Volume 65 - Number 4 - Winter 1999

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration. Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects.

65:40118 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Hou, Feng. Socioeconomic integration and spatial residential patterns of immigrant groups in Canada. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jun 1999. 201-17 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"It is often assumed that the level of residential segregation of ethnic and racial groups can be used as a measure of their socio-economic integration into a society. This paper using Canadian census data for the period 1981-1991 questions this assumption and goes to show that the trends in residential segregation need not parallel the trends in socio-economic integration... The study shows that while residential segregation of ethnic groups has remained fairly constant during the decade, occupational segregation has declined significantly. It concludes that while residential segregation may persist due to voluntary or involuntary causes, minority groups have been occupationally mobile."
Correspondence: T. R. Balakrishnan, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. E-mail: bala@julian.uwo.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40119 Bätzing, Werner. The Alps: in the web of European spatial planning policy. Comments on the ESDP draft against the backdrop of ongoing structural changes in the Alpine region. [Die Alpen im Spannungsfeld der europäischen Raumordnungspolitik. Anmerkungen zum EUREK-Entwurf auf dem Hintergrund des aktuellen Strukturwandels im Alpenraum.] Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 57, No. 1, Jan 1999. 3-13 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The first part of this article consists of a local-authority level analysis of the structural changes currently in process in the Alps region, which are then categorised at regional level. In simple terms this process can be described as one of 'urbanisation and depopulation'; however, the wide disparities which are evident do call for regionally specific strategies.... The second part of this article is devoted to an examination and appraisal of the ESDP [European Spatial Development Perspective] draft from the perspective of experiences gathered in the Alps."
Correspondence: W. Bätzing, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institut für Geographie, Kochstraße 4/4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. E-mail: wbaetz@geographie.uni-erlangen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40120 Blom, Svein. Residential concentration among immigrants in Oslo. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1999. 617-41 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article provides a brief account of how the housing pattern of immigrants in Oslo developed from the late 1960s, when the first foreign workers appeared, until the 1980s and 1990s, when refugees dominated the influx.... The article also addresses the issue of the social mechanisms creating and maintaining spatial concentrations of immigrants.... Evidence is given in this article to support the notion that both economic and cultural factors are significant, with economic factors being the most important."
Correspondence: S. Blom, Statistics Norway, Division for Social and Demographic Research, P.B. 8131 Dep, 0033 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40121 Calas, Bernard. Population densities: Introduction to a geography of Eastern Africa? [Les densités: introduction à la géographie de l'Afrique orientale?] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1999. 53-65 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The high demographic growth rate which strikes East Africa does not alter the major patterns of the population distribution nor the density geography in the region. However, peasantry challenge this growth with four types of adjustments: spatial adjustments...within the territory, settlements outside the territory, political and land repartition adjustments and violent adjustments which either force people to fly away or [get killed].... This paper gives a grid to read the different regional situations as far as interactions between density and development are concerned."
Correspondence: B. Calas, Université d'Artois, Département de Géographie, B.P. 665, 9 rue du Temple, 62030 Arras Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40122 Cohen, Joel E.; Small, Christopher. Hypsographic demography: the distribution of human population by altitude. National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Proceedings, Vol. 95, No. 24, Nov 24, 1998. 14,009-14 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The global distribution of the human population by elevation is quantified here. As of 1994, an estimated...33.5% of the world's population lived within 100 vertical meters of sea level, but only 15.6% of all inhabited land lies below 100 m elevation. The median person lived at an elevation of 194 m above sea level. Numbers of people decreased faster than exponentially with increasing elevation. The integrated population density (IPD, the number of people divided by the land area) within 100 vertical meters of sea level was significantly larger than that of any other range of elevations and represented far more people. A significant percentage of the low-elevation population lived at moderate population densities rather than at the highest densities of central large cities. Assessments of coastal hazards that focus only on large cities may substantially underestimate the number of people who could be affected." Data are from recent national censuses for 217 countries.
Correspondence: J. E. Cohen, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 20, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40123 Fong, Eric; Wilkes, Rima. The spatial assimilation model reexamined: an assessment by Canadian data. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 3, Fall 1999. 594-620 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Given the theoretical importance and policy implications of the spatial assimilation model, it is surprising that few studies have carefully and empirically examined the relationship of the three key variables in the model that has been used to explain the process of neighborhood attainment among immigrants, i.e., neighborhood environments, socioeconomic resources, and duration of residence in the host country.... Using data from 1991 Canadian Census 2B profile and a special requested table from Statistics Canada, we evaluate how much the relationships of the three key variables mentioned in the spatial assimilation model apply to the spatial attainment of various racial/ethnic groups in Canada."
Correspondence: E. Fong, University of Toronto, Department of Sociology, 203 College Street, 5th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1P9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40124 Leizerovich, E. E. Evaluation of changes in the spatial distribution of the Russian population in 1990-1995 by the indices of territorial concentration. [Otsenka izmerenii geografii naseleniya Rossii v 1990-1995 gg. indeksami ego territorial'noi kontsentratsii.] Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seriya Geograficheskaya, No. 6, 1997. 62-74 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in the spatial distribution of the Russian population in the periods 1979-1990 and 1990-1995 are analyzed, focusing on changes among economic micro-regions. The population decrease in certain regions is discussed. A general trend toward increasing concentration of the population in urban areas is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40125 Luxembourg. Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [STATEC] (Luxembourg); Germany. Statistisches Landesamt Saarland: Saarbrücken, Germany; France. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]. Direction Régionale de la Lorraine: Nancy, France; Germany. Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz: Bad Ems, Germany; Belgium. Ministère de la Région Wallonne. Service des Etudes et de la Statistique: Jambes, Belgium. A demographic and social atlas of the Greater Region: a mosaic of situations. [Atlas démographique et social de la Grande Région: une mosaïque de situations/Bevölkerungs- und Sozial-Atlas der Grossregion: ein regionales Mosaik.] [1999?]. 99 pp. Luxembourg. In Fre; Ger.
This atlas presents selected social and demographic data for the Greater Region in the heart of Western Europe, defined as including parts of Belgium, France, Germany, and Luxembourg, specifically Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate, and Wallonia. There are sections on history, general overview, standard of living, population, education, employment, and health. The section on population deals with population trends, demographic aging, foreigners, spatial distribution, population dynamics, natural increase, migration, fertility, mortality, population characteristics, age distribution, and households.
Correspondence: Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Boîte Postale 304, 6 boulevard Royal, 2013 Luxembourg. E-mail: statec.post@statec.etat.lu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40126 Negrete, María E. Decentralization of the population in the central region of Mexico. [Desconcentración poblacional en la región Centro de México.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 14, No. 2, May-Aug 1999. 313-52, 511-2 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"A variety of terms, including metropolitan expansion, formation of a megalopolis, consolidation of the central urban system, process of suburbanization and extended concentration are used to refer to the territorial redistribution of the population undergone by the central region of Mexico over the past twenty-five years; `deconcentration' is the term I prefer to use.... I attempt to specify the dimensions achieved by this phenomenon to date from the point of view of the population, by exploring the general demographic trajectory of this zone and the particular trends of each state. The article also focuses on the general transformations on the municipal scale in order to be able to identify the places with pull and push factors more accurately. The article ends with a brief overview of the new regional migration, highlighting the diversity of flows and the variety of their composition."
Correspondence: M. E. Negrete, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40127 Tobler, Waldo; Deichmann, Uwe; Gottsegen, Jon; Maloy, Kelly. The global demography project. NCGIA Technical Report, No. 95-6, Apr 1995. 75 pp. National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis: Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
An attempt is made here to provide demographic information on the world's population by latitude and longitude quadrilaterals rather than nation states. The report is in three parts. "Part I gives the motivation and several possible approaches. Ways of achieving the objective include, among others, simple centroid sorts, interpolation, or gridding of polygons. In Part II the results to data of putting world boundary coordinates together with estimates of the number of people is described. The estimated 1994 population of two hundred seventeen countries, subdivided into nineteen thousand thirty two polygons, have been assigned to five minute by five minute quadrilaterals covering the world.... Just under thirty one percent of the (1,548 by 4.320) grid cells are populated. The number of people in these countries is estimated to be five billion six hundred eighteen million, spread over one hundred thirty two million square kilometers of land. Part III describes needed extensions, and the appendices contain detailed information on our results with maps and data sources." The report is accompanied by a PC diskette.
Correspondence: University of California, Department of Geography, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060. Author's E-mail: tobler@geog.ucsb.edu. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration.

65:40128 Bertrand, Monique. Bamako (Mali): compound housing and residential mobility. [Bamako (Mali): habitat de cour et mobilités résidentielles.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1999. 119-37 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The evolution of Bamako [Mali] as a large city determines large movements of population from the old quarters. The rental market spreads toward the most recent and outlying areas, and it orientates the mobility of the household inside the agglomeration.... Residential practices are...explained at two levels of analysis: first the general gradations of density; secondly the local neighbourhoods which mingle together owners and tenants, widened and embryonic households, rooted populations and mobile groups."
Correspondence: M. Bertrand, Université de Caen, Maison de la Recherche en Sciences Humaines, UMR 6590 CNRS, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen Cedex, France. E-mail: bertrand@mrsh.unicaen.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40129 Black, Duncan; Henderson, Vernon. A theory of urban growth. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 107, No. 2, Apr 1999. 252-84 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In an economy experiencing endogenous economic growth and exogenous population growth, we explore two main themes: how urbanization affects efficiency of the growth process and how growth affects patterns of urbanization. Localized information spillovers promote agglomeration and human capital accumulation fosters endogenous growth. Individual city sizes grow with local human capital accumulation and knowledge spillovers; and city numbers generally increase, which we demonstrate is consistent with empirical evidence. We analyze whether local governments can successfully internalize local dynamic externalities. In addition, we explore how growth involves real income differences across city types and how urbanization can foster income inequality."
Correspondence: D. Black, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40130 Brockerhoff, Martin. Urban growth in developing countries: a review of projections and predictions. Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 131, 1999. 31 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Comparison of the United Nations' earliest and most recent projections to the year 2000 suggests that urban and city growth in developing regions has occurred much more slowly than was anticipated as recently as 1980. A modified `urban population explosion' in developing countries since the 1970s conforms to explanatory models of urban growth developed by economists around 1980. Trends in productivity and terms of trade, in particular, have been highly favorable to agriculture as compared to manufacturing, presumably slowing migration to urban centers. Increases in national population growth rates have produced less than commensurate increases in rates of city growth, further supporting an economic and migration-related explanation for unexpectedly slow recent urban growth. Despite the efforts of the United Nations to maintain reliable statistics on urban and city populations, urban population projections should be interpreted with caution because of inadequacies of the data on which they are based."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40131 Brockerhoff, Martin. Urban growth in developing countries: a review of projections and predictions. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1999. 757-78, 834-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Comparison of the United Nations' earliest and most recent projections to the year 2000 suggests that urban and city growth in developing regions has occurred much more slowly than was anticipated as recently as 1980. A modified `urban population explosion' in developing countries since the 1970s conforms to explanatory models of urban growth developed by economists around 1980. Trends in productivity and terms of trade, in particular, have been highly favorable to agriculture as compared to manufacturing, presumably slowing migration to urban centers. Increases in national population growth rates have produced less than commensurate increases in rates of city growth.... Despite the efforts of the United Nations to maintain reliable statistics on urban and city populations, urban population projections should be interpreted with caution because of inadequacies of the data on which they are based."
Correspondence: M. Brockerhoff, Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40132 Ford, Tania. Understanding population growth in the peri-urban region. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1999. 297-311 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Throughout the Western world, population growth in the peri-urban regions of large metropolitan centres has been rapid since the population turnaround of the 1970s, and has continued to the 1990s. However, the distinctive population geography of this growth zone and its unique sets of problems and issues remain under-researched. This paper advocates a new approach to understanding peri-urban population growth. A conceptual model is developed that identifies four distinct growth processes (suburbanisation, counterurbanisation, population retention, and centripetal migration), each of which acts somewhat differently on particular population subgroups. These differences, in turn, will be reflected in variations in the spatial manifestation of peri-urban growth within the region. This is illustrated in the context of an Australian case study."
Correspondence: T. Ford, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. E-mail: T.L.Ford@ncl.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40133 Gu, Shengzu; Liu, Chuanjiang; Zhong, Shuiying. A study on the development of urbanization in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1998. 251-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This article traces the development and describes the problems of urbanization in China. "Unlike...other nations, the industrialization in China started under the highly centralized system of a planned economy after the founding of the People's Republic. Accordingly, the accompanying urbanization has followed a pattern of planned development originated from the top, characterized primarily by the investment in urban infrastructure by the government and state-owned enterprises. The more market-oriented economic reform that began in the late 1970s and early 1980s triggered the second wave of industrialization featuring the mushrooming of township enterprises. Meanwhile, the development of urban areas as media of the industrialization followed the pattern of initiatives by private entities or community administrations."
Correspondence: S. Gu, Wuhan University, Institute of Economics, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40134 Henry, Mark S.; Schmitt, Bertrand; Kristensen, Knud; Barkley, David L.; Bao, Shuming. Extending Carlino-Mills models to examine urban size and growth impacts on proximate rural areas. Growth and Change, Vol. 30, No. 4, Fall 1999. 526-48 pp. Malden, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A modification of the Boarnet model of local economic change is developed that links the growth of urban nodes in functional economic regions to employment and population change in the rural hinterlands of these regions. The two-equation model uses labor market and residential zone observations that are consistent with commuter fields around each rural community in the regions studied. The model parameters are estimated for 204 Danish rural municipalities, for 3,515 rural communes in six regions of Eastern France, and for 268 rural census tracts in South Carolina. Results indicate that urban nodal spread effects are often significant and tend to dominate urban backwash impacts on rural communities."
Correspondence: M. S. Henry, Clemson University, Department of Economic Development, Clemson, SC 29634. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40135 Hope, Kempe R. Urbanization and urban growth in Africa. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1998. 345-58 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"During the past three decades, there has been rapid urbanization in Africa due primarily to development strategies that emphasized urban growth at the expense of agricultural and rural development. This paper discusses and analyzes current trends in African urbanization, the factors that have contributed to urbanization and urban growth, and the resultant consequences of such rapid urbanization and urban growth in Africa."
Correspondence: K. R. Hope, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40136 Izazola, Haydea; Marquette, Catherine M. Mexico City: current demographic and environmental trends. In: People and their planet: searching for balance, edited by Barbara S. Baudot and William R. Moomaw. 1999. 174-86 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York; Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
The interrelated industrial, economic, ecological, and demographic trends that have affected Mexico City in recent years are analyzed. The authors note that the rate of population growth has declined in recent years. In particular, there has been increasing middle-class out-migration as pollution and overcrowding have increased, resulting in an exacerbation of environmental problems that the poor are increasingly left to deal with on their own.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40137 Japan. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (Tokyo, Japan). Sustainable urbanization, women's status, and religion in southeast Asia. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research Series, No. 296, Mar 31, 1999. 147 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This report contains six papers presented at an international workshop entitled Sustainable Urbanization, Women's Status, and Religion in Southeast Asia, held in Tokyo, March 9, 1999. The papers are: Sustainable urbanization, women's status and religion in Southeast Asia: an overview, by Hiroshi Kojima; Internal migration and characteristics of female migrants in the Philippines, by Yasuko Hayase; Migration and urban life adaptation in the Philippines: findings from focus group discussions, by Maria P. N. Marquez, Nimfa B. Ogena, and Zenaida E. Quiray; Women's role in sustainable urbanization: religious differentials in the Philippines, by Nimfa B. Ogena, Maria P. N. Marquez, and Zenaida E. Quiray; Religion, women's status and roles in maintaining environment: in-depth interview of leaders, a case study of Thailand, by Bhassorn Limanonda, Mayuree Nokyoongthong, and Malee Sabaiying; and Female migrants and non-migrants and their roles in maintaining environment: a summary result of focus group discussions, Thailand, by Bhassorn Limanonda, Mayuree Nokyoongthong, and Malee Sabaiying.
Correspondence: National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, 1-2-3 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0013, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40138 Jones, Gavin W.; Tsay, Ching-lung; Bajracharya, Bhishna. Demographic and employment change in megacities of South-East and East Asia. Working Papers in Demography, No. 80, 1999. 39 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This study examines the growth of population and the changing structure of employment in four megacities in South-East and East Asia: Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila and Taipei over the 1980-1990 period. As all these megacities have influenced the population and employment structure in a region extending well beyond their official boundaries, three zones are defined for each megacity.... The metropolitan core in each case is the officially defined metropolitan area. Addition of two rings approximately doubles the population under consideration, to almost 16 million each in the cases of Jakarta and Manila.... The study concludes that studies of demographic and employment change in major metropolitan areas are enriched by the adoption of a zonal perspective."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40139 Jones, Gavin W. The thoroughgoing urbanisation of East and Southeast Asia. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, Vol. 38, No. 3, Dec 1997. 237-49 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The image of East and Southeast Asia is of a predominantly rural region, with the exception of Japan. This image no longer reflects reality. Although in 2000 the proportion of the population living in areas officially defined as urban will still be below 40 percent, this understates the degree to which populations throughout the region have, in terms of employment, ease of transport and communications, been brought into a close relationship with urban areas. Not only this, but the region already has eight of the world's 21 megacities--cities with populations exceeding eight million. Urbanised corridors are emerging in parts of the region, in some cases cutting across national boundaries. Some implications for the future are discussed: the growth of a truly urban proletariat, the influence of megacities on political change, the ending of rural isolation, and regional development and income inequality issues."
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: gwj300@coombs.anu.edu.au. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:40140 Khalatbari, Parviz. Problems of youth in third-world megacities. [Probleme der Jugendlichen in den "Megastädten" der Dritten Welt.] In: Hilfen für die junge Generation: soziale und ökonomische Probleme in der Großstadt. ISBN 3-00-003864-7. Jan 1999. 79-91 pp. Statistisches Landesamt: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The author gives an overview of global population growth and urbanization in the period 1950-2025, pointing out that these trends disproportionately affect developing countries. He discusses the downward trend in the population age of third-world megacities and examines land use and migration issues. Finally, he focuses on the increasing numbers of children living in extreme poverty in third-world megacities such as Nairobi, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Cairo, and Kigali. He notes that they become involved in criminal activity, prostitution, human organ selling, and armed conflict in order to survive. He argues that the increasing pauperization in the third world constitutes a significant threat to world peace.
Correspondence: P. Khalatbari, Gesellschaft für Demographie, Parkaue 3, 10367 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40141 Kharoufi, Mostafa. Urbanization and urban research in the Arab world. Unesco Discussion Paper Series, No. 11, 1997. 19 pp. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO]: Paris, France. In Eng.
"The aim of this communication is to present the major trends of research on Arab towns based on an analysis of urban contexts in the Arab world." The full text is available on the Web at http://www.unesco.org/most/khareng.htm.
Correspondence: UNESCO Publishing, Promotion and Sales Division, 1 rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France. E-Mail: publishing.promotion@unesco.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40142 Kim, Sukkoo. Urban development in the United States, 1690-1990. NBER Working Paper, No. 7120, May 1999. 22, [22] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Some aspects of U.S. urbanization over the past three centuries are examined, focusing on the more recent trends. "This paper finds that the pace and pattern of U.S. urban development are explained by changes in regional comparative advantage and in economies in transportation and local public goods, which in turn were determined by the changes in the economic structures of cities. This paper also finds that cities varied considerably in size because the larger cities reduced market transaction costs associated with coordinating greater geographic division of labor."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: soks@wuecon.wustl.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:40143 Krishna-Hensel, Sai F. Population and urbanization in the twenty-first century: India's megacities. In: People and their planet: searching for balance, edited by Barbara S. Baudot and William R. Moomaw. 1999. 157-73 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York; Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
This is an examination of the emergence of mega-cities in India. "The following examination of India's urban giants will evaluate the growth patterns of the principal cities in a historical context. Some of the social and environmental problems that characterize rapid unplanned urban growth will be used as indices of the changing nature of urban society. Finally, this study will assess the challenges faced by planning institutions and profile the emergence of non-traditional responses."
Correspondence: S. F. Krishna-Hensel, Auburn University, Center for Business and Economic Development, Interdisciplinary Global Studies Research Program, Auburn, AL 36849. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40144 Le Jeannic, Thomas. The city periurbanization. Zoning in urban areas. [Ville et périurbanisation. Le zonage en aires urbanies.] In: Démographie et aménagement du territoire: actes du Xe colloque national de démographie. Bordeaux--21, 22, 23 mai 1996, edited by Janine d'Armagnac, Chantal Blayo, and Alain Parant. 1999. 91-105 pp. Conférence Universitaire de Démographie et d'Etude des Populations [CUDEP]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Some of the problems that modern settlement patterns pose for the study of demography in developed countries are examined. Attention is given to the implications of the concentration of population in urban areas, and in particular to the growing trend toward people living in rural areas but working in the city, and to how this trend affects the definition of rural and urban areas. The primary geographical focus is on France. The author concludes that most people now live in areas that are to all intents and purposes part of the nearest major town, even if they are technically living outside of urban boundaries.
Correspondence: T. Le Jeannic, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40145 Mainet, Hélène. To live in Phoenix, the Indian township of Durban. [Vivre à Phoenix, township indien de Durban.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1999. 107-17 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Indian communities represent more than 25% of the total population of Durban [South Africa]. Phoenix is one of the main Indian townships, built in the north of the metropolitan area and is home for more than 200,000 Indians, relocated by the apartheid policy twenty years ago. This paper presents an analysis of urban landscapes, practices and representations of Phoenix inhabitants and the actual transformations and recompositions of their cultural and urban identities."
Correspondence: H. Mainet, Université de Paris X, Département de Géographie, 200 avenue de la République, 92001 Nanterre Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40146 Michel, Harald. Demographic characteristics of East European urban regions during the transition process. The example of Berlin-Marzahn. [Demographische Besonderheiten osteuropäischer Großraumsiedlungen im Transitionsprozeß. Das Beispiel Berlin-Marzahn.] Edition IFAD, No. 47, Oct 1997. 22 pp. Institut für Angewandte Demographie: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The author focuses on the demographic characteristics of the high-density housing tracts created during Communist rule in eastern Europe, examining as an example the Berlin suburb of Marzahn. It was completed just before reunification and was the largest new housing development in Germany. These tracts were preferentially allotted to young couples with children, a population with above-average education, training, and, consequently income. Several future scenarios of possible demographic developments in these complexes are sketched out.
Correspondence: Institut für Angewandte Demographie, Sophienstraße 3, 10178 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: ifad@ifad.b.shuttle.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:40147 Rowland, Richard H. Urban population trends in Kazakhstan during the 1990s. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, Vol. 40, No. 7, 1999. 519-52 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"An American geographer specializing in population change and urbanization in the countries of the former USSR examines urban population change in Kazakhstan over the period 1989-1998. The focus is on trends in urbanization, urban population growth, and changes in the populations of individual urban centers, with discussion of the latter emphasizing locational patterns and economic functions of the centers. The analysis is based on materials from the 1989 USSR census, official 1995-1998 population estimates, and preliminary results from the 1999 Kazakhstan census, with extensive coverage devoted to the availability of information in a variety of Kazakh statistical sources and other publications."
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, California State University, Department of Geography, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407-2397. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:40148 Satterthwaite, David. Rapid urbanization and the urban environment. In: Population and poverty in the developing world, edited by Massimo Livi-Bacci and Gustavo De Santis. 1999. 189-216 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews the range of environmental hazards present in urban areas in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and their impact on human health. It discusses the groups that are most vulnerable to environmental hazards and suggests that low-income groups (and, within such groups, women and children) bear most of the health burden arising from environmental problems. It also questions two common assumptions: that the large and often rapidly growing cities in the South have the most serious environmental problems; and that poverty necessarily contributes to environmental degradation."
Correspondence: D. Satterthwaite, International Institute for Environment and Development, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

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