate consideration is given to fertility, fertility differentials, and family planning. The author identifies several states that still have high rates of total fertility and adolescent fertility despite long-term efforts to develop programs designed to reduce fertility levels. These states include Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh.
Correspondence: Indian Academy of Social Sciences, Survey Research Centre, 157 Ashokegarh, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40487 Schkolnik, Susana; Chackiel, Juan. Latin America: demographic transition in less developed sectors. [América Latina: la transición demográfica en sectores rezagados.] Notas de Población, Vol. 26, No. 67-68, Jan-Dec 1998. 7-53 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Demographic trends among the poorer sections of society in Latin America are analyzed using data from published sources. In particular, the authors examine declines in fertility and infant mortality, and attempt to distinguish between the effects of changes in educational status and actual changes in these demographic indicators within social groups. They note that desired fertility in disadvantaged groups is generally lower than actual fertility, although early marriage remains common and contraceptive practice is low. They also note that, in many countries, women with the lowest levels of education have contributed the most to reductions in national levels of fertility.
Correspondence: S. Schkolnik, UN Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía, División de Población, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40488 Schmertmann, Carl P.; Junqueira Caetano, André. Estimating parametric fertility models with open birth interval data. Demographic Research, Vol. 1, 1999. Rostock, Germany. In Eng.
"In the past thirty years, more than 100 censuses gathered fertility data through questions on women's date of last birth. The standard `births last year' (BLY) approach for such data truncates timing information, using binary indicators for births in the prior year only. The first author recently proposed consistent, maximum-likelihood estimation approaches using untruncated date of last birth (DLB). In this paper we extend DLB techniques to parametric models. We construct estimators for Coale-Trussell M and m parameters from open interval lengths. We apply the new procedure to Brazilian census data, producing maps and spatial statistics for BLY and DLB m estimates in 723 municipalities in Minas Gerais. DLB estimators are less sensitive to sampling error than BLY estimators. This increased precision leads to clearer spatial patterns of fertility control, and to improved regression."
Correspondence: C. P. Schmertmann, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063.

65:40489 Schmertmann, Carl P. Fertility estimation from open birth-interval data. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 4, Nov 1999. 505-19 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Censuses and surveys frequently collect information on period fertility through questions on the timing of last births. The standard approach to estimating fertility with open-interval data uses the proportion of women giving birth in the year before the interview. I propose a more efficient, maximum likelihood method for estimating fertility from open-interval data. I illustrate a mathematical derivation of the new method, perform sensitivity analyses, and conduct empirical tests with Brazilian census data. The new estimators have small biases and lower variance than standard estimators for open-interval data. Consequently, the new method is more likely to generate accurate results from small or moderately sized samples."
Correspondence: C. P. Schmertmann, Florida State University, Department of Economics, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2240. E-mail: schmertmann@fsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40490 Schneider, Jane; Schneider, Peter. Political economy and cultural processes in the fertility decline of Sicilian artisans. In: The methods and uses of anthropological demography, edited by Alaka M. Basu and Peter Aaby. 1998. 177-97 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the transition from high to low fertility of the artisan class in a rural town of the Sicilian interior. The transition occurred between the First and Second World Wars, a time of severe dislocation and economic downturn. We argue that the resulting hardships motivated artisans to want smaller families; yet we do not treat their impressive new commitment to family limitation as a mere economizing gesture, but regard it as reflecting, as well, pan-European cultural processes that contributed to the diffusion of a particular technique of family limitation: coitus interruptus. We ask specifically how the inter-war crisis affected local artisans. In addition, we examine their life ways in relation to both the gender dynamics of this technique and the communications networks carrying news of its contraceptive efficacy."
Correspondence: J. Schneider, City University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Flushing, NY 11367. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40491 Schoenmaeckers, Ronald C.; Lodewijckx, Edith. Demographic behaviour in Europe: some results from FFS Country Reports and suggestions for further research. [Veranderingen in het demografisch gedrag in Europa: enkele resultaten uit de FFS-landenrapporten en voorstellen voor verder onderzoek.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1998. 123-61 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"As part of its FFS [Fertility and Family Surveys] project the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations in Geneva has launched an international comparative research programme to come to a better understanding of the changes in reproductive behaviour and family formation in the ECE region. This paper provides a basis for the identification of specific research topics.... The paper shows that some more insight about the level and trends can be derived from results of the FFS Standard Country Reports. It is also argued that the FFS biographies would best be used in conjunction with contextual data to predict future demographic developments."
Correspondence: R. C. Schoenmaeckers, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie, Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: CBGS@wvc.vlaanderen.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40492 Schoenmaeckers, Ronald C.; Lodewijckx, Edith. Demographic behaviour in Europe: some results from FFS Country Reports and suggestions for further research. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1999. 207-40 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"As part of its FFS [Fertility and Family Surveys] project the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations in Geneva has launched an international comparative research programme to come to a better understanding of the changes in reproductive behaviour and family formation in the ECE region. This paper provides a basis for the identification of specific research topics. The paper starts by looking at the main trends that can be observed from registration data. It is obvious that Europe is far from homogeneous with respect to demographic behaviour. There are, for example, remarkable contrasts in the patterns of marriage and divorce. The paper shows that some more insight about the level and trends can be derived from results of the FFS Standard Country Reports."
Correspondence: R. C. Schoenmaeckers, Flemish Scientific Institute, Centre for Population and Family Studies, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: CBGS@wvc.vlaanderen.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40493 Scott, Susan; Duncan, C. J. Nutrition, fertility and steady-state population dynamics in a pre-industrial community in Penrith, northern England. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct 1999. 505-23 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effect of nutrition on fertility and its contribution thereby to population dynamics are assessed in three social groups (elite, tradesmen and subsistence) in a marginal, pre-industrial population in northern England. This community was particularly susceptible to fluctuations in the price of grains, which formed their basic foodstuff. The subsistence class, who formed the largest part of the population, had low levels of fertility and small family sizes, but women from all social groups had a characteristic and marked subfecundity in the early part of their reproductive lives. The health and nutrition of the mother during pregnancy was the most important factor determining fertility and neonatal mortality. Inadequate nutrition had many subtle effects on reproduction which interacted to produce a complex web of events."
Correspondence: S. Scott, University of Liverpool, School of Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40494 Shintani, Yuriko. Working women during marriage and childbearing periods and their defined factors in relation to changes in birth trends from the 1980s onward. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 54, No. 4, 1998. 46-62 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes the employment of women in Japan during periods of marriage and childbearing. The focus is on changes in reproductive behavior among couples married in the 1980s or later. "Employment rates after marriage/during pregnancy for marriage cohorts in 1980 or later have gradually increased, and the timing of quitting work has been shifting from `marriage quitting work' to `childbearing quitting work.' First pregnancy intervals have also seemed to change since 1980, and, especially among the marriage cohorts in the late 1980s, the intervals of first pregnancy for wives working after marriage are getting longer, which leads to the delay in birth timing."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40495 Sibanda, Amson. Reproductive change in Zimbabwe and Kenya: the role of proximate determinants in recent fertility trends. Social Biology, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1999. 82-99 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study examines trends in proximate determinants of fertility in Zimbabwe and Kenya. Findings from the four Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in these countries show that the dramatic fall in fertility...is consistent with the underlying trends in the most important proximate determinants of fertility. In Zimbabwe, contraceptive use far exceeds other proximate determinants in influencing fertility levels and trends. The results show that the fertility inhibiting effects of contraception are more important than the effects of postpartum infecundability, marriage patterns, or sterility. The results also show that contraceptive use has its greatest suppressing effects in the middle and younger age groups. However, in Kenya, the dominant fertility inhibiting effect is postpartum infecundability, with contraception coming in second."
Correspondence: A. Sibanda, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40496 Sporton, Deborah. Mixing methods in fertility research. Professional Geographer, Vol. 51, No. 1, Feb 1999. 68-76 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Fertility research in population geography is rooted in a spatial demography tradition which places emphasis on the use of quantitative methodologies to analyse, model and project fertility. As data sources have become more sophisticated and abundant some have questioned whether research within the discipline is now too data-oriented resulting in a reluctance to embrace new methods and concepts. Alternative conceptualisations of fertility and reproduction are outlined which represent a shift away from general explanation to more differentiated understandings of reproductive behaviour and favour the use of qualitative methodologies in combination or in a multi-level framework. The paper illustrates, with reference to a research project in the Kalahari of Botswana, the potential for methodological pluralism in the study of fertility."
Correspondence: D. Sporton, University of Sheffield, Department of Geography, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. E-mail: D.Sporton@sheffield.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40497 Taniguchi, Hiromi. The timing of childbearing and women's wages. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 4, Nov 1999. 1,008-19 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Early child bearers are more vulnerable to the adverse impact of children on wages than are those who delay childbearing. Early child bearers are likely to experience a higher wage penalty because their career interruptions occur during the critical period of career building. Education reduces the magnitude of the penalty. With the use of data from the young women cohort [a cohort born between 1944 and 1954] of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey, I investigated the wage losses associated with the presence of children, net of work experience, while addressing unobserved heterogeneity. Consistent with life course theory, the timing of childbearing significantly influences the extent to which this event shapes women's life chances."
Correspondence: H. Taniguchi, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: taniguch@email.unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40498 Thapa, Shyam; Neidell, Shara G.; Dahal, Dilli R. Fertility transition in Nepal. Contributions to Nepalese Studies, Vol. 25, Jul 1998. vii, 222 pp. Tribhuvan University, Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies: Kirtipur, Nepal. In Eng.
This special issue presents selected papers from the conference Fertility Transition in Nepal: Changing Context and Dynamics, held in Katmandu, November 25-26, 1997. "The objectives of the conference were: (1) to assess and evaluate changes in the patterns and levels of fertility in Nepal; (2) to analyze and discuss the changing context and dynamics of the fertility transition; and (3) to draw implications from these changes."
Correspondence: Tribhuvan University, Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, Kirtipur, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40499 Thomas, Neil; Price, Neil. The role of development in global fertility decline. Futures, Vol. 31, No. 8, Oct 1999. 779-802 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"At the first intergovernmental global Population Conference at Bucharest in 1974, delegates from the Third World argued that rapid population growth would only be controlled when a more equitable relationship was established between the More and Less Developed Countries, leading to accelerated social and economic development in the latter. Over the subsequent quarter of a century this perspective has been progressively displaced as the dominant paradigm by the view that sustained fertility decline can be accomplished through good quality family planning programmes in the context of gender-sensitive social policies, including formal education. This paper is an attempt to establish whether the abandonment of the Bucharest ideology is justified on the basis of subsequent theoretical developments in fertility studies, and by global demographic trends over the period."
Correspondence: N. Thomas, University of Wales, Department of City and Regional Planning, P.O. Box 906, Cardiff CF1 3YN, South Glamorgan, Wales. E-mail: thomasnh@cardiff.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40500 Togunde, Oladimeji R. A social structural analysis of the effects of women's employment on fertility in urban Nigeria. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring 1998. 31-46 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on a social structural analysis of women's employment and fertility in Nigeria, by looking at how the structure of the family, ethnicity, and women's position within the household or society impact the employment-fertility relationship. Data come from a 1988 National survey of 8,529 currently married women in urban Nigeria, and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate employment effects at specific [parities] during a five-year period. Findings indicate that although Nigerian women employed (in either [the] formal or informal sector) are more likely than those not working to have had one birth or at least two births within a five-year period, employment effects do not differ across the three major ethnic groups in which the social position of women differs."
Correspondence: O. R. Togunde, Albion College, Albion, MI 49224. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40501 Ventura, Stephanie J.; Mosher, William D.; Curtin, Sally C.; Abma, Joyce C.; Henshaw, Stanley. Highlights of trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: estimates for the United States, 1976-96. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 29, Dec 15, 1999. 9 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents key findings from a comprehensive report on pregnancies and pregnancy rates for U.S. women. The study incorporates birth, abortion, and fetal loss data to compile national estimates of pregnancy rates according to a variety of characteristics including age, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Summary data are presented for 1976-96. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) are used to show information on sexual activity and contraceptive practices, as well as women's reports of pregnancy intentions."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40502 Villasmil, Mary C. Fertility in poor families: a hypothesis for its study. [Fecundidad en familias en situación de pobreza: hipótesis para su estudio.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 18, Oct-Dec 1998. 175-88 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article has an object to propose some routes through...which to explain the reproductive behavioral characteristics in families in poverty.... The context [is] Latin American, with greater reference to Mexico." The author attempts to explain why the general fertility decline in Latin America, and Mexico in particular, has not been seen among poor families.
Correspondence: M. C. Villasmil, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Apartado 5429, 1000 San José, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40503 Visaria, Leela. Proximate determinants of fertility in India: an exploration of NFHS data. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 42-43, Oct 16-29, 1999. 3,033-40 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Variations in fertility are generally examined in terms of socio-economic factors such as education, income, caste, place of residence. These factors can affect fertility only through intermediate variables such as proportion of females married, prevalence of contraceptive use, incidence of induced abortion and the fertility inhibiting effect on breastfeeding. This article attempts to estimate the values of the proximate determinants of fertility for major states [in India] after examining available evidence and interstate variations in these factors."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40504 Waldorf, Brigitte. Impacts of immigrant fertility on population size and composition. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 193-211 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"The purposes of this study...are to investigate adjustments in fertility behavior in response to international migration and to estimate the resulting aggregate population changes.... Specifically, [it] provides empirical evidence of immigrants' fertility adjustments, using examples from the United States and Germany; conceptualizes and formalizes the impact of fertility decline on immigrant population size and composition; and simulates the impact of fertility decline under three scenarios. The first assumes no fertility decline subsequent to migration. The second scenario portrays the so-called disruption hypothesis whereby immigrant women lower their fertility immediately following their international move and then return to their initial fertility levels. The third scenario replicates the conditions of the exposure hypothesis, which states that as immigrant women extend their stay abroad, their fertility levels decline and adjust to the low fertility levels of the host societies."
Correspondence: B. Waldorf, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40505 Wu, Zheng. Fertility and family surveys in countries of the ECE region: standard country report. Canada. UN/ECE Economic Studies, No. 10k, Pub. Order No. E.99.II.E.11. ISBN 92-1-116714-0. 1999. x, 82 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Over the last four decades, the Canadian family has undergone dramatic change.... Using data from the 1990 Canadian General Social Survey (GSS-90), this report examines some of these changes in the context of a life-course perspective." Tabular data are included on social, economic, and cultural trends; population growth; age distribution; fertility; family formation and dissolution; mortality; household size and composition; fertility regulation and preference; and women's education and occupation.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40506 Yadava, K. N. S.; Yadava, Surendar S. Women's status and fertility in rural India. History of the Family, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1999. 209-28 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This article examines the relationship between women's status and fertility in India in the current (third) phase of the Indian fertility transition that began in the period 1900-1920. Variables used in the study include caste, occupation, and education of husband and wife, educational status of the household, role of female in the society, autonomy in decision-making, and interaction with and exposure to mass media. Women's status is conceptualized at the micro-level using the household as a unit; and the macro-level using society as a unit.... The variables, age-specific fertility rate, fecundity, and the number of children ever born, have been used as measures of fertility. Among other findings, the study reveals that there is a difference of approximately two births in the total fertility rate between low status and high status groups of women, and that there is an inverse relationship between the autonomy in decision-making and the level of fertility."
Correspondence: K. N. S. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40507 Zaid, Mohamed A. Factors associated with fertility in Egypt 1993. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 241-60 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between the number of children ever born to women in Egypt and the following factors: age at first marriage, current age, breastfeeding duration, place of residence, employment status, education, and husband's education. Data are from the 1993 Survey of Use Effectiveness of Contraceptives in Egypt.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40508 Zhang, Fangyu. An analysis of Chinese fertility and the factors that affect Chinese fertility. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1998. 133-48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes...fertility data from the 1992 Chinese fertility investigation of women of child bearing age using the multiple level logit regression method. This paper discussed the factors that affect the fertility rate of a female from the rural [areas] of China.... Fertility is analyzed...at four different levels: individual, community, county, and provincial. The study results show that state family planning and birth control policy have a significant impact on the fertility of women with a lower fertility rate (women with one child or two children)."
Correspondence: F. Zhang, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40509 Zhang, Weiguo. Economic reforms and fertility behaviour in rural China: an anthropological and demographic inquiry. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1999. 317-48 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"How have Chinese economic reforms which started in the late 1970s affected individual fertility behaviour in rural China? This research attempts to explain how the deliberate policies of institutional reforms affect fertility outcomes through processes which are both filtered by, as well as reshape, existing social institutions. It is based on fieldwork in a Hebei village from July 1992 to November 1993. It finds that after the reforms, rural Chinese marry at earlier ages. However, declining age at marriage does not increase fertility. Rural couples prefer to have fewer children, and their motivation '[to have] girls becomes stronger."
Correspondence: W. Zhang, University of Botswana, Faculty of Social Sciences, Population and Sustainable Development Programme, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. E-mail: ZHANGW@NOKA.UB.BW. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

65:40510 Chandola, T.; Coleman, D. A.; Hiorns, R. W. Recent European fertility patterns: fitting curves to "distorted" distributions. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 3, Nov 1999. 317-29 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Recent patterns of fertility in Europe show marked differences between countries. Recent United Kingdom and Irish fertility curves show `distortions' in terms of a `bulge' in early age fertility, distinct from the smoother curves of other European countries. These patterns may not be adequately described by mathematical functions used by previous studies to model fertility curves. A mixture model with two component distributions may be more appropriate. The suitability of the simple and mixture Hadwiger functions is examined in relation to the fertility curves of a number of European countries. While the simple Hadwiger model fits recent period age-specific fertility distributions for some countries, others which display a `bulge' in early age fertility require a mixture Hadwiger model. Some of the parameters of the Hadwiger models appear to be related to familiar demographic indices. The simple and mixture Hadwiger models appear useful in describing and comparing fertility patterns across European countries."
Correspondence: T. Chandola, University of Oxford, Department of Applied Social Studies and Social Research, Barnett House, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2ER, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40511 Crump, Aria D.; Haynie, Denise L.; Aarons, Sigrid J.; Adair, Elissa; Woodward, Kathy; Simons-Morton, Bruce G. Pregnancy among urban African-American teens: ambivalence about prevention. American Journal of Health Behavior, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 32-42 pp. Star City, West Virginia. In Eng.
The factors that influence African-American females to early pregnancy are examined using data on 37 females aged 14-17 collected in focus-group sessions in an urban hospital out-patient clinic in Washington, D.C. "Participants suggested that although pregnancy and parenting are best delayed until one is older, they are common, manageable experiences. Contraceptive use was deemed as important, though contraceptive options were often perceived as ineffective, unsafe, or unpleasant."
Correspondence: A. D. Crump, University of Maryland, Department of Health Education, HHP Building, Room 2387, College Park, MD 20742. E-mail: ac166@umail.umd.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40512 David, Patricia H. On differentials in family-building patterns. Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies Working Paper Series, No. 97.08, Dec 1997. 27 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This study of family-building patterns takes women as the unit of analysis and uses a population-specific measure of fertility to examine factors associated with childbearing patterns in two populations [in Egypt and Peru]. Women who have a `high-risk' pattern of childbearing can be described by many characteristics of the family that pre-date or closely follow the initiation of childbearing. Other risk factors for child mortality are likely to be present in homes of families that have experienced a faster than average pace of family-building. One of the most important predictors is the survival of the first child through infancy. A focus on differences between families, rather than births, may lead to new insights into the relationship between fertility and mortality within families." The data are from the Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in Egypt and Peru.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40513 Effah, Kofi B. A reformulation of the polygyny-fertility hypothesis. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, Summer 1999. 381-408 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper reformulates the polygyny-fertility hypothesis by arguing that polygyny is likely to depress fertility if polygynous women have been previously married. Using the 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data, we find that polygyny reduces fertility for only women who have been previously married. Thus, in the absence of previous marriage, the fertility of monogamous and polygynous women is similar. The results further indicate that urban residency, education and age at first marriage reduce fertility, while current age and ever use of contraception increase fertility."
Correspondence: K. B. Effah, Budget Management Services, Texas Department of Human Services, P.O. Box 149030, Austin, TX 78714-9030. E-mail: kofi@bms.dhs.state.tx.us. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40514 Gage, Anastasia J. The social implications of adolescent fertility. In: Population and poverty in the developing world, edited by Massimo Livi-Bacci and Gustavo De Santis. 1999. 120-43 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this chapter is to consider the implications of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing for women and children. I will concentrate on topics that are relatively rich in empirical research--such as educational attainment, timing of marriage and its stability, health, and the economic and social situation of children. The first section of the chapter highlights the varying social contexts of adolescent sexual activity, pregnancy and childbearing. This serves as a prelude for considering how the timing of fertility and the social environment may shape the consequences of early childbearing for women and children. The following sections discuss some of the evidence linking the timing of fertility to various socioeconomic and health outcomes." The geographical focus is on the United States and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Correspondence: A. J. Gage, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40515 Goldscheider, Calvin. Religious values, dependencies, and fertility: evidence and implications from Israel. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 310-30 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
An attempt is made to identify the factors affecting fertility among the Muslim population of Israel. "This chapter first documents the changing levels of fertility of Muslim Israeli women and examines some of the critical correlates of Muslim Israeli fertility change. A review is made of the long-term relative stability of Muslim fertility in Palestine and in the state of Israel, and the subsequent reduction from the mid-1970s. These changes are compared to changes in the fertility of Christian, Druze, and Jewish women in Israel." The author concludes that continuing high Muslim fertility reflects the economic and social value of children in Islamic culture rather than religious proscriptions about the use of birth control or the concentration of Muslims in the disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in society.
Correspondence: C. Goldscheider, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40516 Gupta, Neeru; da Costa Leite, Iúri. Adolescent fertility behavior: trends and determinants in northeastern Brazil. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1999. 125-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Data from three Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Northeastern Brazil in 1986, 1991 and 1996 are used to examine trends and determinants of fertility behavior among adolescents in the region.... A young woman's level of education is the factor most strongly and consistently associated with the probability of giving birth during adolescence.... Religious affiliation and mass media exposure did not consistently affect adolescent fertility over time in the multivariate analysis."
Correspondence: N. Gupta, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40517 Hacker, J. David. Child naming, religion, and the decline of marital fertility in nineteenth-century America. History of the Family, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1999. 339-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Demographic historians have long suspected that cultural factors played an important role in the early decline of fertility in nineteenth-century America. Using the recently released 1850 and 1880 IPUMS samples, this article investigates correlates of marital fertility among native-born white women of native parentage, focusing on the relationship between religion and fertility. Two proxies of religious sentiment are found to be significantly correlated with marital fertility. First, county-level census data indicate that the presence of Congregationalists and Universalists was associated with lower marital fertility, while the presence of Lutherans was associated with higher marital fertility. Second, the proportion of own children with biblical names--believed to be a proxy of parental religiosity--is found to be positively associated with marital fertility. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that traditional religious beliefs were an impediment to the adoption of family limitation strategies."
Correspondence: J. D. Hacker, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40518 Hof, Caroline; Richters, Annemiek. Exploring intersections between teenage pregnancy and gender violence: lessons from Zimbabwe. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 1999. 51-65 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A qualitative study of teenage pregnancy was conducted over a period of three months in 1996 in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Interviews with teenage mothers and fathers gave reason to explore the various intersections between teenage pregnancy and gender violence. Gender violence is defined as acts of force or coercion directed at an individual woman and perpetuating female subordination. Teenage pregnancy and its relationship with gender violence are analysed against the background of the social and cultural conditions that promote, facilitate, or prevent violence against adolescent girls. It is argued that a much-needed improvement of adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions should be based on the incorporation of new gender norms in all levels of society."
Correspondence: C. Hof, Leiden University Medical Center, Office for Women and Health Care, Poortgebouw-South, 4th Floor, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40519 Hotz, V. Joseph; McElroy, Susan W.; Sanders, Seth G. Teenage childbearing and its life cycle consequences: exploiting a natural experiment. NBER Working Paper, No. 7397, Oct 1999. 51 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper, we exploit a `natural experiment' associated with human reproduction to identify the effect of teen childbearing on subsequent educational attainment, family structure, labor market outcomes and financial self-sufficiency. In particular, we exploit the fact that a substantial fraction of women who become pregnant experience a miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) and thus do not have a birth." Data are from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. "Our major finding is that many of the negative consequences of not delaying childbearing until adulthood are much smaller than has been estimated in previous studies.... Teenage childbearing appears to raise levels of labor supply, accumulated work experience and labor market earnings and appears to reduce the chances of living in poverty and participating in the associated social welfare programs.... While teen mothers are very likely to live in poverty and experience other forms of adversity, our results imply that little of this would be changed just by getting teen mothers to delay their childbearing into adulthood."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: hotz@ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40520 House, William J.; Ibrahim, Nasiru. Fertility patterns of adolescent and older women in Pacific island countries: programme implications. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1999. 3-22 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study investigates whether adolescent birth rates are high and rising in the Pacific island countries, as is widely believed. Using census data, it finds that, with few exceptions, adolescent fertility has fallen in these countries and is relatively low in comparison with other developing regions of the world. However, it finds that childbearing among older women is significant, whereas the opposite is the case elsewhere in the developing world. It concludes by suggesting measures that could be taken to improve the quality of reproductive health services for all age groups, but especially among older women who face increased risks of infant and maternal mortality."
Correspondence: W. J. House, UNFPA/CST, P.O. Box 441, Suva, Fiji. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40521 Islam, M. Mazharul. Adolescent childbearing in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1999. 73-87 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Levels, trends, and differentials in adolescent childbearing in Bangladesh, are examined using data from the 1996-1997 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate a very high level of adolescent childbearing in Bangladesh which has major implications for national efforts to further reduce overall levels of fertility. There is also a continuing preference for the early marriage of pubescent girls. The results also show that 78% of births to adolescents are wanted births. The need for major educational programs to change social attitudes toward early marriage and childbearing is stressed.
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: stat@du.bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40522 Jin, Yangsun; Su, Li; Mei, Changhua. Analysis of the fertility model of China's Mongolian nationality and its determinants. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1998. 211-29 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this study was to analyze and evaluate the fertility model based on the Chinese minority census data from the fourth national census investigation. The study shows that the birth rate of the Mongolian nationality in China has decreased more rapidly than the average level of the total Chinese population during 1981-1989. Reasons for the decrease in birth rate among the Mongolians are improvement in the education of women, increase in number of women working as professionals, e.g., scientists, engineers, and technicians, and improvement in medical health in the region."
Correspondence: Y. Jin, Inner Mongolia Medical School, Department of Public Health, Inner Mongolia, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40523 Juul, S.; Karmaus, W.; Olsen, J. Regional differences in waiting time to pregnancy: pregnancy-based surveys from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Sweden. Human Reproduction, Vol. 14, No. 5, May 1999. 1,250-4 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to examine geographical variation in couple fecundity in Europe. The study was based upon all recently pregnant (or still pregnant) women [4,035] within well-defined geographical areas in Europe (Denmark, Germany, Italy, Sweden and France) at a given time period in 1992.... Highest fecundity was found in Southern Italy and Northern Sweden; lowest fecundity was seen in data from the East German centre. Approximately 16% of the study population had a waiting time of more than 12 months to become pregnant. Most of the pregnancies were planned (64%) and approximately 14% were the result of contraceptive failures. The study shows that smoking, body mass index, age and parity did not explain the differences in fecundity found between the centres. Regional differences in fecundity exist and the causes may be genetic or due to variations in behavioural and environmental exposures."
Correspondence: S. Juul, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40524 Khumba, Paulina; Pillai, Vijayan K. Adolescent sexual activity, early pregnancy and quality of life in Cameroon. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 28, No. 2, Autumn 1998. 23-33 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study explores the association between teenage sexual activity, early pregnancy and quality of life. Data from Cameroon Demographic Survey 1992 are used. It was hypothesized that improvements in quality of life would be associated with an increase [in] age at first intercourse and pregnancy among adolescents in Cameroon. The empirical results indicate a positive association between age [at] first intercourse and pregnancy among Cameroonian adolescents. The policy implications of the findings are discussed."
Correspondence: P. Khumba, Wiley College, Marshall, TX 75670. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40525 Krishnan, Vijaya; Parakulam, George; Zalmanowitz, Hal. Changing patterns of teen pregnancy in Canada, 1981-1990. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1999. 39-52 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Pregnancy rates among adolescents in Canada declined steadily from the mid-1970s until the mid-1980s. However, significant variations exist at the provincial, regional, or community levels in teen pregnancy rates in Canada. This study examined the relationship between selected socio-demographic factors (i.e., cohort size, person-average density, and educational status of the community) and change in adolescent pregnancies from 1981 to 1990 in Alberta. The results indicated that person-average density played a major role in accounting for variation in change in teen pregnancy rates across health units in Alberta. Possible explanations for these relationships and some of the implications for a health promotion strategy were briefly discussed."
Correspondence: V. Krishnan, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40526 Lynn, Richard. New evidence for dysgenic fertility for intelligence in the United States. Social Biology, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1999. 146-53 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Data were taken from the 1994 National Opinion Research Center survey of a representative sample of American adults to examine the relation between the intelligence of adults aged 40+ and their numbers of children and their numbers of siblings. The correlations were found to be significantly negative at -0.05 and -0.09, respectively, indicating the presence of dysgenic fertility. Further analysis showed that dysgenic fertility is present only in females. The correlation for females between intelligence and ideal numbers of children was effectively zero, indicating that if women had the numbers of children they consider ideal, dysgenic fertility would be reduced."
Correspondence: R. Lynn, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Londonderry BT52 1SA Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40527 McQuillan, Kevin. Religious values and fertility decline: Catholics and Lutherans in Alsace, 1750-1870. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 293-309 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Fertility differences between the two main religious groups in Alsace, Catholics and Lutherans, are analyzed for the period 1750-1870, with emphasis on the cultural factors that helped produce those differences. The author contends that "the gradual entrenchment of Lutheran beliefs in the population led to a more pragmatic and calculating view of everyday life that made the practice of fertility control more acceptable. Social and political circumstances allowed religious doctrine to play an important role in the lives of ordinary people in these two distinct and often antagonistic religious communities. In order to protect and advance their position, religious leaders created a strong sense of identity among their followers and thereby extended their control over their everyday behaviour. This heightened sense of religion, as an important source of personal and social identity, allowed differences in religious teaching to assume an important role in shaping fertility differentials between Catholics and Lutherans."
Correspondence: K. McQuillan, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40528 Mengele, Helima J. Poverty and fertility of Tanzanian women. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 297-317 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This study aims to identify the socioeconomic characteristics of poor Tanzanian women aged 15 to 49, and to analyze the impact of poverty on their fertility behavior. The author suggests that studying this population as a group might help pinpoint ways to increase family planning practice in Tanzania.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40529 Mookherjee, Harsha N. Reproductive behavior of the Asian-American population in the United States of America. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 33, No. 4, Nov 1998. 331-44 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The primary purpose of this study was to examine and test the `minority-status' hypothesis for interpreting inter-ethnic and inter-racial fertility differences in the United States.... This study also examines the assimilationist perspective, which argues that ethnic groups differ in fertility because they differ in the values they attribute to various fertility-related variables, and that once they are assimilated socially and culturally, the fertility differentials will disappear. Data source is the 1980 Public Use Microdata obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census and the units of analysis are married couples, where the women are of 14-45 years of age. The dependent variable is the number of children ever born to a married woman, and the independent variables are present age of woman, age of woman at first marriage, employment status of woman, education of both spouses, number of marriages, the place of residence, speaking English at home, and U.S. citizenship status."
Correspondence: H. N. Mookherjee, Tennessee Technological University, Department of Sociology and Philosophy, P.O. Box 5052, Cookeville, TN 38505-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40530 Morgan, S. Philip; Botev, Nikolai; Chen, Renbao; Huang, Jianping. White and nonwhite trends in first birth timing: comparisons using vital registration and Current Population Surveys. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, Aug 1999. 339-56 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The magnitude of racial differences in first birth timing [in the United States] vary greatly depending upon the data sources from which they are estimated. Vital registration data...show that in recent years nonwhites have higher risks of a first birth at virtually all ages compared to whites. As a result very large and historically novel differentials in childlessness are forecast using these data.... However, retrospective fertility history data collected from the 1980, 1985 and 1990 Current Population Surveys (CPS) suggest much smaller racial differences in completed childlessness and isolate racial differences in probabilities of first births at young ages. Differences also exist between these two series for whites prior to the mid-1960s but not afterwards. Reasons for these differing estimates are suggested and examined. We conclude that a substantial portion of the differences result from an accumulation of biases in the vital registration estimates that affect primarily estimates of first birth timing. Thus, the CPS data provide a more firm basis for racial comparisons of first birth timing."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. P. Morgan, Duke University, Department of Sociology, 268 Soc-Psych Building, Box 90088, Durham, NC 27708-0088. E-mail: pmorgan@soc.duke.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40531 Moulasha, K.; Rao, G. Rama. Religion-specific differentials in fertility and family planning. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 42-43, Oct 16-29, 1999. 3,047-51 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The relationship between religion and fertility behaviour has prompted much interest, especially in the context of the rising population in developing countries. In India data reveal that the fertility rate among Muslim women is significantly higher than for Hindu women which may in the first instance be attributed to such practices as post-partum abstinence and the length of amenorrhea after child birth. Clearly, however, there are more complex socio-economic reasons for the differential behaviour of the two communities that needs to be better understood."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40532 Odimegwu, Clifford O. Application of demographic estimation models to fertility in a Nigerian ethnic group: implications for population growth and family planning programmes. Development and Society, Vol. 27, No. 2, Dec 1998. 83-100 pp. Seoul, Korea. In Eng.
"This study examines the current level of fertility in a Nigerian ethnic group, the Igbo in Eastern Nigeria, using various modern demographic estimation techniques. The aim is to control for the validity and reliability of estimates derived from these techniques with a view to arriving at more robust estimates.... The estimated total fertility rate is between 6.8 and 7.4. Explanation for this observed level is sought within the cultural milieu of the area."
Correspondence: C. O. Odimegwu, Awolowo University, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. E-mail: codimeg@oau.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40533 Otor, Samuel C. J.; Pandey, Arvind. Adolescent transition to coitus and premarital childbearing in Sudan: a biosocial context. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 3, Jul 1999. 361-74 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the biosocial basis of premarital sexual and reproductive behaviour among women in Sudan.... Early puberty was found to be paramount in determining childbearing in a separate biological model, but also in a biosocial model constructed to take account of social controls. This finding suggests that social controls do not influence the biological predisposition to premarital sexual behaviour."
Correspondence: S. C. J. Otor, Kenyatta University, Department of Environmental Foundation, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40534 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Barton, Thomas B. Modernization and teenage sexuality in Zambia: a multinomial logit model. Youth and Society, Vol. 29, No. 3, Mar 1998. 293-310 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"One of the major social problems in sub-Saharan Africa today is teenage pregnancy. In this article, the authors test a model based on modernization theories that attempt to explain the widespread prevalence of teenage sexual activity in African countries such as Zambia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Students were randomly selected from seven secondary schools in two Zambian cities, Lusaka and Kitwe. There were 527 adolescent respondents in the sample. Results of this study do not support modernization theories of teen sexual activity. In addition, the authors find that traditional institutions such as initiation ceremonies continue to influence sexual activity levels. These findings raise interesting questions for future investigations."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 13675, Denton, TX 76203. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40535 Raymundo, Corazon M.; Xenos, Peter; Domingo, Lita J. Adolescent sexuality in the Philippines. ISBN 971-8729-24-0. 1999. xxi, 179 pp. University of the Philippines, Population Institute: Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
This volume contains a selection of papers prepared during the course of the Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study (YAFS-II) carried out in the Philippines in 1994. The survey involved a nationally representative sample of around 10,000 males and females aged 15-24. The focus of the survey was on early sexual and fertility behavior. The contents are: Introduction, by Corazon M. Raymundo; The modern profile of the Filipino youth, by Peter Xenos and Corazon M. Raymundo; Dating behavior, by Eliseo A. De Guzman and Gilda S. A. Diaz; Union formation and premarital sex, by Peter Xenos, Corazon M. Raymundo, and Clarinda L. Berja; Childbearing, by Deborah Balk and Corazon M. Raymundo; Reproductive health, by Grace T. Cruz and Clarinda L. Berja; Smoking, drinking, and drug use, by Lita J. Domingo and Maria P. N. Marquez; HIV/AIDS, by Deborah Balk, Lita J. Domingo, Grace T. Cruz, and Tim Brown; Social mapping of youth at risk, by Corazon M. Raymundo and Peter Xenos; and Concluding chapter: summary of findings, policy, and program directions, by Corazon M. Raymundo.
Correspondence: University of the Philippines, Population Institute, 3rd Floor, Palma Hall, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40536 Ribar, David C. The socioeconomic consequences of young women's childbearing: reconciling disparate evidence. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1999. 547-65 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Recent studies have begun to examine rigorously the links between early childbearing and subsequent socioeconomic status. Prominent in this literature has been a set of analyses that have used sibling fixed effects models to control for omitted variables bias. These studies report that the siblings difference procedure leads to smaller estimates of the effects of teen fertility than does standard regression analysis.... This paper uses 1979-1992 data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to compare estimates of the income and education consequences of teenage young adult fertility from standard regression and siblings fixed effects models with estimates from more general, alternative siblings models."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. C. Ribar, George Washington University, Department of Economics, Funger Hall, 2201 G Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20052. E-mail: dcr7@gwu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40537 Roy, T. K.; Jayachandran, V.; Banerjee, Sushanta K. Economic condition and fertility: Is there a relationship? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 42-43, Oct 16-29, 1999. 3,041-6 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to explore the economic rationality of fertility preferences in India. An attempt has been made to examine the linkage separately among couples with varying levels of education, with the supposition that a stronger negative association between economic condition and fertility will emerge among the more educated couples. Data generated by the large-scale National Family Health Survey (NFHS) provide an excellent opportunity to undertake such a study...."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40538 Salisbury, Philip S. Factors affecting birth rates among black women 20-24 years of age: a trend analysis (January 1972-March 1992). Social Indicators Research, Vol. 48, No. 1, Sep 1999. 1-38 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This research provides a multivariate explanation of monthly...birth rate variation for African-American women 20-24 years of age using time series analysis. The research explains both seasonal and intermediate variation in these birth rates. The independent variables were selected for their relationship to: economic understandings of fertility; developing understandings of the relationship of photoperiod to reproductive functioning; routine activity theory; and the relationship of birth rates to quality of life perspectives. The findings of this research are interpreted with respect to important developments and understandings in the quality of life literature." The analysis is based on official natality data for the United States.
Correspondence: P. S. Salisbury, People Tree, Research and Development, Springfield, IL 62704. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40539 Santow, Gigi; Bracher, Michael. Explaining trends in teenage childbearing in Sweden. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 3, Sep 1999. 169-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, some findings are described concerning abrupt changes in teenage reproductive outcomes in Sweden between the late 1960s and early 1980s that motivated the present investigation. A summary of what is known about teenagers' sexual activity, use of contraceptives, and recourse to induced abortion over that period was compiled, and a microsimulation model of teenage reproductive behavior was constructed in order to investigate how the observed changes in teenage pregnancy rates may have come about. Parallels and contrasts are drawn with experiences elsewhere that highlight what is special about the Swedish situation and what is not."
Correspondence: G. Santow, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40540 Sasai, Tsukasa. Changes in marital fertility and their determinants in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 54, No. 4, 1998. 3-18 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This document makes an analysis of changes in marital fertility in recent years in Japan.... We...also made a multi-variate analysis of the influence of various socioeconomic factors which seem to define marital fertility in recent years, and also tried to review the influence of population shift in proportion of the socioeconomic attributes, and the specific [characteristics of] the cohorts...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40541 Sawhill, Isabel V. Welfare reform and reducing teen pregnancy. Public Interest, No. 138, Winter 2000. 40-51 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Recent trends in adolescent childbearing in the United States are reviewed. The author notes that, although teen birth rates are declining, 40 percent of all girls in the United States become pregnant before their 20th birthday. One out of every five goes on to become a teen mother, and the overwhelming majority of these young mothers are unmarried and end up poor and on welfare. The case is made that more attention should be given to encouraging young people to defer childbearing until they are ready to become parents. The author concludes that "reducing births to unwed teenagers could substantially decrease child poverty, welfare dependency, and other social ills. Although little is know with certainty about how to advance this objective, states working in partnership with civic and faith-based institutions now have the opportunity to experiment with a variety of promising approaches that are critical to the longer-term success of current welfare reform efforts."
Correspondence: I. V. Sawhill, Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:40542 Schoumaker, Bruno. Indicators of the standard of living and the measurement of the relationship between poverty and fertility: the case of South Africa. [Indicateurs de niveau de vie et mesure de la relation entre pauvreté et fécondité: l'exemple de l'Afrique du Sud.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 963-92 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Some issues concerning the criteria used to measure poverty in studies which examine the relationship between poverty and fertility are examined using data from the South Africa Integrated Household Survey undertaken in 1994-1995. "This article compares the relationship between living standards and the parity of women aged 40-49, using nine living standards indicators and according to place of residence. It is shown that the indicator of the standard of living can have a significant influence on the strength and direction of the relationship observed. An analysis of the disparities between the relationships obtained using different standards of living indicators shows that the main reason for these differences is not that different indicators do not place the same women in the same standard of living quintile, but rather the contrasting fertility of the women in different classes."
Correspondence: B. Schoumaker, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. E-mail: schoumaker@demo.ucl.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40543 Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko. Fertility transition in urban and rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 99-12, Sep 1999. 19 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper explores in some detail urban areas as the place of origin of fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of the paper are two-fold. First, we provide an overview of the role of urban areas in reproductive change by examining recent data on levels and trends of fertility, and patterns of fertility by age in a number of countries, separately for urban and rural areas. In those cases where the data permit, we also consider differences between fertility behavior in capital cities and in other urban places. Second, we attempt to quantify the importance of the various factors mentioned above in contributing to the differentials in fertility. More specifically, we provide evidence on the extent to which urban-rural differences in fertility...are linked to differences in schooling, age at marriage, contraceptive use, and infant and child mortality. The data used in the paper are from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) that have been carried out since the mid/late 1980s."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Author's E-mail: dshapiro@psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40544 Sprangers, A. H. Fertility of foreign-born women in the Netherlands. Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 47, No. 11, Nov 1999. 12-4 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The total fertility rate of Moroccan women living in the Netherlands has strongly decreased, from 4.9 children in 1990 to 3.4 children in 1998. The total fertility rate of women born in Turkey decreased from 3.2 in 1990 to 2.6 in 1998.... The fertility of women born in Suriname or the Antilles is only slightly higher (1.6 and 1.8 respectively in 1998) [than native-born Dutch women]. Moroccan and Turkish women have their first children at a comparatively early age of 25.4 and 24.3 years respectively in 1998. On average, women born in Suriname have their first children at age 28.2, Antillean women at age 26.5. The average for women born in the Netherlands is 29.4 years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40545 Tomal, Annette. Determinants of teenage birth rates as an unpooled sample: age matters for socioeconomic predictors. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 58, No. 1, Jan 1999. 57-69 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Illinois teenage birth rates are estimated both as a pooled sample and also as an unpooled sample (under eighteen years old and eighteen to nineteen years old). The younger teens' are statistically significantly affected by the number of two-parent families in the county. The older teens' birth rates have statistically significant coefficients for three additional predictors--county education and income levels and the percent of children living in poverty. Variables that do not have a statistically significant relationship with either group's birth rates are population density and the unemployment rate. The proportion of white population was a statistically significant determinant for the younger teens' birth rate." Data are from the Illinois Department of Public Health.
Correspondence: A. Tomal, Wheaton College, Department of Economics, Wheaton, IL 60187. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40546 Ventura, Stephanie J.; Mathews, T. J.; Curtin, Sally C. Declines in teenage birth rates, 1991-98: update of national and state trends. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 26, Oct 25, 1999. 12 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
National birth rates for teenagers in the United States are presented for the period 1991-1998, together with state-specific rates for 1991 and 1997. "Birth rates for teenagers 15-19 years declined nationally between 1991 and 1998 for all age, race, and Hispanic origin populations, with the steepest declines recorded for black women. State-specific rates by age fell in all States, with most declines statistically significant; overall declines ranged from 9 to 32 percent."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

65:40547 Bonde, Jens P. E.; Jensen, Tina K.; Larsen, Solveig B.; Abell, Anette; Scheike, Thomas; Hjollund, Niels H. I.; Kolstad, Henrik A.; Ernst, Erik; Giwercman, Aleksander; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Keiding, Niels; Olsen, Jørn. Year of birth and sperm count in 10 Danish occupational studies. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Vol. 24, No. 5, Oct 1998. 407-13 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to examine whether sperm count was related to year of birth.... An analysis was made of the sperm count of 1,196 men participating in 10 cross-sectional occupational sperm studies in 3 regions of Denmark from 1986 through 1995.... The apparent decline of sperm count with increasing year of birth is compatible with the hypothesis of a common risk factor for male reproductive health operating in prenatal life or early childhood, but the evidence is circumstantial. Age-related selection bias is an alternative and perhaps not a less likely explanation."
Correspondence: J. P. E. Bonde, Aarhus University Hospital, Steno Center, Department of Occupational Medicine, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. E-mail: J.P.Bonde@usa.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40548 Hassan, Khalid El-S. Prevalence of infertility and its impact on marital fertility, Egypt, 1993. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 215-30 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The prevalence of infertility in Egypt is assessed using data from the 1995 Community-Based Study of the Prevalence of Infertility and its Etiological Factors in Egypt and the 1993 Egypt Use Effectiveness of Contraceptives Survey. Differences in levels of infertility by geographic area, parity, marriage duration, educational status, and occupation are identified.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40549 Karmaus, Wilfried; Juul, Svend. Infertility and subfecundity in population-based samples from Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1999. 229-35 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In a population-based survey the prevalence of subfecundity was ascertained by means of a standardized interview with women in Denmark, Germany, Poland, Italy and Spain. The time of unprotected intercourse (TUI) either leading or not leading to pregnancy was applied as a uniform measure of fecundity. Population-based samples of women 25-44 years of age were recruited.... Altogether 6,630 women participated in the study. With regard to the first pregnancy, 19% of all couples had a TUI of more than 12 months, which is within the range of most previous findings. Regarding the most recent and first TUI in individual lives, if it had occurred within the previous 5 years, 23.4% overall did not conceive within 12 months (in Poland 33.3%, in north Italy and Germany 26.2%, in Denmark 23.3%, in Spain 18.6% and in south Italy 14.8%). Secondary subfecundity was more prevalent in Poland."
Correspondence: W. Karmaus, Michigan State University, Department of Epidemiology, 4660 South Hagadorn Road, Suite 600, East Lansing, MI 48823. E-mail: karmaus@msu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40550 Koster-Oyekan, Winny. Infertility among Yoruba women: perceptions on causes, treatments and consequences. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 1999. 13-26 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The Yoruba of southwest Nigeria believe that infertility can be due to spiritual problems, for which orthodox medical treatment is not appropriate. Therefore, women frequently seek prevention and treatment for infertility from local herbal and spiritual specialists, and from churches. This article presents preliminary findings from an anthropological applied research on fertility regulation among the Yoruba of Nigeria, and explains how Yoruba women and local providers of fertility regulation services perceive the causes, treatments and consequences of infertility. It concludes by explaining how the fear of infertility influences decision-making concerning the use of contraceptives, induced abortion, and pregnancy before marriage."
Correspondence: W. Koster-Oyekan, Women's Health and Action Research Centre, P.O. Box 51126, Falomo, Ikoyi, Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: kosteroy@infoweb.abs.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40551 Leridon, Henri. Sterility and subfecundity: From silence to impatience? Population: An English Selection, Vol. 4, 1992. 35-54 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Investigating data from two recent French fertility surveys, [the author] confirms that there is no clear-cut divide between fecundity and sterility, but a range of reproductive capacities. Some couples are able to conceive very rapidly, while others must wait for years. Also, it is difficult to define a boundary between the biological aspects of this problem and attitudes or opinions. Another dimension must thus be added to the traditional conception delay: the notion of `impatience to conceive'."
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40552 Nieto, J. J.; Rolfe, K. J.; MacLean, A. B.; Hardiman, P. Ovarian cancer and infertility: A genetic link? Lancet, Vol. 354, No. 9179, Aug 21, 1999. 649 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"A genetic mechanism may be responsible for the increased incidence of ovarian cancer in some infertile women (i.e., those who failed to conceive despite treatment).... To explore this hypothesis, we did a retrospective case-control study of ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives of women with a past history of infertility."
Correspondence: J. J. Nieto, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Free Campus, London NW3 2PF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

65:40553 Agha, Sohail. Consumer intentions to use the female condom after one year of mass-marketing (Lusaka, Zambia). PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 26, 1999. 16 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article examines intentions to use the female condom among men and women in Lusaka, Zambia. The female condom had been mass-marketed in Lusaka for about a year when this study was conducted.... [The] findings show that there are substantial barriers to adoption of the female condom in Lusaka...."
Correspondence: Population Services International, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40554 Agha, Sohail. Patterns of use of the female condom in Lusaka, Zambia. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 25, 1999. 22 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study assesses patterns of use of the female condom in the general population of Lusaka [Zambia]. It compares socio-demographic patterns of use of the female condom to those of the male condom. By presenting profiles of users, it allows a comparison between users of the female and the male condom in the last 12 months. Finally, it examines how use of the female condom varies by partnership and gender."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40555 Ali, Mohamed; Cleland, John. Determinants of contraceptive discontinuation in six developing countries. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 3, Jul 1999. 343-60 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This analysis investigates the determinants of contraceptive discontinuation in six developing countries, using data from Phase I surveys of the DHS programme.... The most important results are negative ones. Neither the schooling of couples nor their type of residence exerted appreciable influence on discontinuation. The policy and programme implications are discussed. Prior use of a method, fertility preferences and the related demographic factors of age and family size emerged as pervasive predictors of discontinuation."
Correspondence: M. Ali, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 50 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40556 Bankole, Akinrinola; Darroch, Jacqueline E.; Singh, Susheela. Determinants of trends in condom use in the United States, 1988-1995. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 264-71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1988 and 1995 [U.S.] National Surveys of Family Growth are examined to evaluate trends in condom use--either use alone or use with another highly effective method (dual method use). Logistic and multinomial regression analyses are presented to analyze the influence of women's characteristics on condom use.... Current condom use rose significantly between 1988 and 1995, from 13% to 19% of all women who had had sex in the past three months. Dual method use increased from 1% in 1988 to 3% in 1995, still a very low level. In both years, current condom use was higher among women younger than 20 (32-34% in 1995) than among those aged 30 or older (less than 20% in 1995)."
Correspondence: A. Bankole, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40557 Barkat-e-Khuda; Roy, Nikhil C.; Rahman, Dewan M. M. Unmet contraceptive need in Bangladesh: evidence from the 1993/94 and 1996/97 Demographic and Health Surveys. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1999. 37-50 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Bangladesh has achieved considerable success in its family planning programme, resulting in a marked decline in fertility. Fertility preferences have also undergone changes. The desire for additional children declined appreciably over the past decade. Half of the currently married women of reproductive age do not want any more children, and over one third want to space childbearing. One in every six women has an unmet need: 8 per cent each for spacing and limiting childbirth. Thus, there is a sizeable `demand' for family planning. This article analyses data from surveys. It finds strong and highly significant effects of ever use of family planning, husband-wife communications on family planning, age and number of living children on unmet contraceptive need."
Correspondence: Barkat-e-Khuda, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40558 Becker, Stan. Measuring unmet need: Wives, husbands or couples? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1999. 172-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Bangladesh, the Dominican Republic and Zambia are used to examine a new definition of unmet need--one that considers only responses regarding prospective fertility desires and intentions to use contraceptives. Unmet need is determined for wives, for husbands and for couples.... Differences between spouses in contraceptive and fertility intentions are substantial in all three countries. There is greater dissimilarity between husbands and wives regarding intention to practice contraception than there is regarding childbearing intentions.... Unmet need calculated for married women differs considerably from unmet need calculated for husbands and couples. Large discrepancies in these measures may be an indicator of spousal disagreement or lack of communication about reproductive goals or contraceptive use--issues that programs will have to address if they seek to raise contraceptive prevalence rates."
Correspondence: S. Becker, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40559 Bertrand, Jane; de Salazar, Sandra G.; Mazariegos, Lidia; Salanic, Ventura; Rice, Janet; Sow, Christine K. Promoting birthspacing among the Maya-Quiché of Guatemala. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1999. 160-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"A key challenge of the 1990s is increasing the acceptance of family planning in hard-to-reach populations. The Mayan populations in Guatemala lag far behind the nation's primary ethnic group in terms of health indicators and contraceptive use.... An intervention project was conducted in 1993-1996 in the predominantly Mayan department of El Quiché to increase knowledge about and use of contraceptives, and to improve attitudes toward birthspacing. The effect of the intervention was assessed using program-based data (routine service statistics from the leading family planning organization) and population-based data (a 1992 baseline and a 1996 follow-up survey conducted in eight municipalities).... Knowledge of at least one method and positive attitudes toward birthspacing increased dramatically over the period between surveys. For example, while only 42% of Mayan women in 1992 knew of a modern method, 95% of those interviewed in 1996 did so.... Current contraceptive use similarly rose from 5% to 18% in the period between surveys."
Correspondence: J. Bertrand, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health and Development, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40560 Burkman, Ronald T. Compliance and other issues in contraception. International Journal of Fertility and Women's Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 234-40 pp. Port Washington, New York. In Eng.
"About 5% of women in the United States (approximately three million) are not using contraception despite being at risk of unintended pregnancy. Teenagers have the highest rate of unintended pregnancy. Women 40 years and older most frequently terminate unintended pregnancy. Multiple theories and models, including the health belief model, the health decision model, the Prochaska change model, and the conviction-confidence model, have been developed to address choices and change in health behavior. Despite this information, current data on contraceptive compliance show considerable need for improvement. Side effects and patients' belief and preferences appear to influence strongly whether a method will be used appropriately. Systems improvements that address issues such as access and enhancement of provider-patient interaction appear to be areas of potential opportunity. Despite continued need for improvement, there is a paucity of information testing new approaches to improve contraceptive compliance."
Correspondence: R. T. Burkman, Baystate Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Springfield, MA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40561 Carter, James A.; McNair, Lily D.; Corbin, William R.; Williams, Michelle. Gender differences related to heterosexual condom use: the influence of negotiation styles. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1999. 217-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present study had three primary goals. The first was to identify gender differences related to negotiation styles associated with condom use. We hypothesized that women would report engaging in more negotiation behaviors associated with condom use than men. The second goal was to determine whether the relationships between intentions to use condoms and past condom use for women and men were moderated by negotiation behaviors. The third goal was to examine gender differences in responses to an open-ended question inquiring why participants did not use condoms." Data concern 219 students from a university in the southeastern United States.
Correspondence: J. A. Carter, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224. E-mail: carter@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40562 Castle, Sarah; Konaté, Mamadou K.; Ulin, Priscilla R.; Martin, Sarah. A qualitative study of clandestine contraceptive use in urban Mali. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 3, Sep 1999. 231-48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This prospective study uses qualitative methods to examine the social and economic impact of family planning on women's lives in the district of Bamako, Mali. Fifty-five first-time users of contraceptives were interviewed in October 1996. Of particular interest is the high proportion (17/55) of those who had hidden their use of a birth-control method from their husbands.... The main reason for discontinuation among the clandestine users was menstrual disruption, which they feared would make their husbands aware of their contraceptive use."
Correspondence: S. Castle, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 49-51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40563 Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. A national survey of utilization of sources of contraceptives in Thailand in 1996. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1999. 45-63, 171 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
"This survey provided detailed method-specific contraceptive sources [in Thailand] including both government and private outlets. It confirmed that government sources were major sources of family planning services for all methods. Three-fourths of current users were using contraceptive services from the government. Sub-district health centers were the most popular source of contraception. The main source [in the] private sector were drugstores, especially in urban areas."
Correspondence: A. Chamratrithirong, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. E-mail: pracr@mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40564 Chetkovich, Carol; Mauldon, Jane; Brindis, Claire; Guendelman, Sylvia. Informed policy making for the prevention of unwanted pregnancy: understanding low-income women's experiences with family planning. Evaluation Review, Vol. 23, No. 5, Oct 1999. 527-52 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
This study attempts to answer a question posed by two state agencies in California, namely: "what kinds of service improvements and educational efforts could be made (within the structure of the administration's initiatives) to encourage and facilitate the use of family planning services by low-income women?... Both agencies were interested in learning what gaps in women's knowledge could be addressed by a public information campaign, what barriers to service could be eliminated through state actions, and what incentives, if any, could be offered to enhance the appeal of family planning services and increase their use."
Correspondence: C. Chetkovich, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40565 Colli, Enrico; Tong, Donald; Penhallegon, Richard; Parazzini, Fabio. Reasons for contraceptive discontinuation in women 20-39 years old in New Zealand. Contraception, Vol. 59, No. 4, Apr 1999. 227-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To estimate the frequency and the medical and nonmedical reasons for discontinuation of oral contraceptive (OC), intrauterine device (IUD), and injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use, data from a cohort of experienced contraceptive users in New Zealand are reported.... The most common reasons given for discontinuing a contraceptive method, regardless of which method was in use, were the desire to conceive, patient preference, no longer needing contraception, and vasectomy."
Correspondence: E. Colli, Global Medical Affairs, Pharmacia and Upjohn, Bridgewater, NJ 08808-1265. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40566 Colombia. Departamento Nacional de Planeación [DNP] (Bogotá, Colombia). Contraceptive prevalence and fertility. [Prevalencia y fecundidad.] SISD Boletín, No. 14, Nov 1996. 26 pp. Bogotá, Colombia. In Spa.
This report contains a selection of data on contraception and fertility in Colombia that are taken from the Sistema de Indicadores Socio-Demográficos (SISD). There are tables on knowledge and use of different contraceptive methods by various characteristics, such as age, marital status, parity, and residence; contraceptive method switching; birth spacing; knowledge about the fertile period in the cycle; and fertility, including adolescent fertility.
Correspondence: Departamento Nacional de Planeación, Bogotá, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40567 Cromer, Barbara A.; McCarthy, Maureen. Family planning services in adolescent pregnancy prevention: the views of key informants in four countries. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 287-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Rates of adolescent pregnancy vary widely in the developed world. The prevention of adolescent pregnancy in the United States might be improved by comparing the provision of family planning services in the United States with that in some other developed countries.... Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 key informants (clinicians, politicians, public health administrators, social and behavioral scientists, and antiabortion activists) in Great Britain, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United states.... Across all four countries, interviewees described optimal family planning services for adolescents as those that include accessible, comprehensive and multidisciplinary care provided in confidence by nonjudgmental staff with good counseling and communication skills.... As described by key informants, the family planning services available to teenagers in the Netherlands and Sweden have many of the features identified by respondents from all four countries as those that would characterize ideal family planning services for adolescents."
Correspondence: B. A. Cromer, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cleveland, OH 44106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40568 Darney, Philip D.; Callegari, Lisa S.; Swift, Allison; Atkinson, Elizabeth S.; Robert, Anne M. Condom practices of urban teens using Norplant contraceptive implants, oral contraceptives, and condoms for contraception. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 180, No. 4, Apr 1999. 929-37 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"The availability of long-acting hormonal birth control methods has created new contraceptive options for adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether teens initiating these methods use condoms less frequently than teens using oral contraceptive pills or condoms alone and may therefore be at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections." Data are from a survey of 399 urban teenagers. The results indicate that "teen users of Norplant contraceptive implants are less likely to use condoms than teens who choose oral contraceptives but, probably because of differences in sexual behavior, are no more likely to self-report sexually transmitted infections. Our findings also indicate that teens who choose oral contraceptives and condoms do not use them consistently enough to avoid pregnancies or sexually transmitted infections."
Correspondence: P. D. Darney, University of California, Center for Family Planning and Reproductive Epidemiology, San Francisco, CA 94143. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40569 Davis, Karen R.; Weller, Susan C. The effectiveness of condoms in reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 272-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Information on condom usage and HIV serology was obtained from 25 published studies of serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Condom usage was classified as always...sometimes...or never.... Studies were stratified by design, direction of transmission and condom usage group. Condom efficacy was calculated from the HIV transmission rates for always-users and never-users.... For always-users, 12 cohort samples yielded a consistent HIV incidence of 0.9 per 100 person-years.... For 11 cohort samples of never-users, incidence was estimated at 6.8 per 100 person-years... for male-to-female transmission, 5.9 per 100...for female-to-male transmission and 6.7 per 100...in samples that specified the direction of transmission. Generally, the condom's effectiveness at preventing HIV transmission is estimated to be 87%, but it may be as low as 60% or as high as 96%.... Consistent use of condoms provides protection from HIV."
Correspondence: K. R. Davis, University of Texas Medical Branch, Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Galveston, TX 77555-1153. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40570 Dehne, Karl; Snow, Rachel. Integrating STI management into family planning services: What are the benefits? WHO Occasional Paper, No. 1, Pub. Order No. WHO/RHR/99.10. 1999. 78 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This report examines experience around the world with integrating sexually transmitted infection (STI) management into family planning (FP) services, through a review of both the published and unpublished literature. "Findings of the review have shown that a number of FP projects and programmes have been experimenting with the integration of STI management into their services, with the emphasis on STI prevention rather than STI care. Where this integration has been attempted, the quality of services, providers' attitudes and communication skills have improved. Integration of STI prevention into FP services has led to increased access and utilisation of services, due less to integration per se, but rather by expanding coverage and outreach to men, youth or other groups not previously the focus of FP or RH [reproductive health] services."
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40571 El Wafa'i, Zein-El-Abedeen. Contraceptive choice in Arab countries: access to family planning (1982-1994). In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 117-35 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The objectives of this study are "to examine the patterns of contraceptive choice access in Arab countries in 1994; to study and analyze trends in the access of contraceptive choice in Arab countries in the period 1982-1994; to identify the gap among Arab countries themselves from one side and among them, developing and developed countries, from another side in the access of contraceptive choice; and to point out some strategies for expanding contraceptive choice in Arab countries." Data are from studies sponsored by The Futures Group International.
Correspondence: Z. El-Wafa'i, Cairo Demographic Center, UNFPA Global Programme of Training in Population and Sustainable Development, 78 Street No. 4, El-Hdhaba Elolya, Mokattam 11571, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40572 El-Kader, Magdy A.; El-Maksoud, Mohamed A. Achieving demographic targets by satisfying the unmet need for family planning, Egypt 1988-1992: evidence from DHS data. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 146-71 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This study...aims to measure the impact of satisfying the amount of unmet need for family planning at the regional levels of Egypt.... [It attempts:] to estimate how high levels of current contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) would be if unmet need was satisfied; to estimate whether total fertility rate could be implied by those levels of use; to estimate the reduction in fertility connected with estimated use level."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40573 El-Wafa'i, Zein-El-Abedeen. Trends of contraceptive prevalence up to the year of replacement in Egypt. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 136-60 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"In this study we are concerned with the estimation of the level of contraceptive prevalence needed to achieve the replacement level of fertility [in Egypt] taking into consideration...changes in the other proximate determinants of fertility such as marriage [and] postpartum infecundability...." In particular, the author attempts to calculate how many contraceptive users are needed in each region to achieve replacement levels of fertility by the year 2010.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40574 El-Zanaty, Fatma; Way, Ann; Kishor, Sunita; Casterline, John. Egypt Indepth Study on the Reasons for Nonuse of Family Planning: results of a panel survey in Upper Egypt. Jun 1999. xviii, 219 pp. National Population Council: Cairo, Egypt; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
Results are presented from a survey carried out in 1997 in two governorates of Upper Egypt, Assuit and Souhag. The survey, conducted as part of the Demographic and Health Survey program, was entitled the Egypt Indepth Study of Reasons for Nonuse of Family Planning (EIS). The survey attempted to find out more about the factors contributing to the low level of contraceptive use in Upper Egypt despite the existence of a significant demand among women to control childbearing, and involved both qualitative and quantitative data collection. "This report presents the main results of the EIS panel survey. It includes information on the contraceptive behavior and fertility preferences of the women in the study as well as on factors such as access to contraceptive services, experience with side effects and husbands' attitudes that may be influencing contraceptive decision-making."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40575 Fabel, Elizabeth; Johnson, Lynette. Service Delivery Expansion Support (SDES) Project: expanding family planning services in Indonesia. Report of achievements 1994-1997. 1999. viii, 54 pp. Pathfinder International: Watertown, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This report describes the progress of a project in Indonesia designed "to build support for family planning...with community and religious leaders and women's groups, to increase access to family planning services in hard-to-reach areas, to improve the quality of services, and to strengthen the institutional capacity of the government and NGO sectors to respond to the country's contraceptive needs."
Correspondence: Pathfinder International, 9 Galen Street, Watertown, MA 02172-4501. E-mail: information@pathfind.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40576 Ford, N.; Koetsawang, S. A pragmatic intervention to promote condom use by female sex workers in Thailand. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 77, No. 11, 1999. 888-94 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An overview is presented of a multifaceted intervention to promote consistent condom use by female commercial sex workers in Thailand, in the context of the government's 100% condom use policy for preventing spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The project is described with reference to a succession of stages including pre-programme needs assessment, intervention design, implementation and evaluation."
Correspondence: N. Ford, University of Exeter, Department of Geography, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4RJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40577 Frank, Erica. Contraceptive use by female physicians in the United States. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 94, No. 5, Pt. 1, Nov 1999. 666-71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We studied [female U.S.] physicians' contraceptive choices using data from the Women Physicians' Health Study, a national study of 4,501 women physicians, and compared this information with national data." Results indicate that "female physicians contracept differently than do women in the general population, in ways consistent with delaying and reducing total fertility. Physicians' personal characteristics have been shown to influence their patient counseling practices, including their contraception-related attitudes and practices."
Correspondence: E. Frank, Emory University School of Medicine, 69 Butler Street, Atlanta, GA 30303-3219. E-mail: efrank@fpm.eushc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40578 Galvão, Loren; Díaz, Juan; Díaz, Margarita; Osis, Maria J.; Clark, Shelley; Ellertson, Charlotte. Emergency contraception: knowledge, attitudes and practices among Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1999. 168-71, 180 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"In Brazil, where emergency contraception could play a critical role in reducing unwanted pregnancies, the government has included the method in its family planning guidelines. Yet, little is known about its availability and provision.... A nationally representative, randomly selected sample of 579 Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists responded to a 1997 mail-in survey on emergency contraception. The data yield information on these providers' knowledge about, attitudes toward and practices regarding emergency contraception.... Nearly all respondents (98%) had heard of emergency contraception, but many lacked specific knowledge about the method. Some 30% incorrectly believed that emergency contraception acts as an abortifacient, and 14% erroneously believed that it was illegal. However, 49% of physicians who thought that the method induces abortion (which is largely illegal in Brazil) and 46% of those who thought that emergency contraception was itself illegal have provided it to clients. Most surprisingly, while 61% of respondents report having provided emergency contraception, only 15% of these physicians could correctly list the brand name of a pill they prescribed, the dosage and regimen, and the timing of the first dose...."
Correspondence: L. Galvão, Population Council, Campinas, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40579 Gardner, Robert; Blackburn, Richard D.; Upadhyay, Ushma D. Closing the condom gap. Population Reports, Series H: Barrier Methods, No. 9, Apr 1999. 35 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The need for condoms is growing as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) spread. Making condoms more accessible, lowering their cost, promoting them more, and helping to overcome social and personal obstacles to their use would save many lives and reduce the enormous consequences and costs of STIs and unintended pregnancies." Sections are included on the condom gap, sexual behavior and condoms, condom effectiveness, new types of condoms, improving access to condoms, promoting condoms, and policies to increase condom use.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40580 Gold, Rachel B. Implications for family planning of post-welfare reform insurance trends. Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, Vol. 2, No. 6, Dec 1999. 6-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"New tabulations by the Alan Guttmacher Institute of Census Bureau data show that between 1994 and 1998, the proportion of American women of reproductive age enrolled in Medicaid fell by 21%. By 1998, nearly one in five American women of reproductive age lacked insurance of any kind. While the precise causes and effects are not yet completely clear, welfare reform is likely to have played a major role in these developments, which have important implications both for women needing family planning services and for the health care professionals seeking to serve them." The tabulations are based on data from the Current Population Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40581 Goto, Aya; Reich, Michael R.; Aitken, Iain. Oral contraceptives and women's health in Japan. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 282, No. 22, Dec 8, 1999. 2,173-7 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Japan approved the use of low-dose oral contraceptives (OCs) on June 16, 1999, after more than 35 years of debate. The main concerns of the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, which contributed to the delayed approval of a low-dose OC, have been cardiovascular adverse effects, a declining birth rate, the deterioration of sexual morality, and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In this article, we analyze how the past resistance to approval of OCs reflects deeper problems in health services for women in Japan. We then explore the expected results of the approval and those actions by government and professional bodies that will be necessary to ensure a positive impact of OCs on women's lives."
Correspondence: A. Goto, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Department of Public Health, 2-2-2 Iida-nishi, Yamagata 990985, Japan. E-mail: agotoh@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40582 Guillaume, Agnès. Fertility regulation in Yopougon (Abidjan): an analysis of contraceptive biographies. [La régulation de la fécondité à Yopougon (Abidjan): une analyse des biographies contraceptives.] ETS Documents de Recherche, No. 7, May 1999. 31 pp. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction: Marseilles, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes family planning behavior in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, through the study of contraceptive biographies. Sections are included on contraceptive use during the reproductive years; the evolution of contraceptive use; fertility intentions and contraceptive use; and contraceptive use and the duration of birth intervals.
Correspondence: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction, Case 10, Centre St. Charles, 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseilles Cedex 3, France. E-mail: vimard@newsup.univ-mrs.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40583 Hardee, Karen; Amal, Siti H.; Novriaty, Shanty; Hull, Terence H.; Eggleston, Elizabeth. Family planning, work and women's economic and social autonomy in Indonesia. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1999. 49-72 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In Indonesia, the 1994 national marriage law stipulates that women's primary role in the family is bearing and rearing children, and that women's productive role is primarily related to domestic tasks. Men are responsible for supporting the family financially. This official interpretation of gender division of labour promotes unequal gender relations in the family. Using quantitative and qualitative data collected in 1996, the article describes the effect of the use of contraception and work on women's empowerment in the family, in two urban areas, Jakarta and Ujung Pandang. Although family planing use was not quantitatively associated with many aspects of women's empowerment, women did perceive three benefits related to their used of family planning: being able to space births, having the ability to earn money, and having more time for themselves and their families."
Correspondence: K. Hardee, Futures Group International, 2 Winchester Lane, Huntington, NY 11743. E-mail: K.Hardee@TFGI.COM. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40584 Harden, Angela; Ogden, Jane. Condom use and contraception non-use amongst 16-19 year olds: a within subjects comparison. Psychology and Health, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1999. 697-709 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present study used a within subject design to examine which situation specific factors discriminated between the use of condoms and non-use of contraception in the context of preventing unwanted pregnancy." The data concern 215 16-to-19 year olds from 58 educational institutions in the South Thames area of England. The focus is on the differences between young men and women with regard to nonuse of contraception.
Correspondence: J. Ogden, UMDS, Department of General Practice, Health Psychology, 5 Lambeth Walk, London SE11 6SP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

65:40585 Harvey, Philip D. Let every child be wanted: how social marketing is revolutionizing contraceptive use around the world. ISBN 0-86569-282-3. LC 99-13697. 1999. x, 251 pp. Auburn House: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This book describes how social marketing has been used to revolutionize the distribution of contraception around the world. Social marketing is defined as the use of marketing and other such time-refined business techniques to achieve social or otherwise beneficial objectives. The author notes that, by 1997, contraceptive social marketing programs were serving more than 16 million couples in 55 countries around the world. The primary geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Auburn House, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40586 Harvey, S. Marie; Beckman, Linda J.; Sherman, Christy; Petitti, Diana. Women's experience and satisfaction with emergency contraception. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 237-40, 260 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The major purpose of this study was to assess women's experience and satisfaction with emergency contraceptive pills. More specifically, the study examined how women found out about emergency contraceptive pills; their reasons for having had unprotected sex and needing emergency contraceptive pills; any side effects they experienced from taking the pills, such as nausea and vomiting; the method's acceptability and their satisfaction with it; their willingness to use the method in the future; and their attitudes regarding how emergency contraceptive pills should be distributed." Data are from "telephone interviews...conducted with 235 women who had received emergency contraceptive pills through a demonstration project at 13 Kaiser Permanente medical offices in San Diego...."
Correspondence: S. M. Harvey, University of Oregon, Center for the Study of Women in Society, Eugene, OR 97403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40587 Hennink, Monique; Diamond, Ian; Cooper, Philip. Contraceptive use dynamics of Asian women in Britain. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct 1999. 537-54 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In-depth interviews were conducted with married Asian women from Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds [in Britain], to investigate patterns of contraceptive use and influences on contraceptive decision making. The results show two distinctively different contraceptive `lifecycles'. Non-professional women typically have little knowledge about contraception until after their marriage or first birth. Their patterns of contraceptive behaviour show low levels of contraceptive use until after their first birth, when condom use is most prevalent. Non-professional women are influenced by their extended family, religion and cultural expectations on their fertility and family planning decisions. Professional women show an entirely different pattern of contraceptive behaviour. They are more likely to have knowledge about contraception before marriage, use some method of contraception throughout their childbearing years (typically the pill) and cite personal, practical or economic considerations in their fertility decisions rather than religious, cultural or extended family influences."
Correspondence: M. Hennink, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40588 Hennink, Monique; Cooper, Philip; Diamond, Ian. Safer sex at holiday centres: providing contraceptive services to seasonal workers. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul 1999. 45-54 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Many seasonal workers experience an increase in sexual activity whilst employed at a holiday centre.... This research investigates the contraceptive behaviour of seasonal workers [in England] and focuses on their access to contraception and sexual health services.... The paper describes the motivations which influence contraceptive use and sexual risk-taking amongst seasonal workers, identifies the contraceptive and sexual health needs of these workers, and discusses the difficulties workers experienced in meeting these needs while at a holiday centre."
Correspondence: M. Hennink, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40589 Hull, Terence H. Indonesian fertility behaviour before the transition: searching for hints in the historical record. Working Papers in Demography, No. 83, 1999. 34 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper reviews historical accounts of Indonesian sexuality and contraceptive behaviour to see if current notions of `tradition' conform to the historical record of behaviour. Very broadly they do not. The paper concludes that a more realistic vision of traditions could be very helpful in forming and implementing more humane and effective family planning and sex education policies for current populations of Indonesia."
Correspondence: T. H. Hull, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: terry.hull@anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40590 Ibrakhimova, Guyltchekhra. Socio-economic and demographic characteristics affecting contraceptive use in Turkey, 1993. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 215-37 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This research aims at examining the demographic and socio-economic determinants of contraceptive use in Turkey.... More specifically, the study objectives are: 1. [to] define the level of the knowledge, attitudes and practice of family planning; 2. [to] determine the socio-economic and demographic variables which affect the use of contraceptives;3. [and to] suggest some policy implications that might be helpful for policy planners and decision-makers in Turkey vis a vis promoting contraceptive prevalence." Data are primarily from the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40591 Janowitz, Barbara; Holtman, Matthew; Johnson, Laura; Trottier, Dorace. The importance of field-workers in Bangladesh's family planning programme. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1999. 23-36 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article uses observations of client-provider interactions and two surveys of users of oral contraceptives to examine empirically the characteristics of home visits, including their duration and content, and clients' perceptions of their usefulness. The results show that the quality of field-worker visits is low and that clients do not value their content highly. Field-workers spend little time with clients during each contact, and the number of topics discussed is low. A high percentage of clients do not have correct information about oral contraceptives, and the vast majority view the home visit programme as a convenience and not as an important source of information. There is also some evidence that women would shift to other sources rather than cease contraceptive use if they had to pay for continued home delivery."
Correspondence: B. Janowitz, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40592 Kamal, Nashid; Sloggett, Andrew; Cleland, John G. Area variations in use of modern contraception in rural Bangladesh: a multilevel analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 3, Jul 1999. 327-41 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study in Bangladesh found that inter-cluster variation in the use of modern reversible methods of contraception was significantly attributable to the educational levels of the female family planning workers working in the clusters.... At the household level, important determinants of use were socioeconomic status and religion. At the individual level, the woman being the wife of the household head and having some education were positively related to her being a user."
Correspondence: N. Kamal, Independent University, Bangladesh, Department of Population-Environment, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40593 Khan, Ayesha. Mobility of women and access to health and family planning services in Pakistan. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 7, No. 14, Nov 1999. 39-48 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In 1997, a small, qualitative study in three villages in rural Punjab explored restrictions on female mobility and other social barriers to accessing [health and family planning] services, in relation to women's status, concepts of honour and the practice of segregation of the sexes. Focus groups with married men and women, and unmarried girls, and key informant interviews were conducted in each site. Unmarried girls were most restricted in all types of mobility, even within their own villages. Attitudes towards health and family planning services were positive among both men and women, and women's access to these services within their own villages was least restricted. However, the unmarried girls experienced restrictions on accessing health care even within their own villages. Accessing services outside the village was more restricted for all women, as they rarely left their villages alone. Mobility for education or jobs outside the village was more severely controlled because it poses more of a threat to the honour code."
Correspondence: A. Khan, 11/1-A, Ninth Central Street, Defence Phase II, Karachi, Pakistan. E-mail: nasha@comsats.net.pk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40594 Klomegah, Roger. Socio-demographic characteristics of contraceptive users in Ghana. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1999. 21-34 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"This paper describes the social and demographic characteristics of contraceptive users in Ghana, using the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) data (1993). Analysis has revealed that contraceptive use among women is quite low. Women's age, marital status, educational level, and place of residence are some of the factors that relate significantly to contraceptive use. The reasons most frequently cited for non-use of a modern birth control method are the desire to have children, lack of knowledge, and health concerns. The data show little motivation among women to practice family planning. Suggestions for effective family planning are provided."
Correspondence: R. Klomegah, Malaspina University College, Department of Criminology, 208-30 Prideaux Street, Nanaimo, British Columbia V9R 2MR, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40595 Langer, Ana; Harper, Cynthia; Garcia-Barrios, Cecilia; Schiavon, Raffaela; Heimburger, Angela; Elul, Batya; Reynoso Delgado, Sofia; Ellertson, Charlotte. Emergency contraception in Mexico City: What do health care providers and potential users know and think about it? Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 4, Oct 1999. 233-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To initiate campaigns promoting emergency contraception, we interviewed health care providers and clients at health clinics in Mexico City, ascertaining knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning the method. We found limited knowledge, but nevertheless cautious support for emergency contraception in Mexico. Health care providers and clients greatly overestimated the negative health effects of emergency contraception, although clients overwhelmingly reported that they would use or recommend it if needed. Although providers typically advocated medically controlled distribution, clients believed emergency contraception should be more widely available, including in schools and vending machines, with information prevalent in the mass media and elsewhere."
Correspondence: C. Ellertson, Population Council, Escondida 110, Colonia Villa Coyoacan, 04000 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. E-mail: cellertson@popcouncil.org.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40596 Lemort, M. F.; Lemort, J. P.; Lopes, P. Contraception during first intercourse: a survey of 467 female teenagers 13 to 21 years old living in Nantes. [La contraception au cours du premier rapport sexuel: enquête réalisée auprès de 467 jeunes filles de 13 à 21 ans dans l'agglomération nantaise.] Contraception--Fertilité--Sexualité, Vol. 27, No. 3, Mar 1999. 197-202 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"More than 30 years after the legalization of contraception in France [the authors assess] sexual behavior and the practice of contraception of French female teenagers.... [Data are from a survey of] 467 female teenagers, 13 to 21 years old [living in Nantes]. Results point out that more [than] 75% of young girls who replied to this survey used one contraceptive method during [their] first sexual intercourse and [the] condom is predominantly used."
Correspondence: M. F. Lemort, Service de Gynécologie et Médecine de la Reproduction, CHU Nantes, 44035 Nantes Cedex 01, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40597 Leoprapai, Boonlert. Unmet need for family planning among Thai women. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1999. 85-105, 172-3 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
"Objectives of the present study, using data from the 1997 Contraceptive Prevalence Study [of Thailand] for analysis, are: (1) to determine the level of unmet need for family planning among the currently married women in reproductive age (15-49 years) while the contraceptive prevalence rate is approaching maturity; (2) to find out about the demographic and social characteristics of women who should but are not using contraception and how these characteristics are related to their purpose of contraception (for birth spacing or limiting)."
Correspondence: B. Leoprapai, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. E-mail: prblp@mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40598 McDonald, Geraldine; Amir, Lisa. Women's knowledge and attitudes about emergency contraception: a survey in a Melbourne women's health clinic. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 39, No. 4, Nov 1999. 460-4 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"The aim of the study was to determine the level of awareness of emergency contraception in women seeking pregnancy counselling and to investigate their attitudes towards emergency contraception. All women presenting for pregnancy counselling at a Melbourne [Australia] women's health clinic in October 1997 were invited to complete a questionnaire detailing their contraceptive practices. One hundred and sixty-six questionnaires were distributed and 153 were completed (92% response rate). The majority of this sample population had heard of some form of emergency contraception and knew where to access it. However only 26% knew that emergency contraception should be taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse. Although 80% of the sample had heard of emergency contraception (or the morning after pill) only 9% used it in an attempt to prevent this pregnancy."
Correspondence: L. Amir, University of Melbourne, Key Centre for Women's Health, 720 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40599 Mejía, Alfonso. Contraception in the states of Guanajuato, Mexico, and Michoacán. Trends and changes in perceptions and attitudes. [La anticoncepción en los estados de Guanajuato, México y Michoacán. Tendencias y cambios de percepción y actitudes.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 18, Oct-Dec 1998. 189-204 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents the level and trends of...contraception and differentials in the [Mexican states] of Guanajuato, Mexico and Michoacán." Aspects considered include sources of information on contraception, population dynamics, and health; levels and trends of contraception at the national and the state level; perceptions of self-determination and planning in life; and projections of contraceptive use in the three states.
Correspondence: A. Mejía, Consejo Nacional de Población, Avenida Angel Urraza 1137, Col. Del Valle, C.P. 03100 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40600 Mirza, Tanjina; Kovacs, Gabor T.; McDonald, Peter. The use of family planning services by non-English speaking background (NESB) women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 39, No. 3, Aug 1999. 341-3 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This study was undertaken to determine the proportion of family planning organization clients [in Australia] who are from a non-English speaking background (NESB), to analyse the services they used, and to compare it to the services used by other clients.... There was a wide variation among the percentage of NESB service-users seen in different States.... Women with NESB were less likely to use the combined pill and injectable (Depo-Provera) but were more than 3 times as likely to use an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD)."
Correspondence: G. T. Kovacs, Box Hill Hospital, P.O. Box 94, Box Hill, Victoria 3128, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40601 Montgomery, Mark R.; Chung, Woojin. Social networks and the diffusion of fertility control in the Republic of Korea. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 179-209 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors specify a social learning perspective, in which individuals draw on peers, reference groups, and others in an effort to clarify the costs and benefits of new and innovative reproductive strategies, in order to analyze the diffusion of fertility control in South Korea. "This chapter begins by outlining the concept of diffusion, and goes on to consider the models of social learning developed in sociology and psychology, linking these to Bayesian learning concepts. Next it provides a brief background of the fertility transition in [South] Korea and a description of the social network data employed, The following two sections outline and apply the statistical models. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of diffusion modelling for research on fertility transitions and for the design and evaluation of family planning progammes."
Correspondence: M. R. Montgomery, State University of New York, Department of Economics, Stony Brook, NY 11790. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40602 Muia, Esther; Ellertson, Charlotte; Lukhando, Moses; Elul, Batya; Clark, Shelley; Olenja, Joyce. Emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya: knowledge, attitudes and practices among policymakers, family planning providers and clients, and university students. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 4, Oct 1999. 223-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To gauge knowledge, attitudes, and practices about emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya, we conducted a five-part study. We searched government and professional association policy documents, and clinic guidelines and service records, for references to emergency contraception. We conducted in-depth interviews with five key policy-makers, and with 93 family planning providers randomly selected to represent both the public and private sectors. We also surveyed 282 family planning clients attending 10 clinics, again representing both sectors. Finally, we conducted four focus groups with university students.... Participants in all parts of the study generally supported expanded access to emergency contraception in Kenya. They did, however, want additional, detailed information, particularly about health effects. They also differed over exactly who should have access to emergency contraception and how it should be provided."
Correspondence: C. Ellertson, Population Council, Escondida 110, Colonia Villa Coyoacan, 04000 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. E-mail: cellertson@popcouncil.org.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40603 Nazar-Beutelspacher, Austreberta; Molina-Rosales, Dolores; Salvatierra-Izaba, Benito; Zapata-Martelo, Emma; Halperin, David. Education and nonuse of contraceptives among poor women in Chiapas, Mexico. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1999. 132-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"A random sample of 883 women in union aged 15-49 living in the Border Region of the Mexican state of Chiapas were interviewed in 1994...to determine the relationship between socioeconomic variables and the likelihood that a woman had never practiced contraception.... The lack of any schooling at all was independently associated with the likelihood of nonuse of contraceptives.... Other socioeconomic variables that also independently raised the likelihood of nonuse were delivering at home, having experienced the death of at least two children and not having paid employment at the time of the survey."
Correspondence: A. Nazar-Beutelspacher, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40604 Norris, Anne E.; Ford, Kathleen. Sexual experiences and condom use of heterosexual, low-income African American and Hispanic youth practicing relative monogamy, serial monogamy, and nonmonogamy. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1999. 17-25 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Data collected in 1991 in personal interviews with a probability sample of low-income youth in Detroit, Michigan, are used "to describe (a) demographic characteristics, (b) sexual history, (c) perceived HIV susceptibility, and (d) current sexual behavior, condom use, and alcohol and marijuana use of heterosexual, low-income African American and Hispanic youth categorized as relatively monogamous (n=577), serial monogamous (n=171), or nonmonogamous (n=278)."
Correspondence: A. E. Norris, Boston College, School of Nursing, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467-3812. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40605 Obersnel Kveder, Dunja; Andolsek Jeras, Lidija; Rojnik, Barbara. Thirty years of family planning implementation in Slovenia. Drustvena Istrazivanja, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 1999. 253-66 pp. Zagreb, Croatia. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Scr.
"Family planning programmes were introduced in Slovenia 35 years ago. Births were planned more successfully than pregnancies. The prevailing family planning method in the first stage was abortion, later on contraceptive use. Despite a consistent improvement in family planning and a decreased number of abortions, the maternal mortality rate among Slovenian women is still by three to five times higher than elsewhere in the developed world. Maternal mortality among adolescents is by three times higher than among older women, and their infants die more often than those born to older women. This makes adolescent pregnancies the most important risk factor for reproductive health."
Correspondence: D. Obersnel Kveder, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Center for Scientific Research, Novi trg 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. E-mail: obersnel@alpha.zrc-sazu.si. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40606 Petro-Nustas, Wasileh. Men's knowledge of and attitudes toward birthspacing and contraceptive use in Jordan. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1999. 181-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Jordan has begun to consider a strategy of targeting men for family planning services.... A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of 241 men whose wives delivered in three hospitals in Amman in 1996-1997.... Virtually all men (98%) had heard of birthspacing, but only 40% could correctly define the term. About two-thirds of respondents knew of male contraceptives, but a similar proportion did not know where to get information about them. Some 86% believed that men are as responsible as women for preventing pregnancies, and 52% thought that men's contraceptive use would rise if male-oriented services were available. Attitudes toward birthspacing and contraceptive use were more positive among men with at least a secondary education and among those with a higher income than among their less-educated and less well-off counterparts."
Correspondence: W. Petro-Nustas, Hashemite University of Jordan, Faculty of Nursing, Zarka, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40607 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Wang, Guang-Zhen. Reproductive rights in developing countries: an assessment of regional variations. Michigan Sociological Review, Vol. 13, Fall 1999. 10-27 pp. Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper examines cross-regional variations in women's reproductive rights in 101 developing countries. Two dimensions of reproductive rights, legal abortion rights and personal rights to contraceptive use and marriage, are examined. It is found that regional variations in legal abortion rights are very pronounced. However, there is a marked homogeneity with respect to the levels of personal rights to marriage and equality of sexes during marriage, and for divorce proceedings. Only one region, Middle-East/North Africa, is significantly different from the other three regions. Policy implications are discussed."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of Texas, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Box 19599, Arlington, TX 76019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40608 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Barton, Thomas R. Sexual activity among Zambian female teenagers: the role of interpersonal skills. Adolescence, Vol. 34, No. 134, Summer 1999. 381-7 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
"This study examined the relationship between interpersonal skills and sexual activity among female adolescents in Zambia. Data from 390 females in seven schools were analyzed. Results indicated that the inability to say no was associated with coital and noncoital sexual activity. The findings suggest that family planning programs should consider the role of interpersonal skills in controlling adolescent fertility."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 13675, Denton, TX 76203. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40609 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Wang, Guang-zhen. Social structural model of women's reproductive rights: a cross-national study of developing countries. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1999. 255-81 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Using data from 101 developing countries, this study tests a theoretical model of women's reproductive rights in developing countries. The effects of modernization processes and family planning programs on women's reproductive rights are examined. It is found that family planning programs have no statistically significant effect on women's reproductive rights, although they contribute to the decline in population growth. The effect of women's education on reproductive rights is found to be negative. Gender equality is the most important factor that affects the achievement of women's reproductive rights in developing nations. Social and economic development does not directly influence women's reproductive rights, but functions through the attainment of women's education and gender equality. Policy implications are discussed."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 13675, Denton, TX 76203. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40610 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Wang, Guang-Zhen. Women's reproductive rights in developing countries. ISBN 1-84014-908-6. LC 99-72243. 1999. xiii, 194 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"This book presents an empirical model of reproductive rights in developing countries. The model encompasses three explanations of reproductive rights. The first explanation proposes that reproductive rights levels are negatively related to population growth. The second explanation argues that gender equality has a positive effect on reproductive rights. Finally we propose that women's education has a positive effect on reproductive rights. The empirical model takes into account the effects of modernization, secularization, and family planning program effort on population growth, women's education, and gender equality."
Correspondence: Ashgate Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:40611 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Wang, Guang-Zhen. Women's reproductive rights, modernization, and family planning programs in developing countries: a causal model. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 40, No. 2, May 1999. 270-92 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The study examines the effects of family planning programs and the processes of modernization on women's reproductive rights. The study involves 101 developing countries. Using linear structural equation analysis, the study finds that family planning programs reduce population growth. However, population decline does not influence women's reproductive rights. The most important determinant of reproductive rights is gender equality. Socioeconomic development has a positive effect on women's educational attainment, but is negatively related to gender equality. The direct effect of women's education on reproductive rights is negative. Theoretical and policy implications of the findings are presented."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology, Denton, TX 76203-1157. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40612 Pool, Ian; Dickson, Janet; Dharmalingam, A.; Hillcoat-Nallétamby, Sarah; Johnstone, Kim; Roberts, Helen. New Zealand's contraceptive revolutions. Social Science Monograph Series, Population Studies, ISBN 1-877149-99-3. 1999. xi, 184 pp. University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre: Hamilton, New Zealand. In Eng.
"In the space of less than four decades New Zealand women and couples...went through a series of quiet but very profound revolutions. These were to change forever every aspect of reproduction and of family life. This monograph describes the radical shifts from the dominance of less efficient methods of contraception to the pill; then the introduction and high prevalence of voluntary sterilisation for older couples; and subsequently the reprise of condom use among younger couples. Finally, it reviews some of the significant implications of these trends for families, the society and policy." The data are mainly from the New Zealand Women: Family, Employment and Education survey carried out in 1995. A CD-ROM is included.
Correspondence: University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40613 Potter, Joseph E. The persistence of outmoded contraceptive regimes: the cases of Mexico and Brazil. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1999. 703-39, 833-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Two of the most striking characteristics of contraceptive practice in the world today are the wide variation in patterns of use across countries and the tendency of the distribution of use by method to persist or narrow, even as new methods become available. The argument advanced in this article is that the disposition to commit to a reduced range of methods results from positive feedback in the process of contraceptive choice, and follows the logic of path dependence. The positive feedback derives, in large part, from social interaction among both the providers and the users of contraceptive methods. The persistence of outmoded contraceptive regimes is illustrated with the experience of Mexico and Brazil. In each case, it is argued that the conditions, events, and policies in the early stage of the adoption process have had a determinant bearing on the contraceptive practice prevailing in the late 1990s."
Correspondence: J. E. Potter, University of Texas, Population Research Center, Department of Sociology, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40614 Rao, A. Prakash; Somayajulu, U. V. Factors responsible for family planning acceptance with single child: findings from a study in Karnataka. Demography India, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1999. 65-73 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present paper is based on a study carried out in Magadi Taluk, Bangalore district [Karnataka] where Family Planning Association of India (FPAI) has been very actively promoting the use of family planning methods with the help of local community based organisations.... Necessary information was elicited from 100 of the 175 couples who accepted sterilization with a single living child.... Interviews were mainly conducted with females and males were interviewed only in the absence of the females. Three fourth of the respondents were females.... The data collection was carried out with the help of a structured interview schedule. Besides the one to one structured interviews, case studies of some of the couples who accepted sterilization with one living child were also carried out to get an insight into the related factors."
Correspondence: A. P. Rao, Population Research Centre, ISEC, Nagarbhavi, Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40615 Rasevic, Mirjana. Family planning as a lifestyle. [Planiranje porodice kao stil zivota.] ISBN 86-7093-094-3. 1999. 211 pp. Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja: Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
This volume is concerned with family planning as both an individual need and a social requirement. Chapters are included on the biological prerequisites for childbearing; family planning on an individual level; health and family planning; family planning programs; induced abortion in Serbia; the acceptance of population policy in the low-fertility region of Serbia; and reproductive behavior and family planning in Kosovo and Metohija.
Correspondence: Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40616 Rehan, N.; Inayatullah, A.; Chaudhary, I. Norplant: users' perspective in Pakistan. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1999. 95-107 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Data from interviews with 518 acceptors of the Norplant subdermal implant in Pakistan are used to analyze the user's perspective on this method of contraception. "The study suggests that long duration of effective action and high social acceptance are likely to make Norplant a popular method among Pakistani women."
Correspondence: N. Rehan, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40617 Reuter, Simone. Barriers to the use of IUDs as emergency contraception. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul 1999. 63-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is a very effective form of emergency contraception (EC). This author hypothesised that IUDs are an underused method [in England] and determined to evaluate potential barriers to IUD use.... Lack of time was the most important factor that influenced doctors' decisions not to offer IUDs to the majority of women requesting emergency contraception.... Misconceptions and a lack of accurate information contributed to participants' reluctance to discuss IUDs as emergency contraception."
Correspondence: S. Reuter, North Derbyshire NHS Trust, Community Health Care Service, Saltergate Health Centre, Chesterfield S41 1SX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40618 Ringheim, Karin. Reversing the downward trend in men's share of contraceptive use. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 7, No. 14, Nov 1999. 83-96 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Five years after the International Conference on Population and Development, which had reached the consensus that men do not adequately share responsibility for family planning with women, the proportion of contraceptive prevalence attributed to men has fallen to 26 per cent, down from 31 per cent in 1994 and 37 per cent in 1987. This gender imbalance in contraceptive responsibility is occurring in a context of rapid growth in the population of reproductive age who need family planning, and of 16,000 new HIV infections daily. Meeting the enormous demand for reproductive health services requires that service delivery systems maximise the potential for use of male methods. This paper explores why use of male methods has fallen, and provides some programmatic examples of how to promote male methods successfully."
Correspondence: Author's E-mail: kringheim@aol.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40619 Rogers, Everett M.; Vaughan, Peter W.; Swalehe, Ramadhan M. A.; Rao, Nagesh; Svenkerud, Peer; Sood, Suruchi. Effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera on family planning behavior in Tanzania. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 3, Sep 1999. 193-211 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"An entertainment-education radio soap opera [on the adoption of family planning methods] introduced in Tanzania in 1993 was evaluated by means of a field experimental design in which the radio program was broadcast by seven mainland stations of Radio Tanzania.... The soap opera had strong behavioral effects on family planning adoption; it increased listeners' self-efficacy regarding family planning adoption and influenced listeners to talk with their spouses and peers about contraception."
Correspondence: E. M. Rogers, University of New Mexico, Department of Communication and Journalism, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1171. E-mail: Erogers@UNM.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40620 Rono, Philip K. Family size preferences and attitudes towards contraceptive use among men: the case of Kaptumo community in Nandi district of Kenya. Union for African Population Studies Study Report, No. 34, 1998. viii, 72 pp. Union for African Population Studies [UAPS]: Dakar, Senegal. In Eng.
The determinants of contraceptive usage among men in Kenya are analyzed using data from a survey of 300 men carried out in the Nandi District in 1994-1995. The results indicate that men are unlikely to take contraception seriously until they have achieved their desired family size, and that male attitudes toward contraception are a critical factor in contraceptive usage.
Correspondence: Union for African Population Studies, Stèle Mermoz, Km 7.5 Avenue Cheikh Anta Diop, B.P. 210007, Dakar-Ponty, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40621 Ross, John; Stover, John; Willard, Amy. Profiles for family planning and reproductive health programs: 116 countries. LC 99-75857. 1999. v, 87, [82] pp. Futures Group: Glastonbury, Connecticut. In Eng.
This publication presents a selection of data on reproductive health and family planning in developing countries around the world. "Chapter 1 provides an overview of the disparate geographic pattern of reproductive health problems as a backdrop to the rest of the volume. Chapter 2 uses over 220 national surveys to describe contraceptive use, including trends by method and source. Chapter 3 introduces a special projection method to anticipate future contraceptive use, again by method, with estimates of commodity needs. Chapter 4 summarizes demands on services due to growing population numbers, regarding safe motherhood services and the burdens of maternal mortality, abortion, and HIV/AIDS. Finally, Chapter 5 considers four action goals, including full access to contraception, satisfaction of unmet need and intention to use a method, achievement of the desired fertility level, and attainment of replacement fertility. A full set of appendix tables support these various topics."
Correspondence: Futures Group International, 80 Glastonbury Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40622 Shelton, James D.; Bradshaw, Lois; Hussein, Babar; Zubair, Zeba; Drexler, Tony; McKenna, Mark R. Putting unmet need to the test: community-based distribution of family planning in Pakistan. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1999. 191-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Unmet need for family planning in the developing world, as measured through surveys, is high. But it is important to determine whether there is a significant level of dormant demand for actual contraceptive services waiting to be satisfied, especially in a country such as Pakistan, where efforts to promote family planning have been disappointing.... Records from six household contraceptive distribution projects in Pakistan are used to determine contraceptive prevalence over 13-22-month periods.... Contraceptive use increased dramatically in all six projects, from an average of 12% to 39% in less than two years. The external evaluation team found the contraceptive prevalence measurements to be generally accurate, but identified additional improvements in access and quality that might further increase contraceptive use.... Increased use of contraceptives that results from improvements in service delivery confirms that a substantial unmet need exists."
Correspondence: J. D. Shelton, U.S. Agency for International Development, Center for Population, Health and Nutrition, 320 21st Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20523-1819. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40623 Siegel, David M.; Klein, Debora I.; Roghmann, Klaus J. Sexual behavior, contraception, and risk among college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 25, No. 5, Nov 1999. 336-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive behavior among U.S. college students using data from questionnaires completed by a sample of 797 students at a college in upstate New York. "Levels of sexual activity were found to be comparable to other college-based surveys. Notable trends included an increased level of oral contraceptive use among partners reported by seniors, as compared to freshmen, without a corresponding increase in condom use; an increased reliance among seniors, as compared to freshmen, on women to provide contraception; and a low level of self or partner HIV testing either before or after initiating sexual intercourse."
Correspondence: D. M. Siegel, Rochester General Hospital, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Pediatrics, 1425 Portland Avenue, Rochester, NY 14621. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40624 Steele, Fiona; Diamond, Ian. Contraceptive switching in Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 4, Dec 1999. 315-28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report uses calendar data from the 1993-94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey to examine contraceptive behavior following discontinuation of modern-method use. The individual-level characteristics found to influence switching behavior include the method used, method-related difficulties with previous contraceptive use, and education. A large amount of unexplained variation in switching rates remains, however, largely at the individual level, but also at the community level for certain types of transition."
Correspondence: F. Steele, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Statistics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. E-mail: F.Steele@lse.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40625 Steele, Fiona; Geel, Fatma El-Z. M. M. The impact of family planning supply factors on unmet need in rural Egypt 1988-1989. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 3, Jul 1999. 311-26 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the reasons for the high level of unmet need for contraception in rural Egypt, using data from the individual survey and service availability module of the 1988-89 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey.... The results from a multivariate analysis show that certain individual characteristics, such as family composition and education, have a strong impact on the level of contraceptive use and on the proportion of total demand for spacing or limiting childbearing that is met by use of family planning."
Correspondence: F. Steele, London School of Economics, Department of Statistics, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40626 Toulemon, Laurent; Leridon, Henri. Twenty years of contraception in France:1968-88. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 4, 1992. 1-33 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The authors discuss the relationship between contraception and fertility in France from 1968 to 1988. "We shall examine successively: present contraceptive use in France, as shown principally by a survey conducted by INED in 1988; [and] how the pattern has evolved over the past twenty years, as well as contraception at the time of the first sexual relations.... For the last baby boom cohorts (born about 1965), modern contraception has become a part of everyday life: 92% of these women will at some time have used oral contraceptives, starting on average when they were 19, and 60% the IUD. The other methods are not rejected.... However, the popularity of the condom was still limited in 1988."
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40627 Trussell, James. Contraceptive efficacy of the personal hormone monitoring system Persona. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul 1999. 34-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by J. Bonnar et al. in which the authors estimated the "probability of experiencing a pregnancy due to failure of the contraceptive method...among women using a personal hormone monitoring system to determine when to avoid intercourse. Unfortunately...the authors use a variant of an analytical technique known to produce a misleadingly low estimate of the risk of pregnancy when a contraceptive is used correctly and consistently according to instructions."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40628 Tydén, T.; Bingefors, K.; Odlind, V. Oral contraceptives and compliance: reaction to cardiovascular alarm among users. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1999. 133-9 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Data collected in Uppsala, Sweden, in 1993 and 1996 from some 600 women visiting family planning clinics to obtain or renew a prescription for oral contraceptives are used to analyze the impact of alarms about the cardiovascular risks on contraceptive practice. The results indicate that "negative media coverage leads to increased concerns and declining confidence among users of oral contraceptives and has to be met by adequate oral and written information by the counsellor."
Correspondence: T. Tydén, Uppsala University, Academic Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box 513, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40629 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Achievements in public health, 1900-1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 48, No. 47, Dec 3, 1999. 1,073-80 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"During the 20th century, the hallmark of family planning in the United States has been the ability to achieve desired birth spacing and family size.... Fertility decreased as couples chose to have fewer children; concurrently, child mortality declined, people moved from farms to cities, and the age at marriage increased.... This report reviews the history of family planning during the past century; summarizes social, legal, and technologic developments and the impact of family planning services; and discusses the need to ensure continued technologic improvements and access to care."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40630 Virjo, I.; Kirkkola, A.-L.; Isokoski, M.; Mattila, K. Use and knowledge of hormonal emergency contraception. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1999. 85-94 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Data from random samples (393 women and 395 men) drawn from the Finnish population are used to establish use of hormonal emergency contraception (EC), and knowledge about the correct time to take EC pills. The results indicate that "awareness of the availability of EC and of its correct use should be further promoted to avoid unwanted pregnancies."
Correspondence: I. Virjo, University of Tampere, Medical School, Department of General Practice, P.O. Box 607, 33101 Tampere, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40631 Wheeler, M. ICPD and its aftermath: Throwing out the baby? Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 77, No. 9, 1999. 778-9 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Was `the baby thrown out with the bathwater' at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo in 1994?... The `bathwater' in this instance was the element of coercion in the family planning programmes of some countries.... The `baby' is the recognition of the public interest in accelerating the transition to replacement fertility levels."
Correspondence: M. Wheeler, World Health Organization, Sustainable Development and Health Environments, Health in Sustainable Development, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40632 Zohry, Ayman G. The plateau effect of the family planning program in Egypt. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. No. 27, 1998. 136-45 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author discusses the plateau in Egypt's contraceptive prevalence rate that has continued since 1992. It is suggested that pushing the contraceptive prevalence rate higher would require changing the socioeconomic and cultural situation in Egypt.
Correspondence: A. G. Zohry, U. S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 (NAMRU3), Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: zohrya@namru3.navy.mil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

65:40633 Baird, David T.; Glasier, Anna F. Science, medicine, and the future: contraception. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7215, Oct 9, 1999. 969-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The prevalence of contraceptive use is increasing worldwide, and in many countries over 75% of couples use effective methods. However, existing methods of contraception are not perfect, and their acceptability is limited by side effects and inconvenience. Even in developed countries where contraception is freely available, many unplanned pregnancies occur. There is thus a real need for new methods of contraception to be developed that are more effective, easier to use, and safer than existing methods. This article discusses current research into new forms of contraception and predicts what methods are likely to be used in the future." The predicted developments are organized by three time periods: within five years, up to 10 years, and over 10 years.
Correspondence: D. T. Baird, University of Edinburgh, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Edinburgh EH3 9EW, Scotland. E-mail: dtbaird@ed.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40634 Bal, Vineeta; Murthy, Laxmi; Subramanian, Vani. Population growth and coercive controls: case of injectable contraceptives. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 39, Sep 25, 1999. 2,776-8 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The authors make the case that injectable contraceptives have been promoted in India as a major contraceptive method in the national family planning program in the interest of population control and for the commercial objectives of the pharmaceutical companies that have developed them, despite the opposition of women's groups and health activists concerned about safety issues with this method of contraception. The article is based on the work of Saheli, a women's group active in the campaign against hazardous contraceptives.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40635 Bigrigg, Alison; Evans, Margaret; Gbolade, Babatunde; Newton, John; Pollard, Louise; Szarewski, Anne; Thomas, Celia; Walling, Martyn. Depo Provera. Position paper on clinical use, effectiveness and side effects. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul 1999. 69-76 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors evaluate Depo Provera with respect to clinical use, effectiveness, and side effects. Aspects considered include patient profiles, contraindications, long-term effectiveness, menstrual irregularity, metabolic effects, risk to blood pressure and bone density, in utero exposure, return to fertility, cancer, and use in family planning services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40636 Dardano, Kristin L.; Burkman, Ronald T. The intrauterine contraceptive device: an often-forgotten and maligned method of contraception. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 181, No. 1, Jul 1999. 1-5 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"Although 90% of women at risk for unintended pregnancy in the United States use contraception, <1% of these women use the intrauterine contraceptive device. The mechanism of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices has been controversial, but several studies suggest that interference with sperm migration or function and with fertilization may be the most likely mechanisms. More important, there is lack of compelling evidence that the intrauterine contraceptive device acts as an abortifacient. The risk of pelvic inflammatory disease among users now appears to be extremely low, primarily as a result of better selection of candidates. A levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive device may offer some new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of certain gynecologic disorders. Although women who are not at risk of pelvic inflammatory disease or sexually transmitted diseases are appropriate candidates for the intrauterine contraceptive device, it appears that use can be expanded to selected nulliparous women and women with certain medical conditions."
Correspondence: K. L. Dardano, Baystate Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Springfield, MA 01199-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40637 Dunn, Nicholas; Thorogood, Margaret; Faragher, Brian; de Caestecker, Linda; MacDonald, Thomas M.; McCollum, Charles; Thomas, Simon; Mann, Ronald. Oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction: results of the MICA case-control study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 318, No. 7198, Jun 12, 1999. 1,579-83 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors investigate "the association between myocardial infarction and use of different types of oral contraception in young women [using] data from interviews and general practice records [in] England, Scotland, and Wales.... There was no significant association between the use of oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction. The modest and non-significant point estimates for this association have wide confidence intervals. There was no significant difference between second and third generation products."
Correspondence: N. Dunn, Drug Safety Research Unit, Bursledon Hall, Southampton SO31 1AA, England. E-mail: ndunn@dsru.u-net.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40638 Espinós, Juan J.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, José; Senosiain, Raquel; Aura, Monica; Vanrell, Cristina; Gispert, Meritxell; Vega, Carmen; Calaf, Joaquim. The role of matching menstrual data with hormonal measurements in evaluating effectiveness of postcoital contraception. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 4, Oct 1999. 243-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The aim of this study is to improve the accuracy of calculations of the effectiveness of postcoital contraception by evaluating hormonal status on the day of contraceptive treatment. The data concern 483 consecutive women requesting postcoital contraception in a department of obstetrics and gynecology in Barcelona, Spain, in 1997-1998.
Correspondence: J. J. Espinós, Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Antoni M. Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40639 Fortney, Judith A. Assessing recall and understanding of informed consent in a contraceptive clinical trial. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 4, Dec 1999. 339-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Recall and understanding of information provided to contraceptive study participants in four sites were assessed. Analysis was completed of data for 70 women who were asked about their recollection of information and understanding of participation.... This study confirms that risk is better recalled than understood. The participants surveyed remembered the information they were questioned about better than did participants in some other studies, a finding that supports earlier research results showing that younger, healthier patients (such as contraceptive users) recall better than older, less healthy ones." Of the four sites, one was in Africa, two in Latin America, and one in the United States.
Correspondence: J. A. Fortney, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: jfortney@fhi.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40640 Freundl, G. European multicenter study of natural family planning (1989-1995): efficacy and drop-out. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1999. 69-83 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Effectiveness studies in natural family planning (NFP) published over the past 20 years have shown a wide range of contraceptive efficacy and acceptability. This seems to be due in part to different NFP methodologies. Consequently, we decided to carry out an effectiveness study in Europe to examine one group of the most widely spread NFP methods, the symptothermal methods.... The symptothermal double-check methods have proved to be effective family planning methods in Europe. The low drop-out-rate for difficulties or dissatisfaction with NFP shows the good acceptability."
Correspondence: G. Freundl, Urdenbacher Allee 83, 40593 Düsseldorf, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40641 Hassan, E. O.; El-Nahal, N.; El-Hussinie, M. Once-a-month injectable contraceptives, Cyclofem and Mesigna, in Egypt: efficacy, causes of discontinuation, and side effects. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 2, Aug 1999. 87-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A clinical trial of the two once-a-month injectable contraceptives, Cyclofem and Mesigyna, used for 1 year was carried out in Egypt involving a total of 2,252 women living in different Egyptian localities, representing urban/rural and Upper/Lower Egyptian populations. Women were randomly assigned to either one of the two study preparations and followed a standard protocol for a comparative assessment of the efficacy, side effects and acceptability of the two preparations. Both contraceptives proved to be highly acceptable, with continuation rates of 63.2 per 100 women-years for Cyclofem and 61.6 for Mesigyna at the end of 12 months of use. The cumulative discontinuation rates per 100 women-years for method failure were 0.19 for Cyclofem users and 0.41 for Mesigyna users. Menstrual problems were the most frequently reported side effects in both groups."
Correspondence: E. O. Hassan, Egyptian Fertility Care Society, P.O. Box 126 Orman, Giza, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40642 Hubacher, David; Cárdenas, Carmen; Hernández, Daniel; Cortés, Manuel; Janowitz, Barbara. The costs and benefits of IUD follow-up visits in the Mexican Social Security Institute. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 21-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In a prospective study at eight clinics of the Mexican Social Security Institute, 1,713 new IUD users were instructed to return for either two or four visits in the first 12 months after insertion of the device. To estimate the health benefits and costs of each regimen, data were collected on the frequency of various medical interventions and the labor and material costs.... Of the nearly 2,000 visits made overall, 235 in the four-visit regimen and 159 in the two-visit regimen involved medical interventions to treat serious conditions; 53 and 29, respectively, were scheduled visits by women who had no symptoms but were found to require medical care.... A four-visit regimen costs much more than a two-visit approach."
Correspondence: D. Hubacher, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40643 International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF] (London, England). IMAP statement on injectable contraception. IPPF Medical Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 2, Apr 1999. 1-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The statement...was revised by the IPPF International Medical Advisory Panel (IMAP) following its meeting in September 1998." Recommendations are provided on formulations and dose intervals, progestagen-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, special situations, and service issues.
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. E-mail: info@ippf.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40644 Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Garceau, Roger J.; Cromie, Matthew A. Comparative safety, efficacy, and cycle control of Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic). Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 4, Oct 1999. 179-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of a new monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C)(MPA/E2C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7)." The data were collected from 1,103 sexually active women aged 18 to 49 desiring contraception who were enrolled at 42 clinics in the United States in 1997. The results "suggest that a monthly combination injectable would represent a welcome new contraceptive option for women in the U.S."
Correspondence: R. J. Garceau, Pharmacia and Upjohn, Clinical Development, Inflammation and Women's Health Care, 7000 Portage Road, Kalamazoo, MI 49001-0199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40645 Kaunitz, Andrew M. Long-acting hormonal contraception: assessing impact on bone density, weight, and mood. International Journal of Fertility and Women's Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 110-7 pp. Port Washington, NY. In Eng.
"The decline in unintended pregnancies and abortions in the United States has been attributed largely to increased use of two highly effective, hormonal contraceptive methods, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA) and levonorgestrel implants (Norplant).... Despite the efficacy and increasing acceptability of these long-acting, reversible methods of hormonal contraception, concerns that may make clinicians reluctant to recommend either method include depressive symptoms during use of Norplant or DMPA, weight gain and reduction in bone density during use of DMPA, and questions regarding the efficacy of Norplant in overweight women. This article reviews current and emerging data pertaining to these issues."
Correspondence: A. M. Kaunitz, University of Florida Health Science Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jacksonville, FL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40646 Kirkman, R. J. E.; Bromham, D. R.; O'Connor, T. P.; Sahota, J. E. Prospective multicentre study comparing levonorgestrel implants with a combined contraceptive pill: final results. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul 1999. 36-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Norplant is a hormonal, long term method of contraception requiring the sub-dermal placement of six flexible capsules containing levonorgestrel in the inner aspect of the upper non-dominant arm. [An] open, prospective, multicentre, parallel group [UK] study, comparing the acceptability of Norplant and a combined pill, was originally designed to follow 700 subjects for five years, but was discontinued early. The main outcome criteria were duration of use and reason for discontinuation if appropriate.... This report concerns the final results of the study."
Correspondence: R. J. E. Kirkman, Palatine Centre, 63-65 Palatine Road, Withington, Manchester M20 3LJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40647 Mauck, Christine; Callahan, Marianne; Weiner, Debra H.; Dominik, Rosalie. A comparative study of the safety and efficacy of FemCap, a new vaginal barrier contraceptive, and the Ortho All-Flex diaphragm. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 2, Aug 1999. 71-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The FemCap is a new silicone rubber barrier contraceptive shaped like a sailor's hat, with a dome that covers the cervix, a rim that fits into the fornices, and a brim that conforms to the vaginal walls around the cervix. It was designed to result in fewer dislodgements and less pressure on the urethra than the cervical cap and diaphragm, respectively, and to require less clinician time for fitting. This was a phase II/III, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel group study of 841 women at risk for pregnancy. A subset of 42 women at one site underwent colposcopy. Women were randomized to use the FemCap or Ortho All-Flex contraceptive diaphragm, both with 2% nonoxynol-9 spermicide, for 28 weeks. The objectives were to compare the two devices with regard to their safety and acceptability and to determine whether the probability of pregnancy among FemCap users was no worse than that of the diaphragm...."
Correspondence: M. Callahan, Eastern Virginia Medical School, CONRAD Program, 1611 North Kent Street, Suite 806, Arlington, VA 22209. E-mail: info@conrad.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40648 Raymond, Elizabeth; Dominik, Rosalie. Contraceptive effectiveness of two spermicides: a randomized trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 93, No. 6, Jun 1999. 896-903 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We conducted a multinational randomized trial to determine whether a spermicidal film containing 72 mg of nonoxynol-9 per film was at least as effective in preventing pregnancy as a foaming tablet containing 100 mg of nonoxynol-9 per tablet.... The contraceptive effectiveness of these two spermicidal products appeared similar. Both products were associated with a fairly high risk of pregnancy in [the sample of] young, highly sexually active population." The study was carried out at eight sites in Mexico, Ecuador, Guatemala, Ghana, and the United States.
Correspondence: E. Raymond, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: eraymond@fhi.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40649 Rees, Helen. Misoprostol--benefit or caution? IPPF Medical Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 2, Apr 1999. 5-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author evaluates the potential benefits and risks of misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin with abortifacient properties. "Many clinicians now acknowledge the potential risks of misoprostol but argue that the advantages far outweigh these as long as misoprostol is used under medical supervision."
Correspondence: H. Rees, Baragwanath Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Reproductive Health Research Unit, P.O. Bertsham 2013, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40650 Rehan, N.; Inayatullah, Attiya; Chaudhary, Iffat. Efficacy and continuation rates of Norplant in Pakistan. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 1, Jul 1999. 39-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A total of 265 women who had the Norplant system inserted were followed for 5 years. The present study is based on 11,435 women-months of use, describing the continuation rates and efficacy of Norplant among these women. The 5-year cumulative continuation rate was 45.7 per 100 continuing users. The continuation rates were age-dependent. The women [who were 35 years of age or more] consistently maintained higher continuation rates at all time intervals as compared with those of younger women. During 5 years of follow-up, five women became pregnant.... The 5-year cumulative pregnancy rate was 2.5 per 100 continuing users.... The continuation rates, as well as the pregnancy rates, are comparable to those reported from other countries in the region."
Correspondence: N. Rehan, 32/G Gulberg-III, Lahore, Pakistan. E-mail: nrehan@yahoo.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40651 Schiff, Isaac. Oral contraceptives and smoking: current considerations. Proceedings of a Women's Health Consensus Conference, Montreal, Canada, November 7-9, 1997. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 180, No. 6, Pt. 2, Jun 1999. 341-84 pp. Mosby: St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
This supplement presents the most recent evidence on the subject of the risks associated with oral contraception and smoking. The papers are: Benefits and risks of oral contraceptives, by Katherine Sherif; Cardiovascular disease: pathogenesis, epidemiology and risk among users of oral contraceptives who smoke, by William P. Castelli; Smoking and use of oral contraceptives: impact on thrombotic diseases, by Øjvind Lidegaard; Effects of smoking on prostacyclin formation and platelet aggregation in users of oral contraceptives, by Subir Roy; Hemostatic effects of smoking and oral contraceptive use, by Franca Fruzzetti; Effects of oral contraceptives on hemostasis and thrombosis, by Jan Rosing and Guido Tans; and Oral contraceptives and smoking, current considerations: recommendations of a consensus panel, by Isaac Schiff, et al.
Correspondence: Mosby, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146-3318. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40652 Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria; Arévalo, Marcos. The TwoDay algorithm: a new algorithm to identify the fertile time of the menstrual cycle. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 2, Aug 1999. 65-70 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Women who monitor their fertility signs and recognize when they are fertile can use this knowledge to conceive or to avoid pregnancy . Studies have shown that there is a rather small fertile window of several days during each menstrual cycle.... A new algorithm for identifying the fertile window has been developed, based on monitoring and recording of cervical secretions. The TwoDay Algorithm appears to be simpler to teach, learn, and use than current natural methods. A large existing data set from a World Health Organization study of the Ovulation Method, along with Natural Family Planning charts from women using the Ovulation method and the Symptothermal Method, were used to determine the potential effectiveness of the TwoDay Algorithm in identifying the fertile window. Results suggest that the algorithm can be an effective alternative for low literacy populations of for programs that find current natural Family Planning methods too time consuming or otherwise not feasible to incorporate into their services."
Correspondence: I. Sinai, Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for Reproductive Health, 3PHC, 3800 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, D.C. 20007. E-mail: sinaii@gunet.Georgetown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40653 Skegg, D. C. G. Safety and efficacy of fertility-regulating methods: a decade of research. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 77, No. 9, 1999. 713-21 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An international venture was launched in 1985 to fill a recognized gap in post-marketing surveillance of fertility-regulating methods.... Research priorities were chosen and epidemiological studies inaugurated, involving a total of 47 countries--mostly from the developing world.... The research has already made a significant impact on family planning policies and practice. Critical appraisal of this venture, which has been modestly funded, confirms the value of mission-oriented research. It also illustrates the potential of collaboration that bridges the global divide between developing and developed countries."
Correspondence: D. C. G. Skegg, University of Otago Medical School, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40654 Steiner, Markus J.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Raymond, Elizabeth; Trussell, James; Wheeless, Angie; Schoenbach, Victor. Influence of cycle variability and coital frequency on the risk of pregnancy. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 3, Sep 1999. 137-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Researchers have cautioned against generalizing results from contraceptive trials because these studies rely on self-selected participants meeting strict selection criteria who may differ from typical users. Using information collected on daily diaries, we reanalyzed data from the recently completed Reality female condom clinical trial to evaluate factors that influence the probability of pregnancy." The data concern 221 participants from six U.S. study sites. The authors conclude that "the strict selection criteria used in this study failed to recruit a homogeneous cohort with respect to factors that influence the risk of pregnancy. The overall pregnancy rate does not pertain to individual study participants, but rather represent average effects for a population with the particular mix of characteristics found in this study. In particular, we not only confirm the well known importance of compliance and the obvious role of frequency of intercourse, but also demonstrate that women with cycles outside the range of 17-43 days appear to be at a much lower risk of pregnancy."
Correspondence: M. J. Steiner, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27707. E-mail: msteiner@fhi.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40655 Trussell, James. Contraceptive efficacy of the Reality female condom. Contraception, Vol. 58, No. 3, Sep 1998. 147-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A clinical trial was conducted in 10 centers throughout Japan to assess the contraceptive efficacy and acceptability of the Reality female condom... The 6-month life table probability of becoming pregnant was 3.2% during typical use and 0.8% during correct and consistent use of the condom."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: trussell@princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40656 Trussell, James; Raymond, Elizabeth G. Statistical evidence about the mechanism of action of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 93, No. 5, Pt. 2, May 1999. 872-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors aim to determine "whether published statistical evidence about the effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception provides insight about its mechanism of action.... We compared 40 estimates of the actual effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen with the maximum theoretical effectiveness that could be obtained if the regimen worked only by preventing or delaying ovulation. In the overwhelming majority of these comparisons, the former exceeded the latter."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: trussell@princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

65:40657 Aisien, A. O.; Ujah, I. A. O.; Mutihir, J. T.; Guful, F. Fourteen years' experience in voluntary female sterilization through minilaparotomy in Jos, Nigeria. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 4, Oct 1999. 249-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Between January 1985 and December 1998, 2,913 female sterilizations through minilaparotomy were performed [in Jos, Nigeria]. The mean age was 36.4 [plus or minus] 4.2 years and 68% of the women were between the ages of 30 and 39 years. The mean [plus or minus] (SD) parity distribution was 8.0 [plus or minus] 2.0; 59.5% of the patients were para [greater than or equal to] 8, and the mean [plus or minus] (SD) number of living children was 6.8 [plus or minus] 1.6. Only 32.9% had the equivalent [greater than or equal to] 8 number of living children at the time of the procedure. Completed desired family size was the indication for the tubal occlusion in 95% of the patients."
Correspondence: A. O. Aisien, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, PMB 1111, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40658 Armstrong, Bruce; Cohall, Alwyn T.; Vaughan, Roger D.; Scott, McColvin; Tiezzi, Lorraine; McCarthy, James F. Involving men in reproductive health: the young men's clinic. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 6, Jun 1999. 902-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report describes the population of young men who use the Young Men's Clinic in New York City.... [It] describes the patient population of young men who use the clinic, presents a profile of their reproductive behaviors, and introduces our model of service delivery, including a brief description of the development and staffing of the clinic and the services that are currently provided."
Correspondence: R. D. Vaughan, Columbia University, J. L. Mailman School of Public Health, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue, Level B-2, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40659 Barnett, Barbara; Konaté, Mamadou; Mhloyi, Marvellous; Mutambirwa, Jane; Francis-Chizororo, Monica; Taruberekera, Noah; Ulin, Priscilla. The impact of family planning on women's lives: findings from the Women's Studies Project in Mali and Zimbabwe. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 1999. 27-38 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper reports on the findings of the Women's Studies Project, a five-year research effort conducted by Family Health International and designed to study the impact of family planning on women's lives. Twenty-six field studies were conducted in ten countries, including the sub-Saharan countries of Mali and Zimbabwe. In Mali, researchers looked at the experiences of first-time contraceptive users and factors that influence decisions to continue or discontinue methods, including spousal approval. In Zimbabwe, studies focused on family planning as a factor in women's participation in the country's economic development process. Researchers concluded that family planning is one of many strategies women can use to exercise autonomy in their lives. However, negative consequences of contraceptive use, such as community disapproval or husband's opposition may discourage women from taking control of their fertility."
Correspondence: B. Barnett, Family Health International, Women's Studies Division, One Triangle Drive, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40660 Chandra, Shiv. Community-based distribution of contraceptives in Rajasthan: an experience from Alwar District. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1998. 53-9 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
This is an evaluation of a community-based contraceptive distribution program in Rajasthan, India, the Jan-Mangal Project, carried out in 1993-1995. "The study reveals that although the use of conventional contraceptives has certainly gone up in the project area, an evaluation at the end of three years has brought out only a marginal rise in the contraceptives prevalence rate. It has also been observed in the baseline survey of the study that if the Jan-Mangal Project is executed in a right spirit, it would yield the proposed objectives of raising the desired contraceptives prevalence rate. The study has further observed that two-thirds of the rural women are married before the age of 18 years and an equal number of them entered in consummation by this age."
Correspondence: S. Chandra, State Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Community Health, Jaipur 302 017, Rajasthan, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40661 El Naggar, Nahed A. Determinants of reproductive health evidence from the Egypt Demographic and Health Survey 1992. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 339-60 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author discusses the impact of family planning programs in Egypt by examining the following indicators: current use of family planning, antenatal care, tetanus toxoid vaccination, breastfeeding, and number of children ever born. Women's place of residence, age, age at first marriage, education, and employment are shown to have significant effects on these indicators.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40662 Hubacher, David; Holtman, Matthew; Fuentes, Miriam; Perez-Palacios, Gregorio; Janowitz, Barbara. Increasing efficiency to meet future demand: family planning services provided by the Mexican Ministry of Health. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1999. 119-24, 138 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"In this article, we examine how resources are used to generate family planning services [in Mexico], and we measure the productivity of providers by observing how much total time they spend with clients. We use this information, together with data on the cost of resources, to determine the costs associated with providing different types of family planning services. Finally, we project the costs of family planning services under various assumptions concerning improvements in resource productivity. Specifically, the scenarios we consider are increases in the amount of time a provider spends with clients and in the amount of resupply methods (oral contraceptives and condoms) provided to clients at visits."
Correspondence: D. Hubacher, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40663 Hull, Terence H.; Raharto, Aswatini; Handayani, Titik; Setiawan, Bayu; Noveria, Mita. Family planning and family decision-making in Nusa Tenggara Timur. ISBN 979-8553-41-1. 1999. xvi, 131 pp. Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Center for Population and Manpower Studies: Jakarta, Indonesia; Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
This report presents results from a research project on aspects of the family planning program in eastern Indonesia. Following a review of the literature and a description of the family planning program, research results are provided concerning the arrangement of marriages, the contraceptive decision-making process, medical barriers to contraceptive choice, the uncertain status of the natural family planning method, and the dilemma of Norplant removals.
Correspondence: Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Center for Population and Manpower Studies, Gedung Widya Graha Lt. X, Jalan Gatot Subroto 10, Djakarta Selatan, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40664 Langué-Menye, Gisèle. Promoting family planning in Cameroon: an analysis of the content and impact of an audiovisual communication campaign. [La promotion de la planification familiale au Cameroun: analyse de contenu des messages et impact d'une campagne de communication audiovisuelle.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 53, ISBN 2-87762-118-9. Jun 1999. 44 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The present study analyses the broadcasting, information and education methods used in Cameroon to control fertility and to promote contraception. Public communication tools use the standard media resources: radio, television and printed materials of which this Dossier analyses the contents and impact."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40665 Levin, Ann; Amin, Ahsanul; Rahman, Anisur; Saifi, Rumana; Barkat-e-Khuda; Mozumder, Khorshed. Cost-effectiveness of family planning and maternal health service delivery strategies in rural Bangladesh. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, Vol. 14, No. 3, Jul-Aug 1999. 219-33 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Two alternative service delivery strategies to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the Bangladesh national Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health programme have been tested: (1) service delivery at cluster spots, a centrally located neighbourhood spot, rather than at the client's home, and (2) increased frequency of outreach clinics merged with immunization spots. The cost-effectiveness of these strategies was compared with baseline estimates of the cost of providing services. The data were collected in two rural sites of Bangladesh, Mirasarai Thana of Chittagong and Abhoynagar Thana of Jessore, in August 1996. The results of this analysis indicate that cluster service delivery of contraceptive services in their present form are not more cost-effective than home delivery services. The cost per birth averted was lower in only one out of three services in each of the field sites."
Correspondence: A. Levin, Partnerships for Health Reform, 4800 Montgomery Lane, Suite 600, Bethesda, MD 20814. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40666 Mahmood, Naushin; Ali, Syed M. Population planning in Pakistan: issues in implementation and its impact. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 36, No. 4, Part II, Winter 1997. 875-88 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The authors assess the national family planning program in Pakistan. "Because of the absence of a coherent approach to overcome the social and cultural obstacles to the use of family planning in conjunction with poor service delivery and outreach activities; ineffective information, education and communication campaign; frequent changes in the organisational set up of the programme; inefficient management and lack of political commitment to family planning, the programme failed to achieve tangible success. Nevertheless, recent demographic and fertility surveys indicated some positive changes in the demographic indicators."
Correspondence: N. Mahmood, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40667 Obermeyer, Carla M. The cultural context of reproductive health: implications for monitoring the Cairo agenda. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, Suppl., Jan 1999. 50-2, 55 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the need to formulate objectives for family planning programs in order to reach goals set by the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. "In particular, two potentially conflicting goals must be reconciled: development of a uniform set of indicators to monitor progress and to compare program performance, and attentiveness to local conditions."
Correspondence: C. M. Obermeyer, Harvard University, Department of Population and International Health, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40668 Schuler, Sidney R. The next chapter in Bangladesh's demographic success story: conflicting readings. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 7, No. 13, May 1999. 145-53 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses changes in Bangladesh's family planning program, which is "shifting from door-to-door contraceptive distribution to a system based on fixed facilities, satellite clinics and supply depots.... [The paper] offers evidence that suggests that women will be willing to take more initiative in getting access to clinic-based family planning services if these services are of relatively high quality and if the women can simultaneously gain access to other resources that they value, such as more integrated reproductive health care services."
Correspondence: S. R. Schuler, John Snow Research and Training, 1616 N Fort Myer Drive, 11th Floor, Arlington, VA 22209-3100. E-mail: sid_schuler@jsi.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40669 Singleton, C. D.; Reuter, S. Dual provision or duplication? A survey of family planning provision. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul 1999. 41-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A survey of family planning service provision across a health district [in England] was carried out to establish the potential to rationalise current service provision by studying the pattern of service provision in the district and the links between family planning [FP] clinics and general practices.... An understanding of the complementary nature of the services in primary care and community FP clinics was achieved and agreement was reached that disinvestment in clinics locally was not appropriate."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40670 Upadhyay, Ushma D.; Robey, Bryant. Why family planning matters. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 49, Jul 1999. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"For many [family planning] programs advocacy is a new and challenging responsibility. Advocates must attract and old the attention of key audiences with powerful arguments and persuasive communication. In particular, research-based evidence of the benefits of family planning helps leaders justify their support." Sections are included on meeting demands for family planning, saving women's and children's lives, encouraging safer sex, involving youth and men, protecting the environment, aiding development, and planning for the future.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40671 Zohry, Ayman G. Population policies and family planning program in Egypt: evolution and performance. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 194-211 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"An attempt is made in this paper to study the evolution of population policies and family planning program [in Egypt] and their effects on contraceptive prevalence and fertility reduction." The author notes that the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 24 percent in 1980 to 47.9 in 1995, and gives much of the credit for that increase to the country's population program.
Correspondence: A. G. Zohry, Cairo Demographic Center, 78 Street No. 4, El-Hdhaba Elolya, Mokattam 11571, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

65:40672 Abraham, Leena; Kumar, K. Anil. Sexual experiences and their correlates among college students in Mumbai City, India. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1999. 139-46, 152 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Results of a 1997 survey conducted among 966 low-income college students in metropolitan Mumbai (Bombay) are examined to identify levels of sexual behavior.... Some 47% of male participants and 13% of female respondents had had any sexual experience with a member of the opposite sex; 26% and 3%, respectively, had had intercourse.... The strongest predictors of sexual behavior were students' knowledge about sexuality-related issues, attitudes toward sex, and levels of social interaction and exposure to erotic materials. However, the results differed for young men and women, and the effect of knowledge was inconsistent."
Correspondence: L. Abraham, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, P.O. Box 8313, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40673 Adjamagbo, Agnès; Delaunay, Valérie. A qualitative approach to changes in family patterns in a Senegalese rural population. [Une approche qualitative de l'évolution des modèles familiaux dans une population rurale sénégalaise.] ETS Documents de Recherche, No. 6, Apr 1999. 23 pp. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction: Marseilles, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Research on reproductive ideals as proximate determinants [of] fertility change is particularly helpful to explain reproductive behavior. But it is necessary to take into account the socio-economic settings in the study of fertility ideals. This study uses qualitative data collected in a rural pretransitional area in [Senegal]. Our results show persistence of traditional family patterns, related to gender role [in] the family and economic organization."
Correspondence: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction, Case 10, Centre St. Charles, 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseilles Cedex 3, France. E-mail: vimard@newsup.univ-mrs.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40674 Al-Sabir, Ahmed; Simons, John. Worldliness and fertility control: cultural attributes of contraceptive users among rural Bangladeshi women. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 343-54 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter reports on an investigation, conducted in rural Bangladesh, of the influence of specific attitudes of and towards women on the probability that they would be users of contraception. The study was expected to support the proposition that ideational variables were more powerful than economic variables as determinants of contraceptive use. In the event, that proposition was strongly supported by the findings. The data used were obtained from a sample of rural women in the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey. A matched case-control design was adopted: village women who were users of modern reversible contraception were compared with matched never-users."
Correspondence: A. Al-Sabir, National Institute of Population Research and Training, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40675 Arends-Kuenning, Mary; Hossain, Mian B.; Barkat-e-Khuda. The effects of family planning workers' contact on fertility preferences: evidence from Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 3, Sep 1999. 183-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Longitudinal data from Bangladesh collected from 1982 to 1993 show that women's desired family sizes have declined dramatically. This study examines how the decline in desired family size is related to visits from family planning workers for three intervals: 1982-85, 1985-90, and 1990-93. By use of logistic-regression analysis, the number of rounds during which women received visits from family planning workers is found to have no statistically significant effect on the probability that women altered their preference from wanting more children at the beginning of an interval to wanting no more at the end of the interval."
Correspondence: M. Arends-Kuenning, University of Illinois, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Economics, 408 Mumford Hall, MC-710, 1301 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801-3681. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40676 Bender, Sóley S. Attitudes of Icelandic young people toward sexual and reproductive health services. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 294-301 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Iceland has higher levels of fertility among both adult women and adolescents than many other western European countries. There is a need to make sexual and reproductive health services more accessible to teenagers in Iceland.... A descriptive, cross-sectional national postal survey was conducted in 1996 to explore the attitudes of 2,500 young people aged 17-20 toward sexual and reproductive health services in Iceland and to determine which factors might be of importance for the development of such services.... Icelandic adolescents want specialized sexual and reproductive health services offered within a broad-based service setting. Half of them would prefer to have these services located in a sexual and reproductive health clinic, and about one-third want such services to be located in community health centers...."
Correspondence: S. S. Bender, University of Iceland, Department of Nursing, Sudurgata, 107 Reykjavik, Iceland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40677 Boulay, Marc; Valente, Thomas W. The relationship of social affiliation and interpersonal discussion to family planning knowledge, attitudes and practice. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1999. 112-8, 138 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Data on 2,217 women aged 15-49 and 2,152 men aged 15-54 from the 1994 Kenya Situation Survey are used to examine the role of communication within individuals' social networks in mediating the association between [social] club membership and awareness, approval and use of family planning.... Women club members were 2.3 times as likely as nonmembers to know about modern methods of family planning, and male club members were 1.5 times as likely as nonmembers to know about modern contraceptives and 1.7 times as likely as nonmembers to approve of family planning. Club membership was not directly associated with increased use of contraceptives, but among both men and women, participation in a club was associated with significantly greater odds of having family planning discussions with members of both core and extended social networks."
Correspondence: M. Boulay, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40678 Bryson, Lois; Strazzari, Stefani; Brown, Wendy. Shaping families: women, control and contraception. Family Matters, No. 53, Winter 1999. 31-8 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
The authors use data for Australia to investigate "young women's aspirations about family size and their future employment plans, in the light of world wide trends. We then link this to patterns of contraception use among the young women in contrast to the picture for the older women. Patterns of contraception use are examined in the light of the young women's different backgrounds and the nature of their relationship with their sexual partner/s. The empirical data also provide a basis for a discussion of the problems young women face as they exercise control of their fertility. Finally, some implications for the families of the future and for gender relations more generally are explored."
Correspondence: W. Brown, University of Newcastle, Research Institute for Gender and Health, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. E-mail: whwjb@cc.newcastle.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40679 Calvès, Anne-Emmanuèle; Meekers, Dominique. The advantages of having many children for women in formal and informal unions in Cameroon. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 30, No. 4, Autumn 1999. 617-39 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The analysis of data from the 1991 Cameroon Demographic Health Survey (CDHS) demonstrates that married women, women in co-residential informal unions, and women in non-co-residential informal unions have different perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of having many children. These findings are important for improving the efficiency of future population policies designed to reduce levels of fertility. The results also show that non-co-residential and co-residential informal unions are conceptually different from marriage, which strongly suggests that the reported increases in the prevalence of informal unions in many African societies indicate an important change in the African family, the implications of which are still poorly understood."
Correspondence: A.-E. Calvès, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40680 Denissenko, Mikhail; Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero; Guerra, David. Sexual behaviour and attitudes of students in the Moscow State University. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1999. 279-304 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Information is presented on sexual attitudes and behavior and knowledge of AIDS among students in Moscow, Russia, using data from a survey carried out in 1996 involving 411 participants. "The first sexual intercourse (FSI) is relatively early for male students (median age = 17.7) and relatively late for females (18.9). Mean number of partners per year is not low, and it is the same for both males and females (almost 1.7). This is not the case in Western countries. Moreover, contraception at FSI is at a low level. Sexual attitudes are permissive--particularly concerning infidelity--and there is a general concern regarding the spread of AIDS. However, specific knowledge about AIDS transmission is lacking."
Correspondence: G. Dalla Zuanna, Università degli Studi di Messina, Istituto di Statistica, Piazza Salvatore Pugliatti, 98100 Messina, Italy. E-mail: casti@stat.unipd.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40681 Fadeyi, Olufemi A. Childbearing patterns, attitudes and intentions: a comparative study of Kenya and Nigeria. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 254-75 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine patterns, attitudes and intentions regarding childbearing in Kenya and Nigeria. The study is based on data from the 1993 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey and 1990 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey.... More specifically, the objectives of this study are as follows: 1. To identify similarities and differences in childbearing patterns in both countries. 2. To examine reproductive intentions by countries. 3. To determine levels of unwanted fertility. 4. To forecast future fertility rates."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40682 Friedman, Debra; Hechter, Michael; Kanazawa, Satoshi. Theories of the value of children: a new approach. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 19-47 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Reasons why couples in developed countries continue to decide to have children even though their net instrumental value is negative are explored in this theoretical study. "A non-standard value assumption, uncertainty reduction, is employed here to develop a rational choice explanation of contemporary fertility behaviour in developed societies that provides an answer to this question. We focus on one particular behavioural outcome: whether individuals or couples who are at risk of having a child in fact do so. We seek to account for variations in parenthood by deriving a number of propositions--some of them counter-intuitive--and considering evidence about this particular outcome. In the following discussion, the limitations of cultural and standard rational choice explanations of shifts in fertility behaviour are reviewed. Next, two informal models of parenthood based on an uncertainty reduction value assumption are proposed. The chapter concludes by exploring the extent to which implications based on these new ideas are supported by the relevant empirical literature."
Correspondence: D. Friedman, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40683 Gadow, E. C.; Jennings, V. H.; López-Camelo, J. S.; Paz, J. E.; da Graça Dutra, M.; Leguizamón, G.; Simpson, J. L.; Queenan, J. T.; Castilla, E. E. Knowledge of likely time of ovulation and contraceptive use in unintended pregnancies. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1999. 109-18 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The social and demographic characteristics of women having unwanted or mistimed pregnancies in South America are analyzed using data on 1,522 women interviewed immediately postpartum at one of 18 hospitals participating in the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC). "Patients were asked about their knowledge of when during the menstrual cycle conception is most likely to occur, their biomedical and social characteristics, the type of contraceptive methods used, their opinion of reasons for contraceptive failure, and their reasons for not using contraceptive methods. Among women with unintended pregnancies who attempted to avoid conception, only 61.6% were using contraceptive methods. Reasons given for not using contraceptives included health problems, lack of knowledge and lack of access to contraception."
Correspondence: E. C. Gadow, Buenos Aires University, CEMIC, Affiliated Hospital School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40684 Goodkind, Daniel. Do parents prefer sons in North Korea? Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 3, Sep 1999. 212-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study uses data from North Korea's 1993 national population census and from a 1998 survey of child nutrition to construct measures of son preference." Results indicate that "North Koreans do not evince prenatal discrimination against daughters.... Neither is evidence found of excess female mortality or malnutrition in the postnatal period.... The discrepancy in son preference across the Korean peninsula seems due largely to the socialist agenda pursued in the north following political partition after World War II. An important aspect of that agenda challenged the ancient Confucian ideology presumed to underlie son preference."
This paper was originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Goodkind, U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Room 117, Washington Plaza II, Washington, D.C. 20233-8860. E-mail: Daniel.M.Goodkind@ccmail.census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40685 Guest, Philip. Fertility preferences in Thailand. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1999. 1-19, 163 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"In this paper we use data from a recently completed national survey of contraceptive use to document fertility preferences of currently married Thai women. We also examine variations in fertility preferences across a range of variables. Finally, we will compare our results with earlier studies on this topic, particularly that of Knodel et al. (1996) in order to examine the extent of change."
Correspondence: P. Guest, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40686 Hahn, Daphne. Resistance, individualization, or obstinacy? The increase of sterilization in the new German states, its perception by the media, and the motives of women to have themselves sterilized. [Widerstand, Individualisierung oder Eigensinn? Der Anstieg der Sterilisationen in den neuen Bundesländern: die Wahrnehmung in den Medien und die Motive von Frauen, sich sterilisieren zu lassen.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1999. 301-27 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The first part of this article describes the German press campaign launched in 1992 on the subject of the increasing demand for sterilization among women in the former East Germany. The second part presents the results of an empirical study undertaken in the state of Brandenburg, East Germany, which investigated the motives of women wishing to undergo sterilization. The study concluded that the majority of women were choosing sterilization as a contraceptive option in response to changes in German abortion law, rather than out of a need to secure their employment or resist the state, as portrayed by the media.
Correspondence: D. Hahn, Planckstraße 20 II, 10117 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40687 Heaton, Tim B.; Jacobson, Cardell K.; Holland, Kimberlee. Persistence and change in decisions to remain childless. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2, May 1999. 531-9 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We utilize the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to examine trends in intentions to remain childless.... The largest group wants children but still postpones childbearing. The next largest group carries out their intention to have children. The third largest group switches from wanting children to not wanting children. Some are consistently childless in both surveys. Finally, a relatively small group did not intend to have a child in the first survey but subsequently had a child. Marital status is the most salient predictor for having children, but cohabitors also are more likely to have children than are single noncohabitors."
Correspondence: T. B. Heaton, Brigham Young University, Department of Sociology, 800 Spencer W. Kimball Tower, P.O. Box 25547, Provo, UT 84602. E-mail: tim_heaton@byu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40688 Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Tylor, Lisa R.; Peterson, Herbert B. Poststerilization regret: findings from the United States Collaborative Review of Sterilization. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 93, No. 6, Jun 1999. 889-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors use U.S. data to "evaluate the cumulative probability of regret after tubal sterilization, and to identify risk factors for regret that are identifiable before sterilization.... Although most women expressed no regret after tubal sterilization, women 30 years of age and younger at the time of sterilization had an increased probability of expressing regret during follow-up interviews within 14 years after the procedure."
Correspondence: S. D. Hillis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, DRH/NCCDPHP (K-34), 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. E-mail: seho@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40689 Hogan, Dennis P.; Berhanu, Betemariam; Hailemariam, Assefa. Household organization, women's autonomy, and contraceptive behavior in southern Ethiopia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 4, Dec 1999. 302-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data for currently married, fecund women aged 15-49 from demographic surveys conducted in the SNNPR (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region of Ethiopia) in 1990 and 1997 are used to investigate contraceptive knowledge and communication, and the use and future need for family planning services in this population. This study focuses on how these processes are affected by household organization and women's status, and on their implications for population policies and programs.... Women's literacy and autonomy are, by far, the most significant forces in the movement toward lower fertility in the region."
Correspondence: D. P. Hogan, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40690 Isarabhakdi, Pimonpan. Factors associated with sexual behavior and attitudes of never-married rural Thai youth. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1999. 21-44, 164 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"In order to create a better understanding of what never-married rural [Thai] youth are thinking and doing sexually, this study aims to examine premarital sexual behavior and attitudes of never-married youth. Particular focus is [on] the differences between males and females in their sexual behavior and attitudes. The specific objective is to examine factors such as socio-demographic characteristics, family factors, and peers that may have, at some degree, effects on sexual behavior and attitudes."
Correspondence: P. Isarabhakdi, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. E-mail: prib@mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40691 Korfker, Dineke; Khamis, Samir. Mothers/mothers-in-law as "agents of change" in the acceptance of family planning. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 178-93 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The impact of mothers and mothers-in-law on decisions concerning family size and contraceptive practice in Egypt is explored. The data are from a survey carried out in 1995 on aspects of population and family planning information, communication, and education. The importance of these older women as agents of change in matters concerning the family is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40692 Kouwonou, Kodjovi. New strategies in family formation in southeastern Togo. A textual analysis of group discussions. [Famille et procréation au sud-est Togo: de nouvelles stratégies. Une analyse textuelle des entretiens de groupe.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 55, ISBN 2-87762-121-9. Sep 1999. 50 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The extent to which a fertility transition is occurring in southeastern Togo is examined using data from the 1995 Family Planning in South-East Togo Survey (PFSET). This survey involved interviews with medical, religious, and political leaders in the first stage, and focus group sessions in the second stage. The results suggest that although polygamy is still widely practiced and children are still seen as an essential part of any marriage, changing economic conditions are making large families almost impossible and couples are reducing the size of their families because of financial constraints.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40693 Kulkarni, P. M. Gender preference contraceptive prevalence: evidence of regional variations. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 42-43, Oct 16-29, 1999. 3,058-62 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper first examines the indicators of gender preference from the NFHS [National Family Health Survey carried out during 1992-1993] tabulations for states in India. All the states except the six north, eastern states in which the sample sizes were small and Jammu and Kashmir, which was not fully covered in the survey, are included in the analysis. This discussion is followed by an assessment of the degree to which such preference influences contraceptive practice. The fertility implications of the elimination of gender preference are also discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40694 Landry, David J.; Kaeser, Lisa; Richards, Cory L. Abstinence promotion and the provision of information about contraception in public school district sexuality education policies. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 280-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A nationally representative sample of 825 public school district superintendents or their representatives [in the United States] completed a mailed questionnaire on sexuality education policies.... Among the 69% of public school districts that have a district-wide policy to teach sexuality education, 14% have a comprehensive policy that treats abstinence as one option for adolescents in a broader sexuality education program; 51% teach abstinence as the preferred option for adolescents, but also permit discussion about contraception as an effective means of protecting against unintended pregnancy and disease...; and 35% (or 23% of all U.S. school districts) teach abstinence as the only option outside of marriage, with discussion of contraception either prohibited entirely or permitted only to emphasize its shortcomings.... Districts in the South were almost five times as likely as those in the Northeast to have an abstinence-only policy. Among districts whose current policy replaced an earlier one, twice as many adopted a more abstinence-focused policy as moved in the opposite direction.... While a growing number of U.S. public school districts have made abstinence education a part of their curriculum, two-thirds of districts allow at least some positive discussion of contraception to occur."
Correspondence: D. J. Landry, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40695 Leridon, Henri. New methods of family planning in Europe. [Les nouveaux modes de planification de la famille en Europe.] In: European populations: unity in diversity, edited by Dirk van de Kaa et al. 1999. 51-76 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Major changes in family formation and reproductive behaviour in Europe since the early 1960s are presented. These demographic changes--often referred to as the `second demographic transition'--have gone hand in hand with the disappearance or weakening of a number of legal and social mechanisms that shaped family life in the past.... A number of issues are briefly identified, such as the emancipation of women, secularisation, hedonism and individualization, the value of children for individuals and couples, the loosening ties between biological and social parenthood, the development of contraceptive methods, and the role of economic constraints."
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40696 Liu, Hongyan; Gu, Baochang. Preference of rural population on the sex of expected children and their corresponding behaviors. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1998. 199-209 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this study was to analyze the preference of the rural population on the sex of expected children and their corresponding behaviors. The China Population Research Center conducted an investigation in the Northern Anhui District, Anhui province, in November 1996. This study analyzed the preference of the rural population who were younger than 35 years old, toward the sex of their expected children. The results showed that the rural population in the Northern Anhui District have a very strong preference for a boy. However, the results showed that the parents did not show a significant partiality between their sons and daughters (i.e., they treated their sons and daughters equally)."
Correspondence: H. Liu, China Population and Information Research Center, P.O. Box 2444, Beijing 100081, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40697 Mahmood, Naushin. Reproductive goals and family planning attitudes in Pakistan: a couple-level analysis. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 37, No. 1, Spring 1998. 19-34 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Based on the responses of 1,260 matched couples in the 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines how congruent wives' and husbands' attitudes towards fertility and family planning are, and to what extent the similarity or differences in attitudes affects their reproductive control behaviour. The results show that about 60 percent of the couples have given similar responses (agreeing either positively or negatively) to several fertility-related questions, whereas the remaining 40 percent differ in their attitudes. Multivariate analyses indicate that a couple's joint approval of family planning, husband's desire for no more children, and spousal discussion about family planning stand out as the strongest predictors of contraceptive use. These findings clearly suggest that the role of couple agreement is important in promoting the use of family planning, and that men should be made as equal targets of such programmes in Pakistan."
Correspondence: N. Mahmood, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40698 Mann, Melanie C.; Radcliffe, Keith W.; Basarab, Marina. Knowledge of emergency contraception amongst female patients attending a department of genitourinary medicine. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul 1999. 58-62 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of emergency contraception amongst new female patients attending [a UK] inner-city department of genitourinary medicine. Information was also sought about use of regular contraception and demography.... Half of the sample answered that the latest a woman could take emergency contraception after unprotected sex was three days. None of the sample knew that emergency contraception could be obtained up to five days."
Correspondence: M. C. Mann, City Hospital NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham B18 7QH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40699 Obermeyer, Carla M. Fairness and fertility: the meaning of son preference in Morocco. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 275-92 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter explores the link between egalitarian values and fertility through an analysis of demographic and ethnographic data from Morocco.... The aim here is to investigate the possible effect of parental son preference on fertility in Morocco." Data are primarily taken from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey. The results suggest that only a small proportion of Moroccan women say they want more sons than daughters and that there was only a slightly greater probability of using contraception in families that had more boys than girls. Furthermore, there was no evidence of systematic discrimination against girls.
Correspondence: C. M. Obermeyer, Harvard University, Department of Population and International Health, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40700 Oddens, Björn J. Women's satisfaction with birth control: a population survey of physical and psychological effects of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, condoms, natural family planning, and sterilization among 1,466 women. Contraception, Vol. 59, No. 5, May 1999. 277-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"User satisfaction and the physical and psychological effects of five commonly used contraceptive methods were investigated in a population survey among 1,466 West German women. The focus was on effects attributed by current and past users to these methods, rather than objectively assessed effects.... It emerged that satisfaction was greatest with sterilization (92% of users), followed by [oral contraceptives] (68% of ever users), IUD (59%), [natural family planning] (43%), and condoms (30%)."
Correspondence: B. J. Oddens, International Health Foundation, Europalaan 506, 3526 KS Utrecht, Netherlands. E-mail: info@ihf.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40701 Piotrow, Phyllis T.; Rimon, Jose G. Asia's population and family planning programmes: leaders in strategic communication. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1999. 73-90 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Asian countries led the world in identifying problems related to rapid population growth and high fertility and in developing programmes to address those issues. The region likewise took a leading role in developing strong information and communication programmes to inform, educate and persuade their people of the need to take action on a number of issues. This article identifies seven elements of strategic communication and gives examples of the impact they have had in the programmes of several countries in the region. It concludes by predicting that strategic communications will emphasize five areas in the future."
Correspondence: P. T. Piotrow, Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40702 Pötsönen, Riikka; Kontula, Osmo. How are attitudes towards condoms related to gender and sexual experiences among adolescents in Finland? Health Promotion International, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1999. 211-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Attitudes toward condoms among adolescents in Finland are analyzed using data collected from 928 students in 1990 and 1,183 students in 1994 as part of the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study. "In 1994, 70% of boys and 55% of girls reported that they had used a condom with their partner in past intercourse. The percentage of adolescents who did not use any contraceptive method decreased from 26% to [about] 13% between 1990 and 1994. Changes in attitude toward condoms by sex over time are noted."
Correspondence: R. Pötsönen, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyväskylä, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40703 Ranson, Gillian. Education, work and family decision making: finding the "right time" to have a baby. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 517-33 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The relationships among educational and occupational choices and decisions about having children in Canada are explored. The study "attempts to interpret the finding, evident in a longitudinal panel study of Alberta university graduates as well as in the 1991 Census, that a higher proportion of women in traditional fields like education or nursing have children by their thirties than do graduates of more non-traditional fields. The paper reports the experiences of a sample of women as they deal with the possibility, or the reality, of motherhood in a variety of traditional and non-traditional workplaces. While acknowledging the probable effects of gender socialization both on occupational choices and on family intentions, the paper suggests that the organization of work also materially affects reproductive decision making."
Correspondence: G. Ranson, University of Calgary, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40704 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Brewster, Karin L.; Kavee, Andrew L. Women, work, and children: behavioural and ideational change in the United States. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 148-75 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the trend in the [United States] since 1960 in attitudes towards the effects on young children of working mothers. These trends are examined relative to behavioural trends in fertility and in labour force participation of mothers of pre-school age children during the same time period. It is shown that changes in both behaviour and attitudes have been substantial. Did ideational change engender the behavioural change? Work on the fertility transition in developing countries suggests that new ideas can exercise a powerful influence on behaviour. However, our work suggests that in the U.S. behavioural change has preceded and influenced shifts in attitudes toward combining work and childrearing."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40705 Rodgers, Joseph L.; Doughty, Debbie. Genetic and environmental influences on fertility expectations and outcomes using NLSY kinship data. Danish Center for Demographic Research, Research Report, No. 5, ISBN 87-90736-05-2. Dec 1998. 16 pp. Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research: Odense, Denmark. In Eng.
"We...investigate the role of broad genetic and environmental influences on a number of fertility attitudes, and link those to fertility outcomes. Our data come from recently defined kinship structure from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.... Our findings suggest that both fertility expectations and desires have a heritable component, and virtually no shared environmental component."
Correspondence: J. L. Rodgers, University of Oklahoma, Department of Psychology, Norman, OK 73019. E-mail: JRODGERS@OU.EDU. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40706 Säävälä, Minna. Understanding the prevalence of female sterilization in rural south India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 4, Dec 1999. 288-301 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The popularity of female sterilization in rural Andhra Pradesh [India] is shown to be intelligible if the symbolic value of a young mother's reproductive capacity is understood in terms of familial power relations. Through sterilization, young mothers can symbolically push their influential mothers-in-law toward old age, thus increasing their own relative prestige, and they can strive to control the ambiguity surrounding their reproductive functions. This study is based on 14 months of participant observation in three rural villages, a survey of 396 households, and unstructured interviews with 42 women and two men."
Correspondence: M. Säävälä, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology/Social Anthropology, P.O. Box 59, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40707 Sato, Ryuzaburo; Iwasawa, Miho. Reproductive intentions and fertility control behavior of Japanese married couples: analysis of pregnancy histories. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 54, No. 4, 1998. 19-45 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This study aims to develop a dynamic and sequential model for the process of fertility control of married couples and to assess the relationships among their fertility attitudes, behavior and outcomes in present-day Japan with below-replacement level of fertility. In this study we focus on the concept of reproductive intentions (plans preceding a pregnancy).... In our survey reproductive intentions were directly questioned by use of [a] pregnancy history table for each pregnancy case with 4 categories: want a child soon, want later, want no more, and have no particular idea."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40708 Schoen, Robert; Astone, Nan M.; Kim, Young J.; Nathanson, Constance A.; Fields, Jason M. Do fertility intentions affect fertility behavior? Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 3, Aug 1999. 790-9 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We examine the relationship between fertility intentions and fertility behavior using a sample of 2,812 non-Hispanic Whites interviewed twice by the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households. Time 1 fertility intentions are strong and persistent predictors of fertility, even after controlling for background and life course variables. The effect is greater when the intentions are held with greater certainty. In contrast, the expected timing of births has a much more modest and short-term effect. Only marital status has an effect with a magnitude that is comparable with that of fertility intentions."
Correspondence: R. Schoen, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: rschoen@jhsph.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40709 Simons, John. The cultural significance of Western fertility trends in the 1980s. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 78-99 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Fertility trends in Western developed countries over the course of the 1980s are analyzed. In particular, the author proposes a two-dimensional model of cultural variation involving both absolutist and holistic values to help explain variations and changes in attitudes toward parenthood. The author "uses this model to examine data relating to changes in values and changes in fertility from a set of national surveys conducted in developed countries in 1981 and 1990. In many of these countries there was hardly any change in fertility during this period and, in several, ideal family size actually rose. The data suggest that individualistic values, traditional family values, and restrictive attitudes to sexual relations increased across Europe between 1981 and 1990. [He] concludes that despite a general increase in post-materialism, there was a shift towards a preference for a more traditional family structure, and that this shift was dominated by changes in attitudes to partnership rather than parenthood."
Correspondence: J. Simons, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40710 Speizer, Ilene S. Are husbands a barrier to women's family planning use? The case of Morocco. Social Biology, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1999. 1-16 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
The extent to which men can be a barrier to the use of family planning by women is explored. "Using the 1992 Morocco Demographic and Health Survey data, this study examines (1) whether women and men report concordant fertility desires, discussions, and contraceptive use; (2) the accuracy of women's perceptions of their husbands' fertility desires; and (3) whether husbands are a barrier to women's family planning use. The results demonstrate that, controlling for women's own fertility desires, husbands' true fertility desires are associated with family planning use. Likewise, women who perceive their husbands to want fewer children than they want are more likely to use family planning."
Correspondence: I. S. Speizer, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health and Development, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40711 Stanford, Joseph B.; Thurman, Poppy B.; Lemaire, Janis C. Physicians' knowledge and practices regarding natural family planning. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 94, No. 5, Pt. 1, Nov 1999. 672-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "assess physicians' knowledge and practices of modern methods of natural family planning.... A questionnaire was mailed to 840 physicians selected randomly from Missouri state licensing records.... Most physicians, especially those unaware of availability of instructors in their areas, underestimate the effectiveness of natural family planning and do not give information about modern methods to women."
Correspondence: J. B. Stanford, University of Utah, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, 50 North Medical Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132. E-mail: jstanford@dfpm.utah.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40712 Stash, Sharon. Explanations of unmet need for contraception in Chitwan, Nepal. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 4, Dec 1999. 267-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article explores reasons why women's fertility preferences and their contraceptive behaviors often appear to be contradictory. Ninety-eight separate interviews with women and their husbands conducted in rural Chitwan District, Nepal, over a 12-month period in 1993-94 revealed that people continually and self-consciously weigh the perceived benefits and risks of practicing family planning relative to their situations. Temporary and, especially, hormonal methods are perceived to carry unacceptable health risks.... Household poverty heightened the perceived risk of family planning use; poor people fear they can ill afford negative effects to their health that might result."
Correspondence: S. Stash, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 300 Second Street, Suite 200, Los Altos, CA 94022. E-mail: s.stash@packfound.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40713 Takahashi, Shigesato; Kaneko, Ryuichi; Sato, Ryuzaburo; Ikenoue, Masako; Mita, Fusami; Sasai, Tsukasa; Iwasawa, Miho; Shintani, Yuriko. Major findings from the Eleventh Japanese National Fertility Survey: attitudes toward marriage and the family among unmarried Japanese youth. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 55, No. 1, 1999. 61-83 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Results for the National Fertility Survey carried out in Japan in 1997 are presented on the attitude of young people toward marriage and the family. The data concern changes since 1987 and differences in attitude by age.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40714 Trussell, James; Vaughan, Barbara; Stanford, Joseph. Are all contraceptive failures unintended pregnancies? Evidence from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 246-7, 260 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1995 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to compare levels of unintended pregnancy among contraceptive users based on two definitions--the standard definition based on women's reports of contraceptive failure, and the NSFG definition based on pregnancy timing (wanted then, wanted later, or not wanted then or in the future).... Measures of wantedness based on women's feelings about their pregnancy may correlate more closely with important pregnancy outcomes than do traditional measures of intendedness."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40715 Virjo, Irma; Kirkkola, Anna-Leena; Isokoski, Mauri; Mattila, Kari. Contraceptive methods: knowledge sources rated by women and men. Contraception, Vol. 59, No. 4, Apr 1999. 257-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study evaluates the relative importance of various information sources [about contraception] and ascertains the position of...physicians among them. Random samples (393 women and 395 men) were drawn from the Finnish population.... The three most important sources for women were literature, physicians, and women's journals. For men, literature and the spouse/partner were the most prominent."
Correspondence: I. Virjo, University of Tampere, Medical School, Department of General Practice, Box 607, 33101 Tampere, Finland. E-mail: meirvi@uta.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40716 Westoff, Charles F. Mass communications and fertility. In: Dynamics of values in fertility change, edited by Richard Leete. 1999. 237-51 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The extent to which exposure to mass media can influence the likelihood that family planning will be used and fewer children preferred is explored using data from Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in Nigeria, Peru, and Indonesia. "The analysis is conducted on two levels: (1) the aggregate level, at which regions or provinces of countries are the units of observation, and (2) the individual level, at which women from selected countries comprise the study population." The results suggest that "media exposure is positively associated with economic status and very strongly related to women's education. When media exposure is related to the family planning variables with these covariates simultaneously included, the relationships persist, although they are reduced in magnitude. The effect remains even after ownership of radio and television is controlled and goes beyond simply having heard media messages specifically about family planning. Although our measures are crude, there is little doubt that exposure to the mass media plays a role in promoting family planning and reducing fertility."
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40717 Williams, Lindy; Abma, Joyce; Piccinino, Linda J. The correspondence between intention to avoid childbearing and subsequent fertility: a prospective analysis. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 220-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we use the 1988 round of the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and a 1990 telephone reinterview of 1988 respondents to identify which of the women who reported in 1988 that they wanted to avoid childbearing for good or to postpone a birth for at least three years were most successful at avoiding a birth in the interval between the two surveys." Results indicate that "certain subgroups of women may be more likely to classify births as wanted when they are asked retrospectively; alternatively, they may be more likely to experience changes in their living conditions that alter their fertility intentions."
Correspondence: L. Williams, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40718 Zaky, Hassan H. M. Determinants of desired family size in Egypt: wives and husbands. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 113-35 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"Using the 1992 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey data, this study focuses on the determinants of fertility desires of wives and husbands. The interaction assumption is also tested. A theoretical framework for the determinants of fertility desire of each spouse is presented. The results have shown that the determinants of preferences of husbands and wives are different in Egypt. Spousal communication and interaction seem to be more important at the level of reporting of preferences, as well as in narrowing the gap between desires, and less important at the level of identifying each other's concrete desires."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

65:40719 Ahmed, Shameem; Islam, Ariful; Khanum, Parveen A.; Barkat-e-Khuda. Induced abortion: what's happening in rural Bangladesh. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 7, No. 14, Nov 1999. 19-29 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This qualitative study was done in rural Bangladesh among the women seeking abortion-related care at six health facilities in two rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 1996-1997. It looked at contraceptive use, why women had abortions, who made the abortion decision, who provided the abortions, the complications of abortion that developed, [and] where and how soon the women sought treatment. A majority of the women in this study availed abortion services from facilities where MR [menstrual regulation] is provided. However, a quarter of the abortion procedures were dangerous or inadequate, and the number of women who developed complications was very high (43 per cent).... About three-quarters of the women were not using contraception at the time of getting pregnant."
Correspondence: A. Islam, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: a.islam@mailcity.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40720 Aiyer, Aryan N.; Ruiz, George; Steinman, Allegra; Ho, Gloria Y. F. Influence of physician attitudes on willingness to perform abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 93, No. 4, Apr 1999. 576-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Attitudes toward abortion among 82 physicians in the Bronx, New York, are explored, the focus being on how such attitudes affect willingness to perform the procedure. The results indicate that physicians were generally receptive to reasons for abortion that were medically indicated. "A proponent attitude was found in non-Catholics and those who were trained in residency programs that required observing abortions.... The most important personal factors influencing a physician's decision not to perform abortions included lack of proper training and ethical and religious beliefs. There was a significant positive correlation between the attitude score and practice score...."
Correspondence: G. Y. F. Ho, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Belfer Building 1312, Bronx, NY 10461. E-mail: ho@aecom.yu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40721 Asch, Adrienne. Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion: a challenge to practice and policy. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 11, Nov 1999. 1,649-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Some issues concerning the use of selective abortion in cases where prenatal diagnosis has identified fetal impairments are discussed. "This article assumes a pro-choice perspective but suggests that unreflective uses of prenatal testing could diminish, rather than expand, women's choices. This critique challenges the view of disability that lies behind the social endorsement of such testing and the conviction that women will or should end their pregnancies if they discover that the fetus has a disabling trait."
Correspondence: A. Asch, Wellesley College, Program in Biology, Ethics, and the Politics of Human Production, 106 Central Street, Wellesley, MA 02481-8201. E-mail: aasch@wellesley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40722 Bélanger, Danièle; Khuat, Thu Hong. Single women's experiences of sexual relationships and abortion in Hanoi, Vietnam. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 7, No. 14, Nov 1999. 71-82 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article explores the circumstances of premarital sexuality, unwanted pregnancies, and abortion among single women in Vietnam. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with single women who had an abortion in the Hanoi region in 1996. Participants were contacted through two health centres providing abortion services. Results show that women have sex in the context of committed relationships and view sexual relationships as part of courtship and dating. Only half of the women reported [attempted] to use a contraceptive method, though none of them wanted to become pregnant. Lack of knowledge and the belief that contraceptives are for married couples were among the reasons given for not seeking the means to prevent pregnancy. Eight of the women interviewed had had more than one abortion. Most of the women had abortions because they could not or chose not to marry."
Correspondence: D. Bélanger, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. E-mail: dbelang@julian.uwo.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40723 Blanchard, Kelly; Winikoff, Beverly; Ellertson, Charlotte. Misoprostol used alone for the termination of early pregnancy:a review of the evidence. Contraception, Vol. 59, No. 4, Apr 1999. 209-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article reviews the current available evidence on the potential of a misoprostol-alone regimen for medical abortion. Although the data are varied and difficult to compare, recent studies indicate that a misoprostol-alone regimen could be safe and effective as a method of medical abortion.... A misoprostol-alone regimen of medical abortion could...greatly improve the access to safe medical abortion services by women in developing countries."
Correspondence: K. Blanchard, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: kblanchard@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40724 Bohan, James F. The house of Atreus: abortion as a human rights issue. ISBN 0-275-96282-2. LC 98-38280. 1999. xiii, 239 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This book is an attempt to stimulate a re-evaluation of abortion and its place in U.S. society. "Rather than developing a new code of ethics specifically for abortion, I have striven to show that abortion is irreconcilable with principles that we already regard as almost universally accepted. I attempt to do this by framing abortion as a human rights problem, rather than merely an abstract philosophical, theological, or medical issue. I have also tried to present the issue in a manner that is unique and thought provoking, and accessible to lay persons as well as scholars."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:40725 Bolivia. Secretaría Nacional de Salud [SNS] (La Paz, Bolivia). Unwanted pregnancy and abortion: a bibliography. [Embarazo no deseado y aborto: bibliografía.] 1995. 235 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This is an annotated bibliography on induced abortion. Although there is no specific geographic focus to the 502 citations included, the selection is based on the holdings of four institutions in Latin America. An address list of institutions in Bolivia that do work in the area of population is included.
Correspondence: El Grupo de Trabajo, Casilla 3384, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40726 Carbonell Esteve, J. LL.; Varela, L.; Velazco, A.; Tanda, R.; Cabezas, E.; Sánchez, C. Early abortion with 800 micrograms of misoprostol by the vaginal route. Contraception, Vol. 59, No. 4, Apr 1999. 219-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to confirm the effectiveness and safety of self-administration of misoprostol every 24 [hours], for abortion up to 9 weeks of gestation [using data for] a group of 720 volunteer subjects [in Havana, Cuba].... Outcome measures assessed included successful abortion (complete abortion without requiring surgery), side effects, decrease in hemoglobin, mean time of vaginal bleeding, and mean time of return of menses. Complete abortion occurred in 644 of 720...subjects."
Correspondence: J. LL. Carbonell Esteve, Clinica Mediterrania Medica, C/Maestro Sosa, 22 baix, Valencia 46007, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40727 Charapova, Elena; Sagradov, Alexandre; Zemlianova, Elena. Reproductive health and induced abortions in Russia: survey results. Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1999. 117-30 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"Abortion is one of the most serious socioeconomic problems in today's Russia. Abortion remains the main method of fertility regulation. Many women have four to five abortions during their life time. The consequences of abortion are dramatic for the reproductive health situation. Two surveys (a face-to-face interview and a paper questionnaire) were conducted to investigate which socioeconomic and medical reasons lead women to their decision to go for an abortion. The article gives an overview of the low efficiency of family planning services, the lack in measures preventing unwanted pregnancies, the unpopularity of modern methods of birth control, the lack of responsibility considering the consequences of sexual behaviour, the lack of information about reproductive health problems, the spread of chronic diseases among women of reproductive age, and the improvements of the reproductive health situation when the (household) income per head gets higher."
Correspondence: E. Charapova, Public Health Institute, 11 Dobrolubova Steet, Moscow 127254, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40728 David, Henry P.; Skilogianis, Joanna. From abortion to contraception: a resource to public policies and reproductive behavior in Central and Eastern Europe from 1917 to the present. ISBN 0-313-30587-0. LC 98-51634. 1999. xix, 382 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This collective work analyzes the interactions among population policies, private reproductive behavior, and couple decision-making in the 28 countries of Eastern and Central Europe, including the USSR and Yugoslav successor states, in the context of women's rights. The period covered is from the Russian Revolution of 1917 to 1997. Following a general introduction to the book's major themes, including abortion and contraception, there are chapters on the abortion culture in the region and on the status of women. Separate chapters on specific countries are then presented, analyzing historical and political developments, population policy, the woman question, sexuality education, contraception, and abortion. Reasons for changes in public policies are discussed, as are fluctuations in the interpretation and implementation of laws and decrees.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40729 Dehne, Karl L. Abortion in the north of Burkina Faso. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 2, Oct 1999. 40-50 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Knowledge and use of abortifacients were investigated in a remote ethnically heterogeneous area in the north of Burkina Faso. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 320 married women in 21 villages and supplemented with key informants' interviews, clinical observations at the provincial hospital, and observations in one of the villages. Almost half of the sampled women of all ethnic groups admitted to the existence of abortions carried out by their peers. Response rates and knowledge of abortions were lower among younger women and among those belonging to the Islamic Hamallist and Wahabiya sects."
Correspondence: K. L. Dehne, University of Heidelberg, Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, Ringstrasse 19, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40730 Desgrées du Loû, Annabel; Msellati, Philippe; Viho, Ida; Welffens-Ekra, Christiane. The use of induced abortion in Abidjan: A possible cause of the fertility decline? [Le recours à l'avortement provoqué à Abidjan: une cause de la baisse de la fécondité?] Population, Vol. 54, No. 3, May-Jun 1999. 427-46 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this study the pregnancy histories of 1,201 women in the city of Abidjan are examined to determine the level and change in the use of abortion. This suggests that there is now a frequent use of induced abortion in Côte d'Ivoire (one third of women have aborted at least once) and that this has recently increased.... This rapid increase in the use of abortion is one of the explanatory factors for the fall in fertility in Côte d'Ivoire."
Correspondence: A. Desgrées du Loû, Insitut de Recherche pour le Développement, 04 BP 293, Abidjan 04, Ivory Coast. E-mail: annabel.desgrees@ird.ci. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40731 Dobie, Sharon A.; Hart, L. Gary; Glusker, Ann; Madigan, David; Larson, Eric H.; Rosenblatt, Roger A. Abortion services in rural Washington State, 1983-1984 to 1993-1994: availability and outcomes. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 241-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Population, birth and fetal death data, as well as pregnancy termination reports, obtained from Washington State were used to calculate abortion rates and ratios and birthrates for Washington residents in 1983-1984 and in 1993-1994.... Rural Washington women are traveling farther and more often to urban and out-of-state locations for abortion services, and are obtaining their abortions at a later gestational age, which is associated with a decade-long decline in the number of abortion providers."
Correspondence: S. A. Dobie, University of Washington School of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40732 Ervasti, Heikki. Support and opposition to abortion in Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 35, 1998-1999. 133-44 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"In this paper, I will provide an insight into the Finnish abortion culture. In particular, I will analyze the public perceptions of abortion with a recent cross-sectional survey data set.... First, I will examine the general levels of acceptance and opposition to abortion.... Second, I will focus on how large are the attitudinal cleavages existing between various segments of the Finnish population and what background variables correlate with opposition and permissiveness of abortion.... I will pay special attention to the effects of ideological determinants like religion, feminism and political orientation on abortion attitudes."
Correspondence: H. Ervasti, University of Turku, Department of Social Policy, 20014 Turku, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40733 Goodkind, Daniel. Should prenatal sex selection be restricted? Ethical questions and their implications for research and policy. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 1, Mar 1999. 49-61 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Sex-selective abortion following prenatal sex testing is so blatantly discriminatory that many observers have, understandably, called on governments to condemn and restrict the practice. Yet ethical questions that counterbalance these sentiments have been neglected. Restricting the practice would seem to interfere with reproductive freedoms and maternal empowerment, the twin goals adopted at the recent Cairo conference. The restrictions may also increase human suffering if sex discrimination is then shifted into the postnatal period. Consideration and empirical testing of this substitutive dynamic has been precluded by limitations in the comparative design of recent research and a lack of appropriate data. Nevertheless, this dynamic has always been presumed to exist by pro-choice advocates."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Goodkind, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 426 Thompson Street, P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40734 Goyaux, Nathalie; Yacé-Soumah, Frédérique; Welffens-Ekra, Christiane; Thonneau, Patrick. Abortion complications in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 2, Aug 1999. 107-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was to describe the various methods of abortion used by women admitted to an obstetrics department in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) for abortion complications. The study was retrospective, and was based on the medical files of all 472 women admitted for abortion complications during a 3-year period (1993-1995). The introduction of plant stems into the uterus, the use of certain instruments, use of vaginal preparations, and ingestion of plants were the most common abortion methods. Seventeen maternal deaths were registered, giving a maternal mortality rate of 3.6%. A high number of previous pregnancies and the ingestion of plants to provoke abortion were factors associated with the highest risk for maternal death. Complications of `local' abortion methods accounted for a high proportion of maternal deaths."
Correspondence: P. Thonneau, Hôpital La Grave, Service d'Urologie et Andrologie, Groupe de Recherche en Fertilité Humaine, 31052 Toulouse Cedex, France. E-mail: thonneau.p@chu-toulouse.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40735 Güldal, D.; Semin, S. Induced abortion: A method for birth control? Advances in Contraception, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1999. 49-59 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Despite the recent improvements in services and an increase in available funds, the expected increase in usage of effective contraceptive methods and decrease in number of induced abortions has not been seen in Turkey. This study investigates the causes of this situation and argues whether induced abortion is being used as a birth control method. Eight-five subjects were involved in the study, all of whom came to a family planning clinic for an induced abortion." Factors considered include knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, training and consultation, educational level, family planning program accessibility and method acceptability.
Correspondence: D. Güldal, Atatürk Training State Hospital, 175 sok. No: 3/4 Basin Sitesi, 35360 Izmir, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40736 Huntington, Dale; Piet-Pelon, Nancy J. Postabortion care: lessons from operations research. ISBN 0-87834-100-5. LC 99-049051. 1999. xv, 218 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
This collective work is about the medical care provided to women who have experienced complications from incomplete abortion in developing countries. "Eight chapters in this volume describe operations research studies on postabortion care conducted in Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East. Another describes the ethical issues of conducting researching a manner that assures the rights of the patient are protected. The authors describe improvements that can be made to the services provided to postabortion patients without significant investment of additional resources, as well as efforts to adapt the training of providers to local norms. Taken together, the chapters illustrate the complexity of providing much-needed postabortion services in diverse settings."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40737 Kitamura, T.; Toda, M. A.; Shima, S.; Sugawara, M. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1998. 126-34 pp. Carnforth, England. In Eng.
"Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1,329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins."
Correspondence: T. Kitamura, National Institute of Mental Health, Department of Sociocultural Environmental Research, 1-7-3 Konodai, Ichikawa, Chiba 272, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40738 Krishnan, Vijaya; Krotki, Karol J. Impact of abortion on Canadian fertility rates. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1999. 67-81 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of the study was twofold: first, to present the macro impact of abortion over the last decade or two on Canadian fertility rates, and, second, to fill in the macro information with micro characteristics of respondents who admitted to abortion experiences, based on data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS).... As expected, married women aborted less than single women and divorced, widowed, or separated had more frequent abortions than single women.... There was a slight tendency among those with more years of schooling to have an abortion than their counterparts with fewer years of schooling."
Correspondence: V. Krishnan, Simon Fraser University, Department of Sociology, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40739 Novaes, Hillegonda M. D. Social impacts of technological diffusion: prenatal diagnosis and induced abortion in Brazil. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan 2000. 41-51 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The extent to which the intensive distribution of prenatal ultrasound in Brazil creates problems for individuals who have to cope with fetal malformations in the context of strict anti-abortion legislation is explored. The focus is on the coverage of this subject in the written mass media from 1991 to 1996. "The results indicate that the basic elements in the relationships between medical technology, prenatal diagnosis, foetal malformations and induced abortions stayed the same along the period--a restrictive Penal Code, the public recognition of the disseminated and usually tolerated practice of induced abortion, done in risky conditions for the majority of women, with very evident consequences on maternal health, a divided Congress, a divided 'public opinion', religious opposition and new scientific and technological practices in health care. Nevertheless, tension between these 'contradictory' factors increases, so much so, that new elements are introduced which make an accommodation possible, without implying...major changes of position. This is achieved through the development of new alliances between Science, the judiciary and obstetrical leaders, which benefit individual initiatives, instead of leading to a public recognition of the problem and changes in the law."
Correspondence: H. M. D. Novaes, Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo 455, 01246-903 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40740 Rivas Zivy, Marta; Amuchástegui Herrera, Ana. Voices and stories about abortion. [Voces e historias sobre el aborto.] ISBN 968-409-903-7. 1998. 125 pp. Population Council: New York, New York; EDAMEX: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This report is concerned with induced abortion in Mexico. It first examines the position of the Roman Catholic Church and the prevailing laws that make abortion illegal. It then presents evidence from women who have experienced abortions, with a focus on the consequences of the fact that abortion is illegal in the country.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: pubinfo@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40741 Roleff, Tamara L. Abortion, opposing viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints Series, ISBN 1-56510-506-0. LC 96-17342. 1997. 216 pp. Greenhaven Press: San Diego, California. In Eng.
This collective work contains a selection of previously published items on aspects of induced abortion in the United States. The selection includes both those in favor of a woman's right to choose and those opposed to abortion. The 30 items selected are organized under five headings: Is abortion immoral? Should abortion rights be restricted? Can abortion be justified? Is abortion safe for women? and Is research using aborted fetal tissue ethical?
Correspondence: Greenhaven Press, P.O. Box 289009, San Diego, CA 92198-9009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40742 Rosas Ballinas, María I. Abortion following rape: some ethical and juridical dilemmas. [Aborto por violación: dilemas eticos y juridicos.] 1997. 194 pp. Estudio para la Defensa de las Derechos de la Mujer [DEMUS]: Lima, Peru; Population Council: New York, New York. In Spa.
This report is about the situation in Peru with regard to induced abortion in the case of rape. The first chapter examines some general issues of sexual and reproductive health and rights. The second chapter is about sexual violence in general, including rape. The third chapter looks at the situation concerning induced abortion in Peru. The legal situation on induced abortion is described in an appendix.
Correspondence: DEMUS, Estudio para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer, Jr Caracas No. 2624, Jesús María, Lima, Peru. E-mail: demus@amauta.rcp.net.pe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40743 Salas y Villagómez, Guadalupe. Incidence of abortion in Mexico. [Incidencia del aborto en México.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 16, Apr-Jun 1998. 83-100 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author provides indirect measurements of induced abortion in Mexico in the years 1976, 1979, and 1987, and includes an estimate of abortion-related mortality between 1980 and 1990.
Correspondence: Author's E-mail: somede@colmex.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40744 Trent, Katherine; Hoskin, Anthony W. Structural determinants of the abortion rate: a cross-societal analysis. Social Biology, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1999. 62-81 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Data for a sample of 89 countries are used to examine societal-level predictors of the legal status of abortion and its incidence as indicated by abortion rates. Measures of socioeconomic development, women's labor force participation, and dominant religion are considered as predictors of abortion. Logistic regression analysis reveals that socioeconomic development has a positive effect on the probability of abortion being legal. Both a greater dominance of Catholicism and Islam in a society reduce the probability that abortion is legal. Results of tobit analyses show that development has curvilinear effects on abortion rates, with lower rates of abortion at both the lower and higher ends of development. Findings also indicate a positive effect of female labor force participation on the abortion rate that initially grows stronger with increases in socioeconomic development, but weakens with further increases. Finally, a greater proportion of Catholics in a population lowers the abortion rate."
Correspondence: K. Trent, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40745 Trussell, James; Ellertson, Charlotte. Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 3, Sep 1999. 119-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that efficacy has been analyzed. We then propose a standard conceptual approach and the accompanying statistical methods for analyzing clinical trials of medical abortion and to explain how clinical investigators can implement this approach." The authors make the case that medical abortion is more appropriately analyzed by the life table procedures developed for the study of contraception rather than by the methods normally used to analyze the efficacy of surgical abortion.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: trussell@princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40746 Whitaker, Corinne; Germain, Adrienne. Safe abortion in Africa: ending the silence and starting a movement. [L'avortement sans risque en Afrique: la rupture du silence et le lancement d'un mouvement.] African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 3, No. 2, Oct 1999. 7-14 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng; Fre.
This editorial addresses the question of how to promote safe abortion in Africa. The following five key steps are identified as essential: (1) Ensure the provision of safe abortion services to the full extent allowed by existing law; (2) Ensure that all women know the law and how to access services; (3) Ensure humane treatment for women who suffer complications from unsafe abortions; (4) Develop persuasive evidence for instituting legal, policy, and program change; and (5) Build broad-based coalitions at local, national, and international levels for concerted advocacy including both general public education and lobbying for legislation.
Correspondence: C. Whitaker, International Women's Health Coalition, 24 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

65:40747 Girgis, Reda N. Changing pattern of reproductive span and its impact on fertility in Egypt 1980-1992. In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 361-91 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The present study attempts to identify and compare variations in completion of childbearing and length of reproductive span through three points of time represented by three national surveys to meet the following objectives: to examine the change of woman's age at first birth, age at last birth and the length of reproductive span and their impact on fertility; to examine the effect of selected socio-demographic variables on age at first and last birth, reproductive span and children ever born." The study uses data from three major national samples: the 1980 Egypt Fertility Survey, the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, and the 1992 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40748 Haggerty, Patricia A.; Rutstein, Shea O. Breastfeeding and complementary infant feeding, and the postpartum effects of breastfeeding. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 30, Jun 1999. xvii, 282 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report is a descriptive comparative analysis of breastfeeding, complementary infant feeding, and the postpartum effects of breastfeeding. The analysis is based on data collected in 37 nationally representative surveys under the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program. The surveys took place in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, the Near East/North Africa, and Latin America/Caribbean between 1990 and 1996. Data used in the analyses are from more than a quarter of a million children under the age of five years. In addition to the analyses, trends in breastfeeding and its postpartum effects are examined using data from 27 countries where two or more DHS or World Fertility Survey (WFS) studies were conducted between 1975 and 1996."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40749 Scheike, Thomas H.; Petersen, Jørgen H.; Martinussen, Torben. Retrospective ascertainment of recurrent events: an application to time to pregnancy. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 94, No. 447, Sep 1999. 713-25 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The main objective of this article is to study the effect of retrospective ascertainment on inference regarding recurrent events of time to pregnancy (TTP) data. For the particular TTP dataset that we consider, couples are included retrospectively based on their first pregnancy and then followed prospectively to a second pregnancy or to end of study. We consider a conditional model for the recurrent events data where the second TTP is included only if it is observed and a full model where the nonobserved second TTPs are included as suitably right censored. We furthermore consider two different approaches to modeling the dependencies of the recurrent events. A traditional frailty model, where the frailty enters the model as an unobserved covariate, and a marginal frailty model are applied. We find that efficiency is gained from including the second TTPs, with the full model being the most efficient. Further, the marginal frailty model is preferred over the traditional frailty model because estimates of covariate effects are easier to interpret and are more robust to changes in the frailty distribution." The data concern couples who achieved conception between 1972 and 1987 and were collected at Odense University Hospital in Denmark.
Correspondence: T. H. Scheike, University of Copenhagen, Department of Biostatistics, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. E-mail: ts@kubism.ku.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

65:40750 Singh, Kaushalendra K.; Suchindran, Chirayath M.; Singh, Kiran. Breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea: an Indian experience. Demography India, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1999. 1-12 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Here, we analyze breast-feeding behaviour and duration of PPA [post-partum amenorrhea] prevalent in an Indian society.... The basic data used for this study come from a survey, `Breast-Feeding and its Effect on Fertility', conducted in 1987.... The main objective of the project was to study the pattern of breast-feeding and its effect on fertility. The study was based on data [for]...1,100 urban and 900 rural households in Varanasi, a district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh.... Though the association between breast-feeding and resumption of menses is our main focus, variations in the duration of PPA due to caste, residence, education, and age of the woman at the birth of the child and her social status are also examined. The present study reveals that duration of breast-feeding is more than 2 years in every population subgroup and the variations due to social status, caste, and education are significant."
Correspondence: K. K. Singh, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, CB 8120 University Square, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40751 Taylor, H. William; Vázquez-Geffroy, Margaret; Samuels, Steven J.; Taylor, Donna M. Continuously recorded suckling behaviour and its effect on lactational amenorrhoea. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 3, Jul 1999. 289-310 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The hypothesis that the month-specific rate of return to ovarian cyclicity after childbirth is causally related to suckling pattern was tested for a population of New Mexican women...and for a nationwide USA subpopulation of women.... Although the two groups were comparable perinatally, daily and time-windowed breast-feeding performance fell off at twice the rate for the New Mexico population when contrasted with the [national] sample. For both populations, the introduction of solid feeds was a strong and significant predictor of returning menstrual cyclicity, independent of suckling pattern."
Correspondence: H. W. Taylor, New Mexico Highlands University, College of Arts and Sciences, Las Vegas, NM 87701. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40752 Yadava, K. N. S.; Jain, S. K.; Kumar, Alok. Breastfeeding in rural northern India: levels and differentials. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1999. 107-41, 167-8 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"The duration of the distribution of breastfeeding (BF) has been examined for its level and differentials by demographic and socio-economic characteristics of rural women of Northern India. The BF data have been collected through both retrospective (last but one child) as well as current status (last child) reporting of the duration of BF. The breastfeeding in the study area was found universal."
Correspondence: K. N. S. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40753 Zaba, Basia; Gregson, Simon. Measuring the impact of HIV on fertility in Africa. AIDS, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1998. 41-50 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "review evidence for the impact of HIV on fertility from empirical sources pertaining to African populations and...discuss the implications for surveillance based on antenatal clinic populations.... In populations that do not use contraceptives, HIV-positive women have lower fertility principally as a result of foetal losses consequent to infection with HIV and coinfection with other sexually transmitted diseases; behavioural factors tend to enhance this differential."
Correspondence: B. Zaba, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 49-51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

65:40754 Bachu, Amara. Trends in premarital childbearing: 1930 to 1994. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 197, Oct 1999. 10 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report examines trends from 1930 to 1994 in the marital status of U.S. women at the time of their first birth. It presents historical data on how quickly women marry after having an out-of-wedlock birth and identifies the characteristics associated with the likelihood of premaritally pregnant women marrying before the birth of their first child."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Author's E-mail: abachu@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40755 Miller, Kim S.; Forehand, Rex; Kotchick, Beth A. Adolescent sexual behavior in two ethnic minority samples: the role of family variables. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 1, Feb 1999. 85-98 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examined family structural variables (family income, parental education, and maternal marital status) and process variables (maternal monitoring, mother-adolescent general communication, mother-adolescent sexual communication, and maternal attitudes about adolescent sexual behavior) as predictors of indices of adolescent sexual behavior and risk due to sexual behavior in 907 Black and Hispanic families from Montgomery, Alabama, New York City, and San Juan, Puerto Rico. The findings indicated that family structure variables failed to predict adolescent sexual behavior. In contrast, each of three family-process variables predicted multiple indices of adolescent sexual behavior and risk due to sexual behavior. Neither adolescent gender nor ethnicity qualified the findings. Differences did emerge among the three locations and by reporter (adolescent or mother ) of the family process variables."
Correspondence: K. S. Miller, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, STD, and TB Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333. E-mail: kxm3@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40756 Munoz-Pérez, Francisco; Prioux, France. Children born outside marriage and their parents: recognitions and legitimations since 1965. [Les enfants nés hors mariage et leurs parents: reconnaissances et légitimations depuis 1965.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 3, May-Jun 1999. 481-508 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A survey in the civil registration registers is used to observe the establishment of the paternal filiation of children born outside marriage in France since 1965 and legitimation by marriage of the parents, and to explore the characteristics of unmarried parents. Three-quarters of children in the 1965 cohort were recognized by their father, whereas in recent cohorts the proportion is above 9 in 10, most of them at birth. Prenatal recognitions, formerly non existent, now concern more than a third of the children, and are almost always done with the involvement of the mother, for these children are usually born to stable couples."
Correspondence: F. Munoz-Pérez, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: munoz@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40757 Munoz-Pérez, Francisco; Prioux, France. Recognitions and legitimizations of children born outside of marriage since 1965: different behavior by age of parents and social class. [Reconnaissances et légitimations des enfants nés hors mariage depuis 1965: des comportements différents selon l'âge des parents et leur milieu social.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 853-84 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Births outside marriage in France were a fairly rare occurrence in the 1960s and 1970s, occurring mainly among manual workers in consensual unions and the travelling or gypsy population. "The probability for a child of being recognized by his or her father and subsequently legitimated was higher the younger the mother; if she was not economically active, the child was more likely to be recognized and after a shorter delay, particularly if the father was a manual worker though the child was then less likely to be legitimated. With the spread of cohabitation, births outside marriage now occur in all social strata, although they remain slightly more common in the lower [social] categories. Also, unwanted births have become much less common. Contrasts in behaviour between different social groups have narrowed, particularly as regards legitimation, for since 1972 the recognized illegitimate child has almost identical rights [as] the legitimate child; only in respect of prenatal recognition are the contrasts by social group still significant."
Correspondence: F. Munoz-Pérez, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: munoz@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40758 Plotnick, Robert D.; Garfinkel, Irwin; Gaylin, Daniel S.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Ku, Inhoe. Better child support enforcement: Can it reduce teenage premarital childbearing? Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 99-10, [1999]. 24, [v] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"Stricter child support enforcement may reduce unwed childbearing by raising the costs of fatherhood. We investigate this hypothesis using a sample of young women from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to which we add information on state child support enforcement. Models of the probability of a teenage premarital birth and of teenage premarital pregnancy and pregnancy resolution show that, during the early 1980s, teens living in states with higher rates of paternity establishment were less likely to become unwed mothers."
This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Author's E-mail: plotnick@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40759 Shell-Duncan, Bettina; Wimmer, Matthew. Premarital childbearing in northwest Kenya: challenging the concept of illegitimacy. Social Biology, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1999. 47-61 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
Reasons for the increase observed in the number of births to unmarried women in Africa are explored using data for the Turkana people of northeastern Kenya collected in 1990-1991 during a study on maternal and child health. The results of the study show that premarital childbearing is both widespread and culturally acceptable, with over 30 percent of women having at least one child prior to marriage. "Although women with premarital births initiate childbearing on average one year earlier than women with only marital births, women's marital status does not influence the length of the interval between first and second births. Marriage among the Turkana is not a social trigger for the onset and continuation of reproduction or a means to legitimate reproduction. Marital status of the parents simply determines the custody of a child." The importance of taking cultural factors into account in the study of premarital fertility in Africa is stressed.
Correspondence: B. Shell-Duncan, University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA 98195-3100. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40760 South, Scott J. Historical changes and life course variation in the determinants of premarital childbearing. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 3, Aug 1999. 752-63 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Longitudinal data from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics for a sample of 2,794 women observed between 1968 and 1993 are used to examine whether the impact of established sociodemographic determinants of the risk of a first premarital birth has changed over time or varies by age. Event history analyses reveal that the risk of a premarital birth is greater for Black women and Latinas than for White women and non-Latinas, that it declines with the socioeconomic status of the family of origin, is greater for women growing up in a mother-only family, increases with neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, and is higher in metropolitan areas and in areas outside the South."
Correspondence: S. J. South, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Social Science 340, Albany, NY 12222. E-mail: s.south@albany.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40761 Thierry, Xavier. Prenuptial fertility in Spain. [La fécondité prénuptiale en Espagne.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1999. 1,015-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Current levels of prenuptial fertility in Spain are analyzed using data from the 1991 census. The results indicate that, for first marriages concluded between 1986 and 1990, between six and nine percent of the individuals concerned were already parents.
Correspondence: X. Thierry, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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