Volume 65 - Number 3 - Fall 1999

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

65:30198 Adjamagbo, Agnès; Delaunay, Valérie. The crisis in the rural West African environment: social implications and effect on fertility. Niakhar (Senegal) and Sassandra (Ivory Coast) compared. [La crise en milieu rural ouest-africain: implications sociales et conséquences sur la fécondité. Niakhar (Sénégal), Sassandra (Côte-d'Ivoire), deux exemples contrastés.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 339-55 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Changes in fertility and family planning practices in two rural African societies affected by the recent African economic crises are explored. In Niakhar, Senegal, the degradation of the environment associated with lower rainfall levels has had a negative effect on an economy largely dependent on the cultivation of the peanut; this has led to a significant increase in seasonal migration. In Sassandra, Ivory Coast, a largely plantation-based economy has been badly hit by the decline in prices of primary products such as coffee and cocoa. In both cases, the deteriorating economic conditions have tended to decrease the wish to have large families in traditionally pronatalist societies.
Correspondence: A. Adjamagbo, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, Institut Santé Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médicine, 75270 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30199 Agyei-Mensah, Samuel. Fertility decline in developing countries, 1960-1997: an annotated bibliography. Bibliographies and Indexes in Geography, No. 3, ISBN 0-313-30242-1. LC 98-51612. 1999. xiii, 140 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This is an annotated bibliography of the fertility decline in developing countries based on sources such as student dissertations, books, and research papers, as well as references from papers published in the leading population journals. The period covered is from 1960 to 1997. The bibliography is organized geographically, and there are sections on concepts and theories of fertility decline, the fertility decline in Latin America, in Asia, and in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the general literature on the fertility decline in developing countries as a whole. In each section, the bibliography is organized alphabetically by author, and author and subject indexes are provided for the bibliography as a whole.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30200 Alcántara, Elsa; Ortiz, Jorge; Carbajal, Luz. Fertility and infant mortality: three methodological studies. [Fecundidad y mortalidad infantil: tres ensayos metodológicos.] 1996. 239 pp. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Instituto de Estudios de Población: Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This book contains three separate studies on aspects of the demography of Peru. The studies are entitled: Infant mortality in different ecological contexts: an application of the previous child method; Reproductive behavior in relation to birth spacing, maternal lactation, and contraception: a qualitative study in three ecological areas in Peru; and Peruvian fertility: determinants and changes.
Correspondence: Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Apartado 5045, Lima 100, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30201 Bachrach, Christine A. Threads in the tapestry of life: understanding fertility in context. In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 1-29 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
The author first considers the demographic approach to the study of fertility and points out that, although demographers have had considerable success in measuring and describing fertility, they have been less successful in explaining and predicting trends in fertility. She then draws on a wide range of existing research to develop some general ideas about how to attain a better understanding of fertility based on a more interdisciplinary approach. Topics covered include fertility patterns in industrialized countries; biological factors and fertility; microeconomic models of fertility; cultural-anthropological, sociological, and psychological approaches to fertility research; and challenges for the future.
Correspondence: C. A. Bachrach, U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Center for Population Research, Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30202 Bélanger, Alain; Oikawa, Cathy. Who has a third child? Canadian Social Trends, No. 53, Summer 1999. 23-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"Researchers have long identified a number of factors that can affect fertility. This study uses data from [Canada's] 1995 General Social Survey (GSS) to assess the effect of these factors on the likelihood that a woman with two children will have a third.... Women who were young when they had their first child, and who had a second child quickly afterwards, have the greatest chance of bearing a third child. It is also true, however, that certain cultural and socio-economic characteristics have a substantial effect on the probability of a third birth."
Correspondence: A. Bélanger, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Main Building, Room 1708, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30203 Bongaarts, John. Fertility decline in the developed world: Where will it end? American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 2, May 1999. 256-60 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"After a brief overview of fertility trends in post-transitional societies, this paper will present reasons why current low fertility is unlikely to decline much further and may even rise somewhat in the future in a number of countries. The first reason is that the total fertility rate (TFR) is a hypothetical measure that can and often does give an inaccurate indication of the actual rate of childbearing of women.... A second reason for expecting fertility not to decline further is that couples in most post-transitional societies plan to have about two children."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30204 Bozon, Michel; Enoch, Etheline. Brazil: a rapid demographic transition in a heterogeneous country. [Brésil: la transition démographique rapide d'un pays hétérogène.] Population et Sociétés, No. 345, Apr 1999. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a summary history of the demographic transition that has occurred in Brazil. The authors note that this transition took place very rapidly, primarily in the three decades since the mid 1960s, during which time the total fertility rate declined from 5.7 to 2.3. The major demographic and socioeconomic differences that exist among the various regions of the country are described. The primary method used to achieve this fertility decline is identified as contraceptive sterilization. The homogeneity of the fertility decline is surprising in a country that is both so heterogeneous and experiencing high levels of socioeconomic inequality, particularly in the absence of significant government action in family planning.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30205 Brizuela, Fulvia R. Fertility in Paraguay: geography and social diversity, 1960-1990. [La fecundidad en Paraguay: geografía y diversidad social, período 1960-1990.] LC 98-102542. Nov 1996. 143 pp. Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos: Asunción, Paraguay. In Spa.
This is an analysis of current trends in fertility in Paraguay. The methodology used in the study is first outlined. Next, fertility levels and trends are analyzed, and the proximate determinants of fertility are identified. Consideration is given to fertility differentials by geographic area and by residential characteristics, and the socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting fertility are examined. Results from a regression analysis of fertility are then presented.
Correspondence: Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos, Naciones Unidas y Zenteno, Zona Norte, Fernando de la Mora, Paraguay. E-mail: dgec@sce.cnc.una.py. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30206 Caldwell, John C.; Barkat-e-Khuda; Caldwell, Bruce; Pieris, Indrani; Caldwell, Pat. The Bangladesh fertility decline: an interpretation. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 67-84, 205-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The claim has been made, notably in a 1994 World Bank report, that the Bangladesh fertility decline shows that efficient national family planning programs can achieve major fertility declines even in countries that are very poor, and even if females have a low status and significant socioeconomic change has not occurred. This article challenges this claim on the grounds that Bangladesh did experience major social and economic change, real and perceived, over the last two decades. This proposition is supported by official data and by findings of the authors' 1997 field study in rural southeast Bangladesh."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30207 Cervantes Carson, Alejandro. Reproductive rights: toward the foundation of a cognitive field. [Derechos reproductivos: hacia la fundación de un campo cognoscitivo.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 16, Apr-Jun 1998. 45-62 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Reproductive rights has ceased to be merely a descriptive statement as it has been transformed into a topic that legitimately warrants examination. However, its development into a cognitive field will depend on the dynamics generated by its social and political relevance, as well as by its acceptance in academic communities and the conceptual interventions of those who study it. Based on a critical-historical reconstruction of the descriptive statement, and of the dimensions and constitutive relationships implied in its contemporary usage, this paper elaborates a conceptual map and an analytic proposal, as a contribution to the foundation of the cognitive field."
Correspondence: A. Cervantes Carson, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30208 Darroch, Jacqueline E.; Landry, David J.; Oslak, Selene. Pregnancy rates among U.S. women and their partners in 1994. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 3, May-Jun 1999. 122-6, 136 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1995 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth and from the 1994-1995 Alan Guttmacher Institute Abortion Patient Survey were combined with national natality statistics to estimate pregnancy rates in 1994 for women and their male partners, by age and marital status at the time of conception.... Nine percent of both men and women aged 15-44 were involved in conceiving a pregnancy in 1994 (excluding those resulting in miscarriages). Pregnancy levels were highest among women aged 20-24 and among male partners aged 25-29. Men younger than 20 were involved in about half as many pregnancies as were women this age (9% compared with 18%). In contrast, men aged 35 and older were involved in roughly twice as many pregnancies as were similarly aged women (19% compared with 9%)."
Correspondence: J. E. Darroch, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30209 Dietz, Patricia M.; Adams, Melissa M.; Spitz, Alison M.; Morris, Leo; Johnson, Christopher H. Live births resulting from unintended pregnancies: an evaluation of synthetic state-based estimates. Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep 1998. 189-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to assess whether data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) can be standardized to derive a state-specific synthetic estimate of the percentage of live births resulting from unintended pregnancy. The state of Georgia offered a unique opportunity for this evaluation because Georgia conducted PRAMS [Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System] and a point-in-time reproductive health survey [the Georgia Women's Health Survey (GWHS)] in the same time interval as the 1995 NSFG." Results indicate that "the synthetic estimate can be a useful method for states that need to know the overall magnitude of the percentage of live births resulting from unintended pregnancy for purposes such as program planning."
Correspondence: A. M. Spitz, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341-3714. E-mail: AMS2@CDC.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30210 Dietz, Patricia M.; Adams, Melissa M.; Spitz, Alison M.; Morris, Leo; Johnson, Christopher H. Live births resulting from unintended pregnancies: is there variation among states? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 3, May-Jun 1999. 132-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data were assessed to explore the feasibility of extrapolating data on the percentage of live births resulting from unintended pregnancies from [eight U.S.] states that collect these data to states that do not.... Logistic regression was used to determine state variation in the odds of delivering a live birth resulting from an unintended pregnancy after adjustment for maternal race, marital status, age, education, previous live birth and participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).... Although the percentages varied, in all eight states women who were black, were unmarried, were younger than 20 years of age, had less than 12 years of education or had more than one child had higher percentages of live births resulting from unintended pregnancy than women with other demographic characteristics."
Correspondence: P. M. Dietz, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Reproductive Health, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30211 Friedman, Jay S.; McFarlane, Carmen P.; Morris, Leo. Jamaica Reproductive Health Survey 1997. Young adult report: sexual behavior and contraceptive use among young adults. Apr 1999. viii, 21, [42] pp. National Family Planning Board: Kingston, Jamaica. In Eng.
These are the results of the Young Adult Report portion of the 1997 Jamaica Reproductive Health Survey. "The data in this report cover young adult women and men aged 15-24 years.... The main objective of the current report is to present detailed information about the knowledge and behavior of young adult women and men in Jamaica that goes beyond the main report. Information that could contribute to an improved family life education programme and information on current sexual activity of young adult women and men, particularly with respect to the use of contraceptives and commonly held beliefs about sexuality is also included." The report contains separate sections on family life education and knowledge of contraception and STDs; sexual experience and contraceptive use; and childbearing.
Correspondence: National Family Planning Board, 5 Sylvan Avenue, Kingston 5, Jamaica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30212 Jain, S. K.; McDonald, P. F. Fertility of Australian birth cohorts: components and differentials. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 14, No. 1, May 1997. 31-46 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The paper examines the change in the level and pattern of fertility that took place in the post-1971 period, and the downward completed fertility of successive generations of Australian women born since 1933-37. The change in cohort fertility is assessed in terms of the cohort parity progression ratios, and the four components of cohort total fertility: the proportion of women who proceeded to have a birth, mean age at first birth, mean age at last birth, and average interbirth interval for women who had at least two births. The other aspects discussed are the cohort fertility differentials and the implications of the current trends for future fertility in Australia."
Correspondence: S. K. Jain, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30213 Jamaica. National Family Planning Board (Kingston, Jamaica). Jamaica Reproductive Health Survey 1997: summary chartbook of main findings. 1998. 24 pp. Kingston, Jamaica. In Eng.
This is a summary of results from the 1997 Jamaica Reproductive Health Survey, which interviewed 6,384 women aged 15-49 and 2,279 men aged 15-24. Charts and graphs present information on recent fertility trends; contraceptive use, including methods chosen, sources of methods, and use by region, age, and education; fertility intentions; fertility and contraception among young adults, including contraceptive use by young men; and use of reproductive health services.
Correspondence: National Family Planning Board, 5 Sylvan Avenue, Kingston 5, Jamaica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30214 Kamarás, Ferenc. Fertility and family surveys in countries of the ECE region: standard country report, Hungary. UN/ECE Economic Studies, No. 10j, Pub. Order No. E.99.II.E.6. ISBN 92-1-116708-6. 1999. 93 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the tenth in the series Fertility and Family Surveys Standard Country Reports. It concerns Hungary and was carried out in 1992-1993. The report has substantive chapters on economic, social, and cultural trends; population trends; and FFS findings. The chapter on population trends has sections on fertility, nuptiality, mortality, and population policies. The chapter on FFS findings has sections on household composition, the parental home, partnerships, children, fertility regulation, fertility preferences, values and beliefs, and female education and occupation.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30215 Katus, Kalev. Post-transitional fertility: case of Estonia. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 33, ISBN 9985-820-32-0. 1997. 25 pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
The author examines posttransitional fertility in Estonia, and compares trends with those in other European countries. Sections are included on the stability of post-transitional fertility; fertility in the context of pregnancy outcomes; and the pattern of births being concentrated in a shorter range of the individual life span.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, Tallinn 10504, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30216 Khan, Mokbul A. Trade dependence and fertility in Hispanic America, 1950-1990. Sociological Forum, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1999. 137-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the development-fertility relationship within the context of trade dependence based on a new data set for Hispanic America, 1950-1990 period. The purposes of this investigation are: (1) to test the generalizability of Hout's (1980) findings to situations prevalent in Hispanic America during the period 1950-1990; and (2) to reveal more clearly the substantive theoretical implications of the world-system statuses and their effects on the development-fertility relationship for Hispanic America, 1950-1990."
Correspondence: M. A. Khan, University of Arizona, Environment Behavior and Risk Research Laboratory, Arizona Prevention Center, 1834 East Mabel Street, P.O. Box 245163, Tucson, AZ 85724. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30217 Kouton, Etienne F. Crisis, the family, youth, and changing social justifications for high fertility in Benin. [Crise, famille, jeunesse et altération des justifications sociales d'une forte fécondité au Bénin.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 357-76 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Changing attitudes toward fertility and family size in Benin are examined using data from a number of sources, including a 1989 study on fertility and marriage. The focus is on the differences between the attitudes of young people, including those with young children, and those of their parents. The author concludes that, although levels of desired fertility are still considerably above replacement level, young people today wish to have fewer children than their parents did. This change is probably due to a combination of the infiltration of modern ideas, such as a greater emphasis on individualism, and the economic pressures associated with the continuing African crisis.
Correspondence: E. F. Kouton, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30218 Larson, Ann. New directions for the study of Australia's fertility decline. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 14, No. 1, May 1997. 47-67 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Most studies of Australia's historical fertility decline have emphasized the similarities of the pace and composition of the decline with those of the United Kingdom, continental European countries, and other colonies settled by the British. Recent scholarship has questioned the usefulness of focusing on aggregate data that give misleading impressions of homogeneity. Preferred methodological approaches take a holistic view to the determinants of fertility change within a local context. The scope for analogous studies in Australia is considered, through a review of potential source materials and research questions."
Correspondence: A. Larson, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, Indigenous Health Program, Edith Cavell Building, Herston Road, Queensland 4029, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30219 Mulder, Monique B. The demographic transition: are we any closer to an evolutionary explanation? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 13, No. 7, Jul 1998. 266-70 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The fact that people in an increasing number of societies worldwide voluntarily reproduce at lower levels than would apparently maximize their lifetime reproduction poses a major challenge to evolutionary anthropologists.... Behavioural ecologists are puzzled by...the emerging negative correlations between wealth and reproduction, when evidence that the wealthy outreproduce the poor is so prevalent in predemographic transition populations. Consequently, a range of hypotheses are now being explored to explain why parents with access to plentiful resources choose low fertility rates...."
Correspondence: M. B. Mulder, University of California, Department of Anthropology, Davis, CA 95616. E-mail: mborgerhoffmulder@ucdavis.edu. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30220 Nath, Dilip C.; Leonetti, Donna L.; Steele, Matthew S. Analysis of birth intervals in a non-contracepting Indian population: an evolutionary ecological approach. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 99-3, Jan 1999. 23 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper examines data on birth spacing in a scheduled caste, Bengali speaking, non-contracepting population of Karimganj district of southern Assam, India, in view of an evolutionary ecological perspective. It is found that on average a birth interval closed by boy-boy is the longest and that by girl-girl is the shortest. Birth spacing is likely to be longer among upper-income, and Craftsman mothers."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195-3100. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30221 Peña, Rodolfo; Liljestrand, Jerker; Zelaya, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke. Fertility and infant mortality trends in Nicaragua 1964-1993. The role of women's education. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 3, Mar 1999. 132-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors aim "to assess trends in fertility and infant mortality rates (IMR) in León, Nicaragua, and to examine the effect of women's education on these trends during 1964-1993, a period of rapid social change.... In this demographic transition over three decades, fertility and IMR declined simultaneously. The decreasing trend in fertility was mainly explained by an increase in women's education, while the IMR decline seemed to be the result of health interventions, specially targeted to poorer groups of women and their infants. Thus, social differences in fertility rates remained unchanged, while equity in chances of child survival increased."
Correspondence: R. Peña, Umeå University, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30222 Population Council (New York, New York); African Population Policy Research Center (Nairobi, Kenya). Fertility decline in Kenya: levels, trends and differentials. 1998. xiv, 91 pp. New York, New York; Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"The main objective of [this work] was to ascertain the levels, trends and differentials in fertility in Kenya within the context of on-going fertility transition....The results are based on the analyses of data collected in four national demographic and health surveys carried out between 1978 and 1993 and population censuses of 1962, 1969, 1979, and 1989. The analyses have been informed by various theories of fertility transition, and have been guided by a conceptual framework which takes into account the role of proximate determinants, demand for contraception, demand for children, individual and community level factors, socio-economic policies and programs, and the family planning program...."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30223 Poston, Dudley L. Social and economic development and the fertility transitions in Mainland China and Taiwan. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 98-99-05, 1998-1999. 26, [8] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine how social and economic development factors in Taiwan and Mainland China have operated independently and together to influence fertility change. We address this issue cross-sectionally using sub-regional data for a few points in time.... We use data for the provinces and for the counties of China for 1982, 1990, and 1995; and for the counties and cities of Taiwan for 1980, 1990 and 1995."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 78743. E-mail: dudley@tamvm1.tamu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30224 Ravindran, T. K. Sundari. Female autonomy in Tamil Nadu: unravelling the complexities. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 16-17, Apr 17-23, 1999. 34-44 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Commentators on Tamil Nadu's rapid fertility decline during the eighties often cite female autonomy and `agency' as important contributing factors. This paper examines the extent of female autonomy Tamil women enjoy in their personal lives and within their households and the gender power dynamics between married couples, on the basis of a study in five districts of the [Indian] state."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30225 Rodgers, Joseph L.; Parnell, Allan. Seasonal patterns in adolescent reproductive behaviors. In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 281-303 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we focus on seasonality patterns underlying adolescent reproductive behavior [in the United States], including conception, fetal death, induced abortions and birth. The chapter offers several unique contributions to the seasonality literature. First, the dataset we use--a population-based data source from North Carolina--provides broader inference and explicit links between the several reproductive behaviors. Second, we develop a measurement approach that theoretically links conception patterns to three possible resolutions: fetal death, induced abortion and live birth. Third, we focus on adolescents, a sub-group of particular interest and value in the study of reproductive seasonality." The results indicate strong seasonal links in patterns of conception, resulting in seasonal abortion and birth patterns as well. In general, adolescent seasonality patterns are similar to those of adults.
Correspondence: J. L. Rodgers, University of Oklahoma, Department of Psychology, Norman, OK 73019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30226 Saraiya, Mona; Berg, Cynthia J.; Shulman, Holly; Green, Clarice A.; Atrash, Hani K. Estimates of the annual number of clinically recognized pregnancies in the United States, 1981-1991. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 11, Jun 1, 1999. 1,025-9 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors estimated the number of clinically recognized pregnancies that occurred annually from 1981 to 1991 in the United States by type of outcome and by race.... More than 67 million pregnancies occurred during the study period. Overall, 62.5% of these pregnancies resulted in livebirths, 21.9% in legal induced abortions, 13.8% in spontaneous abortions, 1.3% in ectopic pregnancies, and 0.5% in fetal deaths."
Correspondence: M. Saraiya, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Mailstop K-55, Atlanta, GA 30341. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30227 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Fertility, political disruption and transition to a market economy in Eastern Europe. [Fécondité, bouleversements politiques et transition vers l'économie de marché en Europe de l'Est.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 3, 1998. 339-60 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The collapse of [the] socialist regime and the transition to market economy, in the so called Eastern countries, are reflected, almost everywhere, in a rapid decrease of total fertility rates, even if, in some countries, such as former Czechoslovakia, indices very temporarily increase.... Deep reasons [for] this decreasing fertility, especially at high fertility ages and for first birth-order, are not well known.... In these countries, people are confronted not only with an adaptation crisis to the new rules of society, but with a real cultural revolution: the eastern family pattern comes into conflict with new economic requirements."
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Observatoire Démographique Européen, 2 bis rue du Prieuré, 78107 Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30228 Schmertmann, Carl P. Fertility estimation from open birth interval data. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 98-99-03, 1998-1999. 42 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Censuses and surveys frequently collect information on current fertility by asking women about the timing of their last birth. The standard approach to such open-interval data converts this information into a binary variable approximating births in the previous year. This paper proposes a more efficient, maximum likelihood method for estimating fertility from open-interval data. It includes a mathematical derivation of the new method, sensitivity analyses, and empirical tests with Bazilian census data."
Correspondence: C. P. Schmertmann, University of Texas, Population Research Center, Austin, TX 78712. E-mail: schmert@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30229 Schoumaker, Bruno. Poverty and fertility: a review of the literature of the past 25 years. [Pauvreté et fécondité: un aperçu de la littérature des 25 dernières années.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 99-116 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This article reviews the literature of the past 25 years on the relationship between poverty and fertility in developing countries. The author notes that many studies are based on the assumption that poor people want to have many children for the economic benefits they expect to receive, particularly in the form of support in old age. However, the literature does not provide evidence of any relationship between levels of poverty and achieved fertility. In fact, fertility levels vary widely among populations experiencing poverty in different countries. The author notes that there are examples of fertility decline even among populations experiencing extreme levels of poverty.
Correspondence: B. Schoumaker, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. E-mail: bruno@sas.rice.ucl.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30230 Schoumaker, Bruno; Tabutin, Dominique. The relationship between poverty and fertility in developing countries: facts, methodologies, and examples. [Relations entre pauvreté et fécondité dans les pays du Sud: connaissances, méthodologie et illustration.] SPED Document de Travail, No. 2, Feb 1999. 32, [5] pp. Université Catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This study examines the relationship between poverty and fertility at the micro level. It focuses on the relationship between the standard of living at the household level and the fertility of the women in the household. The geographical focus is on developing countries. The authors review the literature that has developed over the past 40 years on this relationship. They also discuss some methodological problems related to the collection of data on both poverty and fertility, and show that the relationship varies according to residential characteristics and level of education. Some illustrations are provided using data from South Africa and Morocco.
Correspondence: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30231 Singh, J. P. Peopling of Bihar: problems and prospects. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998. 353-67 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The total fertility rate [TFR] of Bihar [India]...is not only high in itself but also higher than the national average.... Policy makers and population analysts are curious to know...why the TFR still continues to be higher in Bihar than most parts of the country. The present paper has tried to answer the...question...based on data derived from secondary sources and personal interviews of the concerned state government officials."
Correspondence: J. P. Singh, Patna University, Department of Sociology, Patna, Bihar 800 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30232 Singh, K. K.; Yadava, R. C.; Singh, Uttam; Kumar, Anil. Testing the suitability of Bongaarts' model in the context of fertility performance in a rural area of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998. 337-51 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In the present analysis, Bongaarts' proximate determinants model is applied to quantify the fertility inhibiting effects of the four important proximate determinants--induced abortion, lactational infecundability, marriage and contraception on fertility. It also examines how well the four principal proximate determinants predict the fertility level.... We have applied the model to the data obtained at two different points of time during the last decade i.e. during the period 1978 to 1987 [in rural eastern Uttar Pradesh, India]."
Correspondence: K. K. Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Centre for Population Studies, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30233 Sivertseva, Tamara F. Eastern regions: fertility models. [Strany Vostoka: model' rozhdaemosti.] LC 97-194683. 1997. 103 pp. Rossiiskaya Akademiya Nauk, Trudy Instituta Vostokovedenniya: Moscow, Russia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis of family characteristics and their relationship to fertility in the Muslim countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. The analysis is based on the life cycle approach, which the author notes is founded in the work of E. Erickson. Two distinct family patterns are identified, the traditional and the modern. The factors that are conducive to high levels of fertility in this culture are noted. The author suggests that, even as the process of modernization takes place, Muslim families in this region are likely to maintain some characteristics that distinguish them from the standard Western nuclear family, such as wider family networks.
Correspondence: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Institut po Sotsiologiya, Moscow, Russia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30234 Udjo, Eric O. Trends in level and tempo of fertility in Botswana. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 285-301 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The notion of a sharp decline in fertility in Botswana is controversial. The results from the analysis of three sets of data suggest that the apparent decline...is exaggerated due to (l) an overestimated total fertility rate of 7.1 in 1981; compared with, (2) underestimated total fertility rates of 5.0 and 4.2 in 1988 and 1991 respectively. Adjusted levels of fertility using the Relational Gompertz model showed that a modest decline in fertility in Botswana began after the late 1980's. Changing marriage patterns in Botswana are probably contributory to the modest decline in fertility in the late 1980's."
Correspondence: E. O. Udjo, Statistics South Africa, Systematic Demographic Analysis, Directorate of Analysis, Private Bag X44, 0001 Pretoria, South Africa. E-mail: ericu@statssa.pwv.gov.za. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30235 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Levels and trends of fertility and their determinants for small geographic areas in the ESCAP region. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 146, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1857. 1997. 164 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This report is the product of an ESCAP project on the dynamics of fertility change in nine Asian countries in the period 1993-1996. The countries are Bangladesh, China, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main focus is on the analysis of fertility levels and trends by small geographic area in relation to the changing socioeconomic conditions. The analysis uses both cross-classification and bivariate and multivariate analysis. The report highlights the major findings of the country reports prepared during the project and presents an overview of the regional synthesis, conclusions, and policy implications of the findings of the national reports.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30236 Ventura, Stephanie J.; Martin, Joyce A.; Curtin, Sally C.; Mathews, T. J. Births: final data for 1997. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 18, Apr 29, 1999. 96 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents 1997 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics...; medical care utilization by pregnant women...; and infant health characteristics.... Also presented are birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's State of residence are shown including teenage birth rates and total fertility rates, as well as data on month and day of birth, sex ratio, and age of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30237 Vikat, Andres; Thomson, Elizabeth; Hoem, Jan M. Stepfamily fertility in contemporary Sweden: the impact of childbearing before the current union. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jul 1999. 211-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We focus on the fertility of Swedish men and women who lived in a consensual or marital union in the 1970s and 1980s, and where at least one of the partners had children before they entered that union. Couples without any children before the current union were included for contrast. We find clear evidence that couples wanted a shared biological child, essentially regardless of how many children (if any) they had before their current union. The shared child seems to have served to demonstrate commitment to the union, as did its conversion into a formal marriage. We have not found much support for the hypothesis that our respondents sought to enter parenthood to attain adult status."
Correspondence: A. Vikat, University of Tampere, Tampere School of Public Health, PL 607, Kalevantie 4, 33101 Tampere, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30238 Yapa, Lakshman; Siddhisena, Padmasiri. Locational specificities of fertility transition in Sri Lanka. GeoJournal, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1998. 177-88 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Sri Lanka has one of the lowest fertility rates among poor countries of the world. The fertility decline which began in the 1950s has held steady during the last four decades, despite low levels of economic development. Widespread use of contraception is the primary cause of the fertility decline. However, there is no one single homogenous body of people that can be characterized as a `modern' contracepting population through which new methods of family planning have spatially diffused. There is evidence that the overall fertility decline began even before the establishment of the modern family planning program in Sri Lanka. [This] analysis showed four broad regional regimes of fertility transition with considerable social and place-to-place differences in method-specific rates of contraception among them." Data are primarily from the 1987 Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: L. Yapa, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Geography, University Park, PA 16801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30239 Zvidrins, Peteris. Under-replacement fertility since the 1920s. Case of Latvia. Latvijas Zinãtnu Akademijas Vestis. A, Vol. 52, No. 594-595, 1998. 121-7 pp. Riga, Latvia. In Eng.
"The level of fertility rate and natural population growth in Latvia are currently the lowest in its history and are among the lowest in the world.... Latvia since 1991 has a negative balance between births and deaths, and the excess of deaths over births has sharply increased.... This paper seeks to contribute the study of the dynamics of fertility, its demographic determinants and some aspects of reproductive preferences."
Correspondence: P. Zvidrins, University of Latvia, Rainis Boulevard 19, Riga 1586, Latvia. E-mail: zvidrins@lanet.lv. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

65:30240 Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad J. An assessment of the own-children method of estimating fertility by birthplace in Australia. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 14, No. 2, Nov 1997. 167-85 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines the validity of the own-children method of fertility estimates derived from the 1991 Census by a detailed investigation of mortality assumptions, the presence of non-own children, age misreporting and undercount. A comparison of fertility measures derived alternatively from the census using the own-children method and from vital statistics for the period 1987-91 indicates remarkably similar rates for Australia-born women, and plausible results for long established migrant groups. The own-children fertility levels for some recently arrived migrant groups, however, were found to be misleading. It is suggested that the own-children method is useful for the study of differential current fertility in Australia."
Correspondence: M. J. Abbasi-Shavazi, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30241 Akoto, Eliwo M.; Kamdem, Hélène. Reproductive behavior in light of the crisis and living environment in Africa. [Comportement procréateur face à la crise et milieu d'habitat en Afrique.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 317-37 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The extent to which the economic crisis affecting Africa since the 1970s has had a differential effect on fertility in rural and urban areas is analyzed, with particular attention to the situation in Cameroon. The authors use data from a variety of published sources, including Demographic and Health Surveys. The results suggest that female education has the most significant effect on fertility; because levels of female education differ widely between urban and rural areas, this leads to fertility differentials by area of residence. African societies, particularly in rural areas, remain predominantly in favor of high fertility. Economic pressures to lower fertility are mitigated by the continuing practice of sending children from large rural families to live in the city. The authors suggest that continuing economic problems affecting the cities may reduce the ability of urban families to raise rural children, and this may eventually help reduce levels of rural fertility.
Correspondence: E. M. Akoto, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30242 Bachrach, Christine A.; Ventura, Stephanie J.; Newcomer, Susan F.; Mosher, William D. Why have births among unmarried teens increased? Sexuality and American Social Policy, No. 7, 1997. xvii, 48 pp. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation: Menlo Park, California. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the causes of the steady increase during recent years in nonmarital births to teenagers in the United States. It was prepared as a background paper for a seminar organized by the Kaiser Foundation. The report also includes data from a foundation survey on teen sexuality and pregnancy.
Correspondence: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Suite 100, Menlo Park, CA 94025-6944. Location: Brown University, Demography Library, Providence, RI.

65:30243 Bean, Frank D.; Swicegood, C. Gray; Berg, Ruth. Mexican-origin fertility: new patterns and interpretations. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 98-99-04, 1998-1999. 23 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The author uses data from the 1986 and 1988 U.S. Current Population Surveys "to examine how fertility levels of Mexican-origin women vary across generational status and how these levels compare with those of the majority (non-Hispanic) white population.... On balance, the results show a picture of fertility behavior among Mexican-origin women that is only partially consistent with the operation of assimilation processes."
Correspondence: F. D. Bean, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78701-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30244 Cáceres Ureña, Francisco I. The increase in adolescent childbearing in the Dominican Republic, 1991-1996. [El incremento de la maternidad adolescente en la República Dominicana, 1991-1996.] 1998. 116 pp. Asociación Dominicana Pro Bienestar de la Familia, Instituto de Estudios de Población y Desarrollo: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
The reasons for the increase in adolescent childbearing that occurred in the Dominican Republic in the first half of the 1990s are examined. Data are from the demographic and health surveys undertaken in the country in 1991 and 1996. The first chapter looks at the risks of pregnancy among adolescents. The second chapter analyzes both the proximate biological and psychological determinants of adolescent fertility and the intermediate socioeconomic and family-related determinants, as well as geographic factors. Other chapters describe the analytical approach used in the study, trends and differentials in adolescent childbearing, recent changes in the characteristics of the adolescent female population, and changes in the determinants of adolescent childbearing over time.
Correspondence: Asociación Dominicana Pro Bienestar de la Familia, Instituto de Estudios de Población y Desarrollo, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30245 Gregson, Simon; Zhuwau, Tom; Anderson, Roy M.; Chandiwana, Stephen K. Apostles and Zionists: the influence of religion on demographic change in rural Zimbabwe. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jul 1999. 179-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Religion has acted as a brake on demographic transition in a number of historical and contemporary populations. In a study in two rural areas of Zimbabwe, we found substantial differences in recent demographic trends between Mission and Independent or `Spirit-type' churches.... Missiological and ethnographic data indicate that differences in religious teaching on healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour and differences in church regulation could explain this contrast in demographic patterns. More restrictive norms on alcohol consumption and extra-marital relationships in Spirit-type churches may limit the spread of HIV and thereby reduce its impact on mortality."
Correspondence: S. Gregson, University of Oxford, Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, South Parks Road, Oxford 0X1 3PS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30246 Knodel, John; Gray, Rossarin S.; Sriwatcharin, Porntip; Peracca, Sara. Religion and reproduction: Muslims in Buddhist Thailand. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jul 1999. 149-64 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the contrast between Muslim reproductive attitudes and behaviour in Thailand and those of Buddhists, especially in the southern region.... We interpret Muslim reproductive patterns from the perspectives of the major hypotheses that have been invoked in the social demographic literature to explain links between religion and fertility. These hypotheses partly explain what appears to be a complex and context-specific relationship. Nevertheless, the linkages between religion, ethnic and cultural identity, and political setting that appear to operate are more complex than can be fully explained by even a combination of the existing hypotheses."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 426 Thompson Street, P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30247 Kremer, Michael; Chen, Daniel. Income-distribution dynamics with endogenous fertility. American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 2, May 1999. 155-9 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"There is some evidence that the fertility differential between educated and uneducated women is greater in [developing] countries with more income inequality. Using data from 62 countries (88 country-years) on total fertility rates by women's educational attainment, we calculated fertility differentials in each country-year as the ordinary least squares (OLS) coefficient from regressing fertility on years of education.... This paper examines the implications of combining the following three assumptions: (i) higher wages reduce fertility; (ii) children of the unskilled are more likely to be unskilled; and (iii) skilled and unskilled workers are complements in production."
Correspondence: M. Kremer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Economics, 50 Memorial Drive, E52-251C, Cambridge, MA 02142. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30248 Mookherjee, Harsha N. Fertility patterns of migrant and non-migrant populations in Papua New Guinea. Population Review, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1997. 36-42 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
"This study intends to ascertain whether the fertility pattern of migrant population found in earlier studies is also present for urban areas in Papua New Guinea.... The results indicated that the relationship between migration and fertility was more complex than has sometimes been assumed.... Duration of marriage, city of residence, husband's age, and woman's occupation were found to be significant variables in explaining the number of children born to a woman in this sample. An explanation of the relationships of migration to fertility was elaborated in this study with reference to the economic and social developments of the country."
Correspondence: H. N. Mookherjee, Tennessee Technological University, Department of Sociology, Cookeville, TN 38505. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30249 Mukherjee, D. P.; Guha, Pritilata; Das, Bidhan K.; Guha, Abhijit. Family formation among Muslims in a Calcutta slum. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 4, Dec 1998. 36-44 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The present study is an attempt to find out the way in which families are formed and enlarged with the help of demographic data on some aspects of fertility. The [effects] of various cultural determinants on fertility behaviour, the age at marriage, type of marriage, and postpartum abstinence associated with child birth have also been taken into consideration.... The major objective was to give a quantitative account of intracommunity variations in family formation with the help of demographic data among a group of Muslim slum dwellers of Calcutta [India]."
Correspondence: D. P. Mukherjee, Vidyasagar University, Department of Anthropology, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30250 Paine-Andrews, Adrienne; Harris, Kari J.; Fisher, Jacqueline L.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Williams, Ella L.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Vincent, Murray L. Effects of a replication of a multicomponent model for preventing adolescent pregnancy in three Kansas communities. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1999. 182-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A pretest-posttest comparison group design was used to analyze the effects of a comprehensive multicomponent school and community intervention on estimated pregnancy rates and birthrates among young people in three Kansas communities.... We detected slight (though often not statistically significant) decreases in estimated pregnancy rates and birthrates, there were some positive changes in reported behavior, and rates of community and systems change were strong and steady. Further, community satisfaction with project functioning was high, and changes facilitated by each project were considered important.... Overall, the projects were well received in their respective communities."
Correspondence: A. Paine-Andrews, University of Kansas, Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development, Lawrence, KS 66045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30251 Saul, Rebekah. Teen pregnancy: progress meets politics. Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, Vol. 2, No. 3, Jun 1999. 6-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
In the United States, "teenage pregnancy rates fell again between 1995 and 1996, continuing the trend that has brought rates down to their lowest level in more than two decades. New information on factors driving the declines--improved contraceptive use and, to a much lesser extent, reductions in teenage sexual activity--sheds much-needed light on the public policy debate over how to sustain the declines."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30252 Tesfaghiorghis, Habtemariam. Is aboriginal fertility on the decline? Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 2, Nov 1996. 153-67 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper [attempts to determine] if there has been sustained Aboriginal fertility decline since the mid-1980s...by analysing fertility information obtained from the 1994 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey, birth registrations and midwives' collections data by states.... This study has produced more reliable age patterns of fertility at the national and state levels. The paper also examines the definition of Aboriginality and associated measurement problems, which are central to an understanding of Aboriginal demography."
Correspondence: H. Tesfaghiorghis, Australian National University, Graduate Studies in Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30253 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Religion and reproduction in Southern Thailand. ISBN 974-236-906-2. 1998. [vii], 48 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis of fertility trends among the minority Muslim population living in southern Thailand. "This study examines the contrast between Muslim reproductive attitudes, knowledge and behaviour and those of Buddhists in the South. The study is based on the Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Family Planning Practice in the Southern Region of Thailand which was carried out by the National Statistical Office in 1994. The sample of this survey was designed to cover women aged 15-49 in all provinces in the South. It is the largest survey of its kind conducted in Thailand that permits comparisons between substantial number of Buddhist and Muslim women in terms of culture, ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. The study is also supplemented by the information from focus group discussions among Muslims in Yala, Satun, Narathiwat and Pattani, carried out by the National Statistical Office in 1996."
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30254 Weeks, John R.; Rumbaut, Rubén G.; Ojeda, Norma. Reproductive outcomes among Mexico-born women in San Diego and Tijuana: testing the migration selectivity hypothesis. Journal of Immigrant Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Apr 1999. 77-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Mexican immigrants to the United States have better reproductive outcomes than do U.S.-born non-Latina whites. Explanations offered for this...include (1) poor outcomes among Mexican women may be hidden by their return to Mexico; (2) Mexican women may have a higher fetal death rate that alters the pattern of live birth outcomes; (3) Mexican women may have socioeconomic characteristics which...would explain the outcome; (4) Mexican women may have personal characteristics which would explain the outcome...; (5) there may be ameliorative or salutogenic `protective' effects of culture; and (6) migration may be selective of healthier women who are thus more prone to positive outcomes. [The authors] test these explanations, with an emphasis on the last one, using a data set that combines reproductive histories and birth outcomes for Mexico-born women delivering in San Diego, California and Mexican women delivering in Tijuana, Mexico. These data are compared with U.S.-born Latinas and U.S.-born non-Latina whites. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggests that...the adjusted odds of a positive birth outcome...is highest for women delivering in Tijuana, implying that migrants may not be so selective when compared to the country of origin."
Correspondence: J. R. Weeks, San Diego State University, Department of Geography, International Population Center, San Diego, CA 92182-4493. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

65:30255 Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Bergström, Reinhold; Kvist, Ulrik; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ekbom, Anders. Human fertility does not decline: evidence from Sweden. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 71, No. 6, Jun 1999. 1,066-9 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
The authors assess changes in fertility over time using data for Sweden in the period 1983-1993. "Subfertility problems decreased dramatically over successive maternal birth cohorts. Further, the risk of subfertility increased with age and decreased with increasing formal education.... A decrease in male fertility cannot be ruled out on the basis of these results, but if present, it is minor and totally outweighed by other favorable developments."
Correspondence: O. Akre, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medical Epidemiology, Box 281, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: olof.akre@mep.ki.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30256 American Society for Reproductive Medicine (Birmingham, Alabama). Assisted reproductive technology in the United States: 1996 results generated from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 71, No. 5, May 1999. 798-807 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
This is a summary of "the procedures and outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in the United States in 1996 [using data on 300 programs].... Procedural outcomes measured included clinical pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, delivery, and congenital abnormality.... In 1996, there were more programs reporting ART treatment and a significant (11.3%) increase in reported cycles. In comparable cycles types, overall average success rates (deliveries per retrieval) exhibited an actual increase of 3.5% (this is an increase of 15.8% when compared to the success rate for 1995)."
Correspondence: American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 1209 Montgomery Highway, Birmingham, AL 35216. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30257 Inhorn, Marcia C. Infertility and the quest for conception in Egypt. In: Reproductive health and infectious disease in the Middle East, edited by Robin Barlow and Joseph W. Brown. 1998. 114-29 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
The author examines infertility in Egypt, with a focus on the social pressure to bear children and the cultural stigmatization of childlessness. Various treatment options available to Egyptian women are evaluated, and the obstacles for many women seeking such treatment are discussed.
Correspondence: M. C. Inhorn, Emory University, Department of Anthropology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30258 Reproductive Health Matters (London, England). Living without children. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 7, No. 13, May 1999. 1-111 pp. Blackwell Science: Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This issue is concerned with both voluntary and involuntary infertility around the world. "These papers are about women who long for children but have not had them and women who have had children and lost them, as well as women who do not want children and have not had to have them. They are often about absence and loss, but sometimes they are also about the freedom and opportunities which the absence of children can bring. They explore the consequences of the right not to have children and the lack of any given right to have children. They are about women who have rejected motherhood and women whom motherhood has passed by."
Correspondence: Blackwell Science, Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 0EL, England. E-mail: jnl.orders@blacksci.co.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

65:30259 Calvès, Anne E. Condom use and risk perceptions among male and female adolescents in Cameroon: qualitative evidence from Edéa. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 22, 1999. 23 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The present study examines the specific constraints to condom use among male and female adolescents in Edéa, Cameroon, and how they differ by gender.... The results indicate that while the image of a young man getting condoms is mixed, there is a strong stigma attached to female adolescents getting or carrying condoms, which represents a serious barrier to condom procurement among young women. For both males and females, condom use with regular sexual partners is not perceived as necessary and asking a new partner for condom use is considered suspicious and is interpreted as a sign of mistrust."
This paper was originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30260 Critchlow, Donald T. Intended consequences: birth control, abortion, and the federal government in modern America. ISBN 0-19-504657-9. LC 98-13691. 1999. 307 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Using data from a number of archival collections and from the published literature, the author attempts to provide an objective account of how federal family planning became established policy in the United States in the period following World War II. The primary focus is on domestic family planning, but consideration is given to international family planning programs as well. "By examining federal family planning within the context of policy history, this book follows the development of this policy through a process of innovation, legislative enactment and administration imposition, program implementation, reappraisal, and politicization." The author notes that the modern family planning movement in the United States emerged from two distinct concerns: overpopulation and women's right to legalized birth control. The changing weight of these two concerns over time is analyzed, as is the impact of the debate over the legalization of abortion on the development of federal government involvement in family planning programs.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30261 Darroch, Jacqueline E.; Landry, David J.; Oslak, Selene. Age differences between sexual partners in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1999. 160-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine age differences between [U.S.] women and their current partner and women's use of contraceptives at last intercourse, by marital status and by the age difference between women and their partner.... 64% of sexually active women aged 15-17 had a partner within two years of their age, 29% a partner who was 3-5 years older, and 7% a partner who was six or more years older. Among women younger than 18, the pregnancy rate among those with a partner who was six or more years older was 3.7 times as high as the rate among those whose partner was no more than two years older. Among women younger than 18 who became pregnant, those with a partner who was six or more years older were less likely to have an unintended pregnancy (70%) or to terminate an unintended pregnancy (21%) than were those whose partner was no more than two years older (82% and 49%, respectively)."
Correspondence: J. E. Darroch, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30262 De Koninck, Maria. Feminist discourse and neo-Malthusianism: the adverse effects of a misalliance. [Discours féministe et néo-malthusianisme: les effets pervers d'une mésalliance.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 27, No. 2, Autumn 1998. 253-65, 336-7, 339 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In recent years, we have seen what appears to be an alliance between feminists and neo-Malthusians on the issue of family planning. This article presents some thoughts on an association which can be termed a `misalliance'--since the two discourses stem from disparate viewpoints and offer differing interpretations--and may produce adverse effects.... Other detrimental effects of this `tactical alliance' are linked to the representation of women as victims of their fertility."
Correspondence: M. De Koninck, Université Laval, Département de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Sainte-Foy, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. E-mail: maria.dekoninck@msp.ulaval.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30263 Dissanayake, Lakshman. Fertility behaviour of two ethnic minorities at the onset of the fertility transition in Sri Lanka. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 4, Dec 1998. 1-8 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"It is quite interesting to investigate the mechanisms underlying the distinct pattern of fertility control behaviour shown by two minority groups, namely Indian Tamils and Sri Lankan Moors, at the onset of the fertility transition in Sri Lanka.... The present study...attempts to explain why these ethnic minority groups exhibited two different patterns of fertility behaviour at the onset of the fertility transition...."
Correspondence: L. Dissanayake, University of Colombo, Department of Demography, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30264 Emard, Jean-François; Thouez, Jean-Pierre; Blais, Régis; Drouin, Guy; Ghadirian, Parviz. Vasectomy in Quebec: 1977-1997. [La vasectomie au Quebec: 1977-1997.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, Vol. 39, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1999. 41-58 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Spatial and temporal trends in vasectomy in the Canadian province of Quebec are analyzed over the period 1977-1997 using the registry of the Régie de l'Assurance-Maladie. The results show a growth in the use of this method over time similar to that experienced elsewhere in Canada and in the United States, although there are significant geographical differences within the province in the popularity of this method of contraception.
Correspondence: J.-F. Emard, Centre de Recherche, CHUM, Unité de Recherche en Epidémiologie, Campus Hôtel-Dieu, 3850 Saint-Urbain, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1T8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30265 Family Health International (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). Community-based distribution serves unmet needs. Network, Vol. 19, No. 3, Spring 1999. 20 pp. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
This is a general review of community-based distribution programs for contraception in developing countries. The focus of such programs is on taking contraceptive services and family planning information to people where they live rather than requiring people to visit clinics or other locations for these services.
Correspondence: Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30266 Gérard, Hubert. Family planning: from a causal to a systemic approach. [La planification familiale: de la causalité au pari systémique.] In: Populations et développements: une approche globale et systémique, edited by Michel Loriaux. 1998. 357-73 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author notes that family planning and the programs designed to promote it as part of a population policy are generally based on a perspective that sees lowered fertility as the cause of improved economic development, but he makes the case that this thinking is based on unrealistic and unsupported hypotheses. He suggests an alternative approach based on a systemic perspective, which, although less ambitious and precise, is more likely to correspond to actual socio-cultural realities, particularly in societies that are undergoing rapid change. The need to take local conditions into account rather than attempting to apply universal principles in the interest of getting things done quickly is stressed. The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: H. Gérard, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30267 Glei, Dana A. Measuring contraceptive use patterns among teenage and adult women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 73-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Women at risk of unintended pregnancy were selected from the 1995 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth, and their contraceptive use patterns were compared across age-groups.... More than two-thirds of women aged 15-19 report long-term uninterrupted contraceptive use, but they are more likely to report sporadic use and less likely to report uninterrupted use of a very effective method than are women aged 25-34. Compared with women aged 25-34, women aged 20-24 have higher rates of sporadic use and lower rates of effective uninterrupted use.... Women in less stable relationships, those having more infrequent intercourse and women who have recently experienced nonvoluntary intercourse for the first time are more likely than others to have a high-risk contraceptive pattern."
Correspondence: D. A. Glei, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30268 Grady, William R.; Klepinger, Daniel H.; Nelson-Wally, Anjanette. Contraceptive characteristics: the perceptions and priorities of men and women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1999. 168-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The data analyzed here are subsets from two companion [U.S.] surveys conducted in 1991--1,189 men aged 20-27 who were surveyed in the National Survey of Men and 740 women aged 20-27 who were surveyed in the National Survey of Women. Multivariate ordered logit analysis is used to examine how gender is related to both the importance that individuals assign to seven specific contraceptive characteristics when choosing a method, and to perceptions about the extent to which five common method types possess each of these characteristics.... Men and women have somewhat different priorities when choosing a contraceptive method. Despite many similarities between women and men in their perceptions about the characteristics of each method type, numerous differences between them may have an important influence on how couples make their method choices."
Correspondence: W. R. Grady, Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30269 Gray, Alan; Chowdhury, Jamil H.; Caldwell, Bruce; Al-Sabir, Ahmed. Coitus-dependent family planning methods: observations from Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 1, Mar 1999. 43-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Some coitus-dependent methods of family planning, such as withdrawal, periodic abstinence, and the condom, require male involvement for their use, and using these methods in combination has proved to be sensible. An investigation of why male and female respondents in a survey conducted in Bangladesh often gave conflicting answers about which methods they were currently using, particularly about `traditional' methods and condoms, showed that inconsistency in their reports arose because these methods are used in combination to such an extent that they are difficult to distinguish. In order to obtain reliable responses about these methods, a survey approach different from the long-established one is required."
Correspondence: A. Gray, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30270 Hardee, Karen; Visness, Cynthia; Ulin, Priscilla; Pfannenschmidt, Susan. A conceptual framework for investigating the impact of family planning on women's lives. In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 31-52 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers:Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter presents a conceptual framework for research on the impact of family planning on women's lives. The focus is on the reproductive health approach to family planning programs, which has received increasing emphasis since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Examples are provided from research being done by the Women's Studies Project at Family Health International; the geographical focus is on developing countries. The authors conclude that "by taking a candid look at the family planning and fertility experiences of women across different countries and cultures, listening to women tell their stories and querying them on the disappointments as well as the rewards of their decisions, the insight gained may help reshape reproductive health policies and services, making services more responsive to what women and their families need."
Correspondence: K. Hardee, Family Health International, Women's Studies Project, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30271 Harvey, S. Marie; Beckman, Linda J.; Doty, Michelle. Couple dynamics in sexual and reproductive decision-making among Mexican immigrants. In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 251-79 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"The overall goal of our research is to examine couple influences in contraceptive and condom use behavior among Mexican immigrant couples [in the United States]. More specifically, this chapter presents findings from our larger study that: (1) explores which member of the couple initiates sexual behavior and makes decisions about contraceptive/condom use and sexual behavior; (2) examines if and how couples communicate with one another about fertility desires, sexual behaviors and contraceptive/condom use; (3) explores which situations or characteristics enhance a woman's influence on condom use with her partner; and (4) investigates cultural norms shared by inner city Mexican immigrants with regard to contraceptive and condom use." The data concern 79 couples of Mexican origin living in Los Angeles County, California.
Correspondence: S. M. Harvey, University of Oregon, Department of Sociology, Eugene, OR 97403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30272 Hotchkiss, David R.; Magnani, Robert J.; Rous, Jeffrey J.; Azelmat, Mustapha; Mroz, Thomas A.; Heikel, Jaffar. The effects of maternal-child health service utilization on subsequent contraceptive use in Morocco. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr 1999. 145-65 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The present study re-examines the relationship between MCH [maternal-child health] service and subsequent contraceptive use in Morocco and the role that variations in the supply environment for health and family planning services play in this relationship. The study...seeks to ascertain the role that MCH service use plays in individual contraceptive use decisions.... Multi-level regression techniques are used to model current contraceptive use status as a function of (1) the availability, quality, and packaging of MCH and family planning services, (2) community- and individual-level determinants of health service and contraceptive use, and (3) intensity of prior MCH service use."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. R. Hotchkiss, Tulane University Medical Center, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health and Development, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30273 Hudson, Aida J. Fertility and family planning in a West Bank village. In: Reproductive health and infectious disease in the Middle East, edited by Robin Barlow and Joseph W. Brown. 1998. 92-113 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
The author examines family planning and the high fertility rate in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. "Family planning was selected as the main focus of the present study for several reasons. Of Bongaarts' four proximate determinants of fertility, contraceptive use explains more of the variation in fertility in the Arab countries than any other variable except marriage.... Moreover, family planning efforts in various countries have been known to reduce fertility rates even in the absence of broader socioeconomic and cultural changes. In the Palestinian case, the need to reduce fertility is urgent in light of resource scarcity and the young age structure of the current population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30274 Jato, Miriam N.; Simbakalia, Calista; Tarasevich, Joan M.; Awasum, David N.; Kihinga, Clement N. B.; Ngirwamungu, Edith. The impact of multimedia family planning promotion on the contraceptive behavior of women in Tanzania. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1999. 60-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Data from a nationally representative sample of 4,225 women who participated in the 1994 Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice Survey and in the 1991-1992 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey were used to assess the impact of mass media family planning campaigns on contraceptive behavior. A bivariate analysis was conducted to study the association between social and demographic characteristics, family planning communications campaigns and contraceptive behavior; multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between specific media campaigns and contraceptive use. Results [indicate that] the more types of media that women are exposed to, the more likely they are to practice contraception."
Correspondence: M. N. Jato, United Nations Population Fund, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30275 Khalifa, Mona A. Family planning and sustainable development in Egypt. CDC Series on Population and Development, No. 5, 1994. 30 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"This paper aims to analyze the relationship between family planning and sustainable development. It shows that [the] family planning program in Egypt has successfully managed to decrease fertility rates in some areas. However, the quality of services needs to be improved.... The paper emphasises that family planning services are strongly linked to the health services."
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Center, 78 Street No. 4, El-Hdhaba Elolya, Mokattam 11571, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: cdc@frcu.eun.eg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30276 Kornfield, Ruth; Banda, Duncan. Quality of family planning community-based distribution services in Malawi. STAFH Report Series, LC 98-981049. Dec 1996. viii, 124 pp. Support to AIDS and Family Health Project [STAFH]: Lilongwe, Malawi. In Eng.
This is a summary of the quality of family planning community-based distribution (CBD) services in Malawi, based on case studies conducted in 1995. "The goal was to provide comprehensive information on the selection, functioning and quality of CBD services in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the programs.... The objectives were to assess the quality of services, program needs, and management of the projects; and to identify referral needs and mechanisms linking the CBD and clinic based services, community involvement, and the selection process of CBD agents."
Correspondence: Support to AIDS and Family Health Project, Lilongwe, Malawi. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30277 Kosunen, Elise; Vikat, Andres; Rimpelä, Matti; Rimpelä, Arja; Huhtala, Heini. Questionnaire study of use of emergency contraception among teenagers. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7202, Jul 10, 1999. 91 pp. London, England. In Eng.
In this one-page article, the authors report on a 1994 Finnish study of "knowledge of emergency contraception and frequency of use among teenagers.... Our results suggest that easy access to contraceptive services (including emergency contraception) and intensive sex education have not increased adolescent sexual activity. The proportion of sexually experienced teenagers in our study was not higher than in Finnish studies in the late 1980s or early 1990s when emergency contraception was not widely used."
Correspondence: E. Kosunen, University of Tampere, Medical School, Department of General Practice, P.O. Box 607, 33101 Tampere, Finland. E-mail: meelko@uta.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30278 Levin, Ann; Caldwell, Bruce; Barkat-e-Khuda. Effect of price and access on contraceptive use. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jul 1999. 1-15 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The Family Planning Program in Bangladesh has been very successful.... The effect of economic constraints, such as cash price and access to services on contraceptive method use, the choice of contraceptive method and provider choice, has been analyzed, taking into account the socioeconomic factors that influence decision-making for individual family members.... No effect of cash prices was found on the probability of use of any contraceptive method, but clients were to a limited extent responsive to price in making choices about contraceptive methods and providers. In addition couples were less likely to use contraception or choose methods if the travel time to fixed clinics was greater than 30 [minutes]."
Correspondence: A. Levin, Partnerships for Health Reform, University Research Corporation, 4800 Montgomery Lane, Suite 600, Bethesda, MD 20814. E-mail: ann_levin@abtassoc.com. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30279 Lindberg, Laura D.; Ku, Leighton; Sonenstein, Freya L. Adolescent males' combined use of condoms with partners' use of female contraceptive methods. Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1998. 201-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Protection from both sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy is best obtained by the combined use of male condoms and effective female contraceptive methods. This research examines dual contraceptive method use among [U.S.] teenage men. [Using] data from the 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males.... The results suggest that efforts to increase condom use in general should also influence young men's use of condoms when their partner is using a female method. Providing information to young males about the high prevalence and serious consequences of sexually transmitted diseases may increase dual method use among adolescents."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. D. Lindberg, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. E-mail: lduberst@ui.urban.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30280 Lindsay, Jo; Smith, Anthony M. A.; Rosenthal, Doreen A. Conflicting advice? Australian adolescents' use of condoms or the pill. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1999. 190-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from a 1997 national survey of 3,550 Australian secondary school students were used to examine teenagers' method choice and patterns of advice-seeking about contraception and STD prevention. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the exclusive use of condoms or the pill.... Virtually all 961 currently sexually active students were using at least one contraceptive method--primarily condoms (78%) or the pill (45%). Some 31% were using condoms exclusively, and 10% were using the pill exclusively. Older students and those who had sought contraceptive advice had elevated odds of using the pill rather than condoms exclusively...."
Correspondence: J. Lindsay, La Trobe University, Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, Melbourne, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30281 Marshall, John. Requirements for psychological research in natural family planning. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 177-86 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
The author discusses the acceptability of the basal body temperature method of natural family planning, using data for England and Wales. The focus is on the possible effects of psychological factors on use of the method.
Correspondence: J. Marshall, University of London, 203 Robin Hood Way, London SW20 0AA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30282 Meekers, Dominique. Patterns of use of the female condom in urban Zimbabwe. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 28, 1999. 21 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In 1996, Zimbabwean women petitioned the government to make the female condom widely available as an alternative means of HIV protection. The female condom has now been mass-marketed for a little more than one year. This study used data from exit surveys with a random sample of 1,753 consumers at retail outlets to assess patterns in awareness and use of the female condom, and to examine to what extent discussion and use of the female condom varies by type of partner."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30283 Mishel, Daniel R.; Westhoff, Carolyn L. Contraception. Contraception, Vol. 59, No. 1 Suppl., Jan 1999. 42 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: New York, New York/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The problem of how best to disseminate accurate information regarding OC [oral contraceptives] to healthcare providers and women was the focus of a panel of experts in the field of reproductive health that met at a clinical management conference in New York City on July 23, 1998. The articles in this supplement, The Power of the Pill, summarize the conference proceedings.... Topics discussed include contraception in the prepill era; the introduction of the pill and its impact; current use and attitudes regarding OC; perceptions and realities regarding the risks of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer, as well as OC health benefits; therapeutic uses and quality-of-life benefits of OC; and how to improve clinician/patient interaction so the benefits and risks of OC can be communicated effectively."
Correspondence: Elsevier Science Publishers, 655 Avenue of the Americas, NY 10010. E-mail: usinfo-f@elsevier.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30284 Mishra, Vinod K.; Retherford, Robert D.; Nair, P. S.; Feeney, Griffith. Reasons for discontinuing and not intending to use contraception in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 13, Jun 1999. 36 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Population and Health Studies: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Based on data from India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey, this study analyzes the main reasons for discontinuing contraceptive use and for not intending to use contraception in the future. The study also analyzes the effects of seven demographic and socioeconomic variables on reported reasons for discontinuing contraception or intending not to use contraception."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30285 Moore, Kirsten; Helzner, Judith F. What's sex got to do with it? Challenges for incorporating sexuality into family planning programs. ISBN 0-87834-088-2. LC 97-3852. 1997. 28 pp. Population Council: New York, New York; International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region: New York, New York. In Eng.
This report examines the complicated and dynamic connection between sexuality and family planning. It examines how sexuality and power differences between men and women shape contraceptive practices and reproductive health, and how community-based activists and family planning and reproductive health counselors can help individuals move toward more satisfactory sexual lives and greater well-being. It also examines how service provider attitudes toward sexuality and gender roles affect the services clients receive, and how those attitudes can be changed in order to improve services.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: pubinfo@popcouncil.org. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30286 Moudallal, Nada; Navaneetham, Kannan. Contraceptive use dynamics and reproductive morbidity in Lebanon: evidence from family planning clinic data. In: Reproductive health and infectious disease in the Middle East, edited by Robin Barlow and Joseph W. Brown. 1998. 45-70 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"From the available evidence in the literature, a model has been proposed to study the determinants of the use and continuation of contraceptives and their association with gynecological morbidity [in Lebanon]. The model focuses on the mechanisms through which social, maternal and other intermediate variables affect contraceptive use, continuation and method of choice.... This model serves as a point of departure for examining the potential association between contraceptive use and gynecological morbidity."
Correspondence: N. Moudallal, American University of Beirut, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Population Studies, Bliss Street, Beirut, Lebanon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30287 Nair, P. S.; Feeney, Griffith; Mishra, Vinod K.; Retherford, Robert D. Factors affecting source of family planning services in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 12, Jun 1999. 38 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Population and Health Studies: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This Subject Report analyzes factors associated with use of private-sector family planning services, based on data from India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS). Contrary to expectations, the analysis shows little relationship between the proportion of women using private-sector family planning services in a state and state-level fertility rates.... This report examines seven factors that might influence a woman's use of private-sector services: age, urban/rural residence, education, religion, membership in a scheduled caste or tribe, electronic media exposure, and geographic region. Urban residence and higher levels of education emerge as the variables most closely associated with use of private-sector sources of family planning."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30288 Odimegwu, Clifford O. Family planning attitudes and use in Nigeria: a factor analysis. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1999. 86-91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"A randomly selected sample of 927 married men and women living in urban and rural areas of Nigeria were asked how strongly they agreed with 26 attitudinal statements regarding family planning. A factor analysis was used to measure the association between the respondent's attitudes toward family planning and their contraceptive practices.... Respondents' perceptions of family planning were associated with contraceptive use: Those who approved of family planning were twice as likely as respondents who disapproved to be using contraceptives. Furthermore, respondents who communicated with their spouse about family planning were three times more likely than those who did not to be using a contraceptive."
Correspondence: C. O. Odimegwu, Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30289 Özvaris, Sevkat B.; Akin, Ayse. Postpartum contraception: a new approach to minimize unmet needs in family planning. Turkish Journal of Population Studies/Nüfusbilim Dergisi, Vol. 20, 1998. 87-97 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
The authors discuss the need for postpartum contraception in Turkey. The importance of providing family planning information, modern contraceptive methods, and community-based reproductive health services is emphasized.
Correspondence: S. B. Özvaris, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30290 Potter, Linda S. Why must one "restart" a method that is still working? A case for redefining injectable discontinuation. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 98-100 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses reasons for the apparently high discontinuation rates of Depo-Provera (DMPA) among U.S. women. "A DMPA user is counted by default as having discontinued use if she returns for a subsequent injection more than 14 weeks after the preceding injection--even if she receives her next injection only a few days late. She must then `restart' the method, even though her last DMPA injection may still be protecting her from pregnancy."
Correspondence: L. S. Potter, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30291 Potts, Malcolm. "There is a measure in all things" In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 123-5 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
The author develops the theme that, in an era when the need for family planning is large and the resources to meet it are limited, a quantitative approach to measuring program success remains valuable. "I suggest that if we are to manage limited resources for the maximum welfare of people less fortunate than we are, we must develop quantitative measures of achievement in order to develop objective criteria for establishing priorities."
Correspondence: M. Potts, University of California, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30292 Sadana, Ritu; Snow, Rachel. Balancing effectiveness, side-effects and work: women's perceptions and experiences with modern contraceptive technology in Cambodia. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 3, Aug 1999. 343-58 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This community-based study presents the results of 17 focus-group discussions primarily among poor married women of reproductive age in urban and rural Cambodia regarding their experiences with modern contraceptive methods and their preferences for different technical attributes, including effectiveness, mode of administration, secrecy and rapid return of fertility. Key findings indicate that women who use modern contraceptive technologies desire highly effective methods of birth control. Cambodian women are primarily interested in longer-acting methods, view weight gain positively and are less concerned about a rapid return to fertility upon discontinuation of a method or secrecy from their partners.... Women may switch from a modern method associated with negative side-effects to a lesser effective traditional method, either to take a break from unwanted side-effects or discontinue modern methods altogether, if another suitable method is unavailable."
Correspondence: R. Sadana, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. E-mail: rsadana @hsph.harvard.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30293 Solo, Julie; Billings, Deborah L.; Aloo-Obunga, Colette; Ominde, Achola; Makumi, Margaret. Creating linkages between incomplete abortion treatment and family planning services in Kenya. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 1, Mar 1999. 17-27 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report describes a study that was conducted in Kenya to test three different models of ways to provide postabortion family planning. The study shows that these new services are both feasible and acceptable to providers and patients, and also shows how effective they can be. Whereas only 7 percent of women received family planning counseling according to the baseline survey, this proportion increased to 68 percent in the postintervention period. In addition, 70 percent of women who decided to begin using contraceptive received a method, compared with only 3 percent at baseline. The provision of postabortion family planning counseling and methods on the gynecological ward by ward staff was found to be the preferred and most effective model."
Correspondence: J. Solo, Population Council, International Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30294 Steele, Fiona; Curtis, Siân L.; Choe, Minja. The impact of family planning service provision on contraceptive-use dynamics in Morocco. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 1, Mar 1999. 28-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article uses linked data from the 1995 Morocco DHS calendar and the 1992 Morocco DHS service-availability module to study the effect of service environment on contraceptive discontinuation, switching, and adoption of a modern method following a birth.... The findings show that the presence of a nearby public health center is associated with higher modern-method adoption after a birth and lower method-failure rates; the presence of a pharmacy is associated with lower discontinuation due to side effects or health concerns. The degree of method-choice potential has a positive impact on both the rate of switching from the pill to another modern method and on modern-method adoption after a birth."
Correspondence: F. Steele, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Statistics, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30295 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Division of Reproductive Health (Atlanta, Georgia). Family planning methods and practice: Africa. 2nd ed. 1999. xiv, 698 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This book is about family planning in Africa, and has chapters on the African context, sexually transmitted infections and infertility, information for providing and using contraceptives effectively, and contraceptive methods. "This new edition still emphasizes family planning methods and practice as they relate to Africa. It gives current information about the menstrual cycle and contraception. It introduces significant new topics. The chapter on HIV infections is especially important. The section on reproductive behavior and population change will be critical to public health officials. The expanded section on `Providing Family Planning Services' has greater depth and breadth because it includes a chapter on education and counseling, as well as one on quality assurance. This new edition brings important ideas to the provision of services for family planning. Prevention, education, and the quality of clinical service get greater emphasis. It also discusses, in detail, new approaches to contraception, such as long-acting hormone implants. Program management, as well as clinic management, is an important part of this new edition."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health (C06), Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30296 Vann, Richard T. Unnatural infertility, or, whatever happened in Colyton? Some reflections on "English population history from family reconstitution 1580-1837" Continuity and Change, Vol. 14, No. 1, May 1999. 91-104 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the recent book by Wrigley, Oeppen, Schofield, and Davies, English population history from family reconstitution 1580-1837. "The volume contains a wealth of new data.... It also introduces new analytic techniques which surely tease out of the data just about everything that they can reveal.... I shall argue that family limitation is a sort of `absent presence' or repressed theme in the book's treatment of changes in fertility, so that it leaves the question of its prevalence still open."
Correspondence: R. T. Vann, Wesleyan University, Department of History, Middletown, CT 06459. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:30297 Woodsong, Cynthia; Koo, Helen P. Two good reasons: women's and men's perspectives on dual contraceptive use. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 5, Sep 1999. 567-80 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the U.S., continued high rates of unintended pregnancy, combined with increases in heterosexual transmission of HIV to women, have sharply magnified concern about the factors leading to or barring the use of contraceptive methods to protect concurrently against both risks. This paper reports on results of focus group research among African-American women participating in a longitudinal study and African-American men who are either partners of the women or are of similar socio-economic status as their partners. We found a high level of agreement between men and women on the issues and problems that both sexes face. People felt that regardless of a woman's use of other contraceptive methods, a condom should always be used for protection. This belief, however, differed markedly from actual practice. Although we attempted to discern the relative salience of concern about pregnancy versus [sexual transmitted infections], we conclude that people may not separate these two concerns in their resolve to use two methods."
Correspondence: C. Woodsong, Center for International Development, Research Triangle Institute, 3040 Cornwallis Road, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194. E-mail: woodsong@rti.org. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30298 Yusuf, Farhat; Siedlecky, Stefania. Female sterilizing operations in New South Wales: a demographic perspective. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 15, No. 1, May 1998. 69-79 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines trends in female sterilizing operations from a demographic perspective. These operations have declined in New South Wales since 1981, with a substantial drop in tubal ligation and hysterectomy, particularly among younger women. The decline in sterilization of women of childbearing age has been due to postponement of births. Younger women have avoided terminal methods of birth control and continued to use methods, such as oral contraceptives and back-up abortion, which allow for a pregnancy at a later age. Sterilizing operations still remain the most commonly reported means of birth control by women over age 35."
Correspondence: F. Yusuf, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Demographic Research Group, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30299 Zambia. Ministry of Health (Lusaka, Zambia). Family planning in reproductive health: policy framework, strategies and guidelines. LC 98-981006. Mar 1997. vi, 116 pp. Lusaka, Zambia. In Eng.
This report concerns family planning and reproductive health in Zambia. Section 1 concerns the country's policy framework. Section 2 deals with strategies for providing family planning within reproductive health, including the background and need for such strategies, improving access to and quality of care of family planning services, target groups for reproductive health, and prevention and management of abortion, infertility, and cervical cancer. Section 3 covers family planning methods, including effectiveness, acceptability, and service delivery requirements.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

65:30300 Bonnar, John. Experience in the use of natural family planning in the field: calendar and calendar-basal body temperature methods. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 119-28 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"In this paper I will review the calendar method and the calendar/temperature method of family planning and deal with the difficulties which arise with these methods of natural fertility regulation." Results indicate that "using basal body temperature (BBT) alone with coitus confined to the post ovulation infertile phase, pregnancy rates are 0.11-1.2 per 100 women per year for method failure. BBT and calendar combined have achieved pregnancy rates of 5.0 for method failure. These methods of periodic abstinence require a strong educational component."
Correspondence: J. Bonnar, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Coombe Women's Hospital, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30301 Burnhill, Michael S. The use of a large-scale surveillance system in Planned Parenthood Federation of American clinics to monitor cardiovascular events in users of combination oral contraceptives. International Journal of Fertility and Women's Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 19-30 pp. Port Washington, New York. In Eng.
"In this retrospective analysis, the association between the occurrence of a thromboembolic event, OC [oral contraceptive] use, and progestin type was assessed in a group of PPFA [Planned Parenthood Federation of America] patients.... This study supports the conclusion that OCs containing 30 or 35 micrograms of estrogen, combined with one of...four previously identified progestins, carry an extremely low risk of a thromboembolic event, particularly when prescribing is based on a defined medical protocol. Overall, these four groups of low-dose estrogen-containing OCs appear safer than any previously published study has indicated."
Correspondence: M. S. Burnhill, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 810 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30302 Colombo, Bernardo. Evaluation of fertility predictors and comparison of different rules. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 153-67 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"There are three main types of observations [that can provide information] on natural regulation of fertility in view of achieving or avoiding a pregnancy: calendar of previous events, basal body temperature, [and] appearance and or sensation of cervical mucus. The paper takes advantage of two sets of data of this kind and of estimates of daily fecundability.... The two sources of information allow [us] to test suggested rules of behaviour from three points of view: applicability, reliability, and acceptability." The data are from London, England, and Vicenza, Italy.
Correspondence: B. Colombo, Università degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Via San Francesco 33, 35121 Padua, Italy. E-mail: colber@hal.stat.unipd.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30303 France, John T. Future developments in home biochemical tests to monitor potential fertility. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 169-76 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper will discuss some of the developments occurring in hormone analysis and their application for future use in fertility detection." Methods considered include saliva or urine tests, new immunoassay techniques, and home testing systems.
Correspondence: J. T. France, University of Auckland, School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Women's Hospital, Auckland 3, New Zealand. E-mail: j.france@auckland.ac.nz. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30304 Frezieres, Ron G.; Walsh, Terri L.; Nelson, Anita L.; Clark, Virginia A.; Coulson, Anne H. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyurethane condom: results from a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 81-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In a double-masked [U.S.] study, 805 monogamous couples were randomized to use either the polyurethane condom or the latex condom for six months.... The six-month pregnancy rate during typical use (adjusted for use of emergency contraception) was 4.8% for the polyurethane condom and 6.3% for the latex condom. Similarly adjusted pregnancy rates during consistent use over six completed menstrual cycles--2.4% for the polyurethane condom and 1.1% for the latex condom--did not differ significantly. Clinical failure rates (including breakage and slippage occurring during either intercourse or withdrawal) were 8.5% for the polyurethane condom and 1.6% for the latex condom."
Correspondence: R. G. Frezieres, California Family Health Council, Research Division, Los Angeles, CA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30305 Fu, Haishan; Darroch, Jacqueline E.; Haas, Taylor; Ranjit, Nalini. Contraceptive failure rates: new estimates from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 56-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We provide new estimates of method-specific [contraceptive] failure rates among women in the United States, using the most recent information from the 1995 NSFG [National Survey of Family Growth] and adjusting for abortion under-reporting.... We present contraceptive failure rates during the first six and during the first 12 months of use. In addition to differentials by method used and by duration of use, we consider the differences according to women's characteristics, such as age, union status, race or ethnicity, poverty status and religion, that have been found to be associated with use-effectiveness." Results indicate that "levels of contraceptive failure vary widely by method, as well as by personal and background characteristics."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30306 Mellemkjær, Lene; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Dreyer, Lene; Olsen, Jørn; Olsen, Jørgen H. Admission for and mortality from primary venous thromboembolism in women of fertile age in Denmark, 1977-95. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7213, Sep 25, 1999. 820-1 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The extent to which the use of third-generation oral contraceptives increases the risk of venous thromboembolism is examined using data on admissions to hospital for this cause among women aged 15-49 in Denmark over the period 1977-1993. The results support the hypothesis that third-generation oral contraceptives do increase the risk of venous thromboembolism to a greater extent than other oral contraceptives, and that this result cannot be explained by confounding for indication.
Correspondence: L. Mellemkjær, Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. E-mail: lene@cancer.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30307 Ory, Howard W.; Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Lincoln, Richard. Making choices: evaluating the health risks and benefits of birth control methods. LC 83-72047. 1983. 72 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors aim to "provide useful and realistic estimates of the health risks and benefits to Americans associated with the various methods of contraception, with sterilization and abortion, and with unintended pregnancy and childbirth in the event that no method is used. The charts and text...show current patterns of contraceptive use, the effectiveness of the various methods, their costs, the sources from which they are obtained, and the laws and policies that control their use.... Both risks and effectiveness of each method are examined for various U.S. population subgroups, for couples who have different family size preferences and for those who use different methods at different stages in their lives."
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 360 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30308 Pérez, Alfredo. General overview of natural family planning. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 75-93 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The paper analyzes...different [natural family planning] methods: Ogino-Knaus, Temperature, Ovulation-Billings, Symptothermal, Lactational Amenorrhea and kits, describing their scientific basis, technical approach, results, advantages and disadvantages and clinical acceptability."
Correspondence: A. Pérez, Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Box 114 D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30309 Rabe, Thomas; Runnebaum, Benno. Fertility control: update and trends. ISBN 3-540-64763-5. LC 98-33842. 1999. xiii, 255 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This collective work, the product of a conference on fertility control, contains 14 papers by various authors. The contents are: The contraceptive revolution: its past and future "history", by Egon Diczfalusy; Decreasing abortion: the potential and the constraints, by Giuseppe Benagiano and Alessandra Pera; Contraception: historical development, current status and future aspects, by Thomas Rabe, Elena Vladescu, and Benno Runnebaum; The future of oral hormonal contraception, by Thomas Rabe and Benno Runnebaum; Cardiovascular risks associated with oral contraceptives, by Lothar A. J. Heinemann and Edeltraut Garbe; Injectable contraceptives, by Catherine d'Arcangues and Rachel C. Snow; Intrauterine contraception: past, present, and future, by Horst Wagner; Intrauterine hormone-releasing systems, by Pekka Lähteenmäki; Vaginal rings for contraceptive use, by John R. Newton; Use of anti-progestins in female contraception, by E. E. Baulieu; Antiprogestins--a new challenge for female contraception, by Marc Bygdeman et al.; Natural methods in family planning, by Günter Freundl; Female and male sterilisation, by Marcus Filshie; and Male contraception: promising new approaches, by Sigrid von Eckardstein and Eberhard Nieschlag.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, Tiergartenstraße 17, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30310 Severy, Lawrence J. Acceptability as a critical component of clinical trials. In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 103-22 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter addresses not just the effectiveness of new contraceptive methods per se, but their acceptability to a couple in a particular social, economic, and cultural environment. It focuses on the clinical trials of a new method, the Unipath System of Contraception, which is a home-use hormone monitoring and urine test system intended to give women information about the days during their monthly cycle when they are, or are not, at risk of pregnancy. Approximately 1,000 women between the ages of 18 and 45 in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Germany took part in trials of the method between 1995 and 1997 to test both its effectiveness and acceptability. Similar trials of the method in the United States are planned.
Correspondence: L. J. Severy, University of Florida, Department of Psychology, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30311 Shulman, Lee P. Oral contraception: safety issues re-examined. International Journal of Fertility and Women's Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 78-82 pp. Port Washington, New York. In Eng.
"This paper will review current studies evaluating venous thromboembolic [VTE], stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer risk in women using OC [oral contraceptive] formulations with less that 50 ug ethinyl estradiol.... [It is found that] safety issues concerning the use of oral contraceptives have largely been laid to rest. Except for a slightly increased risk of VTE in OC users, especially among those who smoke, OC use is not associated with an increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events. In addition, the fear of developing breast cancer among women who are using or have used OCs has not been substantiated by a plethora of studies...."
Correspondence: L. P. Shulman, University of Tennessee, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Genetics, Memphis, TN 38103. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30312 Stevens-Simon, Catherine; Kelly, Lisa; Singer, Dena. Preventing repeat adolescent pregnancies with early adoption of the contraceptive implant. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 88-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To assess whether adoption of the contraceptive implant would lower the rate of repeat pregnancy, contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes were tracked among 309 adolescent [U.S.] mothers--171 `early' implant users who began use within six months of delivery and 138 who either adopted another method or had used no method.... During the first year postpartum, although 7% of the early implant users had their implants removed, pregnancy rates were significantly...lower among early implant users (less than 1%) than among the other adolescent mothers in the sample (20%). By the end of the second year postpartum, 37% of early implant users had discontinued use. Nevertheless, their two-year pregnancy rate (12%) remained significantly lower (p<.0001) than that of the other adolescent mothers (46%)."
Correspondence: C. Stevens-Simon, University of Colorado, Health Science Center, Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Colorado Springs, CO 80933. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30313 Trussell, James; Vaughan, Barbara. Contraceptive failure, method-related discontinuation and resumption of use: results from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 64-72, 93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1995 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth were used to compute life-table probabilities of contraceptive failure for reversible methods of contraception, discontinuation of use for a method-related reason and resumption of contraceptive use.... Within one year of starting to use a reversible method of contraception, 9% of women experience a contraceptive failure--7% of those using the pill, 9% of those relying on the male condom and 19% of those practicing withdrawal.... Overall, 31% of women discontinue use of a reversible contraceptive for a method-related reason within six months of starting use, and 44% do so within 12 months; however, 68% resume use of a method within one month and 76% do so within three months."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30314 Trussell, James; Rodríguez, Germán; Ellertson, Charlotte. Updated estimates of the effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception. Contraception, Vol. 59, No. 3, Mar 1999. 147-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to provide revised estimates of the effectiveness of the Yuzpe method of emergency contraception.... The 45 estimates of effectiveness...ranged from a low of 56.4% to a high of 89.3%. Our preferred point estimate is that the Yuzpe regimen reduces the risk of pregnancy by 74.1%, with a 95% confidence interval extending from 62.9% to 79.2%."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: trussell@princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

65:30315 Agha, Sohail; Karlyn, Andrew; Meekers, Dominique. The promotion of safer sex among high risk individuals in Mozambique. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 21, 1999. 27 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study uses data from a nationally representative sample of sexually active adults to examine the effectiveness of the JeitO condom social marketing (CSM) project in increasing safer sex practices among men and women at risk of contracting HIV in Mozambique. More specifically, this study tests the hypothesis that exposure to program interventions (communications and access) increases condom use with non-regular partners. Exposure to the CSM program is high, and multivariate analyses shows that exposure to CSM advertising and communications and knowledge of a condom source are associated with higher levels of condom use with non-regular partners."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30316 Aghajanian, Akbar; Merhyar, Amir H. Fertility, contraceptive use and family planning program activity in the Islamic republic of Iran. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1999. 98-102 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article describes Iran's family planning program and analyzes its accomplishments." Factors considered include service delivery, government commitment, program accomplishment, quality of service delivery, and desire for smaller families.
Correspondence: A. Aghajanian, Fayetteville State University, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Fayetteville, NC 28301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30317 Ali, Kamran A. Modernization and family planning programs in Egypt. Middle East Report, Vol. 27, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1997. 40-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses the aims and quality of family planning programs in Egypt. "The endeavor to enhance male involvement in family planning decisions in Egypt by the state and international development agencies continues historical efforts to `modernize' the Egyptian poor. Thus, the family planning program as a pedagogical project is linked to constructions of gender, domestic life and the emergence of a responsible citizenry in Egypt."
Correspondence: K. A. Ali, University of Rochester, Department of Anthropology, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30318 Amin, Ruhul. Development strategies and socio-demographic impact of non-governmental organizations: evidence from rural Bangladesh. ISBN 984-05-1393-1. 1997. xvi, 137 pp. University Press: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
This report concerns the role of nongovernmental organizations in carrying out development and family planning projects in Bangladesh. In particular, it examines "the grassroots level integrated programme strategies adopted by most of the NGOs and their socio-demographic impact in some selected areas of rural Bangladesh." Data are from a representative household survey of the NGO beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries, as well as from focus-group sessions and discussions with NGO program administrators and field staff. "The author examines the impact of the NGO credit programme on household income, family planning, immunization coverage, child and infant mortality, women's empowerment, and NGO sustainability."
Correspondence: University Press, Red Crescent Building, 114 Motijheel C/A, G.P.O. Box 2611, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: upl@bangla.net. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30319 Baakile, Benjamin; Maribe, Lucy; Maggwa, Baker N.; Miller, Robert A. A situation analysis of the Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning (MCH/FP) Program in Botswana. LC 98-1263. Jul 1996. vi, 43 pp. Ministry of Health, Family Health Division, MCH/FP Unit: Gaborone, Botswana; Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents results from a review of the quality of the services provided in maternal and child health and family planning in Botswana. A survey was undertaken in 20 hospitals, 121 clinics, and 45 health posts, involving interviews with 451 staff members, 386 family planning clients, and 724 MCH clients. The results concern infrastructure, supplies and equipment, IEC materials and activities, availability of contraceptive methods, need for reproductive health services, and laboratory services.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30320 Díaz, Margarita; Simmons, Ruth; Díaz, Juan; Gonzalez, Carlos; Makuch, Maria Y.; Bossemeyer, Debora. Expanding contraceptive choice: findings from Brazil. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 1, Mar 1999. 1-16 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents findings from a participatory action research project in a municipality in southern Brazil that models a new and holistic approach to broadening women's contraceptive choices. The project encourages a collaborative process between researchers, community members, and public health managers to diagnose service-delivery problems, to design and implement interventions, and to evaluate their effectiveness. Findings from the baseline evaluation revealed major constraints in availability of and access to family planning and reproductive health services for women, as well as severe deficiencies in quality of care.... Evaluation results show the project's considerable impact in broadening reproductive options, although not all issues, especially those related to sustainability, have been resolved."
Correspondence: M. Díaz, Cidade Universitária, Department of Education, Training and Communication, CEMICAMP, Caixa Postal 6181, 13081-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30321 Donaldson, Dayl S. Evaluation of factors influencing the cost-effectiveness of mobile family planning units in Tunisia. In: Reproductive health and infectious disease in the Middle East, edited by Robin Barlow and Joseph W. Brown. 1998. 71-91 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"In 1986, the Office National de la Famille et de la Population...undertook a study of the cost-effectiveness of mobile units which provide family planning services in Tunisia.... This chapter extends the analysis of how demographic, socioeconomic, and programmatic factors are related to the output of the mobile units, with emphasis on including variables of policy and management relevance. Further, the chapter considers how the same factors influence program costs."
Correspondence: D. S. Donaldson, Management Sciences for Health, 165 Allandale Road, Boston, MA 02130. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30322 Gold, Rachel B.; Sonfield, Adam. Family planning funding through four federal-state programs, FY 1997. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1999. 176-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The health and social services agencies in all U.S. states, the District of Columbia and five federal jurisdictions were queried regarding their family planning expenditures and activities through the MCH [maternal and child health] and social services block grants and the TANF [Temporary Aid to Needy Families] program in FY 1997.... In FY 1997, 42 states, the District of Columbia and two federal jurisdictions spent $41 million on family planning through the MCH program. Fifteen states reported spending $27 million through the social services block grant.... Four states reported family planning activities funded under TANF in FY 1997, the first year of the program's operation."
Correspondence: R. B. Gold, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1120 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 460, Washington, D.C. 20036-3922. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30323 Hull, Terence H. Indonesia's family planning programme: Swept aside in the deluge? Development Bulletin, No. 46, 1998. 30-2 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author discusses the possible impact of Asia's current financial crisis on Indonesia's family planning program. "This paper both questions and confirms the notion that the Indonesian family planning programme is in trouble."
Correspondence: T. H. Hull, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.

65:30324 Magnani, Robert J.; Hotchkiss, David R.; Florence, Curtis S.; Shafer, Leigh A. The impact of the family planning supply environment on contraceptive intentions and use in Morocco. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 2, Jun 1999. 120-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Although the extent to which organized family planning programs influence reproductive preferences remains a subject of debate, most observers would grant that such programs play a key role in helping individuals to realize their contraceptive and reproductive intentions. However, few prior studies have quantified the magnitude of this facilitating or enabling effect of family planning services, given existing demand for contraception. This study takes advantage of panel survey data and linked information on the supply environment for family planning services in Morocco in order to bridge this research gap. In the analysis, contraceptive use during the 1992-95 period is related to contraceptive intentions in 1992; individual-, household-, and community-level determinants of contraceptive behavior; and family planning supply factors.... Evidence of a significant enabling or facilitating role of family planning services is found, and the results also suggest that family planning programs factors influence contraceptive intentions in important ways."
Correspondence: R. J. Magnani, Tulane University Medical Center, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health and Development, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70112. E-mail: magnani@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30325 Phillips, James F.; Greene, Wendy L.; Jackson, Elizabeth F. Lessons from community-based distribution of family planning in Africa. Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 121, 1999. 102 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reviews findings and experiences from efforts to implement community-based family planning services in sub-Saharan Africa.... Reasons for the constrained impact of community-based family planning in Africa are reviewed and assumptions about the efficacy and mechanism of community-based distribution (CBD) are discussed."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30326 Rinehart, Ward; Rudy, Sharon; Drennan, Megan. GATHER guide to counseling. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1998. 32 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The acronym GATHER stands for Greet, Ask, Tell, Help, Explain, and Return.... [This] new 32-page, color-coded guide includes the latest medical eligibility criteria for each contraceptive method developed by the World Health Organization and other international experts. Each GATHER element has its own 2-page pull-out chart for display or quick reference. The guide also includes suggested training exercises and discussions, examples of dialogue that counselors can adopt, and a checklist for providers to rate themselves on each GATHER element."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. E-mail: PopRepts@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30327 Stout, Susan; Evans, Alison; Nassim, Janet; Raney, Laura. Evaluating health projects: lessons from the literature. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 356, ISBN 0-8213-3881-1. 1997. xi, 118 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper reviews lessons from the literature on approaches to the evaluation of health programs and policies.... The paper describes how an assessment of the [World] Bank's experience in the sector might be undertaken. The underlying thesis is that changes in health policy and improved health outcomes depend on the institutional incentives that drive health care system performance and on the demand for health services."
Correspondence: World Bank, Publications Sales Unit, Department F, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

65:30328 Agnew, Christopher R. Power over interdependent behavior within the dyad: who decides what a couple does? In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 163-88 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter examines the underpinnings of a specific class of human behaviors, identified as interdependent behaviors, in the context of the formulation developed by Kurt Lewin that behavior is a function of the person and the environment. "Psychologists interested in population issues will find that many population-relevant behaviors fall into this class, including a central fertility behavior (sexual intercourse) and an important contraceptive behavior (condom use). While at first glance interdependent behaviors may seem difficult to elucidate within Lewin's formula, it is hoped that the reader will come to recognize the utility of adopting this social psychological approach."
Correspondence: C. R. Agnew, Purdue University, Department of Psychological Sciences, West Lafayette, IN 47907. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30329 Asari, V. Gopalakrishnan; John, C. Determinants of desired family size in Kerala. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998. 369-81 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The aims of this study are "to study the change in desired and actual family size [in Kerala, India] during the last 15 years at two points of time [and] to study the determinants of desired family size in terms of socio-economic (education, occupation, religion, contraceptive practice, etc.) and demographic (age at marriage, sex, no. children born, etc.) factors." Data are from two surveys conducted in 1972 and 1988.
Correspondence: V. G. Asari, University of Kerala, Population Research Centre, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30330 Basu, Bharati; Bechtold, Brigitte. Endogenous determination of parenting preferences by interaction of an internal and an external game. Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 30, No. 2, Spring 1998. 31-45 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Marriage partners' parenting preferences are shown to be determined by an internal (within the household) game, the outcome of which is influenced by `extra-environmental parameters' in the form of an external game between outside gender-based interest groups and the government."
Correspondence: B. Basu, Central Michigan University, Department of Economics, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859. E-mail: b.basu@cmich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30331 Cákiová, Eva. Survey on family and reproduction. [Setrení rodiny a reprodukce.] Demografie, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1999. 85-94 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"This article acquaints readers with the results of the Survey on Family and reproduction carried out by the Czech Statistical Office in 1998. The survey included 1,735 women between 15-44 years and 721 of their partners.... The respondents expressed their views on social and population policy, views and attitudes to marriage and family, connecting value orientation and real situation of their own family and partner's relations.... Views and attitudes of people on these problems are especially influenced by their age and, above all, by their educational attainment."
Correspondence: E. Cákiová, Ceský Statistický Úrad, v nakladatelství GTA, Kostelní 42, 170 78 Prague 7, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30332 Eggleston, Elizabeth; Jackson, Jean; Hardee, Karen. Sexual attitudes and behavior among young adolescents in Jamaica. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1999. 78-84, 91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Data from a 1995 survey of 945 Jamaican students aged 11-14 and information from a set of focus-group discussions with a subset of survey respondents in 1996 are used to explore the reproductive behavior and attitudes of low-income Jamaican youth attending schools of poor academic caliber.... Sixty-four percent of boys said they had experienced sexual intercourse, compared to 6% of girls. Both boys and girls had inaccurate knowledge about reproductive health and behavior.... The sexual attitudes and behavior of young adolescents in Jamaica have already been significantly shaped by sociocultural and gender norms that send mixed messages about sexuality and impose different standards of behavior for boys and girls."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: E. Eggleston, Family Health International, Women's Studies Division, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30333 Evina, Akam; Ngoy, Kishimba. Fertility, family planning, and the crisis in an urban environment in Cameroon: the case of a mid-size town, Edéa. [Fécondité, planification familiale et crise en milieu urbain camerounais: le cas d'une ville moyenne, Edéa.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 393-404 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The demographic effect of the economic crisis that has affected Cameroon since 1987 is examined using the example of the town of Edéa. Data are from a socio-demographic survey carried out by the Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques [IFORD] in 1994. The results indicate that the crisis is significantly affecting demographic behavior in the town. Some examples of its impact are declining family solidarity, changing attitudes toward family size favoring smaller families, and increasing use of family planning to limit fertility rather than to space births.
Correspondence: A. Evina, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30334 Gupta, Hari S. Sex preference and fertility in Haryana. Population Geography, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1996. 37-46 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The present paper is an attempt to analyze the variation of sex preference in the State of Haryana [India] among various age groups and further its impact on fertility behaviour.... The study further [examines] whether in the Indian system [of] family planning measures, sex ratio of desired additional children may be taken as a basis for the measurement of overall effect of sex preference on fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30335 Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia J.; Litardo, Harold A. Parent-adolescent communication about sex and birth control: implications for parent based interventions to reduce unintended adolescent pregnancy. In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 189-227 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter discusses educational efforts aimed at the parents of teens with the goal of reducing risky adolescent sexual behavior. Specifically, the authors "present data from an in depth study of approximately 750 inner city African American adolescents and their mothers living in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania]. The data highlight both the challenges and the potential of parent based intervention efforts and address four main questions: 1. Are parents sensitive to when their adolescents become sexually active?... 2. Do parents have accurate knowledge about reproduction and contraception?... 3. Are parents willing to engage their adolescents in discussions about sex?... [and] 4. Do parents have an impact on their adolescent's sexual beliefs and behaviors?" The authors also introduce a parent-education program they have developed.
Correspondence: J. Jaccard, State University of New York, Department of Psychology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30336 Krishna Reddy, M. M. Two child family norms in rural India: problems and prospects. ISBN 81-7391-195-9. 1997. xvii, 266 pp. Kanishka Publishers, Distributors: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study is an attempt to establish the extent to which the two-child family norm is a viable objective in contemporary rural India. The author notes that rural people, particularly in less-well-developed regions, still hope to have at least one and preferably two male children. However, there is widespread evidence of changing attitudes between generations; younger couples are more willing to accept family planning once they have two children, regardless of the sex of those children.
Correspondence: Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, 4697/5-21A, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

65:30337 Kritz, Mary M.; Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina. Couple differences in family planning approval and sources of variation: the role of ethnicity and wife's authority in Nigeria. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 98.07, [1998]. 14, [8] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The authors "empirically [assess] four questions: how husbands and wives in five Nigerian ethnic groups...differ in their attitudes toward reproduction, in general, and approval of family planning, in particular; whether the correlates of family planning approval differ for husbands and wives and vary by ethnicity; to what extent husbands' and wives' characteristics influence their mate's approval of family planning; and whether wife's decision-making authority within the household affects attitudes toward family planning."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30338 Noumbissi, Amadou; Sanderson, Jean-Paul. Communication between spouses on family planning in Cameroon. The couple's norms and strategies concerning fertility. [La communication entre conjoints sur la planification familiale au Cameroun. Les normes et les stratégies du couple en matière de fécondité.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 131-44 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This study is concerned with African couples' norms and values and how they affect decision making within the family on fertility matters. Data are from the Enquête Démographique et de Santé, a survey in the DHS series carried out in 1991. The authors compare the woman's norms and values concerning fertility with those of her husband, and construct a typology of couples that includes socioeconomic characteristics as well as norms and values. The authors then analyze the relationship between the typology and actual fertility. The relative importance of husbands' and wives' input regarding fertility decisions is assessed.
Correspondence: A. Noumbissi, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30339 Piccinino, Linda; Peterson, Linda S. Ambivalent attitudes and unintended pregnancy. In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 227-49 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines a series of experimental scaled items designed to detect young women's ambivalent attitudes toward getting pregnant, revealed through collecting their ratings of discordant statements on feelings about their pregnancies. We document underlying contradictions in women's attitudes about getting pregnant which may help us learn about the cognitive context in which a pregnancy is conceived." Data are from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth and concern the United States. The relevance of the ambivalence toward pregnancy for the effective use of contraception is discussed.
Correspondence: L. Piccinino, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Family Growth Survey Branch, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30340 Stein, Dorothy. Reproductive politics and the Cairo conference. Contention, Vol. 5, No. 2, Winter 1996. 37-58 pp. Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
The author argues "(1) that the assumption that people in general, and women in particular, must be bribed or coerced to lower their birth rates lies behind such disparate views as the belief that `development is the best contraceptive', and feminist hostility to family planning programs; (2) that the well-being of women (not to mention children, who are never mentioned) is enhanced by fewer pregnancies and smaller family sizes; and (3) that women themselves, despite all the pronatalist pressures on them, if given freedom and power, prefer to bear and rear only a small number of children."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30341 Stycos, J. Mayone. Adolescent attitudes toward family size in India: the impact of gender, culture, and values. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 98.04, Oct 1998. 14 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"A questionnaire containing items on desired family size was administered to about 15,000 secondary school students in three states of India.... Multiple regression analysis showed that culture (state), sex education, and general values regarding male dominance and religion were the key explanatory variables."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30342 Stycos, J. Mayone. Gender differences in attitudes toward family size: a survey of Indian adolescents. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 98.03, 1998. 8, [7] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author explores gender differences in attitudes toward family size, using data from a survey of secondary school children in Uttar Pradesh, India.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30343 Westoff, Charles F.; Bankole, Akinrinola. Mass media and reproductive behavior in Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. DHS Analytical Report, No. 10, May 1999. ix, 32 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The central question addressed in this research is whether regular exposure to the mass media, especially to radio and television, influences family planning attitudes and behavior.... The data are based on five national samples of women of reproductive age: Pakistan in 1990-91 and in 1994-95, India in 1992-93, and Bangladesh in 1993-94 and 1996-97."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30344 Williams, Lindy; Piccinino, Linda; Abma, Joyce. Pregnancy wantedness: attitude stability over time. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 98.06, [1998]. 8, [16] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1988 round of the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth and from a 1990 telephone reinterview of the 1988 NSFG respondents, we compare two retrospective reports of the same pregnancy.... This study is intended to ascertain not only how consistent the respondent was in reporting her own attitudes, but also to determine how stable her reports were of her husband's or partner's preferences. The design allows us to test directly what thus far has been largely speculative, the level of attitude stability over time in retrospective data on pregnancy wantedness."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30345 Yana, Simon D. Economic crisis and family characteristics: a study of attitudes toward marriage and reproduction in Cameroon. [Conjoncture économique et constitution de la famille: une étude des représentations du mariage et de la procréation au Cameroun.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 377-92 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author presents evidence of the effect of economic constraints on attitudes toward marriage and fertility in Benin using data on 74 individuals from the Bamiléké and Bëti ethnic groups in both rural and urban areas who were interviewed in 1991 and 1992. The results indicate that individual perceptions of a country's socioeconomic situation affect attitudes toward fertility and family characteristics, and are useful indicators of future trends in these areas. Such changes in attitude are particularly evident with regard to family planning and polygamy. Furthermore, these indicators are present before any changes can be measured using traditional demographic methods.
Correspondence: S. D. Yana, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Yanas@ere.umontreal.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30346 Zavier, Francis; Nair, Sukumari N. Regret after sterilisation: a socio-demographic analysis in South India. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998. 383-400 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The aim of the present study is to find out the social and demographic factors leading to regret after sterilisation in [the] southern region of India [using data from the] National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 1992-93).... Although in [most] developing countries, regret [following] sterilisation is due to the desire for more children, [this] pattern is not true in the case of South India, except Kerala. In general, the regret is due to the side effects of sterilisation in South India.... Among the four states selected, [the] sex combination of children is [a] major factor affecting the regret after sterilisation."
Correspondence: F. Zavier, University of Kerala, Department of Demography, Trivandrum 695 034, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

65:30347 Babu, N. Phanindra; Nidhi; Verma, Ravi K. Abortion in India: What does the National Family Health Survey tell us? Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 4, Dec 1998. 45-54 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
Data from the 1992-1993 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS) are analyzed, with the aim of examining "1. state-wide variations in the extent of induced and spontaneous abortions; 2. the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors on the acceptance of induced abortion; 3. state-wise variations in the incidence of repeated abortion; and 4. the associated social, economic and demographic characteristics of women seeking repeated abortions."
Correspondence: N. P. Babu, International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Extramural Studies and Distance Education, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30348 Baird, Barbara. Abortion politics, Australia, 1998. Australian Feminist Studies, Vol. 13, No. 28, Oct 1998. 295-338 pp. Carfax Publishing: Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This section contains four articles on abortion politics in Australia. "In mid-February [1998] two doctors from one of the two private abortion clinics in Perth, Western Australia, were charged under provisions of the WA Criminal Code which refer to abortion. Australian Feminist Studies decided to respond quickly to the political struggles over abortion that have ensued by commissioning and publishing [a] special section about contemporary abortion politics in Australia which focuses on the WA situation, and also goes beyond it."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: B. Baird, University of Adelaide, Department of Social Inquiry, Level 3, Tower Building, 10 Pulteney Street, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:30349 Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela; Haas, Taylor. Characteristics of women who obtain induced abortion: a worldwide review. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1999. 68-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Data from government statistics, nationally representative sample surveys and subnational sources are used to estimate percentage distributions of abortions and abortion rates and ratios by selected characteristics of women, particularly age at abortion, marital status and parity. Comparisons are made within and across countries.... Women aged 40 and older generally obtain the lowest proportion of abortions (10% or fewer in most countries).... In more than half of the countries studied, married women obtain a larger portion of abortions than unmarried women. However, once pregnant, unmarried women are more likely than married women to choose abortion. More than half of abortions are obtained by women with at least one child. Some variations exist in these patterns by region."
Correspondence: A. Bankole, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30350 Barbour, Charles A.; Shughart, William F. Legal institutions and abortion rates in Mississippi. Cato Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring-Summer 1998. 119-29 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors discuss reasons for the decline in rates of induced abortion in Mississippi. "Evidence from the State of Mississippi suggests that legal obstacles to abortion have a dramatic impact on both abortion rates and birth rates.... Our analysis suggests that abortion rates have fallen because fewer women are choosing to become pregnant and, among those who do, fewer are choosing to have abortions. Hence, if, in President Clinton's words, one wants abortions to be `safe, legal, and rare,' laws making them more costly are a way of promoting that goal."
Correspondence: W. F. Shughart II, University of Mississippi, Department of Economics, Lafayette County, MS 38677. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30351 Blayo, Chantal. Dying from abortion: political and social factors. [Mourir d'avortement: facteurs politiques et sociaux.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 318-26 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of the global situation concerning abortion mortality. The author notes that the World Health Organization currently estimates that some 70,000 women currently die each year from this cause, nearly all as a result of illegal abortions undertaken in unsafe conditions. She notes that the risk of dying from an abortion is closely linked to its legal status and to the application of abortion laws. She concludes that mortality from this cause could be virtually eliminated at a very low cost, and without any need for medical or technological advances, if the relevant laws were changed and barriers of cost and service accessibility reduced to a minimum.
Correspondence: C. Blayo, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV, avenue Léon-Duguit, 33608 Pessac, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30352 Davenport, Cheryl. Achieving abortion law reform in Western Australia. Australian Feminist Studies, Vol. 13, No. 28, Oct 1998. 299-304 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The author provides "a brief history of the abortion laws in Western Australia up to and including the presentation of my Private Member's Bill and its extraordinary passage through both Houses of Parliament."
Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:30353 Ginsburg, Faye D. Contested lives: the abortion debate in an American community. ISBN 0-520-21735-7. LC 98-216765. 1998. xxxviii, 315 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
This is a revised and updated edition of a book originally published in 1989, which examines the conflict that has taken place in the United States over the issue of abortion by focusing on the struggle that took place in Fargo, North Dakota, over an abortion clinic. "Taking the vantage point of this isolated upper Midwest clinic, the [book] traces the stigma attached to abortion that undermines its availability as fewer and fewer clinics, hospitals, doctors, and medical schools are willing to offer the procedure or training in its delivery. As a result, there are no abortion providers in 84 percent of U.S. counties. While the number of abortions per year has remained stable over the last quarter century at around 1.5 million (with a small decline in recent years), few doctors know how to do abortions and less than 12 percent of OB-GYN training programs routinely teach their residents how to carry out this procedure." Particular attention is given to the rise of antiabortion violence and to the dangers faced by abortion providers.
Correspondence: University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30354 Kirkby, Margaret. Western Australia's new abortion laws: restrictive and reinforcing the power of the medical profession and the state over women's bodies and lives. Australian Feminist Studies, Vol. 13, No. 28, Oct 1998. 305-12 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The author assesses the Davenport Bill, which was introduced in Western Australia's legislative council in an attempt to change abortion law. "However, in the course of the bill's subsequent progression through both houses of Parliament, a great many changes were made. I argue that the result of these changes and trade-offs has been a highly compromised piece of legislation.... In particular I am concerned that the legislation creates a process wherein all WA women will now need to see two doctors before they can terminate a pregnancy and that there is likely to be a reduction of access for women under 16 and for women who require a late-term abortion. I argue that, overall, the final version of the Davenport Bill will result in less access to abortion for WA women...."
Correspondence: M. Kirkby, Women's Abortion Action Campaign, P.O. Box A2233, Sydney South, NSW 2000, Australia. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:30355 Koonin, Lisa M.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Chrisman, Camaryn E.; Montalbano, Myra A.; Bartlett, Linda A.; Smith, Jack C. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 48, No. SS-4, Jul 30, 1999. iv, 44 pp. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes and reviews information reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States in 1996. This report also includes recently reported abortion-related deaths that occurred in 1992.... From 1990 through 1995, the number of abortions declined each year; in 1996, the number of abortions in the United States stabilized. As in previous years, deaths related to legal induced abortions occurred rarely (i.e., approximately one death per 100,000 legal induced abortions)."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Epidemiology Program Office, Division of Surveillance and Epidemiology, 1600 Clifton Road, MSC08, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30356 Okonofua, Friday E.; Odimegwu, Clifford; Ajabor, Helen; Daru, Patrick H.; Johnson, Agnes. Assessing the prevalence and determinants of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 1, Mar 1999. 67-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in the Jos and Ife local government areas of Nigeria. A total of 1,516 randomly selected women aged 15-45 responded to a pretested structured questionnaire designed to elicit information concerning previous unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions in a value-free manner. Nearly 20 percent of the women reported having had an unwanted pregnancy. Of these, 58 percent reported that they had successfully terminated the pregnancies; 32 percent continued the pregnancies; and nearly 9 percent stated that they had attempted termination but failed. Overall, the prevalence of self-reports of induced abortion was 11 percent."
Correspondence: F. E. Okonofua, Women's Health and Action Research Centre, 4 Alofoje Street, Off Uwasota Street, P.O. Box 10231, Ugbowo, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30357 Ortiz Ortega, Adriana. Facts and opinions about abortion: a contribution to the debate. [Razones y pasiones en torno al aborto: una contribución al debate.] ISBN 968-409-797-2. 1994. xiii, 334 pp. EDAMEX: Mexico City, Mexico; Population Council: New York, New York. In Spa.
This is a collective work on aspects of induced abortion in Mexico, and includes contributions from both sides of the debate on the need to legalize abortion in the country. There are chapters on moral, human rights, and philosophical aspects; juridical aspects; public policy and abortion; attitudes about abortion; feminist perspectives; medical considerations; bioethical factors; pro-life perspectives; and the fact that the women concerned have the final say about abortion.
Correspondence: EDAMEX, Heriberto Frías 1104, Colonia del Valle, Mexico 03100, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30358 Ripper, Margie; Ryan, Lyndall. The role of the "withdrawal method" in the control of abortion. Australian Feminist Studies, Vol. 13, No. 28, Oct 1998. 313-21 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"[This] story can be read at a number of levels. It puts on record the extraordinary sequence of events that culminated in the withdrawal by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NH&MRC) in February of 1998 of the Report that it commissioned in 1992 on termination of pregnancy services in Australia. Lessons can be learned from this story about the difficulty (perhaps current impossibility) of transcending moral discourses when considering abortion. Also it illustrates the centrality of gender power in the contest about who is `expert' in the highly prestigious medical arena."
Correspondence: M. Ripper, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

65:30359 Collins, William P. Self, laboratory and clinical tests of potential fertility. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 143-51 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This review provides a psychological background to the introduction of a personal monitor for locating the start and finish of potential fertility during the menstrual cycle. The temporal relationship between indices of potential fertility and the day specific probability of conception are described. The new test system primarily involves the measurement of defined changes in the concentration of estrone glucuronide (EG) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in samples of early morning urine according to an adaptive algorithm."
Correspondence: W. P. Collins, Kings College, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Diagnostics Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8RX, England. E-mail: w.collins@kcl.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30360 Smith, Tom W. The demography of sexual behavior. Sexuality and American Social Policy, Vol. 1, ISBN 0-944525-15-6. 1994. xxii, 84 pp. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation: Menlo Park, California. In Eng.
This is the first in a "series of 12 seminars that will examine how sexual behavior [in the United States] affects teen pregnancy, abortion, the spread of HIV, welfare, and other social problems with which society and government must deal.... In this paper we will outline what is currently known about American sexual behavior. Attention will focus on (1) trends and (2) socio-demographic differences within the following areas: Premarital and adolescent sexual activity, including cohabitation and nonmarital births; Adult and general sexual behavior, including extramarital relations, gender of sexual partners, frequency of sexual intercourse, and sexual inactivity; The impact of AIDS on sexual behavior, including reported changes in sexual behavior, number of sexual partners, relationships between sexual partners, prostitution, and the use of condoms."
Correspondence: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Suite 100, Menlo Park, CA 94025-6944. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30361 Taskin, Lale. Major barriers to breastfeeding: education and urbanization. Turkish Journal of Population Studies/Nüfusbilim Dergisi, Vol. 20, 1998. 31-41 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"In light of data derived from the 1993 Turkish Demography and Health Survey, this study was planned to clarify the problems regarding breastfeeding and explores [the] status of children still breastfeeding at 12-23 months, along with the reasons for weaning and the median month for introducing supplementation.... According to the results obtained from the study, it is found that `breastfeeding status', `insufficient milk' as a reason of weaning, and the median month for starting supplementary food are closely related to place of residence and educational status."
Correspondence: L. Taskin, Hacettepe University School of Nursing, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30362 Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wilcox, A. J.; Baird, D. D.; Gladen, B. B. The probability of conception as related to the timing of intercourse around ovulation. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 129-42 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
The authors investigate "the relationship between the timing of intercourse relative to ovulation and the likelihood of conception.... This paper reports estimates based on a prospective study carried out in North Carolina...." Results indicate that "the maximum single day probability of conception is 0.37. The probability may be nil except during the 6-day interval ending on the day of ovulation. A parametric model yields half-lives of 25.6 hours for the sperm, and 1.2 hours for the ovum. Heterogeneity in fecundability among couples was evident and future statistical models should account for this heterogeneity."
Correspondence: C. R. Weinberg, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Statistics and Biomathematics Branch, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: weinberg@pogo.niehs.nih.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

65:30363 Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.; Barton, Sara A.; Marty-Gonzalez, Luisa F.; Rivas, Fernando; Chakraborty, Ranajit. Estimation of nonpaternity in the Mexican population of Nuevo Leon: a validation study with blood group markers. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 109, No. 3, Jul 1999. 281-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A method for estimating the general rate of nonpaternity in a population was validated using phenotype data on seven blood groups...on 396 mother, child, and legal father trios from Nuevo Léon, Mexico.... The maximum likelihood estimate of the general nonpaternity rate in the population was 0.118 +/- 0.020. The nonpaternity rates in Nuevo Léon were also seen to be inversely related with the socioeconomic status of the families, i.e., the highest in the low and the lowest in the high socioeconomic class.... We conclude that even though DNA markers are more informative, the probabilistic approach developed here would still be needed to estimate the true rate of nonpaternity in a population or to evaluate the precision of detecting true fathers."
Correspondence: R. Chakraborty, University of Texas School of Public Health, Human Genetics Center, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225. E-mail: rc@hgc9.sph.uth.tmc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30364 Mensch, Barbara S.; Bagah, Daniel; Clark, Wesley H.; Binka, Fred. The changing nature of adolescence in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 2, Jun 1999. 95-111 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study reports the results of a primarily qualitative investigation of adolescent reproductive behavior in the Kassena-Nankana District, an isolated rural area in northern Ghana, where traditional patterns of marriage, family formation, and social organization persist.... The social environment that adolescent boys and girls in the Kassena-Nankana District encounter and its links to reproductive behavior are described. The principal question is whether even in this remote rural area, the social environment has been altered in ways that have undermined traditional sexual and reproductive patterns. The survey data indicate a considerable increase in girls' education and the beginning of a decline in the incidence of early marriage. The qualitative data suggest that social institutions, systems, and practices such as female circumcision that previously structured the lives of adolescent boys and girls have eroded, leading to an apparent increase in premarital sexual activity."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: B. S. Mensch, Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: bmensch@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30365 Munoz-Pérez, Francisco; Prioux, France. A survey in the civil registration registers: filiation and changing status of children born outside marriage. [Une enquête dans les registres d'état civil: filiation et devenir des enfants nés hors mariage.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 251-70 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Cohabitation in France has developed to the point at which roughly four in ten children are now born outside marriage. A survey based on direct sampling of the civil registration registers was conducted...to increase our understanding of the situation of these children at birth--filiation, name--and of the changes that occur as they get older.... The survey covers seven generations of children born between 1965 and 1994, who were observed from birth up to the time of the survey which was completed in 1997.... This article sets out the methods used in the survey and the difficulties that arose from the special character of the information collected."
Correspondence: F. Munoz-Pérez, Institut National d'Études Démogaphiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: munoz@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30366 Oettinger, Gerald S. The effects of sex education on teen sexual activity and teen pregnancy. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 107, No. 3, Jun 1999. 606-44 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper empirically examines the relationship between enrollment in sex education and subsequent sexual behavior for U.S. teenagers during the 1970s. The estimates indicate that enrollment in sex education was associated with earlier sexual activity for females in this cohort. Sex education also was associated with earlier pregnancy for some groups of females, but these effects are smaller and not always statistically significant. For both types of transitions, the effect of sex education appears to have been larger for women with fewer alternative sources of sexual information. In contrast, sex education had much less impact on male transitions into sexual activity. Within-family analyses using sibling data reveal qualitatively similar patterns."
Correspondence: G. S. Oettinger, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30367 Rendall, Michael S. Entry or exit? A transition-probability approach to explaining the high prevalence of single motherhood among black women. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 369-76 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I analyze the prevalence of single motherhood among black and non-Hispanic white [U.S.] women in terms of differences in entry and exit. Higher initial entry rates among black women, especially through unpartnered childbearing, account for slightly more than half the difference between blacks and whites in the prevalence of single motherhood. The remainder of the difference is due to black single mothers' much lower rates of exit through union formation and to their very high rates of reentry through dissolution of these later unions. Entry and exit rates through the 1990s imply a widening racial gap."
Correspondence: M. S. Rendall, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. E-mail: rendall@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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