Volume 65 - Number 3 - Fall 1999

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

65:30413 Anguiano Téllez, María E. Migration to the northern frontier of Mexico and its relationship with the regional labor market. [Migración a la frontera norte de México y su relación con el mercado de trabajo regional.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 17, Jul-Sep 1998. 63-79 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This document tries to show the close relationship between the recent population growth in the northern border cities of Mexico and the dynamic demand of the regional market labor. First, it analyzes the evolution of demographic growth and the development of economic activities, in the Mexican borders in urban towns, then it reviews the data from the survey called Encuesta sobre Migración en la Frontera Norte de México in order to explore the connection between the regional labor market characteristics and the internal and international migration flows."
Correspondence: M. E. Anguiano Téllez, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30414 Aruj, Roberto. The breaking down of imaginary socio-cultural perceptions in the migration process. [El resquebrajamiento de las representaciones imaginarias socioculturales en los procesos migratorios.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 17, Jul-Sep 1998. 173-87 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This is a general study of migration and of the reasons why people decide to migrate. The author develops a theoretical approach to the study of the causes of migration, which suggests that the decision to migrate is the result of a conflict that has taken place in the minds of potential migrants and their families in which traditional social and cultural values are questioned and found wanting.
Correspondence: R. Aruj, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Sociales Gino Germani, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Calle Viamonte 430/444, 1053 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30415 Lingam, Lakshmi. Women and migration: a selected annotated bibliography. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jul 1998. 864-82 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The annotations on `women and migration' presented here, though by no means exhaustive, provide insights into understanding the gender perspective in migration studies. The references covered here are mainly from India, with a few also from Latin America, Sri Lanka, Egypt, Africa, Philippines, and so on."
Correspondence: L. Lingam, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Unit for Women's Studies, Mumbai, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30416 Mertins, Günter; Skoczek, Maria. Migration in the Latin-American populations and their socioeconomic effects. [Migraciones de la población latinoamericana y sus efectos socio-económicos.] ISBN 83-85785-52-3. LC 98-179052. 1998. 240 pp. Uniwersytet Warszawski: Warsaw, Poland. In Spa; Por.
These are the proceedings of a Polish-German seminar on the subject of migration in Latin America. The seminar, which was held in Warsaw, Poland, November 22-23, 1996, focused on the socioeconomic impact of migration. The papers are in Portuguese or Spanish. Topics covered in the papers include internal migration in Chile and Ecuador, drug-related migration, violence-related migration in Colombia, migration and urbanization, suburbanization in Colombia, migration in Brazil (including São Paulo and the Amazon region), migration and desertification in Argentina, and migration in rural Mexico.
Correspondence: Uniwersytet Warszawski, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26-28, 00-325 Warsaw, Poland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30417 Osservatorio Comunale delle Immigrazioni di Bologna (Bologna, Italy). Examining immigration: methods, laws, and case studies. [Osservare le immigrazioni: metodi, leggi, studi di caso.] Métissage, No. 21, LC 98-187674. 1998. 222 pp. L'Harmattan Italia: Turin, Italy. In Ita.
This publication presents the three theses that won prizes for works on migration topics set up in memory of Luciana Sassatelli. The first one, by Elena Zaccherini, looks at the legal and other problems facing the Gypsy minority in Italy. The second, by Ilaria Daolio, examines the problems of cultural assimilation facing Moroccan female immigrants in Bologna. The third, by Luciana Simonetti, analyzes the spatial distribution and characteristics of the immigrant population originating outside the European Union in the northern Italian province of Treviso.
Correspondence: L'Harmattan Italia, via Bava 37, Turin, Italy. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30418 Smith, Stanley K.; Swanson, David A. In defense of the net migrant. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 24, No. 3-4, 1998. 249-64 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Net migration has been widely criticized as a theoretical concept and as a measure of population movement. Many of these criticisms are valid: net migration reflects a residual rather than a true migration process, it often masks large gross migration flows, it cannot account for differences in the characteristics of origin and destination populations, it cannot be used for rates in a probabilistic sense, and it can lead to misspecified causal models and unrealistic population projections. However, we believe there are purposes for which net migration is very useful, especially for analyses of small areas.... In this paper we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of net migration and provide several examples of how it can be useful for population estimation, forecasting, and analysis."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. K. Smith, University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 221 Matherly Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-7145. E-mail: sksmith@ufl.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:30419 Twum-Baah, K. A.; Nabila, J. S.; Aryee, A. F. Migration research study in Ghana. Jun 1995. xxiv, 332; 214 pp. Ghana Statistical Service: Accra, Ghana. In Eng.
The results of the 1991 Migration Research Study carried out in Ghana are presented in these two volumes. "The first volume deals with internal migration, treating themes like population redistribution and settlement schemes; processes and mechanisms of internal migration; internal migration: streams, perceptions and traditional systems; internal migration and development; and the effects of migration on women and children. The second volume, which is on international migration, concentrates on topics such as the effects of international migration on socio-economic development, international return migration as well as special issues related to population movement between Ghana and other ECOWAS countries."
Correspondence: Ghana Statistical Service, Accra, Ghana. Location: Yale University, Social Science Library, New Haven, CT.

65:30420 Willekens, Frans. Modeling approaches to the indirect estimation of migration flows: from entropy to EM. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1999. 239-78, 308 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The paper presents probability models to recover information on migration flows from incomplete data. Models are used to predict migration and to combine data from different sources.... Two models are considered: the binomial (multinomial) model, which underlies the logit model and the logistic regression, and the Poisson model, which underlies the loglinear model, the log-rate model and the Poisson regression.... By way of illustration, the probabilistic approach and the EM algorithm are applied to two different missing data problems."
Correspondence: F. Willekens, University of Groningen, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30421 Zayonchkovskaya, Zhanna. Recent migration trends in Russia. In: Population under duress: the geodemography of post-Soviet Russia, edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya. 1999. 107-36 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines changes in [Russian] migration influenced by the collapse of the Soviet Union and by developments unfolding during the emergence of the new republics." Sections are included on shifts in migration determinants; general trends; migrations between Russia and other former republics; repatriation; migration between urban and rural areas; regional peculiarities; refugees and forced migrants; and migration policy.
Correspondence: Z. Zayonchkovskaya, Institute for Economic Forecasting, Migration Research Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

65:30422 Alba, Richard. Immigration and the American realities of assimilation and multiculturalism. Sociological Forum, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1999. 3-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the text of the 1998 presidential address of the Eastern Sociological Society, presented in Philadelphia on March 22, 1998. The author discusses the potential increase in the number of ethnic minority groups in the United States. "This projected shift has been seen by many commentators as implying the possibility of revolutionary changes in the relationship between majority and minority Americans, including a decline of, or even an end to, European American social and cultural dominance and a flowering of multiculturalism. In this paper, I intend to put these implications under a sociological magnifying glass and consider some alternative scenarios."
Correspondence: R. Alba, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30423 Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos [INDEC] (Buenos Aires, Argentina). International migration in Argentina: its characteristics and impact. [La migración internacional en la Argentina: sus características e impacto.] INDEC Estudios, No. 29, 1997. 47 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
Recent trends in international migration to Argentina are described and the characteristics of recent immigrants are analyzed using data from the 1991 census. Particular attention is given to migration from adjoining countries, since migration from these countries has been significant in recent years. The focus is on the impact of migration at the provincial and departmental level and its effect on the spatial distribution of the population. The sex and age distribution of immigrants, their educational level, and labor force participation are analyzed and compared with the Argentinean population as a whole.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, Centro Estadístico de Servicios, Julio A. Roca, 615 P.B., C.P. 1067, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: CES@indec.mecon.ar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30424 Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos [INDEC] (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The nonnative population of Argentina, 1869-1991. [La población no nativa de la Argentina, 1869-1991.] Serie Análisis Demográfico, No. 6, 1996. 41 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
This is an analysis of the dynamics of the population of Argentina born outside of the country, or the immigrant population, over the period from 1869 to 1991. Consideration is given to changes in the size and growth of this population over time, the country of origin, changes in age and sex distribution, and the economic activity of immigrants.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, Centro Estadístico de Servicios, Julio A. Roca, 615 P.B., 1067 Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: CES@indec.mecon.ar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30425 Auster, Lawrence. Huddled clichés: exposing the fraudulent arguments that have opened America's borders to the world. 1997. iii, 59 pp. American Immigration Control Foundation: Monterey, Virginia. In Eng.
The author challenges and questions the arguments that have been made in support of continued large-scale immigration to the United States. He suggests that "a large majority of Americans are troubled by current immigration and would like to see it reduced, but they are perplexed and intimidated by the never-ending stream of clichés, myths, catch-phrases and fallacies, disseminated by the news media and other powerful institutions, that are used to promote it. In the following pages I will critically examine a number of these slogans from a variety of angles.... I will seek to expose the false premises, the deceptive assertions, the illogical leaps of thought, and the brain-numbing sentiments by which the immigrationists have kept America in thrall."
Correspondence: American Immigration Control Foundation, P. O. Box 525, Monterey, VA 24465. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30426 Baganha, Maria I. Immigrant involvement in the informal economy: the Portuguese case. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1998. 367-85 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article demonstrates how Portugal, despite appearing to be a country which would be [an] unattractive country to immigrants, is rapidly becoming a country of immigration. The existence and extent of opportunities for immigrants in Portugal is assessed with this objective in mind. On the basis of an analysis of the country's labour market, the immigrants' economic profiles and the Portuguese informal economy--and the interaction of these factors--it is concluded that the Portuguese economy is currently generating labour demands which the immigrants are satisfying. In some cases they complement and in others they substitute for the domestic labour force."
Correspondence: M. I. Baganha, University of Coimbra, Faculty of Economics, Avenida Dias da Silva 165, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal. E-mail: mibaganha@gemini.ci.uc.pt. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30427 Bakker, Edwin. The development of Slovakia's Hungarian population and its habitat. Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 3, 1998. 417-30 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Since they became a minority in 1918/1920, the number of Hungarians in Slovakia and the shape and size of the region they inhabit have changed significantly. These changes were mainly caused by this century's main dramatic historical events. The paper gives an overview of these events and focuses on their specific impact on the size and spatial distribution of the Hungarian minority. Ensuing, it investigates the Hungarian region and the Hungarian character of this region.... A reflection on the impact of the radical political and economic changes of the post-communist era on the size and habitat of the Hungarian minority constitute the final part of this paper."
Correspondence: E. Bakker, University of Nijmegen, Faculty of Policy Studies, Peace Research Center, P.O. Box 9108, 6500 HK Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30428 Bauböck, Rainer; Heller, Agnes; Zolber, Aristide R. The challenge of diversity: integration and pluralism in societies of immigration. Public Policy and Social Welfare, Vol. 21, ISBN 1-85972-401-9. 1996. 278 pp. Avebury: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England; European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research: Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
The 10 papers in this book were originally presented at a conference held in Jerusalem, Israel, in March 1995, on the impact of immigration on modern industrialized societies. "Nations originating from immigration, such as the USA, Australia or Israel, have reluctantly abandoned the vision of a melting pot wherein all ethnic origins would be transformed into a homogeneous national identity. But will common citizenship be sufficient to integrate an ethnic mosaic? Many European societies have traditionally identified the political nation with specific ethnic traditions. How much cultural adaptation can they expect from immigrants and how open are their national cultures for accommodating the immigrant experience?.... There is a common denominator: Cultural diversity resulting from immigration is neither seen as inherently desirable nor as a problem to be overcome, but rather as a challenge to which liberal democracies have not yet responded adequately."
Correspondence: Avebury Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30429 Betts, Julian R.; Lofstrom, Magnus. The educational attainment of immigrants: trends and implications. NBER Working Paper, No. 6757, Oct 1998. 45, [38] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper uses the 1970, 1980, and 1990 U.S. Censuses to study trends in educational attainment of immigrants relative to natives. Immigrants have become relatively less highly educated, but have become more highly educated in an absolute sense. The effects of changes in relative educational attainment between immigrants and natives on earnings are studied. Educational differences are found to explain more than half the observed wage gap between the two groups. The paper also allows for non-linearities in returns to education. Sheepskin effects influence earnings in different ways for natives and immigrants. Differences in returns to pre- and post-migration education also appear. The paper also finds evidence that immigrants crowd natives out of education, although the effects are stronger in secondary than in postsecondary education."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: jbetts@ucsd.edu. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30430 Betts, Katharine. Explaining Australian immigration. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 2, Nov 1996. 195-229 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This article reviews the post-Second World War literature on explanations for Australia's immigration program. It discovers three main schools of thought based on net pull factors: the official explanation and two unofficial explanations which focus on migrants as workers and on migrants as consumers. However the growing importance of net push factors after 1974 means that some of this work is less relevant today. Explanations focusing on net push factors have yet to cohere into a distinct perspective (or perspectives) but some research has been done on chain migration and family-based migration strategies, asylum seekers, temporary movement, and migration and the law."
Correspondence: K. Betts, Swinburne University of Technology, Sociology Discipline, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30431 Borjas, George J. Immigration and welfare magnets. NBER Working Paper, No. 6813, Nov 1998. 32, [12] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper investigates if the location choices made by immigrants when they arrive in the United States are influenced by the interstate dispersion in welfare benefits. Income-maximizing behavior implies that foreign-born welfare recipients unlike their native-born counterparts, may be clustered in the states that offer the highest benefits. The empirical analysis indicates that immigrant welfare recipients are indeed more heavily clustered in high-benefit states than the immigrants who do not receive welfare, or than natives. As a result, the welfare participation rate of immigrants is much more sensitive to changes in welfare benefits than that of natives."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: gborjas@harvard.edu. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30432 Burgers, Jack. Formal determinants of informal arrangements: housing and undocumented immigrants in Rotterdam. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1998. 295-312 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Using data on undocumented immigrants in the city of Rotterdam, it is argued that peculiarities of the Dutch housing market, especially the large degree of decommodification of the housing stock, lead to a specific housing situation and housing career of illegal immigrants.... The housing situation of undocumented immigrants in Rotterdam clearly shows how formal arrangements create conditions for informal practices.... A comparison between Dutch and U.S. data shows that differences in formal arrangements have substantial effects on the potential of ethnic solidarity within immigrant communities."
Correspondence: J. Burgers, Erasmus University, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: burgers@soc.fsw.eur.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30433 Castaños Lomnitz, Heriberta. The brain drain from Mexico: the experience of scientists. Science and Public Policy, Vol. 25, No. 4, Aug 1998. 247-53 pp. Guildford, England. In Eng.
"What are the causes of Mexico's brain drain? Mexican scientists are rarely asked: yet they are the principal actors and, arguably, those most directly affected by the phenomenon. The interviews presented in this paper are largely reproduced verbatim to reveal some unsuspected features of a wider process of self-doubt and reassessment which is being undergone by the Mexican scientific community."
Correspondence: H. Castaños Lomnitz, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Torre 11 de Humanidades, Aptdo. Postal 20-721, Mexico City 20, DF, Mexico. E-mail: bety@servidor.unam.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:30434 Castles, Stephen. International migration and the global agenda: reflections on the 1998 UN Technical Symposium. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 5-19 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses some key issues and problems discussed at the 1998 U.N. Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development. "The Symposium reviewed knowledge on the links between migration and development and discussed the relative success of various policy approaches.... The Symposium discussed the need for strategies which reflect the ambivalence of women's experience.... Issues of settlement and of return migration were debated.... Overall, the Symposium...found that a knowledge base does exist for greatly improved policy formation and international cooperation in this area of growing global significance."
Correspondence: S. Castles, University of Wollongong, Centre for Asia Pacific Social Transformation Studies, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30435 Center for Immigration Studies (Washington, D.C.). "Cast down your bucket where you are": black Americans on immigration. Center Paper, No. 10, ISBN 1-881290-12-3. Jun 1996. 31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"[This] compilation of historical opinion should serve as a wake-up call for many of today's African American leaders and intellectuals, who take counterproductive stands on the issue of whether to encourage the expansion or contraction of immigration.... Anything, including immigration, which increases the supply of labor in America works against the interests of African Americans. The consequences, such as depressed wages or the substitution of other workers, are clearly not in the interest of African Americans." Excerpts are included from writings by Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, and various contributors to the black press.
Correspondence: Center for Immigration Studies, 1815 H Street NW, Suite 1010, Washington, D.C. 20006-3604. E-mail: center@cis.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30436 Chia, Siow Y. Sub-regional economic zones in East Asia. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 138-55 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines the rise of SREZs [subregional economic zones] in the Asia-Pacific Region, identifying the types and factors in their emergence, and examining their impact on flows of trade, investment and people." Sections are included on the typology of subregional economic zones; factors in the emergence of SREZs, such as political and policy changes, geographical and cultural proximity, economic complementarity, and investment competition; and trade, investment, and labor flows.
Correspondence: S. Y. Chia, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30437 Chiswick, Barry R. Are immigrants favorably self-selected? American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 2, May 1999. 181-5 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"One of the standard propositions in the migration literature is that migrants tend to be favorably `self-selected' for labor-market success. That is, economic migrants are described as tending on average to be more able, ambitious, aggressive, entrepreneurial, or otherwise more favorably selected than similar individuals who choose to remain in their place of origin.... In recent years there have been challenges to the general proposition of the favorable selectivity of migrants. In addressing this issue, this paper considers alternative specifications of the migration model that are relevant for the issue of migrant selectivity."
Correspondence: B. R. Chiswick, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, Chicago, IL 60607-7121. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30438 Clark, William A. V. The California cauldron: immigration and the fortunes of local communities. ISBN 1-57230-403-0. LC 98-38943. 1998. 224 pp. Guilford Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study is about the implications of large-scale immigration to California over the last 15 years. The focus is on the impact of the process of assimilation of some 5 million newcomers from around the world on the resident population of about 25 million. The study is based primarily on census data. The author demonstrates that much of the recent growth in California is being created by immigration rather than by natural increase, and there has been a major drop in the proportion of births to U.S.-born mothers. A quarter of the state's population is foreign-born, and nearly one-third speaks a language other than English at home. The study also shows that although most immigrants are upwardly mobile in terms of home ownership, educational status, and income, immigrants from some countries, such as Mexico and El Salvador, are losing ground because of their more limited education and low skills. The case is made for a more rational immigration policy that would both protect the more vulnerable immigrants and encourage only those new immigrants that would increase the nation's capital.
Correspondence: Guilford Press, 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30439 Corona Vásquez, Rodolfo. The remittances in U.S. dollars that Mexican migrants send home from the United States (a study based on data from the Survey of Migration in the Northern Frontier Region of Mexico). [Las remesas de dólares que envían los migrantes mexicanos desde Estados Unidos (medición a través de la Encuesta de Migración en la Frontera Norte de México).] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 17, Jul-Sep 1998. 81-106 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The difficulties in obtaining reliable data on remittances to Mexico by Mexican immigrants in the United States are first outlined. An analysis of such remittances is then attempted using data from a recent survey, the Encuesta sobre Migración en la Frontera Norte. Data from this survey are used to analyze several aspects of remittances "such as the direct determination of the amount of the remittances and the identification of the immigrants that send them according to their social and demographic features, and the location of Mexican zones where the remittances arrive, [and] the variations in the amount and frequency of the remittances among the different groups of immigrants."
Correspondence: R. Corona Vásquez, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30440 Cross, Malcolm; Castles, Stephen; Waldinger, Roger. Migration and the informal economy in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1998. 245-385 pp. Carfax Publishing: Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains papers by various authors on migration and the informal economy in Europe. "It is conventional to identify demands for undocumented workers and to reflect on how relative disadvantage and population pressure in the countries of origin provide the pull and push of movement. This takes no account of how the people involved view their worlds.... Those without work permits are not prevented from working by widespread domestic unemployment for their wages are half the local rate, but neither are they targets for local opposition since the domestic and labour services they provide are beneficial to both employers and native workers."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Carfax Publishing, P.O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3UE, England. E-mail: sales@carfax.co.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30441 Crush, Jonathan. The discourse and dimensions of irregularity in post-apartheid South Africa. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 125-51 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article presents an overview of the causes and spatial/sectoral distribution of irregular employment in post-apartheid South Africa, drawing on recent research. It then critically examines efforts to ascertain the dimensions of undocumented migration to South Africa, concluding that the results are fundamentally flawed by the methodologies used. The article then disaggregates irregular migration and assesses current knowledge about each subcategory."
Correspondence: J. Crush, Queen's University at Kingston, Southern African Migration Project, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30442 Di Liegro, Luigi; Durazzi, Lucia; Miguel, Pedro; Mioli, Bruno; Pascocci, Mario; Piscitelli, Susanna; Ricci, Stefano; Zorzella, Nazzarena. Immigration: a new phase. From reception to integration. [Immigrazione: una nuova fase. Dall'accoglienza all'integrazione.] Paesi, Situazioni e Problemi, ISBN 88-307-0595-0. 1995. 174 pp. Editrice Missionaria Italiana: Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Senigallia, Italy, June 3-4, 1995, on aspects of immigration in Italy. The geographical focus is on the diocese of Senigallia, in the Marche region of east-central Italy. The general purpose of the meeting was to learn more about immigrants from countries outside the European region in order to help those planning to stay in Italy assimilate more easily into the general population. There are chapters on the immigration phenomenon in general, the situation of immigrants in Senigallia, legislation affecting immigration, the cultural aspects of immigration, and the prospects for successful assimilation.
Correspondence: Editrice Missionaria Italiana, Via di Corticella 181, 40128 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30443 Duleep, Harriet O.; Regets, Mark C. Immigrants and human-capital investment. American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 2, May 1999. 186-91 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"Why do immigrants invest more in human capital than the native-born, and how do investment patterns vary by type of immigrant? Summarizing our previous research, we approach this question theoretically and empirically."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037.E-mail: Harriet.O.Duleep@ssa.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30444 Durand, Jorge. Mexican migration to the United States. [Migrations mexicaines aux Etats-Unis.] ISBN 2-271-05306-4. 1996. 214 pp. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique [CNRS]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of international migration between Mexico and the United States. The general approach is anthropological, and the study is based both on original data from 2,150 interviews carried out in areas of migrant origin in Mexico, and on previously published case studies carried out by other researchers. The study focuses on three primary topics: the role of this migration as a safety valve for economic and political problems in Mexico, the extent to which results from case studies can be used in more general studies of migrations, and the economic impact of this migration on agricultural investment in Mexico. In addition, the study attempts to expand on previous research by examining migration in new geographic areas such as the state of Guanajuato and central western Mexico. The author also discusses its cultural impact.
Correspondence: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: New York University, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York, NY.

65:30445 Escobar-Latapí, Agustin. Low-skill emigration from Mexico to the United States. Current situation, prospects and government policy. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 153-82 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Low-skill labour migration from Mexico to the U.S. is a dominant aspect of general Mexico-U.S. migration. It is of even greater importance in undocumented migration in general and in undocumented border flows, and as such has become a growing source of concern and initial coordination and collaboration between the two governments.... The article recommends that any large-scale migrant worker programme be bilateral in nature."
Correspondence: A. Escobar-Latapí, CIESAS Occidente, Guadalajara, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30446 Ethier, Wilfred J. Theories about trade liberalisation and migration: substitutes or complements? In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 50-68 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper discusses what the theory of international trade has to say about the relation between international trade in commodities and human migration.... I discuss only whether trade and migration are complements or substitutes, ignoring other aspects of their relationship.... I address factor migration in general, ignoring distinct features of labour migration.... I ignore models which assume some direct link between trade and migration.... I minimise analytical detail, offering a basically intuitive discussion in terms of simple, familiar models."
Correspondence: W. J. Ethier, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30447 France. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE] (Paris, France). Immigrants in France. [Les immigrés en France.] Contours et Caractères, ISBN 2-11-066499-1. Feb 1997. 140 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the immigrant population in France, which numbered 4,166,000 in 1990, based on data from official sources including the census. There are chapters on the immigrant population, including definitions and numbers, reasons for migration, and family characteristics; education, including language; labor force participation, including type of activity, unemployment, and professional trajectories; and living conditions, including income, location and housing, and lifestyles.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30448 Freeman, Gary P.; Mo, Jongryn. Japan and the Asian NICs as new countries of destination. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 156-73 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"Asia, with 60 per cent of the world's population, has traditionally been a major source of emigration, but in recent years rapidly intensifying internal migration has turned certain states in the region into destinations for foreign labour.... How governments are reacting to these new circumstances is the principal question we investigate. We concentrate on the substantive content of emerging immigration policies and goals towards which they are directed.... [We also] place the Asian cases in a comparative perspective by asking if their policies will gradually assimilate to those of the West."
Correspondence: G. P. Freeman, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30449 González Becerril, Juan G. Labor migration to the United States by natives from the state of Mexico. [Migración laboral hacia Estados Unidos de los oriundos del estado de México.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 17, Jul-Sep 1998. 107-37 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Based primarily on data from the Encuesta sobre Migración en la Frontera Norte de México, results of a study of international migration from the Mexican state of Mexico to the United States over time are presented. The author notes that from 1942 to 1964, labor migration between the two countries was organized under an agreement between the two governments concerned. However, since that agreement ended, an increasing volume of illegal labor migration has occurred in response to the economic situation. Attention is given to migrant characteristics, the characteristics of illegal immigrants deported back to Mexico, and migrant remittances.
Correspondence: J. G. González Becerril, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados de la Población, Avenida Instituto Literario No. 100 OTE, Col. Centro, 50000 Toluca, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30450 Gorbey, Susi; James, Doug; Poot, Jacques. Population forecasting with endogenous migration: an application to trans-Tasman migration. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, Apr 1999. 69-101 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article focuses on forecasting migration between Australia and New Zealand (trans-Tasman migration), which is largely visa-free and therefore resembles internal migration. Net trans-Tasman migration is a major component of New Zealand population change and is embedded in this article in a Bayesian or unrestricted vector autoregression (VAR) model, which includes foreign and domestic economic variables. When time series of net migration are available, this approach provides a useful input into forecasting population growth in the short run in the absence of major policy changes. This conclusion applies equally to interregional migration and to unrestricted international migration between economically integrated nations."
Correspondence: S. Gorbey, 9 Stafford Mansions, Albert Bridge Road, London, England. E-mail: sgorbey@tudor.com. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:30451 Heer, David M. The legal status of the children of undocumented Mexican immigrants in Los Angeles County. In: 1997 proceedings of the section on government statistics and section on social statistics. [1997]. 355-60 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The author presents estimates of the legal status of the children of undocumented Mexican immigrants in Los Angeles County, California. "The data for this paper come from a household survey conducted in the fall of 1994 jointly by the University of Southern California and El Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF), an academic institution located in Tijuana, Mexico."
Correspondence: D. M. Heer, University of Southern California, Population Research Laboratory, 3716 South Hope Street, Los Angeles, CA 90007-4377. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30452 Hugo, Graeme. Brain drain and student movements. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 210-28 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"Focusing on the Asian region and Australia, an attempt is made in this chapter to assess the scale and significance of brain drain migration.... The chapter...considers an alternative view of the brain drain which suggests that loss of highly trained personnel in the contemporary context can have beneficial impacts on the sending countries. The following section examines migration of professional and skilled workers to and from Australia in recent years and the implications of that movement.... The chapter argues that in the early post-Second World War period student migration and the brain drain were almost synonymous but in the last two decades this nexus has been broken."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30453 Içduygu, Ahmet; Sirkeci, Ibrahim. Changing dynamics of the migratory regime between Turkey and Arab countries. Turkish Journal of Population Studies/Nüfusbilim Dergisi, Vol. 20, 1998. 3-16 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This essay discusses trends and patterns in migration from Turkey to Arab countries since the late 1960s. It relates this migratory movement to the wider context of Turkish emigration. By examining the ongoing migration ties between Turkey and the receiving Arab countries, the paper concludes with a discussion of likely migration flows and their implications."
Correspondence: A. Içduygu, Bilkent University, Department of Political Science, 06533 Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30454 Iglicka-Okólska, Krystyna. Analysis of migration patterns based on the results of research from ethnic surveys of foreign migrations (immigration and emigration) in chosen regions of Poland in the years 1975-1994. [Analiza zachowan migracyjnych na podstawie wyników badania etnosondazowego migracji zagranicznych w wybranych regionach Polski w latach 1975-1994.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 438, LC 98-199494. 1998. 172 pp. Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
This is an analysis of international migration trends in Poland during the period 1975-1994 using data from ethnic surveys carried out in various regions of the country. The author first reviews international migration trends affecting Poland since the end of World War II. Theoretical aspects of research on migration and the characteristics of the surveys from which the data for this study were taken are described. Specific types of migration affecting different communities are identified and the characteristics of migrants are analyzed. The political and socioeconomic consequences of current migration trends are assessed.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30455 Iredale, Robyn. The need to import skilled personnel: factors favouring and hindering its international mobility. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 89-123 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Skilled migration has become a major element of contemporary flows.... The article [discusses] issues facing sending and receiving countries.... The article argues that the neo-classical view that skilled migration leads to overall improvement in global development does not apply. `Brain waste' or `wasted skills' occur frequently, to the detriment of both individuals and nations. Improved data and constructive dialogue on skilled migration are needed. Within both regional and international contexts, countries have obligations and responsibilities towards each other which need to be taken seriously."
Correspondence: R. Iredale, University of Wollongong, School of Geosciences, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30456 Jasso, Guillermina; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Smith, James P. The changing skill of new immigrants to the United States: recent trends and their determinants. NBER Working Paper, No. 6764, Oct 1998. [44] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to describe and understand the determinants of changes in the number and quality of new legal immigrants to the United States over the last 25 years. Our main interest is in understanding the behavioral response of potential immigrants to changes in the U.S. immigration law regime (as well as in the origin-country determinants of demand for immigration to the United States) and how these affect and have affected the skill composition of immigrants.... [The authors] assembled a new data set based on annual INS records of all new, legal immigrants over the period 1972 through 1995.... Inspection of our new data indicates that since the mid 1980s the average skill of new, U.S. legal immigrants has been rising relative to that of the U.S. population. An econometric analysis of a panel of country-specific measures of the skill of immigrants based on these data over the period 1972-1992 indicates that these changes are due in part to changes in immigration law and to the overall rise in the real purchasing power of countries outside the United States."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30457 Jones, Huw; Pardthaisong, Tieng. The commodification of international migration: findings from Thailand. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 90, No. 1, 1999. 32-46 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The organisation of international contract-labour migration within Asia has been increasingly dominated by commercial agencies acting as intermediaries between workers and foreign employers. The principles underpinning the gatekeeping role of such agencies in the East Asian migration system are examined. A consideration of the international labour recruitment system in Thailand is based on survey work among agents, community leaders and recently returned migrants."
Correspondence: H. Jones, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. E-mail: H.R.Jones@dundee.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30458 Katseli, Louka; Straubhaar, Thomas; Zimmermann, Klaus F. Illegal migration. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 1, Feb 1999. 191 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This special issue...is the outcome of a research project under the auspices of the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR, London)." Workshops were organized in 1995 and 1997 on the topic of European migration from economic analysis to policy response. A selection of papers presented at the workshops is included in this issue.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, Tiergartenstraße 17, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30459 Kelly, Perry W. Metropolis: an international forum for research and policy on migration and cities. In: 1997 proceedings of the section on government statistics and section on social statistics. [1997]. 367-9 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Metropolis is a cooperative, international research initiative created to examine immigrant integration and the effects of international migration on urban centres [in Canada]." Information is provided on goals, research parameters, research context, and project scope and organization both nationally and internationally.
Correspondence: P. W. Kelly, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Metropolis Project, Jean Edmonds Tower South, 18th Floor, 365 Avenue Laurier West, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1L1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30460 Kelson, Gregory A.; DeLaet, Debra L. Gender and immigration. ISBN 0-8147-4731-0. LC 98-35132. 1999. xv, 217 pp. New York University Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This collective work is concerned with the varied and complex ways in which women experience international migration, and is a product of a panel held in 1996 as part of the annual meeting of the International Studies Association in San Diego, California. The 11 papers are organized into two parts, focusing on the economic status and the social status of international female migrants. The discussions are primarily centered on the situation in developed countries. The papers attempt to provide answers to several general questions: "Does international migration provide women with an opportunity for liberating themselves from subordinate gender roles in their countries of origin, or are traditional gender roles perpetuated in the host societies? Do migrant women face new forms of subordination and discrimination in their host societies? To what extent is international migration driven by actors and institutions which exploit the social, economic, and political vulnerability of women across the globe?"
Correspondence: New York University Press, Washington Square, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30461 Kofman, Eleonore. Female "birds of passage" a decade later: gender and immigration in the European Union. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer 1999. 269-99 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"First, this article critically assesses the dominant accounts of the sequence of labor migration and family reunification and argues that it is time to reclaim the heterogeneity of women's past migratory experiences in our understanding of European patterns of post-war immigration. Second, it examines family migration, covering diverse forms of family reunification and formation which, although the dominant form of legal immigration into Europe since the 1970s, has received relatively little attention. Third, it explores the implications of the diversification of contemporary female migration in the European Union and argues for the necessity of taking account of the reality of changing patterns of employment, households and social structures to advance our understanding of European immigration."
Correspondence: E. Kofman, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30462 Landsman, Ned C. Nation, migration, and the province in the first British Empire: Scotland and the Americas, 1600-1800. American Historical Review, Vol. 104, No. 2, Apr 1999. 463-75 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This essay will reconsider the experience of one of the most prevalent and certainly among the most prominent of national groups to involve itself with early British America: the Scots, and in particular, Lowland Scots, a group for whom involvement in the Atlantic world everywhere overlapped national concerns.... The nature of those involvements led Scots to traverse both the physical and intellectual markers of national and provincial boundaries within the empire with considerable frequency.... [We] consider some of the national, British, and European aspects of Scottish participation in the Atlantic world."
Correspondence: N. C. Landsman, State University of New York, Department of History, Stony Brook, NY 11790. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

65:30463 Leiner, Nadine. International migration in the presence of public goods. Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, No. 47, Jul-Sep 1997. 151-70 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper presents a broad analysis of how nonmigrants are affected by immigration in the presence of public goods. Welfare-effects of migration are first considered in a comparative-static framework which is then supplemented by an analysis of costs and benefits in a more-period-context. This enables a consideration of immigration-induced expansions of the public capital stock on the one hand and its effects on public enlargement and replacement investments on the other."
Correspondence: N. Leiner, Universität Konstanz, SFB 178, Postfach 5560, 7750 Constance, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30464 Lloyd, P. J. Globalisation, foreign investment and migration. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 69-83 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This chapter explores the links between the elements of the triangle of international flows: commodities, capital and labour.... The direct implications of globalisation and foreign direct investment for commodity trade...and those for the international movement of people [are examined].... The indirect effects of foreign direct investment and immigration on factor prices, and thereby on each other, are considered.... [I also consider] some links between the international movement of people and international flows of capital and commodity trade in which the movement of people precedes the movement of the capital."
Correspondence: P. J. Lloyd, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30465 Lloyd, P. J.; Williams, Lynne S. International trade and migration in the APEC region. ISBN 0-19-5537-637. 1996. xiii, 273 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This volume contains papers by various authors on "the trade-labour relationships in a geographic region of great importance to Australian policy--the Asia-Pacific. The authors examine topics for the APEC region including patterns and links in trade and migration, and the consequences of regional trade liberalisation and people movement." Papers are grouped into sections on patterns of trade and migration; links between trade liberalization and migration; regional trade liberalization and migration; and long-term consequences.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30466 Logan, B. I. The reverse transfer of technology from Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Zimbabwe. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1999. 437-63 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The article investigates the potential reverse transfer of technology (brain drain) from Zimbabwe, using as case study, academic staff at the main campus of the University of Zimbabwe. A questionnaire survey was employed to separate all Zimbabwean academic staff into two groups: those who express an intention to emigrate in the near future (1-3 years) and those who express an intention to stay home. The demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the two groups are discussed, as are the factors cited for dissatisfaction with conditions at the source (the institution and the country), potential destinations, and attractions (`pull' factors) at these destinations."
Correspondence: B. I. Logan, University of Georgia, Department of Geography, Athens, GA 30602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30467 López, Ramón; Schiff, Maurice. Migration and the skill composition of the labour force: the impact of trade liberalization in LDCs. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1998. 318-36 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on the conditions under which trade liberalization in the developing countries is likely to cause an increase or a decrease in out-migration. We also examine the impact of trade liberalization on the skill composition of migration and of the labour force. For this purpose, we explicitly incorporate four additional features in the Heckscher-Ohlin model: heterogeneity of labour skills, international migration, migration costs, and constraints on financing migration.... The contribution of the present paper is the incorporation of financial constraints in an open-economy general equilibrium model."
Correspondence: R. López, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30468 Löwander, Birgitta. Radio Sweden and immigration policy--an overview of the immigration policy of society and the media during three periods of consensus, 1967-1992. [Sveriges Radio och invandrarpolitiken--en översikt över samhällets invandrarpolitik och etermediepolitik under tre avtalsperioder, åren 1967-1992.] Umeå Studies in Sociology, No. 112, 1997. [v], 95 pp. Umeå Universitet: Umeå, Sweden. In Swe.
The purpose of this monograph is to describe the effect that immigration and immigration policy in Sweden had on the policy of the media and the activities of Radio Sweden during the period 1967-1992. The author shows how television programming and production choices made by Radio Sweden reflect a particular set of common values and attitudes concerning society's goal of promoting mutual understanding between immigrants and the native population.
Correspondence: Umeå Universitet, Sociologiska Institutionen, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

65:30469 Massey, Douglas S.; Arango, Joaquín; Hugo, Graeme; Kouaouci, Ali; Pellegrino, Adela; Taylor, J. Edward. Worlds in motion: understanding international migration at the end of the millennium. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-829442-5. LC 98-35492. 1998. xiv, 362 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This work was produced by the members of the Committee on South-North Migration. The committee was set up by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population in 1991 to develop a better theoretical understanding of the forces producing contemporary international migration. The approach is interdisciplinary. The book "was intended to describe the international migration systems that had emerged in different world regions by the decade of the 1980s; present and evaluate the leading contemporary theories proposed to explain the emergence and operation of these systems; evaluate the efficacy of the various theories as they applied to trends and patterns in North America, Western Europe, the Persian Gulf, Asia and the Pacific, and South America, and then to synthesize the results of these reviews to produce an integrated theoretical vision capable of providing a coherent guide for future research and policy formation. We also planned to devote special attention to the thorny issue of international migration and economic development."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30470 McDonald, John; Richards, Eric. Workers for Australia: a profile of British and Irish migrants assisted to New South Wales in 1841. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 15, No. 1, May 1998. 1-33 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This profile of 20,000 British and Irish assisted migrants [to Australia after 1841], based on individual-level data, establishes their age, sex, religious, educational and occupational characteristics. Their composition differed markedly from the existing colonial population and other migrant flows at the time. They reflected the recruiting methods of the time as well as the changing migration propensities in the British Isles. The migrants were better human capital than was acknowledged at the time. They constituted a new start in Australian demographic development."
Correspondence: J. McDonald, Flinders University of South Australia, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30471 Mogelonsky, Marcia. Natural(ized) Americans. American Demographics, Mar 1999. 45-9 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"One in five new Americans joins the nation through naturalization. Their numbers are growing with changes in the political climate. Asians are more likely than immigrants from other regions to become U.S. citizens, as are better-educated people and those who have lived here longer.... National origin is the overriding predictor of the tendency to naturalize...above and beyond any socioeconomic characteristics."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30472 Nana, Ganesh; Poot, Jacques. Trans-Tasman migration and closer economic relations. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 121-37 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"Under the current Trans-Tasman Travel Agreement (TTTA), citizens of [Australia and New Zealand] may freely settle in the other country.... This paper focuses on the impact of the TTTA and trade liberalisation on trans-Tasman migration and the Australasian labour market.... [We discuss] what the impact of further removal of trade barriers at the common Australasian border might be--both for trans-Tasman trade and for the labour markets of both countries.... We report the results of [model] simulations which show that the effects of extending CER [a joint trade agreement] to the bilateral removal of protection against imports from other countries are also beneficial."
Correspondence: G. Nana, Victoria University of Wellington, 22 Inga Road, Milford, Auckland 9, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30473 Pittau, Franco. Immigration in Italy: elements of socio-statistical analysis. [L'immigration en Italie: éléments pour une analyse socio-statistique.] Migrations et Société, Vol. 10, No. 55, Jan-Feb 1998. 37-49 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of the characteristics of the immigrant population in Italy as of 1997 is presented based on data published by the organization Caritas di Roma. Information is included on country of origin, region of current residence, and sector of employment.
Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

65:30474 Portnov, Boris A. The effect of housing construction on population migrations in Israel. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, Jul 1998. 541-59 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Population migrations in Israel simultaneously move in two opposite directions: while the initial distribution of new immigrants is primarily focused on big cities of the country's central core, the existing population of these centres tends to move outward, to small settlements where housing is more readily available. The effect of housing construction on population migrations appears to be delayed and tends to become visible with the passage of time. The initial low attractiveness of urban settlements in peripheral districts of the country to the new immigrants is mainly caused by [the] small size of the population in the settlements and an inferior state of urban development rather than by a lack of new housing or the harsh climatic conditions of these areas."
Correspondence: B. A. Portnov, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, J. Blaustein Institute for the Desert Research, Center for Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Sede-Boker Campus 84990, Israel. E-mail: Portnov@bgumail.bgu.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30475 Prencipe, Lorenzo. Migration, co-development, and cooperation. [Migrations, codéveloppement, coopération.] Migrations et Société, Vol. 10, No. 56, Mar-Apr 1998. 41-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of global trends in international migration. There are sections on motives for migration, consequences for both countries of origin and destination, immigrants in Europe, and the situation in France. The author ends by discussing the extent to which migration policies can be effective, considering whether more successful socioeconomic development in poor countries would reduce migration flows, and describing trends in aid and development cooperation from OECD countries.
Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

65:30476 Prévélakis, Georges. The networks of diasporas. [Les réseaux des diasporas.] Géographie et Cultures, ISBN 9963-562-36-1. 1998. 444 pp. Harmattan: Paris, France; KYKEM Cyprus Research Center: Nicosia, Cyprus. In Eng; Fre.
This volume contains 28 papers, in English or French, on diasporas, defined here as widespread migrations of distinct ethnic or national groups that identify primarily with their country or region of origin rather than that of current residence. The papers were presented at a conference held in Larnaca, Cyprus, in the spring of 1993. The primary focus is on the networking aspects of such diasporas. The papers are organized under five topics: Diasporas in world politics; Traditional diasporas in difficulty; Diaspora iconographies; The return of diasporas; and The challenge of diasporas. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Editions L'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole-polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30477 Price, Charles A. Post-war immigration: 1947-98. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 15, No. 2, Nov 1998. 115-29 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This is the text of the 1998 "W. D. Borrie Lecture [presented at the] Australian Population Association National Conference.... Post-war immigration to Australia is a truly vast subject, covering more than 50 years with over ten Prime Ministers and numerous Ministers of Immigration.... I cannot possibly treat the whole topic and, as I have been asked to make this talk both non-technical and entertaining, I will deal with it in a very general way." Aspects considered include migration policy, ethnic composition, and age distribution.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30478 Probert, Adam; Gentleman, Jane; Semenciw, Robert; Mao, Yang. Re-migration and mortality of immigrants to Canada: 1980-94. In: 1997 proceedings of the section on government statistics and section on social statistics. [1997]. 361-6 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to discuss an ongoing collaborative project between Health Canada and Statistics Canada. We discuss the research completed to date and what is planned for future analysis.... This project will examine the re-migration (immigration followed by emigration) and mortality of the 1980 cohort of new landed immigrants in Canada."
Correspondence: A. Probert, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Room 1350, Tunney's Pasture, PL #0601C1, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30479 Quibria, M. G. Migration, remittances and trade: with special reference to Asian developing economies. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 84-98 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines interrelationships among migration, remittances, and trade in Asia. "Section II discusses the various measurement and conceptual issues relating to labour migration and remittances. Section III provides a background to the present state of migration to West and East Asia and the flow of remittances accruing to various Asian developing countries. Section IV discusses briefly some important policy issues relating to migration and remittances. Section V provides some concluding remarks."
Correspondence: M. G. Quibria, Asian Development Bank, Economics and Development Resource Center, Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30480 Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Migration and pension. NBER Working Paper, No. 6778, Nov 1998. 20 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Migration has important implications for the financial soundness of the pension system.... While it is common sense to expect that young migrants, even if low-skilled, can help society pay the benefits to the currently elderly, it may nevertheless be reasonable to argue that these migrants would adversely affect current young since, after all, the migrants are net beneficiaries of the welfare state. In contrast to the adverse effects of low skilled migration in a static model, [the authors] show that in a Samuelsonian overlapping generations model...migration is a Pareto-improving measure. All the existing income (low and high) and age (young and old) groups living at the time of the migrant's arrival would be better off."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: razin@econ.tau.ac.il. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30481 Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim; Swagel, Phillip. Tax burden and migration: a political economy theory and evidence. NBER Working Paper, No. 6734, Sep 1998. 22, [5] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In a stylized model of migration and human capital formation, [the authors] show...that low-skill immigration may lead to a lower tax burden and less redistribution than would be the case with no immigration.... Data on 11 European countries over the period 1974 to 1992 are consistent with the implications of the theory: a higher share of immigrants in the population leads to a lower tax rate on labor income, even after controlling for the generosity and size of the welfare state, demographics, and the international exposure of the economy. As predicted by the theory, it is the increased share of low education immigrants that leads to the smaller tax burden."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: razin@econ.tau.ac.il. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30482 Ribeiro, Manuela. Capturing the frontline: women and emigration in less-favored regions. [Tomando a dianteira: mulheres e emigração em regiões desfavorecidas.] Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, No. 50, Feb 1998. 167-82, 207 pp. Coimbra, Portugal. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"Overtly contrasting with the dominant pattern of what can be considered as the first stage of the European cycle of emigration, women, particularly the younger ones, have been occupying the front-line positions in the unstoppable process of abandonment of the so-called less-favoured areas, especially the mountain regions.... This growing predominance of women in emigration processes is directly connected to a wider context of disagrarianization strategies. Rural women are using these strategies as a response to the multiple disadvantages that generally affect life and the ways of living in these regions, and also as a reaction to the disadvantages that they experience as women."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30483 Rod, Tess; Williams, Lynne S. Migration intensification in the APEC region: 1981 to 1994. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 32-48 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This chapter gives a brief overview of the recent trends in the pattern of international migration, focusing particularly on countries in the Asia-Pacific Region which are APEC members. It covers both permanent and temporary movements and the distribution of these by source and destination countries. Following analysis of permanent migration to the four major receiving countries, the chapter focuses on the labour market-related movement of people in the APEC region."
Correspondence: T. Rod, Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research, P.O. Box 659, South Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30484 Roer-Strier, Dorit; Olshtain-Mann, Orly. To see and not be seen: Latin American illegal foreign workers in Jerusalem. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1999. 413-36 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article describes the formation and characteristics of the new evolving community of illegal Latin American foreign workers in Jerusalem while adopting the ecological perspective, which examines human development and behaviour in various contexts of their social and cultural environments. We have looked specifically at illegal Latin American foreign workers' reasons for and process of migration, their accommodation and living conditions, allocation of employment, daily cultural and social conditions, education and health issues concerning children and families, perceptions of relations with host culture and perceptions of well-being and future expectations."
Correspondence: D. Roer-Strier, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Paul Baerwald School of Public Health, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30485 Roleff, Tamara L. Immigration: opposing viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints Series, ISBN 1-56510-799-3. LC 98-5034. 1998. 218 pp. Greenhaven Press: San Diego, California. In Eng.
This collective work contains a selection of previously published items on aspects of immigration to the United States. The selection includes both those in favor of and opposed to restrictions on immigration. The 28 items are organized under four chapter headings: Historical debate: should immigration be restricted?; Is immigration a problem for the United States?; How can illegal immigration be controlled?; and How should U.S. immigration policy be reformed?
Correspondence: Greenhaven Press, P.O. Box 289009, San Diego, CA 92198-9009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30486 Rowlands, Dane. Domestic governance and international migration. World Development, Vol. 27, No. 8, Aug 1999. 1,477-91 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"With growing disparities between the levels of material wealth in rich and poor countries, migration appears to be an attractive option for inhabitants of less developed countries. Simultaneously, there has been a growing interest in the potential contribution of good governance to economic development. This paper explores the link between governance and migration, and concludes on the basis of cross-sectional empirical evidence that governance may indeed be a significant factor in determining the rates of emigration from poor countries to wealthy ones."
Correspondence: D. Rowlands, Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:30487 Santo Tomas, Patricia. Enhancing the capabilities of emigration countries to protect men and women destined for low-skilled employment: the case of the Philippines. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 319-54 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study sought to answer three questions. Are there enough policies/protective mechanisms for low skill Filipino workers who are seeking, or have embarked on, an overseas job? Can these policies be prioritized and evaluated on an objective and quantified basis? Would this objective quantification correspond to the perception of various client groups--policy makers, implementers (reference group) and workers--about their effectiveness and adequacy?... The indicators chosen for this particular experiment indicate that, on the whole, the protective mechanisms work, are quantifiable and for the most part are adequate and effective."
Correspondence: P. Santo Tomas, Department of Education, Culture and Sports, Pasig City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30488 Schiff, Maurice W. Trade, migration, and welfare: the impact of social capital. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 2044, 1999. 27 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Despite the predictions of standard trade theory, countries in the North are not indifferent about free migration and free trade.... [The author] identifies four types of externalities associated with migration. He examines the impact of trade and migration policies under alternative assumptions about internalizing these externalities and concludes that the South always gains by freeing trade and the North by controlling immigration."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Room MC3-333, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: itabada@worldbank.org. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

65:30489 Schor, Ralph. History of immigration in France from the end of the nineteenth century to the present day. [Histoire de l'immigration en France de la fin du XIXe siècle à nos jours.] ISBN 2-200-01434-1. 1996. 347 pp. Armand Colin: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of international migration to France over the course of the twentieth century. The author notes that immigration has contributed over 10 million persons to the French population over the past century. Of these, four million were born outside France, and six million are the children of immigrants. The changes that have occurred in immigration over the years are described, and their relationship to various political and socioeconomic events is considered, as are the changes in attitude and policy concerning immigrants in response to those events. The differences in the ease of immigrant assimilation into French society over time are noted, particularly as many of the more recent immigrants have come from outside Europe and have cultural and ethnic backgrounds that make them more easily distinguishable from the general population than was the case for earlier immigrants. The author discusses the problems of developing population policy in the context of the European Union and of the different objectives of member countries regarding immigration.
Correspondence: Masson and Armand Colin Editeurs, 4 rue Larominguière, 75241 Paris Cedex 05, France. E-mail: presse@armand-colin.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30490 Shah, Nasra M.; Menon, Indu. Chain migration through the social network: experience of labour migrants in Kuwait. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1999. 361-82 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Labour migration to the Gulf countries is predominantly contract based and a majority of workers fall below the salary ceiling necessary for sponsoring family members. Despite this, social networks have expanded in Kuwait, primarily in the form of sponsorship of additional labour migrants by those already in the country. The objectives of the article are to describe how the process of arranging sponsorship works, to delineate the predictors of moving through a friend or relative, or arranging sponsorship for a subsequent labour migrant, and to assess the `multiplier' effect of the above process. The article is based on a survey among 800 South Asian skilled and unskilled male migrants, 200 each from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka."
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Kuwait University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Science, P.O. Box 24923, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30491 Simon, Rita J.; Lynch, James P. A comparative assessment of public opinion toward immigrants and immigration policies. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer 1999. 455-67 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article is part of a larger study of public attitudes toward immigration in seven countries that historically and currently have had different policies and practices vis-à-vis immigration. The countries involved are Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan and the United States. The time frame for which most of the public opinion data will be reported is from 1970 through 1995. The data have been collected from national surveys that were conducted in each of the countries."
Correspondence: R. J. Simon, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30492 Sinclair, Marion R. "I know a place that is softer than this..."--emerging migrant communities in South Africa. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1999. 465-83 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"On one level, this article is a straightforward register of some of the more salient comments and experiences of foreign migrants in contemporary South African society.... At another, more abstract level, the article explores the emergence of migrant identity within traditional conceptualizations which view identity as an inherently nationalist creation. It looks at the construction of identity as a survival mechanism in a new society, and at the role that formation of migrant communities plays in the establishment of this sense of identity."
Correspondence: M. R. Sinclair, University of the Western Cape, Centre for Southern African Studies, Migration Project, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30493 Skeldon, Ronald. Trade and migration: the effects of economic transformation in China. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 229-47 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines the history of trade and migration in China. The discussion is divided into the periods up to 1978; migration and trade post-1978; and emigration of students after 1978. Other sections deal with contact migration, illegal migration, and trade development and Greater China.
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30494 Taylor, J. Edward. The new economics of labour migration and the role of remittances in the migration process. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 63-88 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The determinants and impacts of international migrant remittances on migrant sending areas are complex; they are highlighted by the new economics of labour migration literature. The analysis...points to three broad conclusions. First, the flow of international-migrant remittances into migrant sending economies is large.... Second, migration and remittances influence migrant sending economies in ways that are usually overlooked by migration research.... Third, the economic environments that encourage out-migration also limit the potential for migrant remittances to stimulate development in migrant sending areas."
Correspondence: J. E. Taylor, University of California, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30495 Wanner, Philippe. Foreigners changing nationality in Switzerland. [Les changements de nationalité des étrangers en Suisse.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1998. 185-201 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
This study examines the extent to which foreigners living in Switzerland have been able to acquire Swiss nationality over the past 15 years. In the first part, the author describes the context in which naturalization occurs. He discusses the relevant laws and statutes and describes how they have changed over time, and how the situation in Switzerland compares with that in neighboring countries. In the second part, trends in naturalization are analyzed over the period 1981-1996. The relationship between naturalization and the assimilation of immigrants is considered.
Correspondence: P. Wanner, Office Fédéral de la Statistique, Section de l'Evolution de la Population, Schwarztorstrasse 53 3003 Bern, Switzerland. E-mail: Philippe.Wanner@bfs.admin.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30496 Wokeck, Marianne S. Trade in strangers: the beginnings of mass migration to North America. ISBN 0-271-01832-1. LC 98-35716. 1999. xxx, 319 pp. Pennsylvania State University Press: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This is a study of immigration to colonial North America by Germans and the Irish. The focus is on how the trade in immigrants influenced the numbers, types, and experiences of the immigrants concerned. The author suggests that these immigrant experiences established the model for the mass migration of free persons to the United States that has done so much to fashion the nature of modern America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University Press, Barbara Building, Suite C, University Park, PA 16802-1003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30497 Yang, Philip Q. Quality of post-1965 Asian immigrants. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 6, Jul 1999. 527-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Focusing on Asian immigrants, this article demonstrates that much insight into immigrant quality can be gained via a diversity approach. Using the 5% PUMS data of the 1990 U.S. census, this paper shows that a common perception that the quality of post-1965 immigrants is lower than natives and earlier immigrants is invalid for post-1965 Asian immigrants. Unlike their Latin American counterparts, post-1965 Asian immigrants are generally more educated and skilled than natives. The educational level of post-1965 Asian immigrants surpasses that of their pre-1965 counterparts, despite their disadvantage in occupational attainment due to their shorter time of adaptation."
Correspondence: P. Q. Yang, California Polytechnic State University, Ethnic Studies Department, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30498 Zayonchkovskaya, Zhanna. Chinese demographic expansion into Russia: Myth or inevitability? In: Population under duress: the geodemography of post-Soviet Russia, edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya. 1999. 137-48 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author "focuses on an issue...vigorously debated in Russia--population decline, and more specifically, the demographic threat ostensibly posed by migration from neighboring China. [She] believes that the threat is real enough and should be accepted and used to Russia's benefit. Fear-mongering, she argues, is a false alternative, and she asserts that, like it or not, the Chinese will most probably become the second-largest ethnic community in Russia by the mid-twenty-first century, so Russians had better prepare for it."
Correspondence: Z. Zayonchkovskaya, Institute for Economic Forecasting, Migration Research Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30499 Zlotnik, Hania. Trends of international migration since 1965: what existing data reveal. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 21-61 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Relying on data from a variety of sources, this article sketches the main trends of international migration during 1965-1996, thus documenting the changes that both the character and the direction of international migration have undergone over the course of time. In doing so, it provides a quantitative basis to assess the validity of certain common tenets regarding the evolution of migration at the end of the twentieth century. The article concludes that the changes observed are generally less striking than usually claimed, although major historical events, such as the end of the cold war and the transformations it entailed, have had a determining influence in shaping many of the key migration movements occurring since 1985."
Correspondence: H. Zlotnik, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Mortality and Migration Section, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

65:30500 Bakken, Børge. Migration in China. NIAS Report, No. 31, ISBN 87-87062-57-7. LC 98-216544. 1998. 144 pp. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"Economic reform in China has led to migration of people within the world's most populous nation on a scale never before seen. Since China's new industrial revolution began in the late 1970s, there has been a flow of tens of millions (perhaps even hundreds of millions) of surplus rural laborers and their families moving from rural to urban areas. This phenomenon has been described in terms of both a blessing for China's economic development and a threat against its social order. It is the aim of this short edited volume to look at the different aspects of internal Chinese migration. This will include a brief introduction to current research and pointers to the methodological traps and misunderstandings that can occur in the field."
Correspondence: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Leifsgade 33, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. E-mail: books@nias.ku.dk. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30501 Bell, Martin. How often do Australians move? Alternative measures of population mobility. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 2, Nov 1996. 101-24 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Conventional census-based measures of population mobility are conceptually abstruse, ignore multiple moves and obscure the diversity of human migration experience. This paper explores three alternatives and outlines their strengths and limitations. Application of life table techniques to convert transition rates to migration expectancies generates measures that are more readily understood, automatically standardizes for age and enables the timing of mobility to be analysed methodically. Data on movement frequencies and residence duration provide new perspectives indicating substantial chronic mobility and significant differences between frequent movers and long term stayers. A number of simple summary statistics are proposed to supplement transition rates."
Correspondence: M. Bell, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30502 Bell, Martin; Stratton, Mike. Understanding the 1996 census migration data. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 15, No. 2, Nov 1998. 155-69 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The Australian Census provides two approaches to measuring migration: indicators which distinguish movers from non-movers, and a geographic classification which identifies each person's usual residence on census night, and their usual address one year and five years previously. Although these data represent a rich source of information, they contain several traps for the unwary. We show that differences in the variables and classifications used can result in marked variations in the apparent intensity and patterns of migration. The questionnaire and processing methodology used in the 1996 Census also resulted in a number of inconsistencies between the migration indicators and the usual address information. We examine the magnitude and source of these anomalies, assess their implications and propose a partial solution."
Correspondence: M. Bell, University of Adelaide, Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30503 Beltrán Sánchez, Hiram. Migration to the state of Campeche: 1960-1990. Adjustment using the Rogers-Castro function. [Migración al estado de Campeche: 1960-1990. Ajuste con la función Rogers-Castro.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 17, Jul-Sep 1998. 45-62 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The value of the Rogers-Castro function in the analysis of migration to the Mexican state of Campeche between 1960 and 1990 is described. Using this mathematical function permits easier analysis of internal migration by age over time rather than restricting it to analysis of five-year age groups.
Correspondence: H. Beltrán Sánchez, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30504 Bonifazi, Corrado. The Mezzogiorno and internal migration. [Mezzogiorno e migrazioni interne.] IRP Monografie, No. 10/1999, May 1999. 384, [x] pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This collective work includes 10 studies by various authors on aspects of recent internal migration trends in Italy, with particular attention given to migration affecting the Mezzogiorno, or south of the country. The studies examine migration trends within the Mezzogiorno as well as migration to other parts of Italy and abroad.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. E-mail: irpcnr@irp.rm.cnr.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30505 Courgeau, Daniel; Nedellec, Vincent; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal. Length of residence in the same dwelling: an attempt at measurement using electricity supply company (EDF) records. [La durée de résidence dans un même logement: essai de mesure à l'aide de fichiers EDF.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 333-42 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
In the absence of a population register in France, the authors examine the value of the records kept by the national electrical supply company, EDF, which provide a national database of heads of households and their changes of address. These data are used to analyze trends in internal migration in France over the last 20 years or so. The authors note that there seems to be a trend toward higher levels of migration over time, and that if this trend were to be confirmed through an analysis of 1999 census data when they become available, the value of this source of data on migration would be established. The value of these new data for projecting future migration trends and evaluating health risks associated with residence characteristics is also examined.
Correspondence: D. Courgeau, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30506 Daróczi, Etelka. Residential moves within Hungary, 1985-1996. Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 3, 1998. 381-8 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper documents changes of permanent residential mobility within Hungary between 1985 and 1996, with a special emphasis on its regional pattern and hierarchical structure.... Permanent migration flows among seven regions and three settlement classes are analyzed.... The analysis concludes that while the post-1989 period only witnessed a moderate decrease in the (usually low) intensity of permanent migration, it produced remarkable changes in its spatial pattern. These changes are characterized by regional deconcentration and hierarchical decentralization of residential moves."
Correspondence: E. Daróczi, Central Statistical Office, Demographic Research Institute, Fényes Elek u. 14-18, 1024 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30507 De Jong, Gordon F.; Warland, Rex H.; Root, Brenda D. Family interaction and migration decision making. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 155-67 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"It is our thesis that interaction among family members in the form of exchanges of information about home, community, and labor market environments is a key process in migration decision making. We argue that the frequency of interaction among members of the household, and the consensus/conflict which accompanies such interactions are two theoretically significant dimensions for migration decision models.... Our research model states that migration behavior is directly determined by the desire and expectation of moving, which in turn is the result of household interaction processes." The model is illustrated with data from a Pennsylvania migration survey.
Correspondence: G. F. De Jong, Pennsylvania State University, Graduate Program in Demography, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30508 De Jong, Gordon F.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Tran, Quynh-Giang. For better, for worse: life satisfaction consequences of migration. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 99-07, Apr 1999. 35, [7] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"We explore the extension of micro-economic, migrant network, and gender role theoretical frameworks for explaining perceived life satisfaction of temporary and more permanent internal migrants in Thailand.... Regression results showed that recent temporary and more permanent migration was associated with both decreased and increased post-move satisfaction responses. Micro-economic theory indicators were positively related to increased income and work satisfaction but decreased post-move satisfaction with living environment."
This paper was originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30509 Détang-Dessendre, C. Reciprocal link between exit from unemployment and geographical mobility. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 31, No. 8, Aug 1999. 1,417-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Is geographical migration a consequence of the end of unemployment or does it help in finding a job? This question is approached within the general framework of human capital theory.... A model is introduced in the form of a system of two simultaneous equations with qualitative endogenous variables. The test is based on a 1993 survey of 1,176 young rural people of seven areas of France. A main finding is that migrations of young rural people are essentially the result of professional preoccupations. However, migration is not a factor which always helps in finding a job, when people are unemployed. When a young person has a good initial training, he or she has to migrate (and leave a rural area) to get a job. Yet, migration does not seem to be necessary for less trained people."
Correspondence: C. Détang-Dessendre, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Département d'Economie et Sociologie Rurales, 21036 Dijon, France. E-mail: detang@enesad.inra.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:30510 García Coll, Arlinda; Stillwell, John. Inter-provincial migration in Spain: temporal trends and age-specific patterns. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 97-115 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides interpretation of the changing patterns of internal migration in Spain at the inter-provincial scale, and new analysis of age-specific migration during the 1980s using a 10% sample of anonymised records from the 1991 census. Schedules of age-specific gross migration rates are constructed and classified according to their shape and level relative to the national schedule, and the relationships between in-migration and out-migration rates are examined for four selected age groups to demonstrate how aggregate patterns of inter-provincial migration conceal a wide diversity of age specific experience."
Correspondence: J. Stillwell, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. E-mail: john@geog.leeds.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30511 García Morales, Soledad. The personal tax register and migration in Córdoba, Veracruz: 1906-1907. [El padrón del impuesto personal y la migración en Córdoba, Veracruz: 1906-1907.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 17, Jul-Sep 1998. 189-207 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This study examines the impact of taxation on migration at the beginning of the twentieth century in the Mexican city of Córdoba in the state of Veracruz. The focus is on the use of the data included in the tax records to study trends in internal migration in Mexico.
Correspondence: S. García Morales, Universidad Veracruzana, Instituto de Antropología, Zona Universitaria, Lomas del Estadio s/n, 91090 Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30512 Gupta, M. P.; Sharma, Sarla. In-migration in Madhya Pradesh. Transactions of the Institute of Indian Geographers, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1994. 147-54 pp. Pune, India. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to analyse the expectancy of in-migration in the districts of Madhya Pradesh State [India, using the 1981 census].... The percentage of in-migration in Madhya Pradesh from rural areas is very high (84.83), in comparison to the urban areas (15.17). The influences of industrialisation, urbanisation and facilities of higher education on in-migration has been analysed and found significant. The Chhattisgarh Basin and Malwa Plateau are the regions where the expectancy and actual in-migration are high."
Correspondence: M. P. Gupta, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Department of Geography, Raipur, India. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:30513 Gurak, Douglas T.; Kritz, Mary M. Individual and contextual determinants of interstate migration: natives and immigrants compared. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 98.05, [1998]. 16, [8] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Using 1990 PUMS data, this paper examines the sources of differentials between immigrants and natives in [U.S.] interstate migration in the 1985-90 period. In addition to comparing differentials for immigrants as a whole and natives, the immigration population is disaggregated into 24 national origin groups in order to identify distinctive patterns among immigrants. Three sets of factors are evaluated: individual human capital, social and immigrant capital of nativity groups, and economic conditions in state context of residence. The analysis shows that while human capital is the most important determinant for the total foreign born [migration], contextual dimensions associated with nativity groups and state economic context play a major role in determining whether immigrants move to another state. Immigrants are significantly less likely to leave states [with] higher economic growth rates and higher percentages of the labor force in manufacturing. In addition, immigrants are significantly less likely to leave states with high concentrations of other immigrants of the same national origin."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30514 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Internal migration in Israel of immigrants of the 1990's: 1997. Central Bureau of Statistics Publications, No. 1109, Jun 1999. 92, xxiv pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
This is the first official Israeli publication to focus on subsequent internal migration of immigrants who came to Israel in the 1990s. The report examines how variables such as length of stay in Israel, year of immigration, and year of internal migration affect the scope and direction of migration.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, P.O. Box 13015, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30515 Kale, Balkrishna; Harrier, Donald; Palit, Charles; Voss, Paul; Besl, John. The net migration problem in a projections model. In: 1997 proceedings of the section on government statistics and section on social statistics. [1997]. 405-10 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This paper carries forward the dialogue relating to the net migration problem.... [It] outlines the scenarios that probably emerge in the areas that experience a net inflow of people and those that experience a net loss, followed by an analysis of the changing relationship of net migration rates of one period to those of another in Wisconsin counties [United States. It] suggests strategies to mitigate the net migration problem and presents results of applying it in two cases...."
Correspondence: B. Kale, Wisconsin Department of Administration, 101 East Wilson Street, Madison, WI 53707-7868. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30516 Lin, Ge. Assessing structural change in U.S. migration patterns: a log-rate modeling approach. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1999. 217-37, 307-8 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A set of log-rate models is proposed to transform Rogers and Wilson's accounting-based migration models into statistics-oriented migration models. This study demonstrates not only how log-rate models can be used to replicate results generated from Rogers-Wilson's cohort and multi-region mobility models, but also how log-rate models can be used to make statistical inferences and to derive more parsimonious models. Estimation issues and model fit are discussed, and case studies with U.S. mobility and interregional migration data are provided. The flexibility of log-rate models is emphasized, and possible uses for such models, such as the testing of various hypotheses and migration projection, are explored. Potential applications and limitations of log-rate models are also discussed."
Correspondence: G. Lin, University of Victoria, Department of Geography and Center on Aging, P.O. Box 3050, Victoria, BC V8W 3P5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30517 Lin, Ge. Elderly migration: household versus individual approaches. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 76, No. 3, Jul 1997. 285-300 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper employs a household approach to elderly migration analyses and compares it with the traditional individual approach. The first part of the paper develops some concepts about household mobility and relates them to individual mobility. It then compares the two mobility measurements in a case study using the [U.S.] Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) from the 1990 Census. The results show that the mean household size for the elderly moving together tends to be smaller than that for elderly stayers. It also demonstrates the utility of the household approach on profiling elderly movers' living arrangement choices. The second part of the paper calibrates a set of discrete choice models based on the household and individual approaches. While in most cases the two approaches yield similar parameter estimates, new insights can still be gained through the household approach."
Correspondence: G. Lin, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

65:30518 Lin, J.-P.; Liaw, K.-L.; Tsay, C.-L. Determinants of fast repeat migrations of the labor force: evidence from the linked national survey data of Taiwan. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 31, No. 5, May 1999. 925-45 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The main objectives of this paper are (1) to identify the determinants of job-related fast repeat migrations of individuals in the civilian labor force of Taiwan, and (2) to examine whether the effects of these determinants are largely consistent with the existing theories and with the findings of other empirical studies. Our study is based on the linked microdata of the annual national migration surveys of Taiwan from 1980 through 1989.... We review the main theories of repeat migrations and formulate a set of hypotheses that can be tested against the Taiwanese data."
Correspondence: J.-P. Lin, McMaster University, School of Geography and Geology, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. E-mail: jplin@ieas.econ.sinica.edu.tw. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:30519 Lingam, Lakshmi. Locating women in migration studies: an overview. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jul 1998. 715-27 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Theoretical formulations, model building, and macro- and micro-level empirical studies on migration [in India] have neglected the gender dimension of migratory processes, patterns, trends and consequences. The past two decades have begun to witness interest in this area. This introductory paper to this special issue on `Women and Migration' has attempted to provide an overview of selected material in this area."
Correspondence: L. Lingam, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Unit for Women's Studies, Mumbai, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30520 Lingam, Lakshmi. Women and migration. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jul 1998. 715-916 pp. Tata Institute of Social Sciences: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
This special issue contains articles by various authors on women and migration. Aspects covered include locating women in migration studies; women in the migrant labor force; seasonal migration; urban experiences; and a bibliography on women and migration. Most of the articles focus on India; there is also one article on Bangladesh.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai 400 031, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30521 Longino, Charles F. Geographic mobility and the baby boom. Generations, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1998. 60-4 pp. San Francisco, California. In Eng.
The author discusses potential trends in geographic mobility among members of the U.S. baby-boom generation. Aspects considered include age-related mortality patterns, pre-baby boom mobility, reification of the baby boom, and approaches to retirement mobility.
Correspondence: C. F. Longino, Wake Forest University, Reynolda Gerontology Program, P.O. Box 7808, Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30522 Mbonile, Milline J. Determinants of migration in Tanzania: the case of Makete District. Institute of Resource Assessment Research Report, No. 96, ISBN 9976-69-044-4. Aug 1995. iii, 50 pp. University of Dar es Salaam, Institute of Resource Assessment: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In Eng.
"As a former colonial labour reserve Makete District [Tanzania] is still a district of major out-migration. Out-migration in the district is increasing despite the introduction of various land reforms and crop innovations which increased the productivity of the district.... Therefore by using a household sample of 260 households this paper attempts to answer one critical question: What are the main determinants of out-migration in Makete District?"
Correspondence: University of Dar es Salaam, Institute of Resource Assessment, P.O. Box 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30523 Pandey, Divya. Migrant labour, employment and gender dimensions. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jul 1998. 743-65 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the gender dimension of migrant labour from Maharashtra [India]. It examines two types of migrant workers--temporary (seasonal) and permanent and analyses the coping strategies and employment patterns of female migrants in the light of changing socioeconomic order."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30524 Pimienta Lastra, Rodrigo; Aguirre Martínez, Alejandro; Morelos González, José B. Estimation of age and sex structure of migration based on census data. [Estimación de la estructura por edad y sexo de la migración con datos censales.] Política y Cultura, Vol. 3, No. 5, Fall 1995. 257-78 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors examine the age and sex structure of internal migration movements in Mexico using indirect estimation techniques. Tabular data are included on migration by sex and age groups for 10-year periods from 1930 to 1990.
Correspondence: A. Aguirre Martínez, El Colegio de México, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30525 Rayer, Stefan; Brown, David L. Ecological and social structural determinants of intercounty migration in the United States, 1980-1995. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 98.02, 1998. 15, [14] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper contributes to [the] debate over the causes of [U.S.] population redistribution by focusing on the dynamics of net migration since the turnaround period, with special emphasis placed on both continuities and changes over time.... The second objective of the paper is to put the descriptive results into perspective by analyzing the factors associated with the dynamics of county level migration."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30526 Robinson, Stuart C. F. Life-time migration and occupation in Motherwell, 1851-91. Local Population Studies, No. 61, Autumn 1998. 13-24 pp. Colchester, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to determine if there was any relationship between life-time migration distances and occupations of migrants.... Motherwell, which is situated in the Dalziel parish of Lanarkshire [Scotland], was chosen as the test locale because it evolved from a series of villages into a heavy industrial town in the last century.... [It is found that] some migrants overcame the obstacle of distance more readily than others dependent on the skills associated with their occupation.... A corollary to the findings is that positive selection by specific occupations increases with migration distance. The occupations of these migrants were unchanged by migration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30527 Rogers, Andrei; Raymer, James. Estimating the regional migration patterns of the foreign-born population in the United States: 1950-1990. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1999. 181-216, 307 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper, we apply model schedules to graduate data on the internal and external regional [U.S.] migration patterns of the foreign-born population for the 1950-1990 period.... To find estimates of the unrecorded migration flows in-between for four census-defined periods in our study (that is, for 1950-1955, 1960-1965, 1970-1975, and 1980-1985) we interpolate between the data of adjacent census time periods. Finally, we combine the estimated migration data with the corresponding mortality data to calculate and analyze the multiregional life tables and projections associated with each five-year time interval."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30528 Rogers, Andrei; Henning, Sabine. The internal migration patterns of the foreign-born and native-born populations in the United States: 1975-80 and 1985-90. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer 1999. 403-29 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The focus of this article is on an examination of the influence of birthplace on the internal migration and spatial redistribution patterns of the foreign-born and native-born populations in the United States during the 1975-80 and 1985-90 periods. The analyses presented here consider the following principal questions: (1) What are the internal migration patterns of the foreign-born population in the United States, and how do they differ from those of the native-born population? (2) How do the relocation choices of various birthplace-specific foreign-born and native-born subpopulations differ from each other? (3) Are the internal migration patterns generating an increased or a decreased geographical concentration of such birthplace-specific subgroups?"
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30529 Rozelle, Scott; Taylor, J. Edward; deBrauw, Alan. Migration, remittances, and agricultural productivity in China. American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 2, May 1999. 287-91 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"In our paper we have used the New Economics of Labor Migration framework to trace the complex linkages that exist among migration, remittances, and agricultural productivity [in China]. Constraints in the operation of on-farm labor and capital or insurance markets (or institutions) provide households with a motivation to migrate and distort on-farm operations when labor leaves. In our household sample, the net impact of migration and remittances on maize production is negative."
Correspondence: S. Rozelle, University of California, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Davis, CA 95616. E-mail: rozelle@primal.ucdavis.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30530 Shen, J. Modelling regional migration in China: estimation and decomposition. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 31, No. 7, Jul 1999. 1,223-38 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I consider the issue of identifying the effects of spatial structure and the origin and destination attributes on interregional migration. A decomposition approach is developed based on migration models. The interprovincial migration data in China over the period 1985-1990 are used to estimate a gravity migration model, an extended gravity model, a Poisson gravity model, and a multilevel Poisson model, which are then used to decompose the various effects on migration in China."
Correspondence: J. Shen, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. E-mail: jianfa@cuhk.edu.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:30531 Singh, D. P. Female migration in India. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jul 1998. 728-42 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The migration pattern in India indicates that the percentage of migrants to total enumerated population is consistently declining among both the male and the female population. Employment among males and marriage among females were found to be the most dominant factors behind their movement, irrespective of the type of movement or distance of movement. This paper discusses the emerging migration pattern in India using place of birth and place of last residence concept data. Census data from 1961 to 1991 are used to examine the migration level, reasons for migration by type of migration streams, work force participation rate [and] education level of migrants."
Correspondence: D. P. Singh, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Research Methodology, Mumbai, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30532 Sweeney, Stuart H. Model-based incomplete data analysis with an application to occupational mobility and migration accounts. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1999. 279-305, 308-9 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The overriding goal of this paper has been to move the analysis of incomplete data in the direction of modeling and away from the predominantly algorithmic approach that is commonly used. The framework for the modeling approach, including the use of the log-linear model, was originally suggested by Willekens (1982). This paper builds on his work by: (1) providing a justification for the use of synthetic data, (2) highlighting some of the key statistical qualities of the log-linear model in a GLM framework, and (3) proposing a path diagram to structure the analysis." The author includes an application to incomplete occupational migration and mortality tables for the United States.
Correspondence: S. H. Sweeney, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

65:30533 Afsar, Rita. Re-examining the resettlement question in the context of migrant women's security and urban poverty in Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jul 1998. 824-46 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The present paper examines, critically, the gender dimension of urban poverty in the migration and settlement process in Bangladesh in the first part. The whole issue of the growth of slum and squatter settlements, their functional role in housing poor men and women is analysed in the second part. Finally, the third part is devoted to the analysis of emerging problems of eviction and resettlement and how it affects men and women."
Correspondence: R. Afsar, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30534 Bascom, Johnathan. Losing place: refugee populations and rural transformations in East Africa. Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Vol. 3, ISBN 1-57181-083-8. LC 97-45095. 1998. 200 pp. Berghahn Books: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book is about the experience of refugees and other displaced persons living in rural areas throughout the developing world, with particular attention given to refugees from Eritrea, and covers the complete experience of flight, settlement, and repatriation. The study is based on the published literature, unpublished documents, and data gathered in field research conducted between 1987 and 1993 using both survey and focus group methods. There are chapters on refugees and rural transformations, migration and agrarian change on border lands, integration and the cultivation of a hard life, resettlement and positions of poverty, exile and perils of pastoralism, asylum and the making of home terrain, and repatriation and the search for home.
Correspondence: Berghahn Books, 604 West 115th Street, New York, NY 10025. E-mail: BerghahnUS@juno.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30535 Bauer, Ute; Bürkner, Hans-Joachim. The spatially concentrated settlement of ethnic Germans (Aussiedler)--an opportunity for integration? Experience from a model project in Brandenburg. Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 3, 1998. 431-40 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article gives an introduction to some problems related to a model project in East Germany which has tried to gather Mennonites of German origin from the Community of Independent States to live on an estate converted from use by the former Soviet Army. It presents first results from a recent field study on the social and economic effects of the planned residential concentration of this minority group. Some introductory remarks on the history of Aussiedler immigration to East Germany, especially to Brandenburg, and about the aims and theoretical backgrounds of the research also contribute to an outline of the frameworks of the study."
Correspondence: U. Bauer, Universität Postdam, Institut für Geographie, Postfach 60 1553, 14415 Postdam, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30536 Böcker, Anita; Havinga, Tetty. Asylum migration to the European Union: patterns of origin and destination. ISBN 9-282-83306-2. LC 98-196445. 1997. 121 pp. European Commission: Brussels, Belgium; Institute for the Sociology of Law: Nijmegen, Netherlands. In Eng.
Patterns of asylum migration to countries of the European Union are examined. Chapters are included on the destination of asylum movements--theoretical perspectives and available data; patterns of origin and destination; factors influencing the destination of asylum seekers; and links between countries of origin and destination.
Correspondence: Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, Belgium. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30537 Legoux, Luc. Crises and refugee movements from developing countries. [Crises et mouvements de réfugiés depuis les pays du Sud.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 71-8 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a review of the global situation concerning the migration of refugees. The author notes a trend toward restricting refugee migration into the more developed countries. In the developing countries, where most of the world's estimated 50 million refugees from violence are located, most refugees only cross one international border, and can cause serious problems for the destination countries by sheer volume of numbers. Eventually, a small percentage will seek to move on to developed countries; the tightening of migration rules has resulted in increased traffic in illegal migration. The desire of refugees to travel to the richer countries can be reduced only if the inequalities between rich and poor countries are decreased; toward this end, the author sees only talk and no action.
Correspondence: L. Legoux, 24 rue de la Providence, 75013 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30538 Noll, Gregor. Rejected asylum seekers: the problem of return. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 267-88 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"During this decade the return of rejected asylum seekers has become an issue of increasing concern to major asylum states in the industrialized world. This article exposes the various political and legal approaches taken by returning states as well as the constraints emerging from human rights law. As a rigid control paradigm and related enforcement practices entail a considerable risk of human rights violations, it seems reasonable to focus on measures enhancing the voluntary compliance of all actors involved with norms governing return."
Correspondence: G. Noll, University of Lund, Faculty of Law, P.O. Box 117, 220 07 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

65:30539 Choudhuri, Anilkumar. Seasonal migration--a technique for self-preservation by the rural poor: a case study in West Bengal. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998. 327-36 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"There used to be a seasonal movement by the rural poor belonging to agriculturally backward areas to relatively developed areas for seasonal employment during the peak seasons of [planting] and harvesting in West Bengal [India].... The present case study was taken up to (a) comprehend the nature of such seasonal migration; (b) whether such movements are beneficial for [the migrants]; (c) whether such visits in new and relatively developed areas have helped them to find new ways for improvement of the condition of life at home; and (d) whether these periodic absences from home cause any hindrance for the schemes earmarked for them in their own villages."
Correspondence: A. Choudhuri, Indian Statistical Institute, Sociological Research Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30540 Diatta, Marie A.; Mbow, Ndiaga. Releasing the development potential of return migration: the case of Senegal. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 243-66 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article seeks to evaluate the manner in which Senegal has undertaken to develop the potential of its returning migrants, to better assess the effects of the return and reinsertion of these migrants within the present context of restrictions on the flow of migrants.... [It] offers an example of concerted efforts to ensure the reintegration and participation of returning migrants in the economic development of their country of origin.... [It then] reviews Senegal's official policies for the protection and promotion of Senegalese living abroad and assess the Programme of Support to Migrant Workers."
Correspondence: M. A. Diatta, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bureau for the Reception, Orientation and Follow-up of Action for Senegalese Resident Abroad, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30541 Hampshire, Kate; Randall, Sara. Poverty and seasonal migration among the Fulani of Burkina Faso's Sahel region. [Pauvreté et migration saisonnière chez les Peulhs du Sahel burkinabè.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 267-82 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study examines seasonal migration among the labor force of the Fulani population living in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso. In particular, the authors attempt to establish the extent to which these migrations are driven by poverty, and also the extent to which they are effective in alleviating it. Data are from a 1995 demographic survey of 8,834 individuals living in 834 households, combined with follow-up surveys carried out in selected villages. The results suggest that the poorer sections of society do not participate in seasonal migrations, while the richer sections of society gain the most from them; the result is that seasonal migration tends to increase existing inequalities.
Correspondence: K. Hampshire, University College London, Department of Anthropology, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30542 Hema Kumari, T. A.; Tataji, U. Seasonal migration of women workers: process, patterns and consequences. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jul 1998. 791-806 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Seasonal migration of women workers, both independent and associational, is reported to be high in Andhra Pradesh. The patterns and process of migration, working conditions of migrants at places of destination of the seasonal migrant women workers engaged in sugar cane-cutting, chilli-plucking, brick-making and dam construction in the villages of Andhra Pradesh and consequences of migration for the migrants and their households are discussed in this paper."
Correspondence: T. A. Hema Kumari, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30543 Nair, P. R. Gopinathan. Return of overseas contract workers and their rehabilitation and development in Kerala (India): a critical account of policies, performance and prospects. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 209-42 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Large-scale emigration of temporary contract workers from Kerala to countries in the Middle East began in the early 1970s. Return migration flows into Kerala assumed large proportions only after the mid-1980s.... Returned migrants have received little assistance from the state government or any other institution for rehabilitation an development.... The inertia on the part of the state government to attend to the problems of the emigrants began to thaw after 1996, when it introduced an accident-cum-life insurance policy for non-resident Keralites. But no specified scheme for harnessing the development potential of return migrants has as yet emerged."
Correspondence: P. R. G. Nair, Centre for Development Studies, Prasanthnagar Road, Ulloor, Thiruvananthapuram 695 011, Kerala, India. E-mail: sscds@ren.nic.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30544 Sekher, T. V. Migration and social change. 1997. 182 pp. Rawat Publications: Jaipur, India. In Eng.
This study is about the socioeconomic impact of returning international labor migrants to their places of origin. It "attempts to examine the impact of migration and return migration in the context of large scale return of migrant workers from Middle East countries to India, particularly to the state of Kerala. A few case histories of return migrants have also been appended for in-depth analysis to understand the various aspects of migration process."
Correspondence: Rawat Publications, 3-Na-20 Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur 302 004, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30545 Thomas-Hope, Elizabeth. Return migration to Jamaica and its development potential. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1999. 183-207 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses the impact of return migration to Jamaica, with a focus on social and economic development. Sections are included on characteristics of return migration; remittances and return; conditions surrounding return; impact of return migration; and policies relating to return migration.
Correspondence: E. Thomas-Hope, University of the West Indies, Department of Environmental Management, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

65:30546 Champion, Tony. The facts about the urban exodus. Town and Country Planning, Vol. 66, No. 3, Mar 1997. 77-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Urban deconcentration is the most dominant and consistent feature of population movement in Britain nowadays.... The scale of urban out-migration varies over time, some types of people and places are more fully represented in the urban exodus than others, and the net figures hide the fact that quite sizeable numbers of people move in the opposite direction.... The research was based largely in 1991 Population Census data on people who changed address within Great Britain during the year preceding Census night, focusing mainly on migration between local authority districts grouped according to their degree of `urbanness' and their distance from the main metropolitan centres."
Correspondence: T. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:30547 Dubert, Isidro. The urban world and rural-urban migration in Galicia from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. [Mundo urbano y migraciones campo-ciudad en Galicia, siglos XVI-XIX.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1998. 39-86 pp. Barcelona, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the different migratory patterns from country to city which were generated in urban areas in Galicia [Spain] between the XVIth and XXth centuries.... A classification has been drawn up which, in practice, revolves around the link which each urban area had with the surrounding countryside.... This has allowed us to identify the existence of a genuine `culture of mobility' and in a similar way to what happened in the interior of Spain this culture developed in a clearly pre-industrial context until well into the XXth century."
Correspondence: I. Dubert, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Alameda Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins 3363, Casilla 442, Correo 2, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30548 Hare, Denise. "Push" versus "pull" factors in migration outflows and returns: determinants of migration status and spell duration among China's rural population. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3, Feb 1999. 45-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The tremendous abundance of labour in rural areas is one of the most perplexing issues currently facing policy-makers in the People's Republic of China.... The goal of this research is to investigate the dynamics of the individual migration decision. In particular, we analyse the determinants of both out migration and return migration outcomes in order to understand better the factors that motivate the current labour flows. Utilising data collected from rural households, we examine migration decisions within the context of conditions at the origin.... We will demonstrate that among the migrants in our sample, the timing of the return decision is heavily influenced by household labour and land endowments, suggesting the existence of imperfections in local factor markets in the origin communities."
Correspondence: D. Hare, Reed College, Department of Economics, 3203 SE Woodstock Boulevard, Portland, OR 97202-8199. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30549 Knight, John; Song, Lina; Huaibin, Jia. Chinese rural migrants in urban enterprises: three perspectives. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3, Feb 1999. 73-104 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We utilise a survey of rural-urban migrants employed in city enterprises [in China].... We analyse the determinants of their pay...and compare their pay with that of urban residents employed in the same enterprises.... We proceed to view migrant employment from three distinct perspectives: that of the migrants themselves..., that of the urban enterprises which employ them..., and that of the Chinese government.... We consider possible future trends in the migrant labour market in China."
Correspondence: J. Knight, University of Oxford, Institute of Economics and Statistics, St. Cross Building, Manor Road, Oxford OX1 3UL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30550 Kusago, Takayoshi. Individual aspiration or family survival: rural-urban female migration in Malaysia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1998. 483-523 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the determinants of female migration to export processing zones (EPZs) in Malaysia. A comparison of the individual and household migration models reveals interesting and important contrasting results. First, the role played by the expected net income gains is opposite in the two models: negative in the individual model, positive in the household model. Second, family migration experience is significant in the individual model but not in the household model. Third, attitudes matter to the household decision on a daughter's migration but not in the individual model. These contrasting results suggest that explaining the daughter's migration decision may require more than separation of the individual motives and familial needs."
Correspondence: T. Kusago, Meiji Gakuin University, 1-2-37 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8636, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30551 Lingam, Lakshmi. Migrant women, work participation and urban experiences. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jul 1998. 807-23 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The present paper attempts to throw light on rural-urban migration patterns of Telugu speaking people from distinct agro-ecological regions of Andhra Pradesh to Mumbai [India]. Through an analysis of the variations in reasons for migration, occupations, earnings, mobility and the urban experience, the paper attempts to highlight the structural aspects pertaining to the availability of work, urban amenities and the dynamic character of household behaviour."
Correspondence: L. Lingam, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Unit for Women's Studies, Mumbai, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30552 Ma, Z. Temporary migration and regional development in China. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 31, No. 5, May 1999. 783-802 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A new approach to migration in developing countries is used in this paper, which integrates into the migration process the experiences of moving to cities, working in urban areas, and returning to the countryside. As a result, rural labor migration is directly linked to rural development through remittances, as well as through physical and human capital brought back by return migrants. Migration information is mainly drawn from China's 1995 1% National Population Survey.... It has been found that patterns of temporary migration are mainly shaped by the magnetic force of the growth-pole region. Job opportunities created there in labor-intensive industries have attracted large numbers of migrants, first from the surrounding rural areas and then from the peripheral regions, enhancing migration propensity in both areas."
Correspondence: Z. Ma, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Division of Social Science, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. E-mail: sojohnma@uxmail.ust.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:30553 Poston, Dudley L.; Duan, Chengrong C. The floating population in Beijing, China: new evidence and insights from the 1997 census of Beijing's floating population. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 98-99-06, 1998-1999. 21, [6] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"In China there is currently a very large surplus in the agricultural labor force.... [Many of] these rural laborers are temporary urban migrants and are known in China as the `floating population'.... In our paper we draw on data from the 1997 Census of Beijing's Floating Population. Our discussion of the floating population of Beijing is in seven parts: (1) population size, (2) age and sex composition, (3) reasons for migrating to Beijing, (4) distribution by residence and workplace, (5) origins, (6) duration of stay in Beijing, and (7) sources of housing."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 78743. E-mail: dudley@tamvm1.tamu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30554 Sykora, Ludek; Cermák, Zdenek. City growth and migration patterns in the context of "communist" and "transitory" periods in Prague's urban development. Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 3, 1998. 405-16 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article presents the role of migration in the development of the Prague agglomeration from the end of the nineteenth century up to the recent past. With the collapse of Communism, the nature of migratory movement has been modified.... One can observe before 1989 a convergence of movement from the city centre and the peri-urban ring toward Communist Prague. Actually the movements have changed and, for instance, the peri-urban-ring receives population from the two other areas of the agglomeration."
Correspondence: L. Sykora, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30555 Vignikin, Kokou. The economic subsistence crisis among agricultural households and rural out-migration: the case of South Togo. [Crise de subsistance économique des ménages agricoles et émigration rurale: le cas du Sud-Togo.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 283-99 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The implications of the continuing economic crisis affecting rural areas of Togo are examined using data from the EMIRT survey, which involved 207 agricultural households of the Ewé people living in southern Togo. The author notes that until recently, households had dealt with the worsening economic situation not by reducing their fertility but by sending more family members to live in the city. However, the problems caused by housing shortages and the lack of available jobs in the cities have reduced the viability of this option. Furthermore, because of the deteriorating economic conditions in the city, many of those now living there receive financial support from their rural families. The probable impact of this situation on demographic behavior among the rural population is assessed.
Correspondence: K. Vignikin, Unité de Recherche Démographique, B.P. 12971, Lomé, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30556 Zhao, Yaohui. Leaving the countryside: rural-to-urban migration decisions in China. American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 2, May 1999. 281-6 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper employs a simple theoretical model of labor allocation within rural households, given existing land arrangements in an attempt to explain why rural Chinese do not fully participate in labor migration. It first explores the mechanisms by which individual, household, and community characteristics affect the migration decision. Empirical results are then presented to substantiate the derived hypotheses. The paper further explores the question of whether the migration decision is permanent by analyzing the responses of household consumption to income from migration."
Correspondence: Y. Zhao, University of Beijing, China Center for Economic Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).


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