Volume 65 - Number 3 - Fall 1999

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

65:30368 Alm, James; Whittington, Leslie A. For love or money? The impact of income taxes on marriage. Economica, Vol. 66, No. 263, Aug 1999. 297-316 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper [the authors] explore the impact of the [U.S.] federal individual income tax, as well as other economic and demographic variables, on the marriage decisions of individuals. Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics for the period 1968-92, [the authors] estimate a discrete-time hazard model of the time to first marriage." The authors conclude that, although the probability of marriage is significantly affected by a number of economic and demographic variables, the impact of income tax variables on marriage is small.
Correspondence: J. Alm, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, Campus Box 256, Boulder, CO 80309-0256. E-mail: Alm@Colorado.EDU. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30369 Antoine, Philippe; Djiré, Mamadou. Crisis and trends in marriage patterns in Dakar. [Crise et évolution des comportements matrimoniaux à Dakar.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 203-18 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Data from an event history analysis undertaken in Dakar, Senegal, are used to analyze the impact of Senegal's economic crisis in the 1980s on male marriage patterns. The results show an increase of seven years in age at marriage from the generation of men born in 1930-1944 to that born in 1955-1964; their median marriage age rose from 26 to 33, primarily due to rising levels of unemployment. The poor economic conditions have also led to an increase in levels of divorce.
Correspondence: P. Antoine, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30370 Bhat, P. N. Mari; Halli, Shiva S. Demography of brideprice and dowry: causes and consequences of the Indian marriage squeeze. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jul 1999. 129-48 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The paper investigates whether past declines in mortality could have created a huge deficit of eligible men in the marriage market, and whether the ensuing competition for mates could be responsible for the coercive character the dowry system of marriage has assumed in India.... It is contended that the marriage squeeze against women was particularly intense in India because mortality decline, in addition to age structural changes, drastically reduced the number of widowers in the population who once accounted for about one-fifth of the annual supply of bridegrooms. Our projections indicate that, as a result of recent declines in fertility, the marriage squeeze against females will ease substantially by the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, and that marriages of men will begin to be delayed more than those of women."
Correspondence: P. N. M. Bhat, Institute of Economic Growth, Population Research Centre, Delhi University Campus, Delhi 110 007, India. E-mail: mari@ieg.ernet.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30371 Carmichael, Gordon; Mason, Christine. Consensual partnering in Australia: a review and 1991 census profile. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 15, No. 2, Nov 1998. 131-54 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper is the first part of a two-part examination of consensual partnering in Australia. It reviews the Australian literature on consensual partnering, summarizing evidence of its proliferation since the mid-1960s and also the findings of investigations into its nature and the personal attributes that predispose some people more than others to adopt it. It then discusses the shortcomings of Australian census data as a source for studying consensual unions, before using data from the 1991 Census to present the first elements in a comprehensive profile of the cohabiting population. These cover the basic demography of consensual partnering: the ages, marital statuses and family type distributions of those involved."
Correspondence: G. Carmichael, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30372 Clegg, E. J. Probabilities of marriage in two Outer Hebridean islands, 1861-1990. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr 1999. 167-93 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A study has been made of the probabilities of marriage of females and males aged 15-49 (either as a whole or in 5-year age groups) in two Outer Hebridean islands, Harris and Barra. The results were compared with ages of marriage and with he frequencies of permanent celibacy. The marriages took place between 1861 and 1990.... The results indicate that over the period between 1861 and 1991, both Harris and Barra showed considerable variability in the probability of marriage, between the sexes, the age groups, and the different times during that period."
Correspondence: E. J. Clegg, University of Aberdeen, Marischal College, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Aberdeen AB9 1AS, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30373 Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero; Atoh, Makoto; Castiglioni, Maria; Kojima, Katsuhisa. Late marriage among young people: the case of Italy and Japan. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 187-232 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"A differential analysis is made of age at first marriage based on individual data from the 1988 Italian Multipurpose Family Survey (women born in 1924-73) and the 1992 Japanese National Fertility Survey (women born in 1942-74). Subsequently, focusing attention on cohorts born in the 1960's, geographical differences are analyzed, taking as a unit of analysis the 47 Japanese prefectures and the 95 Italian provinces. By an integrated reading of the results at an individual and ecological level, we discuss differences, similarities and interpretations of late marriage in Italy and Japan."
Correspondence: G. Dalla Zuanna, University of Messina, Department of Statistics, Messina, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30374 Goldstein, Joshua R. Kinship networks that cross racial lines: The exception or the rule? Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 399-407 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I estimate the frequencies of interracial kin relations, an important indicator of the isolation of racial groups in the United States.... First, I develop a simple model that takes account only of kinship network sizes and intermarriage levels by race.... Second, I produce more precise empirical estimates using a new hot-deck imputation method for synthesizing kinship networks from household-level survey data.... One in seven whites, one in three blacks, four in five Asians, and more than 19 in 20 American Indians are closely related to someone of a different racial group."
Correspondence: J. R. Goldstein, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: josh@princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30375 Goldstein, Joshua R. The leveling of divorce in the United States. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 409-14 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Is the recent plateau in crude [U.S.] divorce rates due to compositional changes in the married population or to a fundamental change in the long-term trend of rising marital instability? I use refined measures of period divorce rates to show that the leveling of divorce rates appears to be real. Compositional factors do little to explain the end to the more than century-long pattern of rising divorce. Increases in cohabitation also fail to explain the plateau."
Correspondence: J. R. Goldstein, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: josh@princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30376 Hertrich, Véronique; Delaunay, Valérie. Changes in marriage patterns in response to two different kinds of crisis in a rural environment in the Sahel: sudden catastrophe versus ongoing crisis. [Adaptations matrimoniales face à deux situations de crise, aiguë ou chronique, en milieu rural sahélien.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 249-65 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a comparative analysis of the difference in impact on marriage patterns between a sudden crisis, such as the 1973-1974 drought that affected the Bwa people in Mali, and a chronic one like the economic difficulties of the Senegal's Sereer region over the past 20 years. The authors note that, although marriage patterns among the Bwa changed significantly because of the drought, they returned to traditional patterns once the crisis was over. In contrast, marriage patterns among the Sereer seem to be changing permanently in response to the economic situation. Marriages increase following good harvests and decline after bad ones; also, marriage patterns seem to be closely linked to the prosperity or decline of the peanut market. A general trend toward marriage postponement is noted as the market for primary products, such as peanuts, declines.
Correspondence: V. Hertrich, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. E-mail: hertrich@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30377 Hirosima, Kiyosi. A decomposition of increase in the proportion of never-married women in Japan from 1970 to 1990. Keizaigaku Ronshu/Journal of Economics, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1999. 1-25 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in marital status among Japanese women aged 20-29 are analyzed using census data. "Over the twenty years from 1970 to 1990, the proportion [of] never-married of Japanese women aged 20-24 and 25-29 increased by 13.5 and 21.6 percent points respectively...." The results indicate that "factors that seem most influential such as changes in working status including occupational distribution and educational level do not have a decisive role in explaining the expansion of never-married status. This means the process is universal throughout any social strata in Japan. The process can be one of those involved in the changes in social relations from institution-based into individual-based and the rising status of women. In this sense, the process may have a common nature with the so-called second demographic transition in Europe."
Correspondence: K. Hirosima, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue-shi, Shimane-ken 690-8504, Japan. E-mail: hirosima@soc.shimane-u.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30378 Koç, Ismet; Koç, Derya. The decision-making process in marriage formation in Turkey and factors affecting this process. [Türkiye'de evlilige karar verme süreci ve bu sürece etkide bulunan faktörler.] Turkish Journal of Population Studies/Nüfusbilim Dergisi, Vol. 20, 1998. 43-56 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"The main objective of the study is to answer the question...How does [the] decision-making process in marriage formation work in Turkey? Data used in the study come from the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey.... Educational level of women...has [a] much more powerful effect on [the] decision-making process in marriage formation than the educational level of husbands. The role of women in the process of marriage formation increases as the educational level of women increases."
Correspondence: I. Koç, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Nüfus Etütleri Enstitüsü, Arastirma Gorevlisi, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30379 Kravdal, Øystein. Does marriage require a stronger economic underpinning than informal cohabitation? Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 1, Mar 1999. 63-80 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A large proportion of cohabitors in the Statistics Norway Omnibus Surveys of 1996 reported economic reasons for their hesitation to marry, and in particular the costs of the wedding. In line with this, the Norwegian Family and Occupation Survey of 1988 revealed effects both of women's cumulated income and men's non-employment on the actual choice of union type. Also some other evidence suggests that affordability matters, although there are plausible alternative interpretations. On the other hand, several estimates suggest that economic strength does not induce marriage. Since there also has been no deterioration of young adults' economic situation in Norway, except for the delay of economic independence owing to longer college enrolment, one can hardly claim that lack of affordability is a dominating force behind the massive drift away from marriage."
Correspondence: Ø. Kravdal, University of Oslo, Department of Economics, POB 1072, Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30380 Lichter, Daniel T.; Graefe, Deborah R. Finding a mate? The marital and cohabitation histories of unwed mothers. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 99-10, Jul 1999. 33 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use retrospective family life history data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG95) to examine union formation processes among American women aged 15-44. We compare the marital histories of teen mothers with those of older unmarried mothers, as well as women without nonmarital births. Our results (from estimated hazards models) indicate that a nonmarital birth is associated with significant reductions in the likelihood of being married at age 35."
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30381 Lugaila, Terry A. Marital status and living arrangements: March 1998 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 514, Dec 1998. 2 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Detailed tabulations are now available which provide statistics on the marital status and living arrangements of people in the United States, based on the March 1998 Current Population Survey.... The set of detailed tabulations consists of 9 tables from the March 1998 CPS (75 pages), 12 historical tables, 3 summary tables, and 1 state table, and provides demographic characteristics on the marital status of the population and on the living arrangements of children and adults. The electronic version of these tables available on the Internet at the Census Bureau's World Wide Web site (http://www.census.gov).... A paper version of these tables is available as PPL 100 for $29.00."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOM, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30382 Marcoux, Richard; Piché, Victor. Crisis, poverty, and nuptiality in Bamako (Mali). [Crise, pauvreté et nuptialité à Bamako (Mali).] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 219-35 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Although the recent economic crisis in Mali has led to an increase in the age at marriage for men in urban areas, the author notes that rates of polygamy, normally associated with male affluence, have remained stable. The reasons why polygamy has remained popular even in times of economic hardship are explored. The first part of the study analyzes the economic difficulties that residents of Bamako have to face over the course of their lifetimes. The second part examines how these difficulties have affected nuptiality, particularly patterns of first marriage and the decision to undertake polygamous marriages.
Correspondence: R. Marcoux, Université Laval, Département de Sociologie, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. E-mail: richard.marcoux@soc.ulaval.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30383 Matos Rodríguez, Félix V. Urban demography and marriage age in nineteenth-century Puerto Rico: the case of San Juan. [Demografía urbana y edad de matrimonio en el Puerto Rico décimononico: el caso de San Juan.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1998. 169-86 pp. Barcelona, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This paper analyses the age at first marriage among the racial groups in San Juan, the capital of Puerto Rico, during the first half of [the] XIX century, using censuses of population.... We also give a short panorama of the demographic transformations experienced by the city during the same period. Over all we explain the change from a context where women and [nonwhites] were the majority until a new context [in the] 1850 decade, where the majority was composed [of] men and [whites]."
Correspondence: F. V. Matos Rodríguez, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30384 Nault, François; Bélanger, Alain. The decline in marriage in Canada, 1981 to 1991. [Le déclin du mariage au Canada de 1981 à 1991.] ISBN 0-660-58946-X. LC 98-174346. Jul 1996. vi, 45 pp. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The authors analyze the impact of consensual or common-law unions on legal marriage in Canada. "The analysis shows that the decline in marriage in Canada during the period 1981-1991 is due not to changes in the divorce rate, but rather to the increasing numbers of these new forms of union and, in particular, the rise in common-law unions....The first three parts of this study show that the Canadians are less and less likely to marry for the first time, and fewer and fewer persons will remarry if their first marriage is terminated by divorce or the death of a spouse. The smaller changes in the divorce rate over the period are described in Part 4. Based on data from the 1981, 1986 and 1991 censuses, Part 5 demonstrates the extremely rapid growth in common-law unions over this period...."
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Publications Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30385 Rao, G. Rama; Sureender, S. Factors associated with female age at marriage in Pondicherry. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998. 401-18 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors investigate determinants of female age at marriage in Pondicherry, India, with a focus on rural and urban variations. Factors considered include parental attitudes, place of residence, birth order, horoscope readings, arranged marriage, education, occupation, and female role in deciding about marriage.
Correspondence: G. R. Rao, International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Mathematical Demography and Statistics, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30386 Scherbov, Sergei; van Vianen, Harrie. Marital and fertility careers of Russian women born between 1910 and 1934. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 129-43, 206-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note presents a detailed demographic analysis of the marital and fertility careers of women born [in Russia] between 1910 and 1934 based on individual retrospective life histories, collected in the most recent (5 percent) 1994 microcensus of the Russian Federation. It assesses the influence of external events on age at first marriage, widowhood, divorce, childlessness, parity, and age at birth. A comparison with younger cohorts shows that...societal disturbances had strong temporary effects. However, the final outcomes were not influenced very much: completed fertility continued its slow, secular decline."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. Scherbov, University of Groningen, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30387 Thiriat, Marie-Paule. Making and breaking the ties of marriage: changes in marriage practices in Togo. [Faire et défaire les liens du mariage: evolution des pratiques matrimoniales au Togo.] Les Etudes du CEPED, No. 16, ISBN 2-87762-115-4. Dec 1998. xviii, 295 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The recording of marriage histories in the 1988 Togo Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) allows one to explore the various aspects of social changes and to construct the analysis around the most important events of marital life: first sexual intercourse, first union, first birth, possible occurrence of polygamy, breaking of unions by widowhood or divorce, and remarriage. Event history analysis allows studying dynamic relationships between the various events in time."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. E-mail: cep@ceped.ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30388 van Poppel, Frans; Nelissen, Jan. The proper age to marry: social norms and behavior in nineteenth-century Netherlands. History of the Family, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1999. 51-75 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The article compares publicly discussed norms concerning the proper age at marriage for men and women in nineteenth-century Netherlands, and the actual trends present in the empirical evidence about marriage age. Medical professionals (the hygienists) expressed the belief that marriage at too young an age was damaging both to public hygiene and the family's health; other commentators stressed the connection between young marriages and poverty. Yet such norms were put forward vaguely, allowing other influences on marriage age to come into play. Consequently, data on marital behavior suggest considerable diversity in the population, with age at marriage varying strongly by class, sex, and region. Generally, age at marriage did not begin to fall until the period 1860-1870, and even after that decade class differences remained strong."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30389 Wineberg, Howard; McCarthy, James. Living arrangements after divorce: cohabitation versus remarriage. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, Vol. 29, No. 1-2, 1998. 131-46 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of all [U.S.] couple households in which one or both partners were previously married. In this examination, we will consider not only households maintained by married couples...; we will also consider households formed by cohabiting couples. In addition, we will examine the living arrangements of children in these households, with particular attention to whether children are from the current union or a previous union."
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Portland State University, School of Urban and Public Affairs, Center for Population Research and Census, Portland, OR 97207-0751. Location: State University of New York Library, Albany, NY.

65:30390 Wolfinger, Nicholas H. Trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 415-20 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I use data from the 1973-1996 NORC [National Opinion Research Center] General Social Survey to examine [U.S.] trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. The rate of divorce transmission declined by almost 50% in the study period. This result was essentially unchanged by statistical controls for various personal and family background differences between respondents."
Correspondence: N. H. Wolfinger, University of Utah, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, 225 S 1400 E, Room 228, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0080. E-mail: Nick.Wolfinger@fcs.utah.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.

65:30391 Astone, Nan M.; Nathanson, Constance A.; Schoen, Robert; Kim, Young J. Family demography, social theory, and investment in social capital. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 1-31, 205, 207 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The analytic models used by family demographers would be strengthened by the concept of social capital, placed in the context of social exchange theory.... [We] advance five propositions: (1) social capital is a multidimensional attribute of an individual; (2) the dimensions of social capital are the number of relationships a person has, their quality (strength), and the resources available through those relationships; (3) group membership and interaction facilitate the development of social capital; (4) the structural properties of groups influence the development of social capital; and (5) the acquisition and maintenance of social capital is a major motivator of human behavior. The formation of sexual partnerships, the birth and rearing of children, and both intragenerational and intergenerational transfers constitute major forms of investment in social capital in virtually all societies."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: N. M. Astone, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30392 Baizán Muñoz, Pau. Transitions to adulthood among Spanish cohorts in 1940, 1950, and 1960. [Transitions vers l'âge adulte des générations espagnoles nées en 1940, 1950 et 1960.] Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 233-63 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
"The article examines some intercohort changes in the passage from adolescence to adulthood. Data [are] from the 1991 Spanish Sociodemographic survey.... Results show an increase in the age at finishing school and first job through cohorts, accompanied by a trend towards convergence in behaviour of males and females. Family transitions show an earlier timing and a more heterogeneous sequencing among 1940 and 1950 cohorts, while a postponement and more uniformity in the order of transitions is observed in the 1960 cohort. These differentials between birth-cohorts are interpreted as forming part of a process of individualization."
Correspondence: P. Baizán Muñoz, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30393 Basavarajappa, K. G. Living arrangements and residential overcrowding among older immigrants in Canada. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1998. 409-32 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Because older immigrants arriving in Canada are not eligible for government transfer payments or welfare benefits for up to 10 years, many of them choose to live with their relatives or sponsors in crowded three- or more than three-generation households. Cultural preferences also influence this tendency and the propensity of immigrant groups from developing regions to live in three- or more than three-generation households ranges up to 18 times those of their Canadian-born and immigrant counterparts from the developed regions. Variables such as average income, percent receiving Old Age Security payments, percent widowed and duration of residence in Canada are significantly associated with proportions of immigrants living in such arrangements, and explain about 84 percent of birthplace variation for males and 81 percent for females."
Correspondence: K. G. Basavarajappa, Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30394 Bonifazi, Corrado; Menniti, Adele; Misiti, Maura; Palomba, Rossella. Young people who do not leave the family nest: attitudes, hopes, and conditions relevant to leaving home. [Giovani che non lasciano il nido: atteggiamenti, speranze, condizioni all'uscita da casa.] IRP Working Paper, No. 1/99(1), Apr 1999. 88 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This is an analysis of the factors that affect when and how young people finally leave home in order to set up their own households in Italy. "The IRP carried on a study on some behaviours of young cohorts in order to focus on the causes of the prolonged stay at parental home, their aspirations, and their perception of work. A [telephone] survey was carried out in 1998 involving a sample of 4,500 people aged 20-34 years still living with their parents. Afterwards a further survey on 1,000 parents of the young interviewees was conducted to find their reasons, expectations and difficulties arising from the prolonged stay at home of their children."
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30395 Bryant, John. Northern Vietnamese households. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 2, Nov 1996. 169-86 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Virtually all discussions of northern Vietnamese households have concentrated on cross-sectional measures of household size and structure. Such measures must be combined with longitudinal measures and measures of size as experienced by household members to give a full picture of northern Vietnamese households. On all these measures southern Vietnamese households appear significantly different from northern Vietnamese households."
Correspondence: J. Bryant, Khon Kaen University, Department of Development and Planning, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30396 Cabrillo, Francisco. The economics of the family and family policy. ISBN 1-85898-828-4. 1999. viii, 193 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Northampton, Massachusetts/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
This is a basic analysis of the economics of the modern family, defined here as being a family comprising a husband and wife who, in most cases, have children. The family is studied using the basic methodology of economic theory, defined as "the analysis of conduct for utility maximization in people whose aim is to achieve the greatest possible satisfaction with limited resources and imperfect information." The study is supplemented, where appropriate, by game theory. There are chapters on economists and the family, the family as an economic unit, marriage, children, the intergenerational pact, inheritance, family protection and pronatalist policies, the economic foundations and effects of a policy for the family, and technical problems involved in an economic policy for family protection.
Translated from the Spanish by Jennifer McDonald.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, Glensanda House, Montpellier Parade, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire GL50 1UA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30397 Che-Alford, Janet; Hamm, Brian. Under one roof: three generations living together. Canadian Social Trends, No. 53, Summer 1999. 6-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"The number of three-generation households [in Canada] has risen 39% over the past decade, from some 150,000 in 1986 to more than 208,000 in 1996, a rate of increase more than twice that of all family households. This article uses census data to examine the characteristics of three-generation households in 1986 and 1996. It also explores why some families may be more likely than others to settle into an arrangement where grandparents, parents and children live under the same roof."
Correspondence: J. Che-Alford, Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30398 Das Gupta, Monica. Lifeboat versus corporate ethic: social and demographic implications of stem and joint families. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 2, Jul 1999. 173-84 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We contrast stem and joint family systems, to show how differences in norms of inheritance and residence profoundly influence our values and social constructs. They shape how people evaluate each other and patterns of conflict and cooperation within and between generations. Through this, they influence many fundamental aspects of social organization and behaviour. These influence health outcomes through categorizing people into those whose health is encouraged to prosper or to fail. It also influences a wide range of other outcomes, including strategies of household resource management; migration; ways of exploiting commercial opportunities and the operation of civil society. A number of hypotheses are developed about the nature of these interrelationships, some of which are substantiated empirically and others which can be tested."
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, World Bank, Development Research Group, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: mdasgupta@worldbank.org. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30399 Gomes da Conceição, Maria C. Population aging and forms of residence in Mexico. [El envejecimiento poblacional y las formas de residencia en México.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 3, No. 14, Oct-Dec 1997. 171-94 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa.
The author analyzes the distribution, structure, and composition of households in Mexico that include individuals over 60 years of age. Aspects considered include age distribution, sex, type of household, socioeconomic characteristics, and relationships of household members to the head of the household.
Correspondence: M. C. Gomes da Conceição, El Colegio de México, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30400 González Quiñones, Fernando; Pérez-Fuentes Hernández, Pilar; Valverde Lamsfús, Lola. Households and families in poor neighborhoods of Havana in the nineteenth century. An approximation according to the 1861 census. [Hogares y familias en los barrios populares de la Habana en el siglo XIX. Una aproximación a través del censo de 1861.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1998. 87-133 pp. Barcelona, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article analyzes...[Havana, Cuba's] poor neighborhood households' structure [in the nineteenth century] by color, sex, and condition of the population. As a starting point, it presents two different levels of analysis: the households and coresident family groups.... The formation of family groups follows very different nuptiality patterns: marriage among...whites and cohabitation as the preferred option among...blacks, with [a] subsequent impact on illegitimacy levels. Nuptiality behavior by color, sex, age groups, and masculinity ratio reveals the complexity of [the] marriage market...influenced not only legally by color and condition but also because of important population imbalances."
Correspondence: P. Pérez-Fuentes Hernández, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 1397, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30401 Hockings, Paul. Kindreds of the earth. Badaga household structure and demography. ISBN 0-7619-9292-8. 1999. 302 pp. AltaMira Press: Walnut Creek, California. In Eng.
"This book focuses on the household of the Badagas, a community living in the Nilgiri Hills in southern India. [The author] reports his unique longitudinal study of this community, covering 27 years of measurement and socio-cultural change in four sample villages, where he conducted censuses every nine years.... The author focuses primarily on demographic transition and social change over time. He also studies kinship, marriage, household structure and various aspects of Badaga contemporary life including the influence of the mass media, schooling, their economy and migration. The overall purpose is to understand the nature of the process of modernization among them. The most important conclusion that [he] reaches is that the Badagas, more specifically their womenfolk, have managed to cap any population explosion that was previously under way."
Correspondence: AltaMira Press, 1630 North Main Street, Suite 367, Walnut Creek, CA 94596. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30402 King, Rosalind B. Time spent in parenthood status among adults in the United States. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 377-85 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Transition rates estimated from the 1987-1988 and 1992-1994 waves of the National Survey of Families and Households imply that a U.S. adult will spend approximately one third of the years from ages 20 to 69 as a parent of a dependent child. I distinguish biological from social parenthood and provide separate estimates by gender and race. White women conform most to the conventional image of a biological parent residing with an own child, whereas African American women spend the most adult years as a parent. On average, white men spend fewer years as parents than African American men, but African American men spend more years as biological parents not residing with any children. Implications of these descriptive findings are discussed."
Correspondence: R. B. King, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. E-mail: rberkowi@lexis.pop.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30403 Kobiané, Jean-François. An attempt to construct a profile of household poverty in Ouagadougou using data on habitat characteristics. [Essai de construction d'un profil de pauvreté des ménages à Ouagadougou à partir des caractéristiques de l'habitat.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 117-31 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Using the example of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, the author analyzes the extent to which the urban environment, and in particular the lack of an urban infrastructure and services in many contemporary African cities, affects household characteristics. The focus is on levels of household poverty. Data are from an Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie [INSD] survey carried out in 1994-1995 involving some 8,700 households, 1,620 in Ouagadougou.
Correspondence: J.-F. Kobiané, Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie, B.P. 374, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30404 Niranjan, S.; Sureender, S.; Rao, G. Rama. Family structure in India--evidence from NFHS. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998. 287-300 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The specific objectives of this paper are: (i) to understand the change in family structure at two points of time i.e., in 1981 (census) and 1992-93 [National Family Health Survey], in different states of India, [and] (ii) to study the differentials in family structure by different socio-economic characteristics of the head of the family at the all-India level."
Correspondence: S. Niranjan, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30405 Ntozi, James P. M.; Zirimenya, Samuel. Changes in household composition and family structure during the AIDS epidemic in Uganda. In: The continuing HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa: responses and coping strategies, edited by I. O. Orubuloye, John C. Caldwell, and James P. M. Ntozi. 1999. 193-209 pp. Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The paper examines aspects of changes in the family and household structure during the AIDS epidemic in Uganda using data collected from a multi-phase study in six districts. The majority of households were of extended nature and there were high levels, though declining, of orphanhood and widowhood. There was also increase in the dependency burden. Households headed by males and the elderly increased and a few were headed by children. Monogamous households with children were increasing."
Correspondence: J. P. M. Ntozi, Makerere University, Department of Population Studies, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30406 Poussaint, Alvin F. Single parenthood: implications for American society. 1997. iii, 20 pp. University of Texas, Hogg Foundation for Mental Health: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
This is the text of the second Bernice Milburn Moore Memorial Lecture, which is part of a series established by the Hogg Foundation at the University of Texas. "I would like to explore...the phenomenal increasing families headed by single parents. I'll share my thoughts about the impact of this trend on America's children...."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Hogg Foundation for Mental Health, Austin, TX 78713-7998. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30407 Requena, Miguel. Contemporary patterns of household evolution in Spain. [Pautas contemporáneas de evolución de los hogares en España.] Revista Internacional de Sociología, No. 22, Jan-Apr 1999. 333-65 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article analyses, from a cross-sectional point of view, one of the most noteworthy dimensions of...family change in Spain in recent years: the size and structure of households and families. The remarkable fall in the size of Spanish households and families, which has led to a historic minimum in our country, can be explained from the double perspective of the analysis of their growth and composition: while...inquiry [into their] growth shows the increasing weight of the one-person and two-person households...inspection of [their] composition reveals the decreasing presence of the head of household's children. The analysis is completed with a summary view of the evolution of household structures and family forms in Spain."
Correspondence: M. Requena, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain. E-mail: mrequena@sr.uned.es. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30408 Settles, Barbara H.; Steinmetz, Suzanne K.; Peterson, Gary W.; Sussman, Marvin B. Concepts and definitions of family for the 21st century. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 28, No. 3-4, 1999. 224 pp. Haworth: Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
This double issue is concerned with concepts and definitions of the family in the twenty-first century, and includes a number of papers that were presented at a meeting of the Committee on Family Research of the International Sociological Association. The 14 papers are organized into three sections, which are: Theoretical and historical approaches; Family members' perceptions of family; and Families and support systems. In addition to papers on the United States, there are papers on the family in Israel, Sweden, Lithuania, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Canada.
Correspondence: Haworth Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30409 Sundin, Jan. Worlds we have lost and worlds we may regain: two centuries of changes in the life course in Sweden. History of the Family, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1999. 93-112 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The article seeks to place into historical context the familial changes in `post-industrial' Sweden during the past two decades, by comparing them with general characterizations (based on documented life-course experiences) of the traditional Swedish agrarian society (before 1800), the transitional society (c. 1800-1870), and the industrial society (c. 1870-1980). Familial lives in traditional Swedish society tended to be stable. By contrast, during the agrarian-to-industrial society, especially since World War II, stability became once again the hallmark because of general government social policy."
Correspondence: J. Sundin, Linköping University, Department of Health and Society, Linköping 581 83, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30410 Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. The double family of children whose parents are separated. [La double famille des enfants de parents séparés.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 9-35 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author explores the family situation of children whose parents have separated, using data from surveys conducted in France in 1986 and 1994. "In 1994, 17% of children under-18 no longer lived with both their parents, representing an increase of 20% since 1986.... Children who are not living with both their parents have family networks which are either larger than those of children whose parents are living together...or reduced by a half.... The highest risk is of an increase in children `deprived' of a father.... Contact between fathers and children is more frequent when the father has not formed another couple and has no other children, and when the mother has a new but not cohabiting partner."
Correspondence: C. Villeneuve-Gokalp, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: gokalp@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30411 Wakam, Jean; Rwenge, Mburano; Kuépié, Mathias. Poverty and family characteristics in three African cities: Yaoundé, Abidjan, and Dakar. [Pauvreté et structures familiales dans trois métropoles africaines: Yaoundé, Abidjan et Dakar.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 167-82 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationship between poverty and the trend toward the nuclear family norm in the African urban environment is examined using 1980s census data for Yaoundé (Cameroon), Abidjan (Ivory Coast), and Dakar (Senegal). The results suggest that poverty tends to accelerate the trend toward nuclearization of the family, although the desire to maintain extended family links remains powerful and such links are continued if economic resources permit.
Correspondence: J. Wakam, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaoundé, Cameroon. E-mail: ifordyao@camfido.gn.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30412 Young, Christabel. Are young people leaving home earlier or later? Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 2, Nov 1996. 125-52 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Although the popular view is that young people are leaving home later, a closer investigation of [Australian] data from 1979 to 1995 shows that this is not entirely true. Decreases are observed in the proportion of 15-19 year old men and women living at home at least since the mid-1980s, the increase for 20-24 year old men ceased in 1990, and only 20-24 year old women show a sustained increase. If only unattached young adults are considered instead of the conventional measure, any increases are even more subdued. The overall trend seems to be that while late leavers may be leaving home later, early leavers are leaving earlier or at the same time."
Correspondence: C. Young, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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