Volume 65 - Number 4 - Winter 1999

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications.

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

65:40209 Andreev, Evgueni. The dynamics of mortality in the Russian Federation. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 262-90 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The three stated purposes of this paper are to describe mortality trends in Russia since World War II, to analyze those factors that explain the differences in mortality between Russia and the developed countries of the West, and to assess the prospects for further mortality decline in the country. Topics covered include trends in age-specific mortality, causes of death, mortality differentials by educational status, and regional differences in mortality. "A decline in the expectation of life of Russia's population has been observed for a period of more than 30 years. Under the circumstances, the pessimistic but most likely prospect is that the decline will continue." On the more positive side, the author notes an improvement in the quality and accessibility of vital statistics data, and the beginnings of a more constructive social response to these negative mortality trends.
Correspondence: E. Andreev, Research Institute of Statistics Goskomstat of Russia, Department of Demography, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40210 Barlow, Robin; Vissandjée, Bilkis. Determinants of national life expectancy. Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1999. 9-29 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper presents a multivariate cross-national analysis of life expectancy at birth in 1990. A model of life expectancy is used which distinguishes between proximate and distal determinants, and measures the direct and indirect effects of the distal variables. It is found that literacy, per capita income, and access to safe water supplies have significantly positive effects on life expectancy. Fertility and tropical location have significant negative effects, and per capita food consumption of animal products shows an inverted-U relationship with life expectancy. Per capita health expenditure and the urbanization rate appear to be weak determinants."
Correspondence: R. Barlow, University of Michigan, Department of Epidemiology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:40211 Bopp, M.; Gutzwiller, F. All-cause mortality trends in Switzerland since 1950. [Entwicklung der Mortalität in der Schweiz seit 1950.] Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift/Journal Suisse de Médecine/Swiss Medical Weekly, Vol. 129, No. 20-21, May 1999. 760-71; 799-809 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
This two-part article analyzes trends in all-cause mortality in Switzerland since 1950. In the first part, the authors examine differences in mortality by sex, age, and nationality and make comparisons with other European countries. In the second part, they look at geographical differences in mortality within Switzerland. Problems concerning data on mortality for foreigners are noted, which need to be taken into account when making international comparisons. "Geographical differences in mortality risks within Switzerland, as well as international disparities, suggest that there is a need for preventive measures in Switzerland, first and foremost concerning males aged 15-49 years and deaths from `external' causes."
Correspondence: M. Bopp, Universität Zurich, Institut für Sozial- und Präventivmedizin, Sumatrastrasse 30, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40212 Cárdenas, Rosario. The epidemiological transition in Mexico: what the data on cause of death reveal. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 158-80 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
Recent mortality trends in Mexico are examined. "By analysing cause of death data, this paper aims at identifying: (a) the main characteristics of the epidemiological profile of Mexico; (b) causes for changes in life expectancy; and (c) the main causes of premature mortality." The results suggest that, despite a long period of economic recession which started in 1982, mortality has steadily declined over time. "The results reported in this paper have been brought about mainly by a combination of factors. They include sustained public health efforts such as the immunization campaigns which resulted in the eradication of polio; a demographic change in the age-structure, which is a consequence in turn of the increase in life expectancy; and to a certain extent, the wider availability of medical services."
Correspondence: R. Cárdenas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Calz. del Hueso 1100, Col. Villa Quietud, 04960 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40213 Chackiel, Juan. Mortality in Latin America. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 132-57 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a review of the general situation concerning mortality in Latin America. The emphasis is on developments in adult mortality. There are sections on the availability and quality of data; mortality trends; mortality by sex, age and cause of death; mortality transition and epidemiological transition; and mortality differentials according to socioeconomic variables.
Correspondence: J. Chackiel, UN Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40214 Charbit, Yves; Régnard, Corinne. Population dynamics and geographical patterns of African populations. [Dynamiques démographiques et dimensions géographiques des populations africaines.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1999. 13-27 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper assesses changes in the trends of mortality and fertility and the influence of urbanization on both variables [in Sub-Saharan Africa]. A regional analysis shows that [contrary] to the theory of demographic transition, urbanization does not necessarily induce a decline of fertility and of mortality. Other factors must be taken into account, for instance the supply of health care."
Correspondence: Y. Charbit, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Populations Africaines et Asiatiques, 45 rue des Saints Pères, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40215 Doblhammer, Gabriele. Longevity and month of birth: evidence from Austria and Denmark. Demographic Research, Vol. 1, 1999. Rostock, Germany. In Eng.
"This article shows that in two European countries, Austria and Denmark, a person's life span correlates with his or her month of birth. It presents evidence that this pattern is not the result of the seasonal distribution of death. It also shows that the seasonal pattern in longevity cannot be explained by the so-called birthday effect--the alleged tendency of people to die shortly after their birthday. The article concludes with a discussion of possible social and biological mechanisms related to a person's season of birth that might influence life expectancy."
Correspondence: G. Doblhammer, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Doberaner Straße 114, 18057 Rostock, Germany.

65:40216 Ecclestone, Martin. Mortality of rural landless men before the Black Death: the Glastonbury head-tax lists. Local Population Studies, No. 63, Autumn 1999. 6-29 pp. Colchester, England. In Eng.
An attempt is made to estimate mortality among landless rural men in fourteenth-century England using data from court rolls of manors owned by Glastonbury Abbey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40217 Edmondson, Brad. The facts of death. American Demographics, Vol. 19, No. 4, Apr 1997. 46-53 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
The author briefly characterizes recent mortality trends in the United States. Aspects considered include sex, time of year, place of death, date of birth and age, city and state of birth, race, Hispanic origin, education, marital status, cause of death, and autopsy incidence.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40218 Gerylovová, Anna; Holcík, Jan. Life expectancy in regions and districts of the Czech Republic. [Strední délka zivota v krajích a okresech Ceské republiky.] Demografie, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1999. 184-92 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The authors provide a regional analysis of life expectancy at birth in the Czech Republic from 1981 to 1995. Particular attention is paid to differences by sex, age, and district.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40219 Hanzek, Matjaz; Turnsek, Nada. Lifestyles and mortality in European countries. [Zivljenjski slog in umrljivost v evropskih drzavah.] Druzboslovne Razprave, Vol. 13, No. 24-25, 1997. 118-32, 207 pp. Ljubljana, Slovenia. In Slv. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of the relationship between lifestyle and mortality is presented using data on the countries of Europe. "Using the method of multi-dimensional cluster analysis...[the authors] identified 12 groups of countries in Europe--six in the East and six in the West--which resemble each other in terms of causes of death and mortality patterns. The border between an eastern and a western lifestyle runs through the countries of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire."
Correspondence: N. Turnsek, Univerza v Ljubljani, Pedagoska Fakulteta, Kardeljeva Ploscad 16, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40220 Hill, Kenneth. The measurement of adult mortality: an assessment of data availability, data quality and estimation methods. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 72-83 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper first reviews data sources relevant to the measurement of adult mortality, then data availability from each source, and finally the analytical methods available to use the data from these sources. The paper concludes with a discussion of appropriate strategies for countries in order to improve their adult mortality estimates." The primary focus is on the situation in developing countries.
Correspondence: K. Hill, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40221 Horiuchi, Shiro. Epidemiological transitions in human history. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 54-71 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper has presented a five-stage model of the epidemiological transition of human mortality, and also describes some possible reverse transitions. The model is a combination of a generalisation of past patterns and a prospect of future changes. Since the actual pattern of historical mortality change varies among countries and regions, it may not be difficult to find specific cases that do not fit the model well. The main purpose of this model, however, is to provide a bird's-eye view of a typical course of mortality history in human societies. The model can be used as a conceptual framework for describing, analysing, and predicting actual mortality trends in the past and future."
Correspondence: S. Horiuchi, Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Population, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40222 Hoyert, Donna L.; Kochanek, Kenneth D.; Murphy, Sherry L. Deaths: final data for 1997. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 19, Jun 30, 1999. 104 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents final 1997 data on U.S. deaths and death rates according to demographic and medical characteristics such as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, State of residence, and cause of death. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality are also described."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40223 Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan. Change in lifestyle factors and their influence on health status and all-cause mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 6, Dec 1999. 1,073-80 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to analyse both cross-sectional associations and how longitudinal changes in lifestyle factors from one state in 1980-1981 to another in 1988-1989 influence self-reported health status. Another aim was to estimate the hazard ratios for all-cause mortality for the changes in lifestyle factors and self-reported hypertension during the same period of time. The cross-sectional and the longitudinal analyses are based on the same simple random sample of 3,843 adults, aged 25-74, interviewed in 1980-1981 and 1988-1989 and is part of the Swedish Annual Level-of-Living Survey." Factors considered include physical activity, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). The results suggest that "physical activity protects against poor health irrespective of an increased BMI and smoking. The major clinical implications are the long-standing benefits of physical activity and not smoking."
Correspondence: S.-E. Johansson, Statistics Sweden, Department of Welfare and Social Statistics, Box 24300, 104 51 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: svenerik.johansson@scb.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40224 Kunst, Anton E.; Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Judith H.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Medical demography in the Netherlands: recent advances, future challenges. In: Population issues: an interdisciplinary focus, edited by Leo J. G. van Wissen and Pearl A. Dykstra. 1999. 187-228 pp. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, New York/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This chapter provides an overview of medical demographic research conducted in the Netherlands during the 1990s. The methods and principal findings are discussed of studies on: (a) past trends in mortality, (b) current mortality differentials, (c) future trends in mortality, (d) future trends in morbidity, and (e) the consequences of these trends for health care demand, cost and financing. Compared with the late 1980s, significant advances have been made in all these fields of research. Studies that combined advanced data acquisition with multivariate statistical techniques have succeeded to move from description to explanation of mortality trends or differentials. Studies that applied sophisticated population-based models have greatly improved the projection of future trends in mortality and morbidity."
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40225 Mansfield, Christopher J.; Wilson, James L.; Kobrinski, Edward J.; Mitchell, Jim. Premature mortality in the United States: the roles of geographic area, socioeconomic status, household type, and availability of medical care. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 6, Jun 1999. 893-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined premature mortality by county in the United States and assessed its association with metro/urban/rural geographic location, socioeconomic status, household type, and availability of medical care.... Premature mortality was greatest in rural counties in the South-east and Southwest.... Community structure factors explained more than availability of medical care. The proportions of female-headed households and Black populations were the strongest predictors...."
Correspondence: C. J. Mansfield, East Carolina University, Center for Health Services Research and Development, Building N, Physicians Quadrangle, Greenville, NC 27858. E-mail: mansfield@brody.med.ecu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40226 Michel, Harald. Mortality decline in eighteenth-century Germany--component, prerequisite, or precursor of the demographic transition? [Sterblichkeitsrückgang im 18. Jahrhundert in Deutschland--Bestandteil, Voraussetzung oder Vorläufer der demographischen Transition?] Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin: Reihe Gesellschaftswissenschaften, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1990. 367-9 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The temporary mortality decline that occurred in Germany between 1700 and 1750 is discussed in relation to the permanent demographic transition that took place a century later. Its primary cause seems to have been improved agricultural productivity and absence of pandemics in this period. The author argues that the resulting moderate population increase was a factor in stimulating the industrial revolution and thereby the demographic transition proper.
Correspondence: H. Michel, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Sektion Wirtschaftwissenschaften, Spandauer Straße 1, Berlin 1020, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40227 Ngongo, Kypa N.; Nante, Nicola; Chenet, Laurent; McKee, Martin. What has contributed to the change in life expectancy in Italy between 1980 and 1992? Health Policy, Vol. 48, No. 1, Jul 1999. 1-12 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Life expectancy at birth in southern Europe is known to be greater than expected in comparison with levels of economic development. This has been attributed to the `Mediterranean diet'. There are, however, concerns that this comparative advantage is being lost. This paper examines the factors underlying changing life expectancy in Italy since 1980. The subjects of this analysis are obtained from data on all deaths in Italy between 1980 and 1992. Change in age specific death rates is calculated from selected causes and, using the method developed by Pollard, the contribution of deaths from different causes and at different ages to changing life expectancy at birth is estimated."
Correspondence: M. McKee, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, European Center for Health on Societies in Transition, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. E-mail: M.McKee@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40228 Park, Kyung-Ae. Recent trends and patterns of mortality in Korea. Development and Society, Vol. 27, No. 2, Dec 1998. 67-81 pp. Seoul, Korea. In Eng.
"Korea continues to experience rapid demographic transition and population aging. This study examines mortality trends and patterns [in South Korea] between 1985-1995. Various death rates and ratios are calculated using death registration data. Mortality trends are analyzed by regression analysis, and life tables are constructed." Trends are examined according to causes of death, sex, and age.
Correspondence: K.-A. Park, National Statistical Office, Vital Statistics Division, 647-15 Yoksam-dong, Ilangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. E-mail: kap@nso.go.kr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40229 Shkolnikov, Vladimir M. The Russian health crisis of the 1990s in mortality dimensions. Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies Working Paper Series, No. 97.01, Mar 1997. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This paper focuses on the increase in Russian mortality during the 1990s. This "is primarily related to enormous increases in mortality from external causes of death and premature deaths from cardiovascular diseases in adult ages. Sharp rises in mortality from homicides, accidental poisonings by alcohol, and suicides suggest growing alcoholism and criminal activity in the country. Reversals in mortality due to infectious diseases and some avoidable causes of death indicate degradation in health sanitary systems. Upturns in mortality rates for ill-defined categories and in deaths with unspecified age are probably linked with incomplete recording of violent death and growing number of deaths of homeless or marginal people. Mortality increase was steeper in towns than in rural areas. Regional differences in life expectancy became substantially wider due to greater decreases in many territories of the North and Siberia and also in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Mortality increase was probably more pronounced among the less educated people."
Correspondence: Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138.

65:40230 Smith, Betty L.; Martin, Joyce A.; Ventura, Stephanie J. Births and deaths: preliminary data for July 1997-June 1998. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 22, Jul 29, 1999. 31 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents preliminary data on births and deaths in the United States from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for the 12 months ending June 1998. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Natality data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Mortality data presented include leading causes of death and infant mortality."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40231 Tabeau, Ewa; Ekamper, Peter; Huisman, Corina; Bosch, Alinda. Improving overall mortality forecasts by analysing cause-of-death, period and cohort effects in trends. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1999. 153-83 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The major goal of this study is to propose improvements in the methods for forecasting overall mortality. In order to reach this goal, three types of trend-oriented forecasts have been studied. Each type of forecast is conditional on developments in one of the three factors, period, cohort and cause of death, which are know to represent symptomatic measures of certain causal mechanisms. Mortality projections have been made for four developed European countries: France, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway. The projections are based on observed mortality data over the years 1950-1994 and cohorts born in the nineteenth and twentieth century. The results of the analyses do not show a best solution, though the cause-of-death approach looks the most promising. However, the period and cohort approaches certainly have additional value in the forecasting process."
Correspondence: E. Tabeau, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Lange Houtstraat 19, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: tabeau@nidi.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40232 Timæus, Ian M. Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 110-31 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a general review of the situation concerning mortality in Africa south of the Sahara. There are sections on availability of data, infant and child mortality, and adult mortality. The author notes an improvement in data availability because of the Demographic and Health Survey program, although major gaps in the available data on adult mortality, and in particular on AIDS mortality, still persist.
Correspondence: I. M. Timæus, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, 49-51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40233 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Mortality patterns--United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 48, No. 30, Aug 6, 1999. 664-8 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"In 1997, a total of 2,314,245 deaths were registered in the United States--445 fewer than the record high of 2,314,690 in 1996. The overall age-adjusted death rate was 479.1 per 100,000 standard (1940) population, the lowest ever recorded. In 1997, nearly two thirds of deaths resulted from heart disease, cancer, and stroke. This report summarizes mortality patterns in 1997 and compares them with patterns in 1996."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40234 Valkovics, Emil. On some properties of mortality rates. Hungarian Statistical Review, Vol. 77, No. 3, 1999. 95-115 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
"The first part of the paper underlines the [need] to consider in the analysis of mortality the double nature of general age-specific mortality rates: they determine with the number and age distribution of persons exposed to the risk of dying the number and the age distribution of the deceased. An attempt is made to separate the impact of these two roles. The second part of the contribution describes the method of decomposition of the differences between the life expectancies at birth (and at higher ages) elaborated and used in the Demographic Research Institute of the [Hungarian Central Statistical Office], based on the evidence that the life expectancy at birth may be defined...as the mean age of all the deceased of the life table and this mean age is equal to the weighted arithmetic mean of the mean ages of victims of different causes of death."
Correspondence: E. Valkovics, Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Institute of Demographic Research, Keleti Karoly U.5-7, 1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40235 Wilmoth, John R.; Horiuchi, Shiro. Rectangularization revisited: variability of age at death within human populations. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 4, Nov 1999. 475-95 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Rectangularization of human survival curves is associated with decreasing variability in the distribution of ages at death. This variability, as measured by the interquartile range of life table ages at death, has decreased from about 65 years to 15 years since 1751 in Sweden. Most of this decline occurred between the 1870s and the 1950s. Since then, variability in age at death has been nearly constant in Sweden, Japan, and the United States, defying predictions of a continuing rectangularization. The United States is characterized by a relatively high degree of variability, compared with both Sweden and Japan. We suggest that the historical compression of mortality may have had significant psychological and behavioral impacts."
Correspondence: J. R. Wilmoth, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. E-mail: jrw@demog.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40236 Yan, Yuk Yee. The influence of weather on human mortality in Hong Kong. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 3, Feb 2000. 419-27 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study is the first attempt to investigate mortality seasonality and weather-mortality relationships in Hong Kong from 1980 to 1994. Monthly mortality data from all causes of death, neoplasm, circulatory and respiratory diseases were obtained from the Census and Statistics Department and the weather data were obtained from the Hong Kong Observatory. Regression analyses and ANOVA were employed. Significant winter peaks in sex specific and total deaths from all causes, circulatory and respiratory diseases were ascertained. Cancer mortality, however, was not seasonal. Mortality seasonality only existed in age groups 45-64 and greater than 65.... A significant negative association between minimum temperature and a positive relationship between cloud and deaths were found. This suggests that colder and cloudy conditions may heighten mortality."
Correspondence: Y. Y. Yan, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China. E-mail: yyan@ctsc.hkbu.edu.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40237 Zatonski, Witold. The dynamics of mortality in Poland. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 227-61 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
An analysis of mortality trends in Poland from 1988 to 1994, based on official data, is presented. Two main phases are identified. "The increase in mortality from non-medical causes in 1988-1991, especially among young men, seems to have been chiefly the result of a sudden increase in alcohol consumption and its consequences. More impressive and positive is the second phase, involving the large decline in mortality in 1991-1996, principally involving premature deaths from cardiovascular diseases. This process, although difficult to interpret definitively, is probably chiefly due to the changes in the dietary patterns of the Polish population that followed the introduction of a market economy."
Correspondence: W. Zatonski, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre and Institute of Oncology, Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention, 02-781 Warsaw, Poland. E-mail: zatonskiw@coi.waw.pl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology, and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion. Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

65:40238 Alexander, Greg R.; Tompkins, Mark E.; Allen, Marilee C.; Hulsey, Thomas C. Trends and racial differences in birth weight and related survival. Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, Jun 1999. 71-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In the past two decades, infant mortality rates in the United States declined in African-American and White populations. Despite this, racial disparities in infant mortality rates have increased and rates of low birth weight deliveries have shown little change. In this study, we examine temporal changes in birth weight distributions, birth weight specific neonatal mortality, and the birth weight threshold for an adverse risk of survival within both racial groups in order to explore the mechanisms for the disparities in infant mortality rates.... Single live births born to South Carolina resident mothers between 1975 and 1994 and considered White or African-American based on the mother's report of maternal race on the birth certificate were selected for investigation.... Despite significant increases in very low birth weight percentages, neonatal mortality rates markedly declined. Birth weight specific neonatal mortality decreased for both races, although greater reductions accrued to White low birth weight infants."
Correspondence: G. R. Alexander, University of Alabama, School of Public Health, Department of Maternal and Child Health, 320A Ryals Building, 1665 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294-0022. E-mail: greg.alexander@uab.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40239 Gourbin, Catherine. Fetal mortality: definitions and levels. [La mortalité foetale: définitions et niveaux.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 91-107 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines some of the problems associated with measuring fetal mortality. Some of the differences in the criteria for registering fetal deaths in European countries are described, and the impacts of the methods chosen on levels of fetal mortality are noted. The chapter ends with an analysis of the quality of the Hungarian data, which are available for fetal deaths regardless of length of gestation.
Correspondence: C. Gourbin, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40240 Liljestrand, Jerker. Commentary: reducing perinatal and maternal mortality in the world: the major challenges. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 106, No. 9, Sep 1999. 877-80 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The major challenges to be faced if perinatal and maternal mortality is to be further reduced around the world are examined. The relationship between reducing levels of mortality from such causes and successful development programs in developing countries is analyzed.
Correspondence: J. Liljestrand, World Health Organization, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40241 Rajan, S. Irudaya; Nair, P. Mohanachandran. Is the IMR in Kerala as low as 12? Beginning an exploration. Demography India, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1999. 131-44 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This brief note has two objectives: Firstly to explore the possible reasons of high still birth rate and peri-natal mortality in Kerala [India]; secondly, why the SRS [Sample Registration System] underestimates the IMR [infant mortality rate] as low as 15? In the process, we also assess the reasons for [the] high infant mortality rate."
Correspondence: S. I. Rajan, Centre for Development Studies, Prasanthnagar Road, Ulloor, Thiruvananthapuram 695 011, Kerala, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40242 Wang, P. D.; Lin, R. S. Perinatal mortality in Taiwan. Public Health, Vol. 113, No. 1, Jan 1999. 27-33 pp. Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
"Information on perinatal deaths [in Taiwan] was obtained from 310 women by collecting detailed obstetric histories dating from marriage to the start of the survey. These histories were compared to those of 688 age matched controls. Potential risk factors, levels and time trends of perinatal mortality in Taiwan were examined and factors underlying stillbirths and early neonatal deaths were also compared using conditional logistic regression analyses." The data were collected in 1991-1992. A decline of nearly 56% occurred in perinatal mortality over the 35-year period prior to the survey. Factors associated with perinatal mortality were maternal age, parity, and birth intervals.
Correspondence: P. D. Wang, Wanhwa District Health Center, 152 Tung-Yuan Street, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

65:40243 Aaby, Peter. Are men weaker or do their sisters talk too much? Sex differences in childhood mortality and the construction of "biological" differences. In: The methods and uses of anthropological demography, edited by Alaka M. Basu and Peter Aaby. 1998. 223-45 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Reasons for sex differences in childhood mortality in developing countries are analyzed, with particular reference to differences in mortality from measles. "The paper analyses how disease transmission patterns may produce severe infection and mortality differences by sex or age. The focus is the interaction between behaviour patterns and disease transmission, a reality that may interact in important ways with patterns of differential or preferential treatment of the sexes." The author notes that infections are more severe when contracted from someone at home than from someone outside, and that it can affect sex differentials in mortality from a disease, if cultural or other factors mean that one sex is more likely than the other to catch diseases at home or away from the home. The need for sex-specific vaccines is also noted.
Correspondence: P. Aaby, University of Copenhagen, Department of Epidemiology, Frue Plads/Noerregade 10, P.O. Box 2177, 1017 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40244 Aguirre, Alejandro. Extension of the preceding-birth technique. [Extensión del método del hijo previo.] Notas de Población, Vol. 26, No. 67-68, Jan-Dec 1998. 139-62 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Ways to improve the data needed for the preceding-birth technique, which is used to produce an index of early childhood mortality, are examined using data from the Mexican Social Security Institute. The focus is on the best time to interview the women concerned in order to obtain accurate information on the survival of the previous child.
Correspondence: A. Aguirre, El Colegio de México, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40245 Ahmed, Ferial A.-K.; Hassan, Suzan A. Covariates of infant and child mortality in Egypt, 1993. In: CDC 26th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, 1996. 1997. 550-68 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The main objectives of this study are to give an overall picture of the main factors affecting infant and child mortality in Egypt. Data are primarily taken from the Egyptian Use Effectiveness Survey of 1993.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40246 Almgren, Gunnar; Kemp, Susan; Eisinger, Alison. Appraising the legacy of Hull House: the role of the United States Children's Bureau in the American mortality transition. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 99-11, [1999]. 39, [vi] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"Our specific focus is an examination of the accomplishments and failures of the [U.S. Children's Bureau's] efforts to transform the national calculus of infant mortality. We begin with a review of theoretical approaches to the mortality transition that occurred between 1900 and 1930, followed by a broad assessment of the philosophy, science, and methods of the Children's Bureau's infant mortality reduction campaign. We conclude with an analysis of newly available data from the 1910 and 1920 census micro sample surveys that yields a more complete appraisal of the bureau's role in promoting infant survival."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Author's E-mail: mukboy@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40247 Bairagi, Radheshyam; Sutradhar, Santosh C.; Alam, Nurul. Levels, trends and determinants of child mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1966-1994. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1999. 51-68 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"There has been a substantial decline in child mortality in Bangladesh since the 1940s, particularly in the last two decades.... Yet, with an infant mortality rate at about 100 deaths per thousand live births, and an under-five mortality rate of about 130 per thousand (in 1994), child mortality is still a burning problem in Bangladesh. To develop interventions to reduce infant and child mortality, it is important to know the factors responsible for mortality decline, and the factors that work as obstacles to its further decline in this country." Data for this study came from the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) and the 1974 and 1982 socioeconomic status surveys.
Correspondence: R. Bairagi, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: bairagi@icddrb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40248 Behar, Cem; Courbage, Youssef; Gürsoy, Akile. Economic growth or survival? The problematic case of child mortality in Turkey. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1999. 241-78 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Reasons why levels of child mortality in Turkey have remained relatively high despite modernization and declining fertility are examined. "The stresses resulting from economic growth and the high level of female workforce participation have perhaps tended to distract women from child care. Also, neither Ottoman nor republican Turkish traditions have encouraged an enhancement of the status of childhood. Unconventional sources: ethnology, literature, cinema, are deployed here to construct an impression of the cultural environment of the mothers, fathers and families of dead children. Change of attitudes, very slow as far as childhood is concerned, have not yet caught up with the transition in fertility. An infant mortality rate of 53 per l,000, accompanying a total fertility rate scarcely higher than 2, is a combination difficult to find anywhere else."
Correspondence: C. Behar, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40249 Bengtsson, Tommy. The vulnerable child. Economic insecurity and child mortality in pre-industrial Sweden: a case study of Västanfors, 1757-1850. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1999. 117-51 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"By using macro-economic time series as time-varying community variables in a life event analysis framework for micro data on individuals, we have found that mortality among children over the age of one year in pre-industrial Sweden was directly dependent upon economic fluctuations, a fact which has not been demonstrated before. The impact is stronger among the lower classes than the well-to-do. It is particularly strong in years following an extremely poor harvest. Another new finding is that smallpox mortality among children is determined by economic fluctuations. However, infant mortality seems to follow its own rhythms independently of changes in economic conditions."
Correspondence: T. Bengtsson, University of Lund, Department of Economic History, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40250 Bhattacharya, Prabir C. Socio-economic determinants of early childhood mortality: a study of three Indian states. Demography India, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1999. 47-63 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The important determinants of child survival in less developed countries include infection, food intake, nutritional status, disease control, maternal factors and injury. The socio-economic factors influence child survival by operating through these basic proximate determinants. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the social and environmental context in which a child is raised affects his or her survival chances in three states in northern India, viz., Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. The analysis is based on the 1981 census data."
Correspondence: P. C. Bhattacharya, Heriot-Watt University, Department of Economics, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40251 Chay, Kenneth Y.; Greenstone, Michael. The impact of air pollution on infant mortality: evidence from geographic variation in pollution shocks induced by a recession. NBER Working Paper, No. 7442, Dec 1999. 50, [22] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This study uses sharp, differential air quality changes across sites attributable to geographic variation in the effects of the 1981-82 recession [in the United States] to estimate the relationship between infant mortality and particulates air pollution. It is shown that in the narrow period of 1980-82, there was substantial variation across counties in changes in particulates pollution, and that these differential pollution reductions appear to be orthogonal to changes in a multitude of other factors that may be related to infant mortality."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: kenchay@econ.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40252 Choe, Minja Kim; Diamond, Ian; Steele, Fiona A.; Kim, Seung Kwon. Son preference, family building process and child mortality. In: Too young to die: genes or gender? 1998. 208-22 pp. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present chapter presents an assessment of whether son preference results in excess female child mortality indirectly through the family building process. A review of previous work will be followed by in-depth case studies, using recent data from Egypt, Bangladesh and the Republic of Korea, three countries that are characterized by a high level of son preference and excess female child mortality...."
Correspondence: M. K. Choe, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40253 David, Patricia H. Family-building patterns and childhood mortality: a family-level analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct 1999. 463-85 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses mortality risk in sibships to explore the relationship between family formation factors and other household characteristics that identify women whose families are at higher risk. The analysis allows for the fact that reproductive behaviour may be modified by the family's prior experience of child death, using simultaneous equations methods to purge the model of the `feedback' effects of death on the endogenous variable, childbearing pace.... Other aspects of family formation patterns are good indicators of which families are likely to experience excess risks to their children. These factors are associated with maternal education...." Data are from the Round One Demographic and Health Surveys in Peru (1986) and Egypt (1988).
Correspondence: P. H. David, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40254 DiLiberti, John H.; Jackson, Cynthia R. Long-term trends in childhood infectious disease mortality rates. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 12, Dec 1999. 1,883-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Long-term trends in childhood infectious disease mortality rates (CIDMR) in the United States from 1968 to 1992 are assessed using data from the Compressed Mortality File and the Multiple Cause of Death Files from the National Center for Health Statistics. "U.S. CIDMR declined continuously from 1968 to 1996, although the rate of decline slowed after 1974. Respiratory and central nervous system categories declined most; HIV-related deaths offset these declines somewhat." Comparisons are made with English data for 1861-1964.
Correspondence: J. H. DiLiberti, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 530 NE Glen Oak Avenue, Peoria, IL 61637. E-mail: jhd@uic.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40255 Gourbin, Catherine; Wunsch, Guillaume. Paternal age and infant mortality. Genus, Vol. 55, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1999. 61-72 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The main objective of the study is to examine whether there is a significant association between infant mortality and age of the parents. The study is based on individual registration forms for live births and infant deaths collected in Hungary from 1984 to 1988. As suspected, older women have higher infant mortality rates, but infant mortality rates increase also when the age of the father increases, particularly above 35. Although statistically significant, the effect of age remains slighter than that of other characteristics such as previous foetal deaths, or induced abortions. Higher education for fathers and especially for mothers might also improve the probability of survival of the child."
Correspondence: C. Gourbin, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40256 Gupta, H. S.; Baghel, A. Infant mortality in the Indian slums: case studies of Calcutta Metropolis and Raipur City. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 353-66 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Based on data collected through interview of 2,142 mothers who had experienced live births and/or infant deaths within one year preceding the date of survey in selected slums of Calcutta Metropolis and Raipur City, this study attempts to elucidate and explain the levels, differentials, causes and determinants of infant mortality in the Indian slums. The infant mortality rate (IMR) in the slums was found to be quite high but lower than that in rural India, underlining the importance of `urban residence' as a major controlling factor of infant mortality. The IMR in the slums of Calcutta was about one and a half times that in the slums of Raipur, suggesting that slum infant mortality is far worse in metropolises than in smaller cities."
Correspondence: H. S. Gupta, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, School of Studies in Geography, Raipur, Madhya Pradesh 492 010, India. E-mail: bksharma@gwrl.vsnl.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40257 Hassane, Nekrache. Study of infant mortality in Morocco based on data from "Enquête de Panel sur la Population et la Santé, 1995" In: CDC 27th annual seminar on population issues in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. 1998. 696-712 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The principal aims of this study are: to estimate levels and trends of infant mortality in Morocco; to examine the socio- and bio-demographic factors which affect levels and [trends] of infant mortality.... The data on which this study is based were provided by the 1995 Moroccan Demographic and Health Survey."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40258 Herman-Giddens, Marcia E.; Brown, Gail; Verbiest, Sarah; Carlson, Pamela J.; Hooten, Elizabeth G.; Howell, Eleanor; Butts, John D. Underascertainment of child abuse mortality in the United States. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 282, No. 5, Aug 4, 1999. 463-7 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors "describe the true incidence of fatal child abuse, determine the proportion of child abuse deaths missed by the vital records system, and provide estimates of the extent of abuse homicides in young children [using a] retrospective descriptive study of child abuse homicides that occurred over a 10-year period in North Carolina from 1985-1994.... We found that significant underascertainment of child abuse homicides in vital records systems persists despite greater societal attention to abuse fatalities."
Correspondence: M. E. Herman-Giddens, 1450 Russell Chapel Road, Pittsboro, NC 27312. E-mail: mherman-giddens@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40259 Hill, Kenneth; Figueroa, Maria-Elena. Child mortality estimation by time since first birth. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 99-05, Jun 1999. 12 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper develops and illustrates a methodology [for estimating child mortality] based on time since first birth using a model of fertility by time since first birth and model life tables. This methodology avoids the selection bias of the age-based method, and is applicable to all populations regardless of marriage customs, but does require an extra question, on date of or age at first birth, on the census or survey instrument. An application to data from Haiti shows the method to give estimates similar to those from a subsequent birth history."
Correspondence: K. Hill, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: khill@jhsph.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40260 Huang, Rongqing. A study on a childhood mortality model. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1998. 187-98 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study, a mortality function model for childhood is established on the basis of an analysis of empirical data, comparison of different mortality models in terms of their accuracy, and discussion of the applicability of those models under different circumstances.... Empirical data from Japan's complete life tables are used to evaluate the accuracy of the models."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40261 Jatrana, Santosh. Determinants of infant mortality in a backward region of North India: Are socioeconomic or demographic factors dominant? Working Papers in Demography, No. 82, 1999. 22 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Several socioeconomic factors have been found to be associated with infant and childhood mortality in the developing countries. However, the relative importance of socioeconomic and demographic factors in influencing infant mortality, varies with the level of socioeconomic development of the nation.... This paper will explore this hypothesis in a backward region of India (Mewat region of Haryana State), with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the relative importance of socioeconomic and demographic factors on infant mortality. The data employed in this study were obtained by conducting a field survey between April 1996 and February 1997 of factors affecting infant and child survival in the Nuh and Taoru blocks of the Mewat region of Haryana State. [A] Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyse the relative effects of demographic and the socioeconomic factors. Finally, some policy implications of the findings are suggested."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40262 Jhamba, Tapiwa. Regional variations in childhood mortality in Zimbabwe. Geography, Vol. 84, No. 4, Oct 1999. 319-30 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
Data from the 1992 census are used to analyze differences in childhood mortality by district in Zimbabwe. "A zone of high mortality could be clearly identified along the border with Mozambique in the east and north-east, and along the border with Zambia in the north-west. The south-west, covering Matebeleland North and South and part of the Midlands, was generally characterised by low childhood mortality. The spatial variations in childhood mortality were related to a combination of the effects of variations in natural agro-ecological conditions and the historical spatial patterns of socio-economic development. Relatively strong relationships existed between district childhood mortality levels and the level of fertility and level of education. Cultural factors, and variations in the natural physical and climatic conditions, which in turn related to the incidence and prevalence of tropical diseases (such as malaria) also influence regional mortality levels in Zimbabwe."
Correspondence: T. Jhamba, University of Zimbabwe, Centre for Population Studies, M.P. 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. E-mail: jhamba@compcentre.uz.ac.zw. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40263 Kertzer, David I.; Sigle, Wendy; White, Michael J. Childhood mortality and quality of care among abandoned children in nineteenth-century Italy. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 3, Nov 1999. 303-15 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A great deal of scholarly attention has been devoted in recent years to the large-scale abandonment of newborn babies in the European past, with special emphasis given to the staggering rates of infant mortality among the foundlings. For the most part, scholars have agreed with the foundling home officials of the past in assigning much of the blame for this excess mortality to the women who took the foundlings as wetnurses and subsequently as foster mothers. This article takes issue with this view, based on an examination of the children abandoned at the foundling home of Bologna, Italy in the nineteenth century. Four cohorts of foundlings are examined--those abandoned in 1809-30, 1829-30, 1849-50, and 1869-70 (N=3,615)--as we trace the changing pattern of infant and early childhood mortality. Longitudinal methods are used in examining the life course of these foundlings and the determinants of their mortality."
Correspondence: D. I. Kertzer, Brown University, Department of Anthropology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40264 Krishnamoorthy, S.; Rajna, P. N. Graduating childhood deaths and survivorship function with the model by Mukherjee and Islam. Demography India, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1999. 13-21 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Some models that have been developed for the analysis of infant mortality in India are reviewed. "Recently, Chauhan (1997) suggested use of a model proposed by Mukherjee and Islam in reliability analysis. Chauhan concludes that this model effectively describes the age distribution of early age deaths. This paper re-examines the adequacy of the model in describing the distribution of deaths at early ages of life and also modifies the model for graduating the survivorship function.... The model proposed by Mukherjee and Islam in the study of reliability and introduced by Chauhan to graduate infant deaths is tested for its efficacy in describing not only the age pattern of childhood deaths but also the survivorship probabilities."
Correspondence: S. Krishnamoorthy, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40265 Luther, Norman Y.; Thapa, Shyam. Infant and child mortality in Nepal. East-West Center Working Papers, Population Series, No. 105, Apr 1999. iv, 94 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"The 1996 Nepal Family Health Survey (NFHS), part of the World Demographic and Health Surveys, collected information on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health from 8,429 ever-married women aged 15-49.... This report includes measures of levels and trends of mortality before age 5 by 5-year periods preceding the survey, as well as differentials of mortality by selected socioeconomic background characteristics, demographic characteristics, and health care behavior."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. E-mail: poppubs@ewc.hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40266 Malcoe, Lorraine H.; Shaw, Gary M.; Lammer, Edward J.; Herman, Allen A. The effect of congenital anomalies on mortality risk in white and black infants. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 6, Jun 1999. 887-92 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This population-based study examined the effect of all major congenital anomalies on the mortality of White and Black infants [in California] by infant sex, birthweight, gestational age, and lethality of the anomaly. The study also determined the total contribution of anomalies of infant mortality.... The contribution of congenital anomalies to mortality of both low- (<2500g) and normal-birth-weight infants is substantially higher than previously estimated, representing a large public health problem for both Black and White infants."
Correspondence: L. H. Malcoe, University of Oklahoma, College of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 26901, CHB-309, Oklahoma City, OK 73190. E-mail: lorraine-malcoe@ouhsc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40267 Matthews, Zoe; Diamond, Ian. The expanded programme on immunisation: mortality consequences and demographic impact in developing countries. Genus, Vol. 55, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1999. 73-100 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The aims of the paper are to evaluate the mortality impact of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation by estimating lives saved, and to understand its wider demographic implications by performing population projections to the year 2025. Results show that the life-saving impact of EPI campaigns in all developing regions is high, especially in countries where mortality is currently high, for example in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate that approximately 5.5 million children per year are currently being saved in the major developing countries of the world. Prolonging the life of these immunised children could add up to 4.5 years to life expectancy in some countries."
Correspondence: Z. Matthews, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO17 2BJ, England. E-mail: zm2@socsci.soton.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40268 Measham, Anthony R.; Rao, Krishna D.; Jamison, Dean T.; Wang, Jia; Singh, Alaka. Reducing infant mortality and fertility, 1975-1990: performance at all-India and state levels. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 22, Jun 4, 1999. 1,359-67 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper uses recently available data from India and from other countries to assess the role of income changes and other changes over time in determining infant mortality rates (IMR) and total fertility rates (TFR). It uses this information to assess the performance on these outcomes of India relative to other countries and of individual Indian states relative to the all-India average. The paper's main conclusions are: (i) While income does have some influence on health outcomes, technical progress and other factors are substantially more important.... (ii) India's performance on IMR falls short of what would be expected given results of other countries of its income. (iii) By contrast, India's performance in reducing TFR is substantially better than would be predicted from its income. (iv) Not surprisingly states vary substantially in the performance relative to their income level and the all-India average values of IMR and TFR."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40269 Mellington, Nicole; Cameron, Lisa. Female education and child mortality in Indonesia. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3, Dec 1999. 115-44 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper uses a sample of 6,620 women from the 1994 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the relationship between female education and child mortality in Indonesia. Female education is measured in terms of both years of education and literacy. Both primary education and secondary schooling significantly decrease the probability of child death, while literacy plays an insignificant role. When the sample is divided into urban and rural locations, primary and secondary education are significant in both areas in reducing the likelihood of a mother experiencing child mortality. The benefits of public and private infrastructure appear to differ in rural and urban areas. The results confirm that investment in female human capital lowers the probability of child mortality."
Correspondence: N. Mellington, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40270 Murakoshi, Kazunori. Infant and child mortality of the Daimyo class in the Tokugawa Period (1651-1850): a peer's genealogical data. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 24, Jun 1999. 15-31 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"A demographic analysis of commoners in cities in the Tokugawa period [in Japan] tends to face difficulty due to the loss of population registers called shummon aratame cho. With genealogical data of [the] daimyo class, however, we can attempt such an analysis by examining the mortality rate in [the] daimyo family in Edo and other castle towns, assuming that this indicates the mortality rate of commoners. In the period from the late 17th century to the early 19th century, [the] infant mortality rate is estimated at 193.2 [per thousand] and the child mortality rate at 229.6 [per thousand. These rates] begin to rise in the late 18th century and reach [their] highest in the mid-19th century."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40271 Pelletier, David L. Malnutrition, morbidity and child mortality in developing countries. In: Too young to die: genes or gender? 1998. 109-32 pp. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The relationships among malnutrition, morbidity, and child mortality in developing countries are examined. "One purpose of the present chapter is to clarify the nature of malnutrition itself and summarize recent evidence concerning its relation to child mortality. Another purpose is to investigate the extent to which sex differentials in nutritional status are related to sex differentials in child mortality, drawing upon community-based prospective studies and cross-national comparisons."
Correspondence: D. L. Pelletier, Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-6501. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40272 Pinnelli, Antonella; Mancini, Paola. Mortality peaks in Italy in the late l9th and early 20th centuries: trends by age and sex. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1998-1999. 333-65 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Infant and youth mortality fell steeply between the unification of Italy and the 1930s, particularly due to the decline in infectious and parasitic diseases. A number of mortality crises, however, at times halted this decline: the 1908 Calabria-Sicily earthquake, the 1915 Marsica earthquake, World War I and 1918 Spanish influenza outbreak. This paper focuses [on] the repercussions of these events [for] the general survival status of young people from birth to puberty, as well as the main pathologies responsible for the rise in mortality. An analysis of differences in mortality according to sex during the various crises was also performed to ascertain whether the more difficult survival conditions during these periods affected males and females equally."
Correspondence: A. Pinnelli, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40273 Ramírez, Mirta L. Impact of environmental factors on infant mortality. Chaco Province--1991. [Incidencia de factores ambientales en la mortalidad infantil. Provincia del Chaco--1991.] Revista Geográfica, No. 122, Jul-Dec 1995. 169-98 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The Chaco Province is located in the Northeast of Argentina.... This article reflects the distribution of neonatal and post-neonatal infant mortality considering the six health zones established by the State government, trying to determine relations between infant and post-neonatal mortality and the social conditions of the population and, on the other hand, the relations between the causes of mortality and the above-mentioned social conditions."
Correspondence: M. L. Ramírez, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Facultad de Geografía, Chaco, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40274 Ramiro Fariñas, Diego; Sanz Gimeno, Alberto. Internal structures of childhood mortality (ages 0-4) in twentieth century Spain. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 97-392, [1997]. 22 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This communication deals with the evolution of infant and child mortality structure in Spain, during the years 1900, 1930 and 1960. Special emphasis will be put on the decline in mortality for children between 1 and 4 years of age (specially high in Spain), the internal structure of infant mortality, and the differences between rural and urban context."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40275 Rusman, Roosmalawati; Djohan, Eniarti; Hull, Terence H. They simply die: searching for the causes of high infant mortality in Lombok. ISBN 979-8553-43-8. 1999. 100 pp. Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Center for Population and Manpower Studies: Jakarta, Indonesia; Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
Reasons for the high levels of infant and child mortality that have been recorded in the Indonesian province of Lombok are explored. The method used in the analysis is of a qualitative nature based on interviews with many of the people who become involved when children get sick, including parents, neighbors, traditional healers, religious leaders, and health center personnel. The authors conclude that, although there are no simple explanations for these high levels of mortality, many deaths could be prevented by a combination of improvements in safe birth practices, good hygiene, adequate nutrition, and beneficial care. The difficulties that will need to be overcome in order to make these improvements are discussed.
Correspondence: Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Center for Population and Manpower Studies, Gedung Widya Graha Lt. X, Jalan Gatot Subroto 10, Djakarta Selatan, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40276 Sowards, Kathryn A. What is the leading cause of infant mortality? A note on the interpretation of official statistics. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 11, Nov 1999. 1,752-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"According to vital statistics reports, congenital malformation is the leading cause of infant death in the United States and accounts for a much greater proportion of infant mortality than does premature birth. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential underestimation of prematurity-related mortality in current vital statistics reports." Official mortality data for 1985, 1991, and 1996 are used. The results indicate that "the official statistics significantly understate the role of prematurity-related mortality. An alternative etiology-based classification designates prematurity as the underlying cause in approximately one third of all infant deaths."
Correspondence: K. A. Sowards, Washington State University, Department of Sociology, 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue, Vancouver, WA 98686. E-mail: sowards@vancouver.wsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40277 Sudha, S.; Rajan, S. Irudaya. Female demographic disadvantage in India 1981-1991: sex selective abortions and female infanticide. Development and Change, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1999. 585-618 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using evidence from a number of sources (including the 1981 and 1991 censuses of India, prior research, and NGO reports), this article examines whether bias against girl children persists during periods of development and fertility decline, whether prenatal sex selection has spread in India as elsewhere in Asia, and whether female vs. male child mortality risks have changed.... The increased masculinity of period SRBs [sex ratios at birth] in some areas, together with persistent excess female child mortality and female infanticide, creates a `double jeopardy' for girl children. Legislation curbing prenatal sex determination and policy measures addressing societal female devaluation have had little impact, suggesting that female demographic disadvantage is unlikely to improve in the near future."
Correspondence: S. Sudha, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: sudha@email.unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40278 Taucher, Erica; Díaz, Nora; Icaza, Gloria. Matching data on infant mortality and births in Chile. [Pareo de datos sobre defunciones infantiles y nacimientos en Chile.] Notas de Población, Vol. 26, No. 67-68, Jan-Dec 1998. 163-80 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This study compares information on the characteristics of children and their parents, as contained in birth and death certificates, and assesses the impact of discrepancies in that information on the results obtained in calculating differentials in infant mortality, when data on deaths from one or other of these sources is used as numerator. For this purpose, data on deaths under one year of age [in Chile] in the birth cohort for 1994 were paired with data on the corresponding births. The pairing was done using the national identification number which appears on both birth and death certificates. The greatest discrepancies observed were related to the number of weeks of gestation of the child and the years of school completed by the parents. However, when comparisons were made between mortality differentials associated with different variables, it was found that overall patterns were not affected by differences between the rates."
Correspondence: E. Taucher, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Bernardo O'Higgins 1058, Casilla 10-D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40279 Timæus, Ian; Harris, Katie; Fairbairn, Francesca. Can use of health care explain sex differentials in child mortality in the developing world? In: Too young to die: genes or gender? 1998. 154-78 pp. UN Population Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present chapter examines differential use of preventive and curative health-care services by boys and girls. The focus is on children under the age of five years. The analysis is comparative in nature. It is based on the national surveys conducted by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme during the past decade, supplemented by the National Family health Survey (NFHS) of India.... The aim is to assess whether inequalities in patterns of health care are large and pervasive enough to be worth pursuing as an important part of the explanation of sex differentials in child mortality." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: I. Timæus, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40280 United Nations. Secretariat (New York, New York). Levels and trends of sex differentials in infant, child and under-five mortality. In: Too young to die: genes or gender? 1998. 84-108 pp. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In the present chapter, a new set of estimates of infant, child and under-five mortality by sex is derived, and sex differentials in mortality relative to each of those indicators are presented. The estimated sex differentials are based on all available data allowing the estimation of infant and child mortality by sex for a country. The data and methods used to obtain estimates of infant, child and under-five mortality by sex are described.... An analysis of levels and trends of sex differentials in mortality in childhood [is also presented]; both the relation between sex differentials in mortality and mortality level, and changes in sex differentials over time are examined." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: United Nations Secretariat, United Nations Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Affairs, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40281 Villa, S.; Guiscafré, H.; Martínez, H.; Muñoz, O.; Gutiérrez, G. Seasonal diarrhoeal mortality among Mexican children. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 77, No. 5, 1999. 375-80 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The study investigated the effects on diarrhoeal deaths among under-5-year-old Mexican children of the following variables: season (summer or winter), region (north versus south), age group, and place of death... We have shown that there was a significant reduction in diarrhoeal deaths among children in Mexico between 1989 and 1995. However, this reduction was less evident in the winter months, particularly among under-2-year-olds and in regions where the seasons are well marked."
Correspondence: S. Villa, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Coordinación de Investigación Médica, Edificio B, Unidad de Congresos, 4o. Piso, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, C.P. 06725, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40282 Waldron, Ingrid. Sex differences in infant and early childhood mortality: major causes of death and possible biological causes. In: Too young to die: genes or gender? 1998. 64-83 pp. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The biological factors associated with differential mortality by sex in infancy and early childhood are examined in this review of the published literature. Two major questions are considered: "First, which causes of death contribute to sex differences in infant and early child mortality in developing countries? Second, what biological factors contribute to sex differences for each of the major causes of death? Biological factors are defined broadly to include: (a) direct genetic effects, such as X-linked diseases; (b) effects of sex hormones on anatomy, physiology and behaviour; and (c) physiological differences between males and females, which may be due primarily to genetic and hormonal effects but may also be influenced by environmental factors."
Correspondence: I. Waldron, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Leidy Laboratory, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40283 Wen, Shi Wu; Liu, Shiliang; Joseph, K. S.; Trouton, Konia; Allen, Alexander. Regional patterns of infant mortality caused by lethal congenital anomalies. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique, Vol. 90, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1999. 316-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
This article assesses "the regional patterns of infant mortality due to lethal congenital anomalies, and the potential reasons for the regional patterns.... The study analyzed 2,507 infant deaths due to lethal congenital anomalies among 1,178,452 live births in 9 of the 12 Canadian provinces and territories from 1990 to 1995 recorded in Statistics Canada's live birth and death data bases. [Results indicate that] compared with the province of Quebec, congenital anomaly-attributed infant mortality was higher in Newfoundland, Saskatchewan, and Alberta.... Despite substantial recent reductions in lethal congenital anomaly-attributed infant mortality, there remain major regional variations in infant mortality caused by certain forms of congenital anomalies including anencephaly and cardiovascular system anomalies."
Correspondence: S. W. Wen, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Bureau of Reproductive and Child Health, Tunney's Pasture A-L 060 1E2, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. E-mail: Shi_Wu_Wen@hc-sc.gc.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40284 Woldemicael, Gebremariam. Infant and child mortality in Eritrea: levels, trends, and determinants. Stockholm University Demography Unit, Dissertation Series, ISBN 91-7153-973-5. Jul 1999. ix, 277 pp. Stockholm University: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
This doctoral dissertation has three main objectives: "first, to estimate age-specific levels, age patterns and period trends in early mortality at national and sub-national levels in Eritrea; second, to investigate the major possible determinants of infant and child mortality; and third, to discuss implications of the main findings for health policy and future research directions. The data used for this study come from the 1995 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey of 5,469 households and 5,054 women in the reproductive age span." The author concludes that "in order to reduce early mortality in Eritrea, efforts should focus on health programs that target first-time mothers. Health education and family planning programs that promote longer birth intervals should be given special emphasis. The provision of clean water and toilet facilities must be given greater attention in order to increase child survival in Eritrea. Resources should be directed towards lowland communities."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40285 Worku, Z. B.; Makatjane, T. J. The impact of a short duration of breast feeding on child survival in the Maseru District, September-October 1994. Review of Southern African Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, Apr 1996. 54-71 pp. Roma, Lesotho. In Eng.
"Out of 251,000 children under five years of age in Maseru District, [Lesotho] a random sample of size 4,001 was taken in an attempt to identify factors that strongly influence child survival. The 74 explanatory variables of the study were a combination of socio-economic, maternal and child health and fertility factors. The study revealed that a short duration of breast feeding was the leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity, and that rural children were particularly vulnerable."
Correspondence: Z. B. Worku, National University of Lesotho, Department of Statistics and Demography, P.O. Roma 180, Lesotho. Location: Michigan State University Library, East Lansing, MI.

65:40286 Zakir, Mohammed; Wunnava, Phanindra V. Factors affecting infant mortality rates: evidence from cross-sectional data. Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 6, No. 5, May 1999. 271-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper empirically tests for factors affecting infant mortality rates. Based on a cross-sectional model (covering 117 countries for the year 1993) that corrects for heteroscedasticity, the results show that fertility rates, female participation in the labour force, per capita GNP, and female literacy rates significantly affect infant mortality rates. Surprisingly, government expenditure on health-care, as a percentage of the GNP, does not play a major role in determining infant mortality rates." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: P. V. Wunnava, Middlebury College, Department of Economics, Middlebury, VT 05753. E-mail: Phani.Wunnava@middlebury.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SXF).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

65:40287 Bah, Sulaiman. Diagnostic tests on assessing the quality of maternal orphanhood data from the 1996 South African census and implications for the indirect estimation of adult mortality. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 99-5, ISBN 0-7714-2191-5. Mar 1999. 41 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"In this paper, the maternal orphanhood data from the 1996 [South African] census have been subjected to a battery of diagnostic tests. The diagnostics attempted in the paper have shown that among the factors that affect the estimates of maternal orphanhood, the one with the least effect on the mortality estimates is age misreporting.... It is concluded that more research is needed on the role of the maternal orphanhood technique in an era of increasing deaths due to AIDS in some population subgroups and in cases of increasing ageing and low mortality in other population subgroups."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Author's E-mail: SulaimanB@StatsSA.ppwv.gov.za. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40288 Behrman, Jere R.; Sickles, Robin C.; Taubman, Paul. Causes, correlates and consequences of death among older adults: some methodological approaches and substantive analyses. ISBN 0-7923-8286-2. LC 98-39379. 1998. xi, 186 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Why are there differences in life expectancies among various demographic groups? Why have these changes in life expectancies occurred? Many reasons are given in the popular and more scholarly literatures. [This study]...considers an integrated approach to investigating determinants of and correlates of mortality in the United States--integrating modeling, micro data, and modern econometric techniques. A number of examples of applications are included, with some explorations of the robustness of the results under alternative assumptions. The basic purpose of this text is to increase our knowledge of mortality and to illustrate how such an integrated approach can further our knowledge of mortality and related phenomena."
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40289 Breeze, Elizabeth; Sloggett, Andy; Fletcher, Astrid. Socioeconomic and demographic predictors of mortality and institutional residence among middle aged and older people: results from the Longitudinal Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 12, Dec 1999. 765-74 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Using data from the Longitudinal Study, the authors analyze socioeconomic and demographic predictors of mortality and institutional residence in old age by sex in the United Kingdom over the period 1971-1991. Secure living arrangements and access to a car are factors affecting institutional residence and mortality. "These results demonstrate persistence of inequalities in health related outcomes throughout old age, both in those with unfavourable circumstances in mid-life and in those who, in later life, have lost earlier advantages."
Correspondence: E. Breeze, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40290 Gray, Rossarin S.; Gray, Alan. Social aspects of mortality in young and middle adulthood in Thailand. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1999. 65-83, 165-6 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"In this paper, we examine the characteristics of adults who died at the ages of young to middle adulthood (15-64 years), in the twelve-month period of follow-up of the Survey of Population Change [in Thailand] 1995-96.... The objective is to detect differences that may be associated with social roles."
Correspondence: R. S. Gray, National Statistical Office, Social Statistics Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40291 Hurd, Michael D. Predictors of mortality among the elderly. NBER Working Paper, No. 7440, Dec 1999. 26, [1] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to find the quantitative importance of some predictors of mortality among the population aged 70 or over [in the United States]. The predictors are socio-economic indicators (income, wealth and education), thirteen health indicators including a history of heart attack or cancer, and subjective probabilities of survival. The estimation is based on mortality between waves 1 and 2 of the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest-Old study. We find that the relationship between socio-economic indicators and mortality declines with age, that the 13 health indicators are strong predictors of mortality and that the subjective survival probabilities predict mortality even after controlling for socio-economic indicators and the health conditions."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: mhurd@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40292 Meller, Ingeborg; Fichter, Manfred M.; Schröppel, Hildegard. Mortality risk in the octo- and nonagenarians: longitudinal results of an epidemiological follow-up community study. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Vol. 249, No. 4, Aug 1999. 180-9 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The object of the study was the assessment of the mortality risk for persons in a representative two-wave community sample assessed longitudinally. In the first cross-section a total of 358 (89.1%) subjects of Munich, Germany, aged 85 years and above were interviewed by research physicians. One year later 263 (73.5%) persons were reexamined. Death certificate diagnoses were obtained after an interval of 4 years 8 months. 58% of the total sample were deceased. Sociodemographic factors, mental disorders, subjective health status and need for care were analysed in relation to mortality by Cox regression. The probability of death was increased in those diagnosed as having a dementia or depressive disorder, in those of increasing age, living in institutions, being in need of care and of bad health status.... Need for care was the most powerful predictor of mortality."
Correspondence: I. Meller, University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry, Nußbaumstraße 7, 80336 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40293 Østbye, Truls; Steenhuis, Runa; Wolfson, Christina; Walton, Ruth; Hill, Gerry. Predictors of five-year mortality in older Canadians: the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 47, No. 10, 1999. 1,249-54 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The factors affecting five-year mortality among older Canadians are analyzed using data from the 1991 Canadian Study of Health and Aging. The data concern 8,949 individuals living in the community and 2,914 individuals who underwent an extensive clinical examination. "Multivariate models showed that the odds of death within 5 years increased with age. This effect remained after adjustment for all other variables. Odds of death increased with institutionalization and with increasing cognitive and physical impairment. Although vision and hearing problems and the presence of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were all strongly related to 5-year mortality in univariate, unadjusted analyses, their contributions were minimal in the multivariate analyses. Increased Body Mass Index was associated with lower mortality in both univariate and multivariate analyses."
Correspondence: T. Østbye, Duke University Medical Center, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Durham, NC 27710. E-mail: ostby001@mc.duke.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40294 Parnell, Allan M.; Owens, Cynthia R. Evaluation of U.S. mortality patterns at old ages using the Medicare enrollment data base. Demographic Research, Vol. 1, 1999. Rostock, Germany. In Eng.
"We evaluate the consistency of age-specific mortality patterns for older Americans using the Health Care Financing Administration's (HCFA's) Medicare Enrollment Data Base (EDB), a data set that includes over 30 million records. To do this, we compare the mortality curves across regions within race and sex groups, and we compare national mortality curves of white men and women relative to African American and Puerto Rican men and women.... Both the period and cohort age at death data for whites in the Medicare EDB appear to be very consistent, at least up to age 95, perhaps higher for women. Above age 100 the patterns become extremely inconsistent. However, questions remain about the age-specific mortality patterns of African Americans, especially the rates for men."
Correspondence: A. M. Parnell, McMillan and Moss Research, Mebane, North Carolina.

65:40295 Wittwer-Backofen, Ursula. Disparities in the mortality of the aged: comparing regions. Biological versus socioeconomic determinants: a regional study of Hesse. [Disparitäten der Alterssterblichkeit im regionalen Vergleich. Biologische versus sozioökonomische Determinanten: regionale Studie für den Raum Hessen.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 95, 1999. v, 285 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This study examines the determinants of mortality differences at ages over 60. The author first summarizes the connections between life expectancy and a range of factors including genetics, gender, environment, and social factors. She then describes her study of mortality differentials in the German state of Hesse, including life-table and cause-of-death analyses. The focus is on the socioeconomic and environmental determinants of mortality and life expectancy. Data are from official sources for the period 1987-1993.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 4, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

65:40296 Anderson, Robert N. United States life tables, 1997. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 28, Dec 13, 1999. 37 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"The life tables in this report are current life tables for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 1997. Beginning with 1997 mortality data, complete U.S. life tables were constructed using a new methodology that replaces the abridged life table methodology used previously. The methodology is similar to that used in the decennial life tables. Also, life expectancy and other life table values are shown for ages 85 to 100 years for the first time as part of the annual U.S. life tables. Data used to prepare these life tables are 1997 final mortality statistics; July 1, 1997, population estimates; and data from the Medicare program. Presented are complete life tables by age, race, and sex."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40297 Bell, Felicitie C.; Wade, Alice H. Actuarial tables based on the U.S. life tables: 1989-91. Actuarial Study, No. 113, Pub. Order No. 11-11543. Mar 1998. iv, 147 pp. U.S. Social Security Administration: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Actuarial tables for the United States by sex and race are presented based on the official life tables for 1989-1991. "The actuarial functions in this study can be used to calculate present values of expected future payments contingent upon the death or survival of a designated individual. A series of periodic payments to continue during the life of an individual is called a life annuity. A payment to be made on the death of an individual is called a life insurance. As with the 1989-91 decennial life tables, the actuarial functions included...here were calculated by sex and for both sexes combined for the total population, the white population, the population other than white and the black population. For each race/sex combination described, actuarial functions were tabulated using interest rates of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, and 12%."
Correspondence: U.S. Social Security Administration, Office of the Chief Actuary, Room 700, Altmeyer Building, Baltimore, MD 21235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40298 Del Panta, Lorenzo. Constructing abbreviated provincial life tables for 1881-1882. [Costruzione di tavole di mortalità provinciali abbreviate 1881-82.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 29, 1998. 61-9 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
The author presents some of the methodological issues involved in constructing abbreviated life tables for each of the Italian provinces for the years immediately prior to Italy's unification, and for the Kingdom of Italy after unification. Data are from the 1881 Italian census and age-specific mortality statistics for the years 1881-1882.
Correspondence: L. Del Panta, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Via Belle Arti 41, 40126 Bologna, Italy. E-mail: delpanta@stat.unibo.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40299 Ishikawa, Akira. Life tables by marital status: 1995. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 55, No. 1, 1999. 35-60 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Life tables for Japan for 1995 are presented by age and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40300 Kannisto, Väinö; Turpeinen, Oiva; Nieminen, Mauri. Finnish life tables since 1751. Demographic Research, Vol. 1, 1999. Rostock, Germany. In Eng.
"A recently completed series of life tables from 1751 to 1995 is used for identifying four stages of mortality transition in Finland, separated by the years 1880, 1945 and 1970. The cyclical fluctuation of the death rate in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is measured and examined in relation to epidemics, famines and wars. Important permanent changes in mortality also took place in this early period. Each of the successive stages of transition produced its own characteristic pattern of mortality change which contrasted with those of the other stages. Finally, the age profile of the years added to life is drawn to illustrate the end result of each stage of mortality transition."
Correspondence: V. Kannisto, Campo Grande 1 6-D, 1700-086 Lisbon, Portugal.

65:40301 Lischke, Ralph-Jürgen. Caspar Neumann (1648-1715): a contribution to the history of life tables. [Caspar Neumann (1648-1715): ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Sterbetafeln.] Edition IFAD, No. III, Nov 1998. 17 pp. Institut für Angewandte Demographie: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The author gives an overview of the history of the concept of life tables and then describes the role of Caspar Neumann as a significant influence on Halley and Leibniz and a forerunner of Johann Peter Süßmilch, the founder of statistical population studies in Germany.
Correspondence: Institut für Angewandte Demographie, Sophienstraße 3, 10178 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: ifad@ifad.b.shuttle.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40302 Panama. Dirección de Estadística y Censo (Panama City, Panama). Abbreviated life tables for Panama, by province and sex: 1990-1995 to 2005-2010. [Tablas abreviadas de vida de la República, por provincia, según sexo: quinquenio 1990-95 al 2005-10.] Estadística Panameña, Boletín Especial, No. 4, May 1996. 51 pp. Panama City, Panama. In Spa.
Abbreviated life tables are presented for Panama by sex and province for the five-year periods 1990-1995 to 2005-2010.
Correspondence: Dirección de Estadística y Censo, Contraloría General de la República, Apartado 5213, Panama City 5, Panama. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40303 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). U.S. decennial life tables for 1989-91. Volume 1, Number 4, United States life tables eliminating certain causes of death. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 99-1150-4. LC 85-600190. Sep 1999. v, 184 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report, the fourth in a set of reports containing life table data for the United States and each State for the period 1989-91, shows abridged cause-elimination life tables for 51 selected causes of death for the total United States. These life tables address the hypothetical mortality experience of a cohort assuming that a particular cause of death is eliminated. Four sets of detailed tables showing multiple-decrement and cause-elimination life table functions for each cause of death are presented. Each of the four sets contains seven tables, one each for total population, total males, total females, white males, white females, black males, and black females. The report also includes a description of the methodology used to construct the cause-elimination life tables."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Data Dissemination Branch, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 1064, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

65:40304 Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Dohrenwend, Bruce P.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.; Turner, J. Blake. The Latino mortality paradox: a test of the "salmon bias" and healthy migrant hypotheses. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 10, Oct 1999. 1,543-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author explore possible explanations for the fact that, although Latinos in the United States have a worse socioeconomic profile than non-Latino whites, they also have a lower mortality rate. The two explanations considered are the salmon bias hypothesis, which postulates that Latino migrants may return to their country of origin and so become statistically immortal, and an alternative hypothesis that suggests that the migration process favors the selection of healthier migrants. Data are from the NLMS Public Use File and concern 301,718 non-Latino whites and 17,375 Latinos. The authors conclude that neither hypothesis explains the lower mortality of Latinos.
Correspondence: A. F. Abraído-Lanza, Columbia University, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health, 60 Haven Avenue B-3, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: AFL7@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40305 Allison, David B.; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Stevens, June; VanItallie, Theodore B. Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 282, No. 16, Oct 27, 1999. 1,530-8 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
An attempt is made to estimate the number of obesity-related deaths in the United States. "Data from 5 prospective cohort studies (the Alameda Community Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, the Tecumseh Community Health Study, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study I, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study) and 1 published study (the Nurses' Health Study) in conjunction with 1991 national statistics on body mass index distributions, population size, and overall deaths.... The estimated number of annual deaths attributable to obesity among U.S. adults is approximately 280,000 based on HRs [hazard ratios] from all subjects and 325,000 based on HRs from only nonsmokers and never-smokers."
Correspondence: D. B. Allison, St. Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital, Obesity Research Center, 1090 Amsterdam Avenue, 14th Floor, New York, NY 10025. E-mail: dba8@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40306 Baird, Janis; Osmond, Clive; Bowes, Ian; Phillips, David I. W. Mortality from birth to adult life: a longitudinal study of twins. Early Human Development, Vol. 53, No. 1, Nov 1998. 73-9 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"We have examined mortality from birth through adult life in a cohort of 2,562 twins born in Birmingham, [England], between 1950 and 1954. Their birthweights and obstetric details had been recorded as part of a longitudinal study of births in Birmingham. There were a total of 151 perinatal deaths...and 227 infant deaths.... 70 deaths occurred after the age of one year. In comparison with national mortality rates in the UK, overall mortality in the twins was high.... Mortality was highest in the first year of life and, although it then declined progressively, it remained significantly higher than that of the general population until age 5 years.... These studies not only underline the excess mortality associated with twin birth but show for the first time that this excess mortality extends into childhood."
Correspondence: D. I. W. Phillips, Southampton General Hospital, MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40307 Benetos, Athanase; Rudnichi, Annie; Thomas, Frédérique; Safar, Michel; Guize, Louis. Influence of heart rate on mortality in a French population: role of age, gender, and blood pressure. Hypertension, Vol. 33, No. 1, Jan 1999. 44-52 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of high heart rate [HR] on mortality in different subgroups in a French population according to age, gender, and blood pressure levels. We studied 19,386 subjects (12,123 men, 7,263 women), aged 40 to 69 years, who had a routine health examination at the Centre d'Investigations Préventives et Cliniques (IPC) between 1974 and 1977.... The association of HR with cardiovascular mortality in men was (1) related to a strong association with coronary but not cerebrovascular mortality, (2) independent of age and hypertension, and (3) influenced by the level of pulse pressure; in patients with high pulse pressure, accelerated HR was not associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, in a large French population, accelerated resting HR represents an independent predictor of noncardiovascular mortality in both genders, and of cardiovascular mortality in men, independent of age and the presence of hypertension."
Correspondence: A. Benetos, Investigations Préventives et Cliniques, 23 Rue de Lubeck, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40308 Bosman, Hans; Schrijvers, Carola; Mackenbach, Johan P. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and importance of perceived control: cohort study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7223, Dec 4, 1999. 1,469-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This study examines the contribution of perceived control to socioeconomic differences in mortality. The data were collected in the Dutch town of Eindhoven in 1991 as part of the GLOBE study on health and living conditions. The results indicate that "low socioeconomic status is related to mortality partly because people with a low socioeconomic status more often perceive low control. This supports hypotheses on the importance of perceived control for socioeconomic inequalities in health. Perceptions of low control partly originate in adverse socioeconomic conditions during childhood."
Correspondence: H. Bosman, Erasmus University, Medical School, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: h.bosma@np.unimaas.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40309 Burgoa, Mar; Regidor, Enrique; Rodriguez, Carmen; Gutierrez-Fisac, Juan L. Mortality by cause of death and marital status in Spain. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1998. 37-42 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to show the differences in mortality from the leading causes of death by marital status among men and women in Spain. An analysis was made of persons aged 25 years and older who died in Spain during 1991. The mortality differences by marital status and sex were analysed for all the deaths and for the most frequent causes of death, using the ratios of age-adjusted death rates calculated from Poisson log-linear models. For both men and women, mortality was always higher in single and widowed persons than in married persons, except for a non-statistically significant mortality from diabetes mellitus and cirrhosis of the liver in single women. Divorced and separated men had a higher mortality than married men for all the causes of death taken together; the mortality among divorced and separated women, on the other hand, was lower than married women. Divorced and separated men and women generally had a lower mortality than married persons for the different causes of death, except for traffic accidents, suicide, cirrhosis of the liver and HIV infection, where it was higher."
Correspondence: E. Regidor, Ministry of Health, Department of Epidemiology, Paseo del Prado 18-20, 28071 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40310 Calle, Eugenia E.; Thun, Michael J.; Petrelli, Jennifer M.; Rodriguez, Carmen; Heath, Clark W. Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S. adults. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 341, No. 15, Oct 7, 1999. 1,097-105 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Body-mass index...is known to be associated with overall mortality. [The authors] investigated the effects of age, race, sex, smoking status, and history of disease on the relation between body-mass index and mortality.... In a prospective study of more than 1 million adults in the United States (457,785 men and 588,369 women), 201,622 deaths occurred during 14 years of follow-up. [They] examined the relation between body-mass index and the risk of death from all causes in four subgroups categorized according to smoking status and history of disease.... The risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or other diseases increases throughout the range of moderate and severe overweight for both men and women in all age groups." The data are from the Cancer Prevention Study II that began in 1982.
Correspondence: E. E. Calle, American Cancer Society, 1599 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40311 Camarero Rioja, Luis A.; Gómez Redondo, Rosa; Jiménez Aboitiz, Ricardo. Dying in the city or in the country: an analysis of urban-rural mortality differentials. [Morir en la ciudad y en el campo: análisis de las diferencias urbano-rurales en mortalidad.] Sociología, No. 23, May-Aug 1999. 97-129 pp. Valladolid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of differences in the causes of death in Spain between rural and urban areas by age and sex is presented, based on all deaths registered over the period 1990-1992. Although the results indicate that there is still a small difference in life expectancy between rural and urban areas, with the advantage being with rural areas, the general trend is toward a diminution of those differences and toward a convergence in the lifestyles of rural and urban residents.
Correspondence: L. A. Camarero Rioja, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40312 Caselli, Graziella; Reale, Alessandra. Does cohort analysis contribute to the study of the geography of mortality? Genus, Vol. 55, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1999. 27-59 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper aims to analyse territorial differences in mortality in Italy by longitudinal analysis. Attention is focused, for males and females, on adult mortality. Mortality trends and levels for all the cohorts have been very different by region and age. Analogies and differences between the `stories of mortality' could be interpreted as consequences of analogies and differences in the `life stories' according to the region of residence. Therefore, for example, the convergence of mortality levels in the Veneto and Lombardy and in the South and North could be better interpreted in light of the increasing similarity between the life histories of the different cohorts."
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. E-mail: caselli@dsd.sta.uniroma1.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40313 Chiang, Tung-liang. Economic transition and changing relation between income inequality and mortality in Taiwan: regression analysis. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7218, Oct 30, 1999. 1,162-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The changing relationship between income inequality and mortality in Taiwan as the island passed through different stages of economic development between 1976 and 1995 is explored using regression analysis. "When median household disposable income was controlled for, the association between income inequality and mortality became stronger in 1995 than in 1976. Especially, the association between income inequality and mortality in children aged under 5, with adjustment for differences in median household disposable income, changed from non-significant in 1976 to highly significant in 1995. In 1995, the level of household income after adjustment for income distribution no longer had a bearing on mortality in children under 5."
Correspondence: T.-l. Chiang, National Taiwan University, College of Public Health, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Taipei 10018, Taiwan. E-mail: tlchiang@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40314 Collins, Chiquita A.; Williams, David R. Segregation and mortality: The deadly effects of racism? Sociological Forum, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1999. 495-523 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using national mortality and census data for 1990 and a measure of black social isolation from whites, we examine the association between residential segregation and mortality in 107 major U.S. cities. Our analyses revealed that black social isolation tended to predict higher rates of mortality for African American males and females, although the strength of the association varied by cause of death. Socioeconomic deprivation explained a modest part of this association for black males but not for black females. Our analyses also found that a positive association between social isolation and mortality was more pronounced, for both blacks and whites, in cities that were also high on the index of dissimilarity."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: C. A. Collins, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of History, Technology and Society, Smith Building 116, 685 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0345. E-mail: chiquita.collins@hts.gatech.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40315 Deaton, Angus; Paxson, Christina. Mortality, education, income, and inequality among American cohorts. NBER Working Paper, No. 7140, May 1999. 49 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"People [in the United States] whose family income was less than $5,000 in 1980 could expect to live about 25 percent fewer years than people whose family income was greater than $50,000. We explore this finding using both individual data and a panel of aggregate birth cohorts observed from 1975 to 1995.... We derive results on how this relationship [between income and mortality] changes at different levels of aggregation. Our results on individuals show that income reduces the risk of death, and does so even controlling for education.... The panel of cohorts also shows a strongly protective effect of income, but there is evidence that cyclical increases in income may raise mortality, even when the long-run effects of income are in the opposite direction. There is no evidence that recent increases in inequality raised mortality beyond what it would otherwise have been."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: deaton@wws.princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40316 Dinkel, Reiner H.; Luy, Marc. Nature or behavior? An article explaining the phenomenon of male excess mortality through a comparison between a monastic and non-monastic (general public) population. [Natur oder Verhalten? Ein Beitrag zur Erklärung der männlichen Übersterblichkeit durch einen Vergleich von Kloster- und Allgemeinbevölkerung.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1999. 105-32 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Employing a study of 8,400 Bavarian nuns and monks the overall mortality and especially the sex differences in mortality for the monastery and the general population are calculated.... Life tables for the time periods 1910-1940 and 1955-1985...were constructed.... [The] difference between the monastery and the general population solely results from the lacking improvements of mortality for German males whose mortality improvements...fall short of Bavarian nuns, monks and German women."
Correspondence: R. H. Dinkel, Universität Rostock, Lehrstuhl für Demographie, Parkstraße 6, 18051 Rostock, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40317 Dolk, H.; Thakrar, B.; Walls, P.; Landon, M.; Grundy, C.; Sáez Lloret, I.; Wilkinson, P.; Elliott, P. Mortality among residents near cokeworks in Great Britain. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 56, No. 1, Jan 1999. 34-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The extent to which people living near cokeworks in the United Kingdom have higher levels of mortality than those living at greater distances is explored. The focus is on cardiovascular and respiratory causes of death that may be associated with pollution. The time period is 1981-1992. "A small excess mortality near cokeworks as found in this study is plausible in the light of current evidence about the health impact of air pollution. However, in this study the effects of pollution from cokeworks, if any, are outweighed by the effects of deprivation on mortality near cokeworks. It is not possible to confidently exclude socioeconomic confounding or biases resulting from inexact population estimation as explanations for the excess found."
Correspondence: H. Dolk, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Public Health Policy, Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40318 Dorn, Joan P.; Cerny, Frank J.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Naughton, John; Vena, John E.; Winkelstein, Warren; Schisterman, Enrique; Trevisan, Maurizio. Work and leisure time physical activity and mortality in men and women from a general population sample. Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 9, No. 6, Aug 1999. 366-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The long-term relationship between total physical activity and mortality is examined using data for a randomly selected sample of 698 white males and 763 females in Buffalo, New York, who were followed up over a 29-year period. The results indicated that "physical activity favorably influences mortality risks in non-obese men and younger women."
Correspondence: J. P. Dorn, State University of New York, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, 270 Farber Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214-3000. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40319 Hemström, Örjan. Male susceptibility and female emancipation: studies on the gender difference in mortality. Acta Universitatis Stockhomiensis. Stockholm Studies in Sociology. N.S., ISBN 91-22-01817-4. LC 99-158960. 1998. 177 pp. Almqvist and Wiksell International: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The aim of this thesis is to examine the social determinants of gender mortality differences--generally a higher mortality for men than for women.... The data materials used here are time-series data from official statistics in Sweden, 1945-1992, and individual data from the Swedish Census-linked Deaths Registries....The results show that economic growth has been more beneficial to female than male survival in Sweden. This is due in particular to the link between economic growth and male behaviour, since it was found that changes in alcohol and cigarette consumption were the two most important factors contributing to changes in excess male mortality after 1945. Changes in women's social status, as indicated by changes in the male:female wage ratio, may also have contributed--in particular to women's mortality decline."
Correspondence: Almqvist and Wiksell International, P.O. Box 7634, 103 94 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:40320 Kesteloot, H. Nutrition, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: its possible modulation by other factors, especially physical exercise. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 357-73 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
Differences in mortality levels around the world are analyzed by age and sex. The focus is on all-cause mortality and total cardiovascular mortality and the factors that affect them, including the level of medical care, genetic factors, pollution, stress, obesity, food additives, socioeconomic factors, and smoking. The author concludes that nutrition is the most important determinant of mortality at the population level, and that recommendations to the public concerning nutrition and other life-style factors can be easily understandable and non-dogmatic, with the exception of the firm recommendation against smoking.
Correspondence: H. Kesteloot, University of Leuven, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Capucijnenvoer 33, 3000 Louvain, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40321 Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.; Groenhof, Feikje; Borgan, Jens-Kristian; Costa, Giuseppe; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Józan, Peter; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Rychtarikova, Jitka; Valkonen, Tapani. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality among women and among men: an international study. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 12, Dec 1999. 1,800-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study compared differences in total and cause-specific mortality by educational level among women with those among men in 7 countries: the United States, Finland, Norway, Italy, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Estonia." Data are for the period 1980-1990 and are from official sources. "Total mortality rate ratios among women ranged from 1.09 in the Czech Republic to 1.31 in the United States and Estonia. Higher mortality rates among lower-educated women were found for most causes of death, but not for neoplasms. Relative inequalities in total mortality tended to be smaller among women than among men. In the United States and Western Europe, but not in Central and Eastern Europe, this sex difference was largely due to differences between women and men in cause-of-death pattern. For specific causes of death, inequalities are usually larger among men."
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: mackenbach@mgz.fgg.eur.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40322 Manor, Orly; Eisenbach, Zvi; Peritz, Eric; Friedlander, Yechiel. Mortality differentials among Israeli men. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 12, Dec 1999. 1,807-13 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Mortality differentials among Israeli men are analyzed with respect to ethnic origin, marital status, and various measures of social status. The data were based on linkages between a 20% sample from the 1983 census and death records up to the end of 1992 and included 75,527 men, 17,348 of whom subsequently died. The results indicate that "some sectors of Israeli society have higher risks of death than others, including, among the male population, those who are poor, less educated, unmarried, unskilled, out of the labor force, and of North African origin."
Correspondence: O. Manor, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Organization, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Ein Karem, Jerusalem, Israel. E-mail: om@cc.huji.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40323 Martikainen, Pekka; Valkonen, Tapani. Bias related to the exclusion of the economically inactive in studies on social class differences in mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 5, Oct 1999. 899-904 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Official Finnish data for the period 1970-1990 are used to assess the extent to which the exclusion of the economically inactive affects the estimation of differences in mortality by social class. The authors conclude that "exclusion of the economically inactive population underestimates the class differences in the total population by about 25% among men and 60% among women. The bias does not disappear if the first 5 years of follow-up are excluded and the bias can lead to erroneous conclusions about the trends in social class differences in mortality."
Correspondence: P. Martikainen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Population Research Unit, P.O. Box 33, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40324 McDonough, Peggy; Williams, David R.; House, James S.; Duncan, Greg J. Gender and the socioeconomic gradient in mortality. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 40, No. 1, Mar 1999. 17-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Gender differences in patterns of socioeconomic mortality differentials in the United States are analyzed using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for the period 1972-1991. "We find no gender differences in the effect of respondents' own socioeconomic positions on their mortality risk. However, increasing spousal income raises men's odds of dying, while the opposite is true for women. Our results raise questions about the prevailing view that the socioeconomic gradient in mortality is weaker among women. Moreover, gender differences in the effects of spousal earnings on mortality risk suggest that their labor market rewards have fundamentally different meanings for women and men."
Correspondence: P. McDonough, York University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Sociology, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. E-mail: peggymcd@yorku.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

65:40325 Michelozzi, Paola; Perucci, Carlo A.; Forastiere, Francesco; Fusco, Danilo; Ancona, Carla; Dell'Orco, Valerio. Inequality in health: socioeconomic differentials in mortality in Rome, 1990-95. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 11, Nov 1999. 687-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between SES [socioeconomic status] and mortality in the metropolitan area of Rome [Italy] during the six year period 1990-1995, and to examine variations in mortality differentials between 1990-92 and 1993-95.... Among men, total mortality and mortality for the major causes of death showed an inverse association with SES.... Comparing the periods 1990-92 and 1993-95, differences in total mortality between socioeconomic groups widened in both sexes.... Despite the possible [study] limitations, these results suggest that social class differences in mortality in Rome are increasing."
Correspondence: P. Michelozzi, Lazio Region Health Authority, Department of Epidemiology, Via di Santa Costanza 53, 00198 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40326 Mungiole, Michael; Pickle, Linda W.; Simonson, Katherine H. Application of a weighted head-banging algorithm to mortality data maps. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 23, Dec 15, 1999. 3,201-9 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Smoothed data maps permit the reader to identify general spatial trends by removing the background noise of random variability often present in raw data. To smooth mortality data from 798 small areas comprising the contiguous United States, we extended the head-banging algorithm to allow for differential weighting of the values to be smoothed. Actual and simulated data sets were used to determine how head-banging smoothed spike and edge features in the data, and to observe the degree to which weighting affected the results. As expected, spikes were generally removed while edges and clusters of high rates near the U.S. borders were maintained by the unweighted head-banging algorithm. Incorporating weights inversely proportional to standard errors had a substantial effect on smoothed data, for example determining whether observed spikes were retained or removed. The process used to obtain the smoothed data, including the choice of head-banging parameters, is discussed."
Correspondence: M. Mungiole, Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783-1197. E-mail: mmungiole@mail.arl.mil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40327 Nelissen, Jan H. M. Mortality differences related to socioeconomic status and the progressivity of old-age pensions and health insurance: the Netherlands. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1999. 77-97 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper, we use a dynamic microsimulation model which has been applied to data for the Netherlands. We will look at the effect of the inclusion of differential mortality on the progressivity of the social security system in the Netherlands. We specifically concentrate on the old-age pension system and health insurance." The authors note that "for the Netherlands, [differences in mortality rates between socioeconomic groups] result in a difference in life expectancy between persons with a lower education and persons with a higher education of about 4.5 years."
Correspondence: J. H. M. Nelissen, Tilburg University, CentER, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. E-mail: j.h.m.nelissen@kub.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40328 Ng-Mak, Daisy S.; Dohrenwend, Bruce P.; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Turner, J. Blake. A further analysis of race differences in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 11, Nov 1999. 1,748-51 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between race and specific causes of death in adults 25 years and older in the United States is explored using data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study. The results indicate that "black persons younger than 65 years were at higher risk than others for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality; the strongest effects were observed among persons aged 25 through 44 years."
Correspondence: D. S. Ng-Mak, Columbia University, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health, EPI PH Building 18-304, PET, 600 West 168th Street, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: dsn3@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40329 Riphahn, Regina T. The mortality crisis in East Germany and its reflection on the statistics of causes of death. [Die Mortalitätskrise in Ostdeutschland und ihre Reflektion in der Todesursachenstatistik.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1999. 329-63 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This essay compiles the available evidence of the mortality crisis in East Germany after 1989, and subsequently evaluates alternative approaches to an explanation. In the second section, the development of mortality in the new states [is] presented.... Section 3 summarizes the explanatory approaches used...for the short-term mortality crises and examines their plausibility for the East German case.... The argumentation saying that at first stress led to an increase of morbidity and then--consequently--to an increase of mortality, seems convincing.... Based on time series of age-specific causes of death, the conclusion can be drawn that after reunification deaths caused by alcohol abuse increased in Easy Germany. Cardiovascular diseases, however, are the main cause for the increased mortality, confirming the hypothesis that it had been stress-induced."
Correspondence: R. T. Riphahn, Universität München, Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Ludwigstraße 28 RG, 80539 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40330 Robertson, Chris; Ecob, Russell. Simultaneous modelling of time trends and regional variation in mortality rates. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 5, Oct 1999. 955-63 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
An attempt is made to model the regional component of the variance in mortality rates in the United Kingdom using census data for the period 1931-1991. "For both sexes, but particularly for females, a reduction in the rate of decrease in mortality was found around 1960. In addition, particularly for females, cohorts born after 1930 appear to show reductions in mortality at an increased rate. It is demonstrated that there is evidence that the between-region variation in the rates has not remained constant and that it is much less now than it was at the beginning of the data series."
Correspondence: C. Robertson, European Institute of Oncology, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy. E-mail: crobert@ieo.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40331 Singh, Pramil N.; Lindsted, Kristian D.; Fraser, Gary E. Body weight and mortality among adults who never smoked. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 150, No. 11, Dec 1, 1999. 1,152-64 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In a 12-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among the 20,346 middle-aged (25-54 years) and older (55-84 years) non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study (California, 1976-1988) who had never smoked cigarettes and had no history of coronary heart disease, cancer, or stroke. In analyses that accounted for putative indicators (weight change relative to 17 years before baseline, death during early follow-up) of pre-existing illness, the authors found a direct positive relation between BMI and all-cause mortality among middle-aged men...older men...middle-aged women...and older women who had undergone postmenopausal hormone replacement.... Among older women who had not undergone postmenopausal hormone replacement, the authors found a J-shaped relation...in which BMI was associated with a twofold increase in mortality risk...that was primarily due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease. These findings not only identify adiposity as a risk factor among adults, but also raise the possibility that very lean older women can experience an increased mortality risk that may be due to their lower levels of adipose tissue-derived estrogen."
Correspondence: P. N. Singh, Loma Linda University, Center for Health Research, Nichol Hall, Room #2008, Loma Linda, CA 92350. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40332 Stamler, Jeremiah; Stamler, Rose; Neaton, James D.; Wentworth, Deborah; Daviglus, Martha L.; Garside, Dan; Dyer, Alan R.; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip. Low risk-factor profile and long-term cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality and life expectancy: findings for 5 large cohorts of young adult and middle-aged men and women. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 282, No. 21, Dec 1, 1999. 2,012-8 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Long-term mortality rates for individuals with favorable levels for three major risk factors (serum cholesterol level, blood pressure, and smoking) are analyzed using U.S. data from two prospective studies (the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial and the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry) involving five cohorts based on age and sex. "Based on these very large cohort studies, for individuals with favorable levels of cholesterol and blood pressure who do not smoke and do not have diabetes, MI (myocardial infarction), or ECG (electrocardiogram) abnormalities, long-term mortality is much lower and longevity is much greater. A substantial increase in the proportion of the population at lifetime low risk could contribute decisively to ending the CHD (coronary heart disease) epidemic."
Correspondence: J. Stamler, Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, 680 N Lake Shore Drive, Suite 1102 (D335) Chicago, IL 60611. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40333 Tabutin, Dominique; Willems, Michel. Differential mortality by sex from birth to adolescence: the historical experience of the West (1750-1930). In: Too young to die: genes or gender? 1998. 17-52 pp. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a general review of the literature on differential mortality in the developed countries from 1600 to 1930, with the focus on the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. There are sections on data and methods, past assessments of sex differentials in mortality, findings relevant to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, sex differentials in childhood and adolescent mortality between 1800 and 1930, interrelations between sex differentials in mortality and the level of mortality, regional and spatial differences in mortality by sex (the case of Belgium), the causes of death leading to excess female mortality, and a review of the findings presented and causal hypothesis.
Correspondence: D. Tabutin, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40334 Tabutin, Dominique. Excess female mortality in Northern Africa since 1965: a description. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 4, 1992. 187-207 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Instead of similar life expectancies for both sexes, there is now a gradual trend towards longer life for women than for men.... The excess female mortality which used to characterize the first years of life and the childbearing years is progressively becoming a thing of the past. [The author poses the following questions:] What is the situation in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt, now that life expectancy in these countries has risen to over 64 years? Is the pattern the same in all four countries? Are there, as in other parts of the world, certain ages which are more impervious to progress than others: the first years of life, for instance?"
Correspondence: D. Tabutin, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. E-mail: tabutin@demo.ucl.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40335 The BMI in Diverse Populations Collaborative Group (Baltimore, Maryland). Effect of smoking on the body mass index-mortality relation: empirical evidence from 15 studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 150, No. 12, Dec 15, 1999. 1,297-308 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper, the authors demonstrate that the estimated body mass index of minimum mortality changes when data are analyzed while ignoring smoking status; but they also demonstrate through a simulation study that eliminating smokers from the data sets prior to analysis produces results similar to those expected from the elimination of numerically similar random proportions of the data sets prior to analysis. Based on the results of these analyses, the authors find no support for the commonly held practice of eliminating smokers from a data set prior to examining the body mass index-mortality relation." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40336 Valkonen, Tapani; Van Poppel, Frans. The contribution of smoking to sex differences in life expectancy: four Nordic countries and the Netherlands 1970-1989. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1997. 302-10 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper gives quantitative estimates of the effects of smoking on sex differences in life expectancy at age 35 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands during 1970-1989. The data on cause-specific mortality by age and sex were obtained from standardized computer-tape transcripts of the WHO mortality data bank.... On average, 2.4 years or more than 40% of the total sex difference in life expectancy in 1970-1974 was estimated to be attributable to smoking in the 5 countries. By 1985-1989 the contribution of smoking dropped to 1.8 years or approximately 30% of the total difference. The contribution of smoking to the sex difference was greatest in The Netherlands and smallest in Sweden. As a result of the decline in smoking-attributable male mortality, the sex difference in life expectancy diminished in Finland in the 1980s. In the other countries the difference continued to grow despite the increase in the loss of female life expectancy caused by smoking."
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Population Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, Unioninkatu 35, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40337 Valkonen, Tapani. The widening differentials in adult mortality by socio-economic status and their causes. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 291-312 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this paper is to review and assess research results describing changes in socioeconomic mortality differentials since the 1970s. The paper focuses on adult mortality in developed countries, excluding transitional economies." The problems involved in measuring socioeconomic differences in mortality are considered first. The author notes that socioeconomic differentials are substantial in all the countries for which data are available and should be a major concern of health and social policy makers. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the mortality gap between the less and more privileged members of society is growing.
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Population Research Unit, Hameentie 68B, 00550 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40338 Valkonen, Tapani. The widening differentials in adult mortality by socioeconomic status and their causes. [Die Vergrößerung der sozioökonomischen Unterschiede in der Erwachsenenmortalität durch Status und deren Ursachen.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1998. 263-92 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The main purpose of the article is to review and assess research results describing changes in socioeconomic differentials in adult mortality since the 1970s in developed countries.... The article first discusses data sources and methods of measurement. It concludes that there exists no singe valid method for measuring changes in mortality differences, and conclusions concerning the widening or narrowing of differences may depend on the method of measurement chosen. Socioeconomic differentials in mortality are substantial in all countries.... [In] England and Wales, four Nordic countries, Spain and the United States...relative socioeconomic differences in mortality have increased among working-age men in the 1980s. The increase has been mainly due to the more rapid decline of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the upper than lower socioeconomic groups."
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 18, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40339 Vallin, Jacques. Mortality, sex, and gender. [Mortalité, sexe et genre.] Gender in Population Studies/Le Genre dans Les Etudes de Population, 1999. 38 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Fre.
The extent to which differential mortality by sex is due to biological differences or to socioeconomic factors is explored. There are chapters on the genetic factors that lead to higher male mortality, the social factors that tend to increase female mortality, the factors that have reduced mortality differentials by sex, and the factors that are now causing an increase in early male mortality. The author concludes by examining the apparent paradox whereby an increase in excess male mortality can occur at the same time as a reduction in the gap in life expectancy by sex.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. E-mail: iussp@iussp.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40340 Wei, Ming; Kampert, James B.; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Nichaman, Milton Z.; Gibbons, Larry W.; Paffenbarger, Ralph S.; Blair, Steven N. Relationship between low cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality in normal-weight, overweight, and obese men. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 282, No. 16, Oct 27, 1999. 1,547-53 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The relationship between low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality in overweight and obese men in the United States is analyzed using data on 25,714 adult men in Dallas, Texas, who received a medical examination between 1970 and 1993 and who were followed up to the end of 1994. "In this analysis, low cardiorespiratory fitness was a strong and independent predictor of CVD [cardiovascular disease] and all-cause mortality and of comparable importance with that of diabetes mellitus and other CVD risk factors."
Correspondence: S. N. Blair, Cooper Institute, 12330 Preston Road, Dallas, TX 75230. E-mail: sblair@cooperinst.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40341 Weitoft, Gunilla R.; Gullberg, Anders; Hjern, Anders; Rosén, Mans. Mortality statistics in immigrant research: method for adjusting underestimation of mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 4, Aug 1999. 756-63 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of the present study has been to analyse mortality differences between people born in Sweden and those who have immigrated into Sweden. For this purpose we have used a specific method for addressing the suspected underreporting of deaths of people born outside the Nordic countries. This method, specially developed and used for this purpose, focuses on information about income and social benefits as indicators of residence in the country."
Correspondence: G. R. Weitoft, Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Center for Epidemiology, 106 30 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: gunilla.ringback@sos.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40342 Wolfson, Michael; Kaplan, George; Lynch, John; Ross, Nancy; Backlund, Eric. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7215, Oct 9, 1999. 953-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data from the 1990 U.S. census and other official sources are used to assess the extent to which the observed associations at population level between income inequality and mortality are statistical artifacts. The authors conclude that "the observed associations in the United States at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artefacts of an underlying individual level relation between income and mortality. There remains an important association between income inequality and mortality at state level over and above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artefact. This result reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors, including the social milieu, as fundamental determinants of health." Comments are included by Hugh Gravelle (pp. 955-6) and Richard G. Wilkinson (pp. 956-7).
Correspondence: M. Wolfson, Statistics Canada, Institutions and Social Statistics Branch, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. E-mail: wolfson@statcan.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

65:40343 Adetunji, Jacob. HIV-infection and AIDS-related deaths in Africa. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 442-67 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to review the prevalence of HIV infection in Africa and AIDS-related mortality and to assess the quality of the data available from the region. The paper also discusses the consequences of the high prevalence of HIV infections and AIDS, expected future trends of the epidemic in Africa and the policy options available."
Correspondence: J. Adetunji, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40344 Aguirre, Alejandro. Maternal mortality in Mexico. [Mortalidad materna en México.] Hechos de Población, ISBN 968-835-422-8. Jul 1999. 73 pp. Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México: Toluca, Mexico. In Spa.
This study examines historical trends, geographical differences, and other characteristics of maternal mortality in Mexico using vital statistics data. Consideration is given to causes of maternal mortality and to mortality differences by age and socioeconomic status. Other sources of data, such as surveys, are also reviewed.
Correspondence: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados de la Población, Avenida Instituto Literario No. 100 OTE, 50000 Toluca, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40345 Aguirre, Alejandro. Mexico: maternal mortality estimation from several sources. [México: estimación de la mortalidad materna a partir de diversas fuentes.] Notas de Población, Vol. 26, No. 67-68, Jan-Dec 1998. 119-37 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The various sources of data on maternal mortality in Mexico are assessed. "Vital statistics in Mexico are the main source of information about maternal mortality. The coverage of the records of deaths among women in child-bearing ages is reasonable (only 3.5% of them go unrecorded); however, the main pitfall consists [of] the misclassification of causes of death that leads to an underestimation of maternal mortality. Other sources of information are: the reports of the committees for the study of maternal mortality; reproductive age mortality surveys (RAMOS), and the information required for Brass's sisterhood method. Information from maternal mortality committees [does] not...reach the coverage of vital statistics but sheds light into the circumstances in which maternal deaths occur."
Correspondence: A. Aguirre, El Colegio de México, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40346 Arriaga, Eduardo. Causes of death in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition: an overview of current knowledge, data availability and novel methods of data collection. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 84-109 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents first, an overview of the completeness of the registration of deaths and causes of death in a range of countries; second it deals with the most frequently encountered problems in collecting cause of death statistics; finally it considers some possibilities of obtaining information of causes of death for those countries where they are not now available." The geographical focus is worldwide, with emphasis on the situation in developing countries.
Correspondence: E. Arriaga, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40347 Banthia, Jayant; Dyson, Tim. Smallpox in nineteenth-century India. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1999. 649-80, 83-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"At the start of the nineteenth century roughly 80 percent of India's population had no effective protection against [smallpox], and in these circumstances virtually everyone suffered from it in childhood. The main exception was Bengal, where indigenous practice of inoculation greatly limited the prevalence of the disease. Smallpox case fatality in India was high--around 25-30 percent in unprotected populations--and significantly higher than estimated for unprotected populations in eighteenth-century Europe.... The study demonstrates a close link between the spread of vaccination and the decline of smallpox. Whereas at the start of the nineteenth century the disease may have accounted for more than 10 percent of all deaths in India, by the end of the century smallpox had become a comparatively minor cause of death as a result of improved vaccination coverage."
Correspondence: J. Banthia, Office of the Registrar General, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40348 Bobak, Martin; Marmot, Michael. Alcohol and mortality in Russia: Is it different than elsewhere? Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 9, No. 6, Aug 1999. 335-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The hypothesis that alcohol drinking, and binge drinking in particular, is a major determinant of recent fluctuations in mortality in Russia is examined. The authors conclude that there is no direct evidence to support the hypothesis. "Available estimates of alcohol consumption in Russia are low, and the only published study on alcohol and mortality conducted in Russia produced negative results. Increase in drinking prevalence alone would not explain the mortality rise; increase in relative risk related to alcohol would also be needed. The biological mechanisms which could underlie the presumed strong effects of alcohol on heart disease are not clear. On the other hand, binge drinking has not been addressed adequately by research so far."
Correspondence: M. Bobak, University College London, International Centre for Health and Society, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40349 Boerma, J. Ties; Nunn, Andrew J.; Whitworth, James A. G. Mortality impact of the AIDS epidemic: evidence from community studies in less developed countries. AIDS, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1998. 3-14 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This review focuses on the evidence of [AIDS] mortality impact among adults and children in community studies. The majority of these studies are located in Africa, particularly eastern Africa, where the AIDS epidemic is conjectured to be older than in other less developed countries.... Community studies show a two- to threefold increase in total adult mortality with an even larger increase in mortality among young adults in communities with adult HIV prevalence levels below 10%."
Correspondence: J. T. Boerma, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, CB 8120 University Square East, Chapel Hill, NC 27516. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40350 Booth, Heather. Pacific Island suicide in comparative perspective. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct 1999. 433-48 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"All available data for thirteen Pacific Island nations are used in a comparative analysis of suicide levels and characteristics. Age, sex and method of suicide are examined in detail. Global comparison shows Pacific rates are amongst the highest reported. Female youth rates exceed male rates in Western Samoa and amongst Fiji Indians. Method of suicide (paraquat ingestion) is instrumental in determining high rates in Western Samoa, especially in females. The broad causal theme is societal transition. Commonality and diversity are discussed."
Correspondence: H. Booth, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40351 Bruthans, Jan; Dzúrová, Dagmar. Circulatory disease mortality in the Czech Republic after the year 1989. [Úmrtnost na nemoci obehové soustavy v Ceské republice po roce 1989.] Demografie, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1999. 193-206 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze circulatory disease (CD) mortality in the Czech Republic since 1989, with a focus on disease diagnosis, education, family status, and geographical area. Reasons for the decline in CD mortality are examined, including marital status, education, economic activity, life style, and availability and quality of health care.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40352 Chiasson, Mary A.; Berenson, Louise; Li, Wenhui; Schwartz, Steven; Singh, Tejinder; Forlenza, Susan; Mojica, Benjamin A.; Hamburg, Margaret A. Declining HIV/AIDS mortality in New York City. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Vol. 21, No. 1, May 1999. 59-64 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"New York City has only 3% of the U.S. population but has reported nearly 16% of all AIDS cases.... This is an observational study using the New York City vital events and AIDS case surveillance registries to describe trends in HIV/AIDS mortality from 1983 through June 30, 1998.... Annual HIV/AIDS deaths increased steadily until stabilizing at 7,046 in 1995, declined 29% to 4,998 in 1996, and declined 47% to 2,625 in 1997. Comparing data from 1997 with those from 1995, declines occurred in all demographic groups and in all major HIV transmission categories: 74% in men who have sex with men, 68% in injecting drug users, and 64% in heterosexuals. In the first 6 months of 1998, declines were smaller than they had been in previous 6-month intervals in all demographic groups except Hispanic males and those between 35 and 44 years of age.... The precipitous 63% decline in HIV/AIDS deaths from 1995 to 1997 occurred at the same time that more effective antiretroviral therapies became widely available."
Correspondence: M. A. Chiasson, New York City Department of Health, CN 6, 125 Worth Street, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40353 Chichakli, Lina O.; Atrash, Hani K.; Mackay, Andrea P.; Musani, Altaf S.; Berg, Cynthia J. Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States due to hemorrhage: 1979-1992. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 94, No. 5, Pt. 1, Nov 1999. 721-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "study trends and examine risk factors for pregnancy-related mortality due to hemorrhage [using U.S. data on] pregnancy-related deaths from 1979-1992.... Hemorrhage is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the United States. Black women have three times the risk of death of white women."
Correspondence: H. K. Atrash, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, 4770 Buford Highway, MS K-23, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. E-mail: hka1@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40354 Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter; Smallman-Raynor, Matthew. Deciphering global epidemics: analytical approaches to the disease records of world cities, 1888-1912. Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography, No. 26, ISBN 0-521-47266-0. LC 97-27050. 1998. xxiii, 469 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This work is based on the epidemiological data that were collected and published by the U.S. Public Health Service for the period 1887-1912 on a selection of major cities around the world. The focus is on mortality from six major diseases in 100 cities. "We have tried in this book to present the data culled from these weekly records in a form which gives some idea of the potential which lies buried in them. We have also laid stress on the various analytical methods now available for drawing out patterns from them, `deciphering' epidemics as we title the book." The authors' data archives are also available for use by other researchers.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library.

65:40355 Conti, Susanna; Farchi, Gino; Masocco, Maria; Toccaceli, Virgilia; Vichi, Monica. The impact of the major causes of death on life expectancy in Italy. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 5, Oct 1999. 905-10 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study aims to evaluate the contribution of the reduction in major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), malignant neoplasms (MN), accidents and AIDS mortality to the gains in life expectancy observed [in Italy] during the decade 1985-1994, as well as to calculate and compare the potential gains due to the partial or total elimination of these causes.... The gain in life expectancy at birth was 2.27 years for men and 2.16 for women. The major contribution to this increase was the reduction in CVD mortality followed by fewer deaths from accidents and MN. Conversely, AIDS caused a loss in the length of life of adults."
Correspondence: S. Conti, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. E-mail: susanna@iss.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40356 Cook, Rebecca J. The human rights dimensions of maternal mortality. Gender in Population Studies/Le Genre dans Les Etudes de Population, ISBN 2-87108-070-4. 1999. 23 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Reasons for the collective failure at an international level to stem the tide of maternal mortality, now estimated at about 585,000 maternal deaths around the world each year, are explored. "My thesis is that the preventable rate of maternal mortality is but a symptom, a tragic symptom, of a larger social injustice of discrimination against women and violation of women's human rights that societies are unwilling to prevent, remedy and punish. The impressive work of the health professions in recent decades to devise effective health interventions and monitor their availability and use is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the reduction of maternal mortality. The reduction of avoidable maternal death is not only a matter of effective health interventions, but also a matter of social justice."
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. E-mail: iussp@iussp.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40357 Coupland, Robin M.; Meddings, David R. Mortality associated with use of weapons in armed conflicts, wartime atrocities, and civilian mass shootings: literature review. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7207, Aug 14, 1999. 407-10 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors investigate "the implications of variation in mortality associated with use of weapons in different contexts.... [They] reviewed official figures in the medical literature on mortality from the use of conventional weapons and firearms under various circumstances...." The results indicate that "mortality from firearms depends not only on the technology of the weapons or its ammunition but also on the context in which it is used."
Correspondence: R. M. Coupland, International Committee of the Red Cross, Unit of the Chief Medical Officer, 19 avenue de la Paix, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. E-mail: rcoupland@icrc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40358 Elu, María del C.; Langer, Ana. Risk-free maternity in Mexico. [Maternidad sin riesgos en México.] ISBN 968-6912-00-2. 1994. 220 pp. Instituto Mexicano de Estudios Sociales: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a selection of the papers presented at the National Conference on Risk-free Maternity, held February 8-11, 1993, in Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The conference brought together an interdisciplinary group of legislators, doctors, social scientists, communicators, and psychologists who examined ways to further reduce levels of maternal mortality and improve reproductive health in Mexico. The 21 papers are grouped under five headings, which deal with the scale of, factors affecting, and consequences of maternal morbidity and mortality; critical aspects of reproductive health; access, utilization, and quality of family planning services; access, utilization, and quality of services dealing with pregnancy, delivery, and abortion; and the mobilization of resources.
Correspondence: Instituto Mexicano de Estudios Sociales, Cuauhtémoc No. 176, Tepepan, Xochimilco, 16020 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40359 Frankel, Stephen; Davey Smith, George; Gunnell, David. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult cardiovascular mortality: the Boyd Orr Cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 150, No. 10, Nov 15, 1999. 1,081-4 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relation between childhood socioeconomic position and adult cardiovascular mortality is examined in 3,750 individuals whose families took part in the Carnegie survey of family diet and health in England and Scotland between 1937 and 1939. The trend in coronary heart disease mortality across social position groups was not statistically significant at conventional levels..., while a strong linear trend was seen for stroke mortality.... Adjustment for the Townsend deprivation index of area of residence during adult life did not materially alter these findings, indicating that the effects of socioeconomic influences upon particular cardiovascular diseases differ according to the age at which they are experienced."
Correspondence: S. Frankel, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40360 Garenne, Michel; Tollman, Stephen; Kahn, Kathleen; Gear, John. Causes of death in a rural area in South Africa compared to two other situations (Senegal and France). [Causes de décès dans une zone rurale d'Afrique du sud comparées à deux autres situations (Sénégal et France).] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 54, ISBN 2-87762-119-7. Jul 1999. 28 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The study compares the cause of death profile in a rural area of South Africa (Agincourt, 1992-1995), with that in a rural area of West Africa [Senegal] (Niakhar, 1983-1989), and in a developed country with the same life expectancy (France, 1951) in order to determine causes with high and low mortality and priorities for future health interventions. In the two African sites, causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsies, whereas they were derived from regular cause of death registration in France. Age standardized death rates were used to compare cause-specific mortality in the three studies. Life expectancy in Agincourt was estimated at 66 years, similar to that of France in 1951, and much higher than that of Niakhar (49 years)." The results indicate that comparative studies of this kind are feasible using data collected in verbal autopsies as well as formal cause of death registration.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Author's E-mail: garenne@ceped.ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40361 Garfinkel, Lawrence; Mushinski, Margaret. U.S. cancer incidence, mortality and survival: 1973-1996. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 80, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1999. 23-32 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
The authors examine U.S. trends in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival for the period 1973-1996. The focus is on lung, prostate, breast, and colorectal cancer. "Between 1990 and 1996 the age-adjusted death rates for all cancers had dropped 3.7 percent to 166.9 per 100,000 and incidence rates had decreased 2.8 percent to 388.6. The overall decreases were greater among men than women; male mortality rates dropped 6.2 percent and incidence dropped 5.2 percent for men versus 1.8 and 1.9 percent, respectively, for women."
Correspondence: L. Garfinkel, American Cancer Society, Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, 1599 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329-4251. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40362 Gillum, Richard F. Risk factors for stroke in Blacks: a critical review. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 150, No. 12, Dec 15, 1999. 1,266-74 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Stroke is the third leading cause of death in U.S. Blacks.... Mortality rates are higher in Blacks than in Whites in the United States at ages below 70 years. In Blacks, advanced age, elevated blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and smoking are the only risk factors for stroke whose status has been firmly established by published data.... Higher prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, obesity (in women), elevated lipoprotein (a) level, smoking (in men), and low socioeconomic status may contribute to the higher stroke incidence and mortality in U.S. Blacks as compared with Whites. However, further environmental influences must be studied and candidate genes identified before assuming that racial differences can be attributed to inborn susceptibility linked to inheritance of specific genes."
Correspondence: R. F. Gillum, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 730, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40363 Gilmour, Heather; Gentleman, Jane F. Mortality in metropolitan areas. Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 11, No. 1, Summer 1999. 9-19 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"This article examines differences in all causes mortality rates and rates for leading causes of death (heart disease, cancer and cerebrovascular disease) by census metropolitan area (CMA) [for Canada].... Annualized age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for Canada and for each CMA for the three-year period from 1994 to 1996. Differences between the CMA rates and the National rate were examined."
Correspondence: H. Gilmour, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. E-mail: gilmhea@statcan.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40364 Granberg, Donald; Westerberg, Charles. On abandoning life when it is least difficult. Social Biology, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1999. 154-62 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Suicide data from Sweden (1911-1993) and New Zealand (1975-1995) were used to test a hypothesis derived as an extension of the Seasonal Affective Disorder concept. Contrary to the hypothesis, but similar to what Durkheim had reported regarding Central Europe in the nineteenth century, suicides peaked in late spring (May in Sweden, November in New Zealand). Durkheim's hypothesis that there would be more monthly variation in suicides in rural areas was strongly supported. Our hypothesis is that people abandon life when it is least difficult because of a disjuncture between experience and expectation."
Correspondence: D. Granberg, University of Missouri, Department of Sociology, Columbia, MO 65211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40365 Hart, Carole L.; Davey Smith, George; Hole, David J.; Hawthorne, Victor M. Alcohol consumption and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, and stroke: results from a prospective cohort study of Scottish men with 21 years of follow up. British Medical Journal, Vol. 318, No. 7200, Jun 26, 1999. 1,725-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors assess the relation between alcohol consumption and mortality using data for 5,766 men aged 35-64 who were living in Scotland and screened in 1970-1973. "Risk for all cause mortality was similar for non-drinkers and men drinking up to 14 units a week. Mortality risk then showed a graded association with alcohol consumption.... Adjustment for risk factors attenuated the increased relative risks, but they remained significantly above 1 for men drinking 22 or more units a week. There was no strong relation between alcohol consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease after adjustment. A strong positive relation was seen between alcohol consumption and risks of mortality from stroke, with men drinking 35 or more units having double the risk of non-drinkers, even after adjustment."
Correspondence: G. Davey Smith, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. E-mail: zetkin@bristol.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40366 Hieu, Do Trong; Hanenberg, Robert; Vach, Trinh Huu; Vinh, Dao Quang; Sokal, David. Maternal mortality in Vietnam in 1994-95. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 4, Dec 1999. 329-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents...population-based estimates of maternal mortality in Vietnam. All the deaths of women aged 15-49 in 1994-95 in three provinces of Vietnam were identified and classified by cause. Maternal mortality was the fifth most frequent cause of death. The maternal mortality ratio was 155 deaths per 100,000 live births. This ratio compares with the World Health Organization's estimates of 430 such deaths globally and 390 for Asia.... Maternal mortality is low in Vietnam primarily because a relatively high proportion of deliveries take place in clinics and hospitals, where few women die in childbirth. Also, few women die of the consequences of induced abortion in Vietnam because the procedure is legal and easily available."
Correspondence: R. Hanenberg, Family Health International, Clinical Research Department, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: bob@sanfranmail.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40367 Hoffmeister, Hans; Schelp, Frank-Peter; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Dietz, Ekkehart; Böhning, Dankmar. The relationship between alcohol consumption, health indicators and mortality in the German population. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 6, Dec 1999. 1,066-72 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The impact of total alcohol, beer, and wine consumption in Germany on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality is assessed. Data are for 15,400 individuals from the National Health Survey and 2,370 from the Berlin-Spandau regional sample of the survey. "The results suggest that light (and possibly moderate) alcohol consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular and total mortality risk and is favourably related to HDL-cholesterol."
Correspondence: H. Hoffmeister, Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Soziale Medizin, Fabeckstraße 60-62, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40368 Hopkins, Frederick W.; MacKay, Andrea P.; Koonin, Lisa M.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Irwin, Molly; Atrash, Hani K. Pregnancy-related mortality in Hispanic women in the United States. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 94, No. 5, Pt. 1, Nov 1999. 747-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "examine pregnancy-related mortality among Hispanic women in the United States.... Pregnancy-related mortality ratios for Hispanic women were higher than those for non-Hispanic white women, but markedly lower than those for black women. The similarity in socioeconomic status between Hispanic and black women was not an indicator of similar health outcomes."
Correspondence: A. P. MacKay, National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, MS P08, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: anm3@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40369 Howell, Elizabeth A.; Chen, Ya-Ting; Concato, John. Differences in cervical cancer mortality among black and white women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 94, No. 4, Oct 1999. 509-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Reasons for the mortality differences that exist in the United States between black and white women with cervical cancer are investigated using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program for 1988-1994. The focus is on the importance of differences in stage of disease and treatment patterns by race. The results indicate that "race remains an independent predictor of cervical cancer survival after accounting for age, state of disease, treatment patterns, and other factors."
Correspondence: E. A. Howell, Yale University School of Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars, IE-61 SHM, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520-8025. E-mail: elizabeth.howell@yale.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40370 Im-em, Wassana. Mortality trends and levels to verify the AIDS epidemic in Thailand: analysis from death registration statistics, 1984-1997. ISBN 974-662-960-3. 1999. xi, 179 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
This study uses vital registration statistics on mortality in Thailand to explore the extent of the AIDS epidemic from 1984 to 1997. Deaths from AIDS began showing significant increases after 1991. "While the death rates had increased substantially among men aged 25-29 in the past three years, the death rates of women in the same age group show little change over time. At the regional level the highest death rate was in the North region where the male death rate sharply increased in the past three years, followed by the Northeast region.... About 200,000 AIDS deaths throughout the country were estimated over the period 1992-1996."
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. E-mail: prwie@mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40371 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS [UNAIDS] (Geneva, Switzerland); World Health Organization [WHO] (Geneva, Switzerland). AIDS epidemic update: December 1999. Dec 1999. 23 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Some global estimates concerning HIV and AIDS are presented as of the end of 1999. Data are included on people newly infected with HIV in 1999, the number of people living with HIV/AIDS, AIDS deaths in 1999, and the total number of AIDS deaths since the beginning of the epidemic.
Correspondence: UNAIDS, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. E-mail: unaids@unaids.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40372 Kafadar, Karen. Simultaneous smoothing and adjusting mortality rates in U.S. counties: melanoma in white females and white males. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 23, Dec 15, 1999. 3,167-88 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Detecting patterns in health-related data for geographic areas is facilitated with the use of exploratory methods, especially smoothing. In addition, these data often must be adjusted for known prognostic factors such as age and gender. The analysis in this paper focuses on mortality rates due to malignant melanoma in White males and White females; these data are adjusted for both age and latitude, separately for males and females, and then smoothed using (a) a non-linear smoother known as weighted head-banging, and (b) a new method that incorporates the adjustment and the smoothing simultaneously. Maps of the continental United States show regions of high rates, even after having adjusted for age and latitude, and suggest the possibility of other variables that may influence the rates."
Correspondence: K. Kafadar, University of Colorado, Department of Mathematics, Box 170, Denver, CO 80217-3364. E-mail: kk@math.cudenver.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40373 Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Garenne, Michel; Gear, John S. S. Who dies from what? Determining cause of death in South Africa's rural north-east. Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 4, No. 6, Jun 1999. 433-41 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
An analysis of the causes of death in the Agincourt subdistrict of South Africa is presented, using data on 932 deaths occurring between 1992 and 1995 and the method of verbal autopsies to identify the cause of death. "The profile of deaths reflects a mixed picture: the `unfinished agenda' of communicable disease and malnutrition (diarrhoea and kwashiorkor predominantly) are responsible for over half of deaths in under-fives, accidents are prominent in the 5-14 age-group, while the `emerging agenda' of violence and chronic degenerative disease (particularly circulatory disease) is pronounced among the middle-aged and elderly. This profile shows the social and demographic transition to be well underway within a rural, under-developed population." The study also confirmed the value of this method of data collection for planning purposes.
Correspondence: K. Kahn, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa. E-mail: 081kahn@chiron.wits.ac.za. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40374 Levi, F.; Lucchini, F.; Negri, E.; Boyle, P.; La Vecchia, C. Cancer mortality in Europe, 1990-1994, and an overview of trends from 1955 to 1994. European Journal of Cancer, Vol. 35, No. 10, 1999. 1,477-516 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality data, abstracted from the WHO database, are presented in tabular form for 26 cancer sites or groups of sites, plus total cancer mortality, in 35 European countries during the period 1990-1994. Trends in mortality are also given in graphical form for 24 major countries over the period 1955-1994. In most western European countries total cancer mortality was--for the first time-moderately downwards in the early 1990s. Such favourable trends included some decline in lung cancer mortality for males, the persistent decline in stomach cancer for both sexes, and of cervical cancer for women, as well as some decline in breast and colorectal cancers, plus other neoplasms (testis, lymphoid neoplasms), whose treatment has further improved over the last few years. However, cancer mortality was still upwards in a few southern and eastern European countries, including Hungary and Poland, where total cancer mortality rates in middle-aged males are now the highest ever registered in Europe. The favourable trends in western Europe over the recent years are similar to those observed in the USA."
Correspondence: F. Levi, Registre Vaudois des Tumeurs, Falaises 1, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. E-mail: fabio.levi@inst.hospvd.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40375 Levi, Fabio; Lucchini, Franca; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva. Trends in mortality from cancer in the European Union, 1955-94. Lancet, Vol. 354, No. 9180, Aug 28, 1999. 742-3 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Using WHO data, the authors describe trends in cancer mortality in the countries of the European Union from 1955 to 1994. They note that "over the past few years, age-standardised mortality rates have levelled off or declined for most cancer sites in the European Union, with the main exception of lung cancer in women."
Correspondence: F. Levi, Registre Vaudois des Tumeurs, CHUV-Falaises 1, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40376 Mäkelä, Pia. Alcohol-related mortality by age and sex and its impact on life expectancy: estimates based on the Finnish death register. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1998. 43-51 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from the Finnish death register for the period 1987-1993 are used "to examine alcohol-related mortality by cause of death, age and sex and to estimate the impact of excessive alcohol use on life expectancy by sex. According to the results, 6% of all deaths were alcohol related. These deaths were responsible for a 2 year loss in life expectancy at age 15 years among men and 0.4 years among women, which explains at least one-fifth of the difference in life expectancies between the sexes.... The use of data on contributory causes of death, the organization of the Finnish death certification system and the relatively high proportion of alcohol-related deaths suggest that these data do not underestimate alcohol-related deaths to such an extent as has been the case in earlier studies using data from death certificates. This study shows that alcohol consumption is an important public health issue in Finland and a significant determinant of male premature mortality."
Correspondence: P. Mäkelä, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Population Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: pia.makela@helsinki.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40377 Mocroft, A.; Vella, S.; Benfield, T. L.; Chiesi, A.; Miller, V.; Gargalianos, P.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Yust, I.; Bruun, J. N.; Phillips, A. N.; Lundgren, J. D. Changing patterns of mortality across Europe in patients infected with HIV-1. Lancet, Vol. 352, No. 9142, Nov 28, 1998. 1,725-30 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"We analysed data from EuroSIDA, which is a prospective, observational, European, multicentre cohort of 4,270 HIV-1-infected patients. We compared death rates in each 6 month period from September, 1994, to March, 1998.... Death rates across Europe among patients infected with HIV-1 have been falling since September, 1995, and at the beginning of 1998 were less than a fifth of their previous level. A large proportion of the reduction in mortality could be explained by new treatments or combinations of treatments."
Correspondence: A. Mocroft, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Royal Free Centre for HIV Medicine, Royal Free Campus, London NW3 2PF, England. E-mail: amanda@rfhsm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40378 Moore, Sophie E.; Cole, Timothy J.; Collinson, Andrew C.; Poskitt, Elizabeth M. E.; McGregor, Ian A.; Prentice, Andrew M. Prenatal or early postnatal events predict infectious deaths in young adulthood in rural Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 6, Dec 1999. 1,088-95 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors present evidence that risk of death from infectious disease in early adulthood is programmed by early life events. The data are for 3,162 individuals living in three Gambian villages, and have been collected since 1949. "Early life exposures, correlated with season of birth, strongly influence susceptibility to fatal infections in young adulthood. The evidence suggests that nutritionally-mediated intrauterine growth retardation may permanently impair the development of immune function."
Correspondence: A. M. Prentice, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Public Health Nutrition Unit, MRC International Nutrition Group, 49-51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. E-mail: a.prentice@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40379 Mungra, A.; van Kanten, R. W.; Kanhai, H. H. H.; van Roosmalen, J. Nationwide maternal mortality in Surinam. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 106, No. 1, Jan 1999. 55-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "assess the magnitude, causes and associated factors of maternal mortality in Surinam.... The national maternal mortality ratio was 226 per 100,000 live births, which is six times higher than the official maternal mortality ratio of 38 for the preceding three year period.... In 95% of analysed cases, substandard care factors which had contributed to the deaths were present at one or more levels of maternity care."
Correspondence: J. van Roosmalen, Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Obstetrics, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40380 Munoz-Pérez, F.; Nizard, A. Alcohol consumption and cirrhosis mortality in the industrialised countries since 1950. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1998-1999. 367-86 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Over the past fifty years, there has been a substantial rise in life expectancy at birth in the industrialised countries. This progress has been achieved despite the appearance or resurgence of factors, such as higher alcohol consumption, which contribute to a growth in mortality. Yet, in Eastern Europe over the last 20 to 25 years, the increase in consumption first checked the rise in life expectancy and then went on to play a role in its decline. In the present study, we shall first show the changes that have occurred in alcohol consumption in twenty-two industrialised countries (or territories) since 1950, and then analyse its effects on adult mortality...."
Correspondence: F. Munoz-Perez, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40381 Nemtsov, A. V. Alcohol-related harm and alcohol consumption in Moscow before, during and after a major anti-alcohol campaign. Addiction, Vol. 93, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,501-10 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
Rates of alcohol-related harm in relation to levels of alcohol consumption in Moscow, Russia, are analyzed before, during, and after a major anti-alcohol campaign. "Following the 1985 anti-alcohol campaign...admissions for alcohol-related mental and behavioural disorders, deaths from liver cirrhosis, alcohol poisoning and other blood alcohol positive violent deaths decreased by 63.3%, 33.0%, 50.8% and 50.9%, respectively. There was a linear correlation between medical variables and alcohol consumption during its decrease in 1985-86. An increase in blood alcohol positive violent deaths began in 1987, before the increases in other variables. Growth of total alcohol consumption began in 1987, and continued during all subsequent years, although it was especially high in 1992-93 at the time of the introduction of market reforms in Russia.... The findings provide stark evidence of the potential impact of policy measures applied to general alcohol consumption on alcohol-related harm."
Correspondence: A. V. Nemtsov, Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, MPH RF, Poteschnaya Str. 3, Moscow 107076, Russia. E-mail: niip@glasnet.ru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40382 Paim, Jairnilson S.; Costa, Maria da C. N.; Mascarenhas, Joane C. S.; da Silva, Lígia M. V. The spatial distribution of violence: mortality due to external causes in Salvador (Bahia), Brazil. [Distribuição espacial da violência: mortalidade por causas externas em Salvador (Bahia), Brasil.] Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 6, No. 5, Nov 1999. 321-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of this paper was to describe the geographic distribution of mortality resulting from external causes during 1991 within the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.... Of the deaths in that year, 15% were due to external causes, corresponding to a mortality rate of 78/100,000 inhabitants. The homicide death rate was 32.2/100,000 inhabitants, and the traffic-related death rate was 21.8/100,000 inhabitants. The elderly, young adults, and teenagers were at higher risk of death from violent causes. Among the elderly, 38% of the deaths were from car accidents and 28% from falls. Among teenagers, homicides were the main cause of death, especially in males between 15 and 29 years of age. Our results show that the geographic distribution of violent deaths in Salvador is uneven. Such deaths occur mainly in poorer neighborhoods, which have higher violent death rates than average for the city of Salvador."
Correspondence: J. S. Paim, Rua Padre Feijó 29, 4o andar, CHR, Canela, CEP 40110-170, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. E-mail: jairnil@ufba.br. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40383 Pickle, Linda W.; Mungiole, Michael; Jones, Gretchen K.; White, Andrew A. Exploring spatial patterns of mortality: the new Atlas of United States Mortality. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 23, Dec 15, 1999. 3,211-20 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
This article examines aspects of the methodology used to prepare maps in a recent atlas of the leading causes of death in the United States for the period 1988-1992. "Because recent cognitive research demonstrated that no one map style is optimal for answering many different map questions, maps and graphs of several different mortality statistics are included for each cause of death. New mixed effects models were developed to provide predicted rates and improved variance estimates. Results from these models were smoothed using a weighted head-banging algorithm to produce maps of general spatial trends free of background noise. Maps of White female lung cancer rates from the new atlas are presented here to illustrate how this innovative combination of maps and graphs permits greater exploration of the underlying mortality data than is possible from previous single-map atlas designs."
For the atlas referred to, published in 1996, see 63:30233.
Correspondence: L. W. Pickle, NCI/DCCPS, 6130 Executive Boulevard, MSC 7344, EPN Room 313, Bethesda, MD 20892. E-mail: picklel@mail.nih.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40384 Pictet, Gabriel; Le Coeur, Sophie; M'Pelé, Pierre; Brouard, Nicolas; Lallemant, Marc. Contribution of AIDS to the general mortality in Central Africa: evidence from a morgue-based study in Brazzaville, Congo. AIDS, Vol. 12, No. 16, Nov 12, 1998. 2,217-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
An attempt is made to measure AIDS-related mortality in Brazzaville, Congo, and its impact on life expectancy using data on all bodies handled by the city's three morgues in a one-month period in the summer of 1996. "Amongst the 756 bodies examined at the three morgues, 149 (19.7%) AIDS cases were identified. HIV-1 prevalence was 26.2% (38 out of 145) amongst the subjects in the two morgues where HIV serology was systematically performed. AIDS was the leading cause of death in adults...with 25.1% (122 out of 487) of the adults diagnosed with AIDS. The proportion of adult female AIDS cases was significantly higher than the proportion of male cases.... Moreover, female AIDS cases were significantly younger than male cases.... Overall AIDS mortality rate amongst adults was 2.8 per 1,000 for men and 3.2 per 1,000 for women. The impact of AIDS on life expectancy at birth is 4.3 years for women and 3.3 years for men."
Correspondence: S. Le Coeur, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40385 Pisani, Paola; Parkin, D. Maxwell; Bray, Freddie; Ferlay, Jacques. Estimates of the worldwide mortality from 25 cancers in 1990. International Journal of Cancer/Journal International du Cancer, Vol. 83, No. 1, Sep 24, 1999. 18-29 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We present here estimates of mortality from cancer for 25 specific sites and for all malignant neoplasms in 23 geographical regions of the world for which the United Nations...prepares regular population estimates.... To make these estimates, we have utilised not only the mortality data from the WHO databank but also any other existing data on cancer which could provide information on probable mortality."
Correspondence: P. Pisani, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Unit of Descriptive Epidemiology, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France. E-mail: pisani@iarc.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40386 Preti, Antonio; Miotto, Paola. Suicide and unemployment in Italy, 1982-1994. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 11, Nov 1999. 694-701 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigate whether either the condition of being unemployed, or changes in unemployment rates are associated with suicide risk.... [Data are for] 20,457 deaths by suicide registered in Italy among economically active people from 1982 to 1994.... Suicide rates among the unemployed are clearly and constantly higher than those among the employed: up to three times higher among men, and twice as high among women. Among the unemployed a clear and significant rise in suicide rates in both sexes took place over the study period; suicide rates among the employed showed a less marked increase."
Correspondence: A. Preti, CMG, Psychiatry Branch, via Costantinopoli 42, 09129 Cagliari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40387 Quinn, M. J.; Martinez-Garcia, C.; Berrino, F. Variations in survival from breast cancer in Europe by age and country, 1978-1989. European Journal of Cancer, Vol. 34, No. 14, Dec 1998. 2,204-11 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this study, part of the wider EUROCARE II collaborative project, was to examine variations by age and country in the relative survival of women from breast cancer in Europe, based on data for 145,000 cases in 1985-1989 and trends based on (245,000) cases for 1978-1989. Data were supplied by 42 cancer registries in 17 countries to a common protocol.... In 1985-1989 there were wide differences among the 17 countries: survival was above the European average in Iceland, Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, France and Italy; around average in Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and Spain; below average in Scotland, England and Slovenia; and well below average in Slovakia, Poland and Estonia. In France, Spain and Italy, but not in the U.K., there were wide differences in survival among the participating registries. Survival generally declined with age, particularly in the elderly (75 years and over)--this was most marked in Denmark, Scotland and England. Over the period 1978-1989, 1-year survival improved by 2% overall and 5-year survival by 6%. There were improvements in 5-year survival in all countries except Iceland, Germany, Switzerland and Estonia, and in all age groups except the youngest (15-44 years). It is likely that differences in the access to and quality of care in the various countries played a large part in explaining the differences in survival."
Correspondence: M. J. Quinn, Office for National Statistics, National Cancer Registration Bureau, B6/02, 1 Drummond Gate, London SW1V 2QQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40388 Razum, Oliver; Jahn, Albrecht; Snow, Rachel. Maternal mortality in the former East Germany before and after reunification: changes in risk by marital status. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7217, Oct 23, 1999. 1,104-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The impact of marital status on maternal mortality in East Germany is analyzed, with the emphasis on changes associated with German reunification in 1990. The results indicate that "before reunification, unmarried women had a risk of maternal death equal to that of married women...; after reunification, they had 2.6 times the age adjusted risk of married women. Unmarried status thus became a significant risk factor for maternal mortality in eastern Germany after reunification."
Correspondence: O. Razum, Heidelberg University, Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. E-mail: oliver.razum@urz.uni-heidelberg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40389 Razum, Oliver; Jahn, Albrecht; Blettner, Maria; Reitmaier, Pitt. Trends in maternal mortality ratio among women of German and non-German nationality in West Germany, 1980-1996. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 5, Oct 1999. 919-24 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Differences in maternal mortality in the former West Germany between women of German and non-German nationality are analyzed using official vital statistics data for the period 1980-1996. "Our findings suggest continuously improving accessibility and quality of obstetric services, in particular for women of non-German nationality. Still, inequity in maternal risk continues to exist. Maternal risk, however, is not determined by the simple distinction `German' versus `non-German'; its association with socioeconomic status extends beyond nationality."
Correspondence: O. Razum, University of Heidelberg, Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. E-mail: oliver.razum@urz.uni-heidelberg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40390 Roger, V. V. L.; Jacobsen, S. J.; Weston, S. A.; Gabriel, S. E. Sex differences in the epidemiology and outcomes of heart disease: population-based trends. Lupus, Vol. 8, No. 5, 1999. 346-50 pp. Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
Trends in heart disease (HD) mortality in Olmsted County, Minnesota, are analyzed by sex. "Between 1979 and 1994, women experienced 51% of the total number of HD...deaths (3,095). Age-adjusted HD mortality rate declined from 123 per 100,000...in 1979 to 81...in 1994. The risk ratio (RR) of HD death in 1994 compared to 1979 was 0.69 for women vs. 0.53 for men (P=0.06). This equates to a decline in HD mortality of 2.5% [per year] in women and 4.2% [per year] in men. The decline in HD mortality was less pronounced in older age groups (P<0.001), reflecting a shift of the burden of HD towards women and the elderly."
Correspondence: V. V. L. Roger, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40391 Saraiya, Mona; Green, Clarice A.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Hopkins, Frederick W.; Koonin, Lisa M.; Atrash, Hani K. Spontaneous abortion-related deaths among women in the United States--1981-1991. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 94, No. 2, Aug 1999. 172-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "examine [U.S.] trends in spontaneous abortion-related mortality and risk factors for these deaths from 1981 through 1991.... During 1981-1991, a total of 62 spontaneous abortion-related deaths were reported to the Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System.... Women 35 years of age and older, of races other than white, and in the second trimester of pregnancy age are at increased risk of death from spontaneous abortion."
Correspondence: M. Saraiya, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Mailstop K-55, Atlanta, GA 30341. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40392 Sekikawa, A.; Kuller, L. H.; Ueshima, H.; Park, J. E.; Suh, I.; Jee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Pan, W. H. Coronary heart disease mortality trends in men in the post World War II birth cohorts aged 35-44 in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan compared with the United States. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 6, Dec 1999. 1,044-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality among men aged 35-44 in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan are compared with those in the United States. It is noted that, although CHD mortality in this group has recently increased in South Korea and Taiwan, it seems to have decreased in Japan. The authors make the case that the apparent continued low CHD mortality rate in Japan may be a statistical artifact due to differences in allocating causes of death among the countries studied.
Correspondence: A. Sekikawa, 3460 Fifth Avenue, 5th floor, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. E-mail: akira+@pitt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40393 Sethi, Dinesh; Zwi, Anthony. Accidents and other injuries. In: Health and mortality: issues of global concern. Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997, edited by J. Chamie and R. L. Cliquet. 1999. 412-41 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a global analysis of the impact of accidents or injuries on morbidity and mortality. "This paper touches upon the global scale of the burden injury, variations by region, and considers the availability of interventions. The term 'injuries' represents a wide range of different types of problems, each with different sets of risk factors, risk situations and risk groups: we consider traffic injuries as our main example, but also illustrate our discussion with reference to other injuries for illustrative purposes. We do not seek to present a fully comprehensive discussion. Rather we highlight a range of problems and begin to explore elements of an appropriate policy response and how this may be supported by international organisations."
Correspondence: D. Sethi, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Health Policy Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40394 Shahpar, Cyrus; Li, Guohua. Homicide mortality in the United States, 1935-1994: age, period, and cohort effects. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 150, No. 11, Dec 1, 1999. 1,213-22 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors analyzed homicide mortality data for the United States from 1935 to 1994, to delineate temporal trends and birth cohort patterns. This study included 850,822 homicide-attributed deaths documented by the National Center for Health Statistics.... Death rates from homicide in the United States doubled in the past four decades, with most of the increase having occurred during the 1960s and early 1970s. Poisson regression models confirmed that the rise of homicide mortality in both men and women was largely attributable to a significant period effect between 1960 and 1974. No discernible cohort patterns were found among women. However, homicide rates for recent male birth cohorts appeared to peak at younger ages and at higher levels. A significant increase in homicide mortality risk beginning with males born around 1965 was found.... The hike of homicide mortality during 1985 and 1994 was explained by this cohort effect. Increased prevalence of substance abuse and availability of firearms are two likely factors underlying this disturbing cohort pattern."
Correspondence: G. Li, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Marburg B194A, Baltimore, MD 21287. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40395 Shemeikka, Riikka. HIV/AIDS: the major demographic challenge of Namibia. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 35, 1998-1999. 65-81 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"In Namibia, as in many other countries in Southern Africa, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS has been growing rapidly during the 1990s.... Multi-state population projections presented here include information on educational level and HIV/AIDS status of the population.... The results show that HIV/AIDS will have a significant effect on future population size and age structure. In case the current development continues, the population of Namibia will be over 836,000 smaller in 2026 than without HIV/AIDS. There will also be a remarkable impact on the age structure of the population."
Correspondence: R. Shemeikka, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: info@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40396 Shkolnikov, Vladimir; McKee, Martin; Leon, David; Chenet, Laurent. Why is the death rate from lung cancer falling in the Russian Federation? European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 3, Mar 1999. 203-6 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"Age standardised death rates (European standard population) from lung cancer in the Russian Federation, have been rising since at least 1965, levelled out in the late 1980s and have subsequently decreased. The reasons for this decline are not apparent. This study seeks to identify the reasons for the decline in mortality from lung cancer in the Russian Federation in the 1990s. Changes in age-specific mortality from lung cancer...are described and age-cohort analysis, based on age-specific death rates for lung cancer is undertaken for the period 1965 to 1995.... The present downward trend in death rates from lung cancer in the Russian Federation is partly due to a cohort effect and it is expected that this will soon reverse, with a second peak occurring in about 2003."
Correspondence: M. McKee, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. E-mail: M.McKee@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40397 Shohat, Tamy; Harari, Gil; Green, Manfred S. Mortality from infectious diseases in Israel, 1979-1992, based on revised ICD-9 codes: implications for international comparisons. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 12, Dec 1999. 1,855-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined trends in infectious disease mortality rates in Israel between 1979 and 1992, using a traditional and a revised set of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes.... Age-adjusted infectious disease mortality rates based on the revised ICD-9 codes were 3 times higher than those based on traditional codes. Between 1979 and 1992, age-adjusted mortality rates declined more under the revised method than under the traditional method (20% vs. 1.7%).... The revised set of ICD-9 codes allows a more comprehensive view of the burden of infectious diseases on public health."
Correspondence: T. Shohat, Israel Center for Disease Control, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Gertner Institute, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel. E-mail: shohat@trendline.co.il. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40398 Smil, Vaclav. China's great famine: 40 years later. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7225, Dec 18-25, 1999. 1,619-21 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The famine that occurred in China in 1959-1961 is examined. The author notes that, although the exact figures may never be recovered, the best available demographic reconstructions indicate that about 30 million people died because of the famine. "Although drought was a contributory factor, this was largely a manmade catastrophe for which Mao Zedong bears the greatest responsibility.... Two generations later China is yet to openly examine the causes and consequences of the famine."
Correspondence: V. Smil, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. E-mail: vsmil@cc.umanitoba.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40399 Snow, R. W.; Craig, M.; Deichmann, U.; Marsh, K. Estimating mortality, morbidity and disability due to malaria among Africa's non-pregnant population. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 77, No. 8, 1999. 624-40 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors discuss the contribution of malaria to mortality, morbidity, and disability in Africa. "We have taken an empirical approach to defining the limits of Plasmodium falciparum transmission across the continent and interpolated the distributions of projected populations in 1995. By combining a review of the literature on malaria in Africa and models of acquired functional immunity, we have estimated the age-structured rates of the fatal, morbid and disabling sequelae following exposure to malaria infection under different epidemiological conditions."
Correspondence: R. W. Snow, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)/Wellcome Trust, Collaborative Programme, P.O. Box 43460, Nairobi, Kenya. E-mail: bobsnow@wtrl.or.ke. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40400 Stover, John; Way, Peter. Projecting the impact of AIDS on mortality. AIDS, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1998. 29-39 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors aim "to illustrate the magnitude of the impact of AIDS on projections of mortality, to explain the reasons for the differences in projections by major international organizations and to provide a simple approach to estimating the impact of AIDS on life expectancy.... By 2005 the population of the most severely affected countries in Africa will be 13-59 million less than it would have been without AIDS. Life expectancy may decline by as much as 27% in these countries."
Correspondence: J. Stover, Futures Group International, 80 Glastonbury Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40401 Sweanor, David T. Policy options to reduce tobacco-caused mortality. Journal of Addictive Diseases, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1999. 1-11 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"This article reviews the existing legislation surrounding tobacco and nicotine, the politics of nicotine delivery, and current scientific knowledge surrounding nicotine, and assesses the various policy options to minimize tobacco-related harm. Segmentation of the nicotine market, according to different smokers' needs, and research and philosophical issues are also considered." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: D. T. Sweanor, Smoking and Health Action Foundation, Suite 1903, 130 Albert Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5G4, Canada. E-mail: nsraot@netcom.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40402 Tsugane, Shoichiro; Fahey, Michael T.; Sasaki, Satoshi; Baba, Shunroku. Alcohol consumption and all-cause and cancer mortality among middle-aged Japanese men: seven-year follow-up of the JPHC study cohort I. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 150, No. 11, Dec 1, 1999. 1,201-12 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality in Japan is examined using data from the Japan Public Health Center prospective study on cancer and cardiovascular disease. "After excluding subjects with self-reported serious diseases at baseline, 19,231 men aged 40-59 years who reported their alcohol intake were followed from 1990 through 1996, and 548 deaths were documented. The association between all-cause mortality and alcohol consumption was J-shaped. The lowest risk was observed for men who consumed 1-149 g/week...while the highest risk was seen for men who consumed [over] 450g/week.... The association did not change after excluding deaths that occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. However, the association was modified by smoking, and beneficial effects of moderate drinking were largely limited to nonsmokers. The risk of cancer death showed a similar trend but increased more in heavy drinkers.... The authors conclude that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with the lowest risks of all-cause and cancer mortality, especially among non-smokers."
Correspondence: S. Tsugane, National Cancer Center Research Institute East, Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:40403 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Decline in deaths from heart disease and stroke--United States, 1900-1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 48, No. 30, Aug 6, 1999. 649-56 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"Since 1950, age-adjusted [U.S.] death rates from cardiovascular disease (CVD) have declined 60%, representing one of the most important public health achievements of the 20th century. This report summarizes the temporal trends in CVD, advances in the understanding of risk factors for CVD, development of prevention interventions to reduce these risks, and improvements in therapy for persons who develop CVD."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40404 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). State-specific maternal mortality among black and white women--United States, 1987-1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 48, No. 23, Jun 18, 1999. 492-6 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"One of the national health objectives for 2000 is to reduce the overall [U.S.] maternal mortality ratio [MMR]...to no more than 3.3...; however, during 1982-1996, the MMR remained at approximately 7.5.... This report presents state-specific MMRs for 1987-1996, focusing on persistent disparities in maternal mortality between black and white women. The findings indicate that in every state where MMRs could be reliably calculated, black women were more likely than white women to die from complications of pregnancy and that the 2000 objective will not be met; however, for white women, it has been met in three states."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40405 Wasserman, D; Värnik, A. Reliability of statistics on violent death and suicide in the former USSR, 1970-1990. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 98, No. Suppl. 394, 1998. 34-41 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"The stability of the relationship between trends of violent deaths as a whole, suicides and death from undetermined causes was assessed by quantitative methods for the whole former USSR in the years 1970-1990 and for each of the 15 republics in the former USSR for the years 1984-1990. Semi-structured interviews during 1989-1996 were performed with 12 professionals involved in the diagnosis and coding of causes of death in the Baltic states and Russia. The quantitative analyses showed that mortality data were reliable for the Slavic (Russia, the Ukraine and Belarus) and Baltic (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) republics, and also for Kazakhstan, Kirgizia and Moldova. The Central Asian and Caucasian republics showed greater variation in trends and ratios, indicating a need for further investigations of the reliability of suicide statistics in these regions."
Correspondence: D. Wasserman, Swedish National and Stockholm County Council Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, Box 230, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40406 White, Kevin M. Cardiovascular and tuberculosis mortality: the contrasting effects of changes in two causes of death. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1999. 289-302, 406, 408 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Tuberculosis was the largest source of deaths among younger adults, and cardiovascular disease among older adults, in the America of 1900.... This article, building on previous work by White and Preston, shows the results of increased survival from these two causes on the U.S. population structure.... Improvements in cardiovascular mortality and tuberculosis produce some seemingly illogical contrasts. More people are alive today because of the decrease in tuberculosis. Yet more deaths from cardiovascular disease have been prevented, and cardiovascular improvements have raised life expectancy more."
Correspondence: K. M. White, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40407 Wilson, Deborah; Bhopal, Raj. Impact of infection on mortality and hospitalization in the North East of England. Journal of Public Health Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1998. 386-95 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The case is made that current methods of presenting data on mortality and hospitalization based on codes from Chapter 1 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) conceal the importance of infection and other microbial diseases. Data are from the former Northern Regional Health Authority in England for the periods 1979-1983 and 1989-1993. The authors conclude that "the usual method of presenting data coded by ICD-9 chapters greatly understates the contribution of infection to morbidity and mortality and may mislead policy makers assessing the priority to be given to infections."
Correspondence: R. Bhopal, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40408 Wintemute, Garen J.; Parham, Carrie A.; Beaumont, James J.; Wright, Mona; Drake, Christiana. Mortality among recent purchasers of handguns. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 341, No. 21, Nov 18, 1999. 1,583-9 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We conducted a population-based cohort study to compare mortality among 238,292 persons who purchased a handgun in California in 1991 with that in the general adult population of the state." Data are from the State Department of Justice roster of all persons who purchased handguns in that year. "The purchase of a handgun is associated with a substantial increase in the risk of suicide by firearm and by any method. The increase in the risk of suicide by firearm is apparent within a week after the purchase of a handgun and persists for at least six years."
Correspondence: G. J. Wintemute, University of California at Davis, Medical Center, Violence Prevention Research Program, 2315 Stockton Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95817. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).


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