Volume 65 - Number 3 - Fall 1999

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications.

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

65:30080 Akoto, Eliwo M.; Mudubu Konande, Léon; Rakotondrabe, Patricia. The recent and future mortality decline in developing countries: myth or reality? [Baisse récente et future de la mortalité dans les pays en voie de développement: mythe ou réalité?] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 534-43 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent mortality trends in developing countries around the world are reviewed using data from published sources. The authors note that although mortality has declined significantly over the last 20 years, considerable variations in the pace of the decline exist among countries. The importance of carrying out regular demographic and health surveys to provide the data to monitor these trends is emphasized.
Correspondence: E. M. Akoto, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30081 Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF] (Paris, France). Morbidity and Mortality: Problems of Measurement, Trends, and Future Prospects. International conference held in Sinaia (September 2-6, 1996). [Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996).] Publications de l'AIDELF, No. 8, ISBN 2-950-93562-1. 1998. v, 737 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a conference of francophone demographers, held on September 2-6, 1996, in Sinaia, Romania, on aspects of mortality and morbidity. There were three sessions at the conference. The first was about problems in measuring morbidity and mortality. The second examined morbidity and mortality trends in society and public health, in the physical and professional environment, and in genetic factors. The third session discussed possible future trends in morbidity and mortality.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française, Secrétariat Général 133, boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30082 Catteau, Christine. Recorded mortality in Réunion. [La mortalité observée à la Réunion.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 136-46 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Current mortality trends in Réunion are analyzed based on data from official sources. The reasons behind the higher rates of mortality on the island than in metropolitan France are examined. There are sections concerning the demographic situation on the island and its impact on mortality, the rapid decline in mortality that has taken place in recent years, the main causes of death, and AIDS.
Correspondence: C. Catteau, DDASS, Réunion, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30083 Cazes, Marie H. Future mortality perspectives based on causes of death over the next 30 years. [Prospectives de la mortalité à partir des causes de décès à l'horizon des trente prochaines années.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 544-56 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author reviews the current global mortality situation by analyzing trends in causes of death, with the aim of identifying possible future trends in mortality for the next 30 years. Four main contemporary mortality patterns are identified: that of the developed countries of the West, the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, developing countries with low levels of mortality, and developing countries with high mortality. The author concludes that, with the exception of Africa, mortality trends are likely to decline, although the gap between the more and less favored countries will probably grow larger.
Correspondence: M. H. Cazes, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30084 Clerc, Paul. A picture of future life-expectancy trends from a UN perspective: each country's unique path toward a common ceiling. [Image des progrès futurs de survie dans les perspectives des Nations Unies: vers le plafond universel, un chemin par pays.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 557-75 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author conducts a general review of UN efforts over the past 40 years to project future trends in mortality and life expectancy; the focus is on describing some of the problems inherent in this undertaking. He notes how it has been necessary progressively to increase the estimated maximum length of human life based on actual mortality experience. The question of whether there is one single universal norm for life expectancy, or whether this may be country-specific to some extent, is considered.
Correspondence: P. Clerc, Université de Caen, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30085 Di Pino, Antonino; Pirri, Pasquale. Analysis of survival functions by a logistic derivation model: the "generalized de moivre" function. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 35-54 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The Generalized De Moivre (GDM) is an analytical survival function deriving from the idea originally put forth by De Moivre.... We compare the GDM and the [Heligman-Pollard model].... We discuss the interpretation of the parameters of the GDM, and we show how they vary according to the mortality context examined, and how they can be profitably used for practical purposes.... [We] argue for a wider use of the GDM in computer-aided demographic analysis of survival." The models are tested using data from Italian life tables for the period 1901-1992.
Correspondence: A. Di Pino, Università degli Studi di Messina, Istituto di Economia, Statistica e Analisi del Territorio, Via T. Cannizzaro 9, 98100 Messina, Italy. E-mail: dipino@imeuniv.unime.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30086 Dopico, Fausto; Reher, David-Sven. The decline in mortality in Spain, 1860-1930. [El declive de la mortalidad en España, 1860-1930.] ADEH Monografía, No. 1, ISBN 84-930864-0-1. 1998. 168 pp. Asociación de Demografía Histórica [ADEH]: Bilbao, Spain. In Spa.
The first chapter in this study describes the methodology used to analyze the mortality transition that has occurred in Spain. The second chapter applies these methods to analyze the mortality decline that took place between 1860 and 1930 by major historical region. The third chapter examines mortality differentials between rural and urban areas. Life tables for Spain for the country as a whole and for the regions are provided in an appendix for 1900, 1910, 1920, and 1930.
Correspondence: Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Universitat d'Alacant, Campus Universitari de Sant Joan, Ap. de Correus 374, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30087 Eschbach, Karl; Hagan, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, Nestor; Hernández-León, Rubén; Bailey, Stanley. Death at the border. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer 1999. 430-54 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Debates about United States border control policies have generally ignored the human costs of undocumented migration. We focus attention on these costs by estimating the number, causes and location of migrant deaths at the southwest border of the United States between 1993 and 1997.... Deaths from hyperthermia, hypothermia and dehydration increased sharply from 1993 to 1997 as intensified border enforcement redirected undocumented migration flows from urban crossing points to more remote crossing areas where the migrants are exposed to a greater risk of death."
Correspondence: K. Eschbach, University of Houston, Center for Immigration Research, Houston, TX 77204-3477. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30088 Glavce, Cristiana; Popescu, Irina. The influence of pronatalist policies on mortality and on the biological fitness of the newborn in Romania between 1989 and 1994. [L'influence des politiques natalistes sur la mortalité et la qualité biologique du nouveau-né en Roumanie, entre 1989 et 1994.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 376-88 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The demographic consequences of the dramatic change from the strongly pronatalist policy in Romania up to 1989 to a more laissez-faire attitude after the fall of Ceausescu are analyzed, with particular reference to the impact on fertility, natural increase, and infant and maternal mortality, as well as on the size and weight of newborn babies. Comparisons are made with other countries in the region. The most important demographic effect has been a radical decline in fertility, which, combined with relative stability in mortality, has resulted in a natural decrease of the population. Significant declines in infant and maternal mortality have also occurred. The number of large infants at birth and the proportion of premature births have declined as well.
Correspondence: C. Glavce, Académie Roumaine, Centre de Recherches Anthropologiques, 71102 Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30089 Gognalons-Nicolet, Maryvonne; Derriennic, F.; Monfort, C.; Cassou, B. Social prognostic factors of mortality in a random cohort of Geneva subjects followed up for a period of 12 years. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 3, Mar 1999. 138-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "analyse the relative risk (RR) of mortality related to social factors independent of health status and occupational category [in Geneva, Switzerland].... There were several social prognostic factors of mortality with relative risks greater than 3.0 (RR>3.0) independent of health and occupational status. These factors were: a period of unemployment during life time, the feeling of not demonstrating initiative in the occupational setting, and not having participated in social activities."
Correspondence: M. Gognalons-Nicolet, HUG-Belle-Idée, Unité d'Investigation Clinique, 2 Chemin du Petit-Bel-Air, 1225 Chène-Bourg, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30090 Hertrich, Véronique; Meslé, France. Mortality and socioeconomic policies: the example of four countries in Eastern and Central Europe. [Mortalité et politiques socio-économiques: le cas de 4 pays d'Europe centrale et orientale.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 395-412 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The extent to which the social, economic, and political changes that have occurred in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have affected mortality is analyzed using the examples of Hungary, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. The data are from widely available published sources for Hungary and Poland, recently published sources for Russia, and unpublished sources for Ukraine. The authors first describe general mortality trends in these countries, focusing on changes in age-specific mortality and in causes of death. They then analyze in more detail the main causes of death for men of working age, the sector of the population most affected by deteriorating mortality trends, and attempt to relate increases in specific causes of death to changes in health, economic, and socio-political policies.
Correspondence: V. Hertrich, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30091 Irudaya Rajan, S.; Bhat, P. N. Mari; Dyson, Tim. Mortality and fertility transition in Kerala: a historical investigation. ISBN 81-7075-047-4. LC 98-901670. 1998. xv, 184 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors trace mortality and fertility trends in Kerala, India, using parish records. They deal with "the quality of parish data and some basic trends of births, deaths and marriages separately. The linkage analysis is carried out to draw some inferences on the trends of fertility and mortality on the basis of linking births, marriages and deaths. In addition a comparison of the results obtained in Trivandrum has been made with those of a similar study carried out in respect of the Bombay parishes by the senior author of this book. The study in the book is mainly confined to the present century due to the absence of data for the nineteenth century."
Correspondence: Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 4805/24 Bharat Ram Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30092 Jiménez Aboitiz, Ricardo; Gómez Redondo, Rosa; Camarero Rioja, Luis A.; Serrano González, Miguel A. The unequal contribution of the Andalucian and Castilian populations to increased Spanish longevity. [La desigual contribución de las poblaciones andaluza y castellanoleonesa al aumento de la longevidad Española.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1998. 135-68 pp. Barcelona, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Taking the [theory] of the health transition as a reference, this article gives a comparative analysis of the mortality in Andalusia and Castile-Leon [Spain] between 1977 and 1990. The two populations have greatly advanced in their respective mortality transitions; however, a dynamic analysis of the mortality by age, sex and cause of death, reveals the existence of a favourable difference for Castile-Leon.... Consequently, both populations contribute unequally to increasing Spanish longevity...."
Correspondence: R. Jiménez Aboitiz, Universidad de Valladolid, Plaza de Santa Cruz 8, 47002 Valladolid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30093 Kailash. A demographic profile of the Marathwada earthquake victims. Population Geography, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1996. 47-60 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"[The] Marathwada earthquake, one of the worst natural calamities in India so far, happened to be a factor in the loss of thousands of human and animal lives and the destruction of a vast stretch of natural environment. In this study an attempt has been made to enlist the quake affected victims and to analyse their demographic characteristics in terms of their distribution at district level."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30094 Levy, Michel L. The rectangularization of the survival curve. [Le rectangularisation de la courbe des survivants.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 576-9 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Some aspects of life expectancy in countries with very high levels of life expectancy are considered, using the example of France. The maximum extension of the length of human life in ideal conditions is discussed.
Correspondence: M. L. Levy, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30095 Lucas, David. A note on the mortality of British troops in Australia and New Zealand 1788-1864. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 14, No. 1, May 1997. 69-76 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The Monthly Returns to the War Office in London are used to calculate death and sickness rates for British troops in Australia and New Zealand. In the first half of the century death rates peak in 1835-39 before declining, and are generally lower than for troops stationed in Britain. The sickness rates show no clear trend, apparently because of the impact of epidemics and war."
Correspondence: D. Lucas, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Graduate Studies in Demography, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30096 Mihaila, Valentina; Enachescu, Dan; Badulescu, Maria. The effect of avoidable deaths on life expectancy in Romania. [L'effet des décès évitables sur l'espérance de vie à la naissance en Roumanie.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 591-7 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
An attempt is made to calculate how many of the deaths that occurred in Romania in 1994 could have been avoided if better medical services had been available in the country at that time. The authors also attempt to estimate the percentage of these deaths that could have been avoided by preventive measures, and the percentage that could have been avoided by medical intervention. They conclude that improvements in the country's medical services alone could change the rate of natural increase from a negative to a positive one.
Correspondence: V. Mihaila, Institut d'Hygiène, de Santé Publique, de Services de Santé et de Gestion, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30097 Montgomery, Mark R. Mortality decline and the demographic response: toward a new agenda. Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 122, 1999. 43 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper urges that individual perceptions and beliefs about mortality risks, conspicuously absent from the demographic research agenda, be studied directly. It proceeds to link mortality perceptions to health care decisionmaking and investments in children. The paper concludes by calling for a new agenda on mortality decline."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Author's E-mail: mmontgomery@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30098 Muñoz Pradas, Francisco. Models of mortality: do they have a time dimension? [Les modèles de mortalité: ont-ils une dimension temporelle?] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 221-30 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The use of models in the analysis of mortality where the available data are limited or of poor quality is examined. The author first describes some of the problems inherent in the analysis of mortality. He then shows how specific models have been applied to data for Finland, France, and Japan, and the problems that have arisen in such analyses. Finally, he considers how the time factor could be added in order to improve the value of such models to the analysis of mortality trends.
Correspondence: F. Muñoz Pradas, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30099 Muresan, Cornelia. Future mortality trends by cause of death in Romania. [Perspectives de la mortalité par causes de décès en Roumanie.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 521-33 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in mortality in Romania are first reviewed, with a particular focus on identifying the sectors of the population that have experienced a decline in life expectancy in recent years and explaining its causes. The author concludes that it is impossible to forecast future trends in mortality because of uncertainties in the pace of current socioeconomic and health service reforms. Four alternative projections of future trends in life expectancy are therefore provided, based on a range of optimistic and pessimistic assumptions concerning future socioeconomic and health trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30100 Ngueyap, Ferdinand. The pace of extending the lifespan, causes of death in Africa and Asia, and differences between cities and rural areas. [Vitesse d'allongement de la vie, causes de décès en Afrique et en Asie et disparités entre villes et campagnes.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 350-69 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Using published UN data, the author analyzes differences between Africa and Asia in the areas of life expectancy increases and general morbidity, as well as differences between rural and urban areas. Attention is given to the reasons why life expectancy in many parts of the developing world has not increased as much as was expected back in the 1970s, and to the growing gaps in life expectancy between rich and poor countries and between urban and rural areas. Consideration is also given to the reliability of the available data. The achievements of most Asian countries and the relative failure of African countries in extending life expectancy is contrasted.
Correspondence: F. Ngueyap, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30101 Nizard, Alfred. On measuring age-specific mortality and general mortality, and on male excess mortality at all ages. [Sur la mesure de la mortalité par âge et tous âges et sur la surmortalité masculine tous âges.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 205-20 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Two indexes used in the analysis of mortality by age, mortality rates and quotients, are examined and compared. A new formula for estimating the quotient is proposed. The concepts discussed are illustrated using data for France. The author then proceeds to consider male excess mortality, and proposes a new measure of excess mortality based on life tables by sex alone.
Correspondence: A. Nizard, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30102 Noumbissi, Amadou. Illnesses of the circulatory system and life expectancy in Mauritius: some theoretical hypotheses. [Les maladies de l'appareil circulatoire et durée de vie à Maurice: hypothèses théoriques.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 580-90 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The characteristics of mortality in contemporary Mauritius are first analyzed. Next, the author calculates the impact on life expectancy of the elimination of selected major causes of death, such as diseases of the respiratory tract and perinatal illnesses. The results suggest that further improvements in mortality can realistically be expected, but that these will benefit women more than men and lead to a wider gap in life expectancy between the sexes.
Correspondence: A. Noumbissi, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30103 Péron, Yves. The growth in life expectancy as a consequence of the elimination or reduction in specific causes of death. [L'accroissement de l'espérance de vie en cas d'élimination ou de réduction de mortalités particulières.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 598-605 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Three alternative ways of measuring the number of years of life lost to specific causes of death are described and illustrated using Canadian data for the period 1990-1992. The three alternatives are potential years of life lost, losses in life potential, and decreases in life expectancy.
Correspondence: Y. Péron, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30104 Reher, David. Back to the basics: mortality and fertility interactions during the demographic transition. Continuity and Change, Vol. 14, No. 1, May 1999. 9-31 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In this article, I will present a dynamic context for the analysis of mortality and fertility in the course of the demographic transition, based on the experience of a sizeable sample of rural parishes taken from the central part of Spain.... The analysis can be couched in purely dynamic terms, taking into account the timing and intensity of changes in both mortality and fertility, and evaluating the ways in which they affect each other.... By taking the data from a specific, though large, sample of villages, we can see local variations relatively uncluttered with much of the cultural, social and economic heterogeneity which dogs studies based on very large levels of aggregation."
Correspondence: D. Reher, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:30105 Rychtariková, Jitka. Recent health transitions in the Czech Republic. [La transition sanitaire récente de la République tchèque.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 3, 1998. 371-9 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The Czech Republic has not known the mortality increase observed in other ex-communist countries during the transition period. On the contrary, since 1991, mortality decrease has intensified. A favorable turnover has been noticed for adults and the elderly, the latter due to [a] fast decrease in mortality from circulatory diseases.... The increase in life expectancy at birth between 1989 and 1996 by 2.26 years for males and 1.86 years for females was due to a decline in mortality due to circulatory diseases...."
Correspondence: J. Rychtariková, Faculté des Sciences, Département de Démographie et de Géodémographie, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30106 Sardon, Jean P. An alternative approach to the analysis of mortality: the period measure and components by cause. [Une analyse alternative de la mortalité: indicateur conjoncturel et composantes par cause.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 191-204 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author introduces the concept of the period measure of mortality and illustrates its use by applying it to the analysis of French mortality data. He also shows how this indicator can be used in the analysis of causes of death, including differences by age.
Correspondence: J. P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30107 Sartor, Francis. The impact of air pollution on mortality: limitations of analyzing chronological series data. [Impact de la pollution de l'air sur la mortalité: limites de l'analyse des séries chronologiques.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 281-90 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author presents a critical analysis of studies linking the fluctuations in relatively low levels of urban atmospheric pollution in developed countries to fluctuations in daily mortality. He concludes that the causal nature of this linkage is still unproven, and that methods clearly establishing such a link should be developed before taking decisions to change current guidelines on acceptable levels of atmospheric pollution.
Correspondence: F. Sartor, Institut d'Hygiène et d'Epidémiologie, Rue Juliette Wytsman 14, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30108 Shah, Sunil; Peacock, Janet. Deprivation and excess winter mortality. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 8, Aug 1999. 499-502 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigate the effect of material deprivation on the winter rise in mortality and temperature dependent variations in mortality...[in] Croydon, London, United Kingdom.... This study confirms the relation between overall mortality and deprivation and the marked rise in mortality in winter but shows no evidence of a relation between deprivation and excess winter mortality. The study was based on the mortality experience of two million person years and should have been able to detect effects of the magnitude previously described in social class based analysis."
Correspondence: J. Peacock, St. George's Hospital Medical School, Department of Public Health Sciences, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London SW17 0RE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30109 Sougareva, Marta; Golemanov, Nikolai; Borissova, Kremena. Social restructuring and mortality in Bulgaria. [Restructuration sociale et mortalité en Bulgarie.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 389-94 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The demographic impact of the socioeconomic and political changes that have taken place in Bulgaria since 1989 are briefly assessed. The most important impact has been an increase in mortality, particularly among men of working age. Increases in infant mortality, particularly in rural areas, have also occurred.
Correspondence: M. Sougareva, Académie des Sciences de Bulgarie, Institut de Démographie, 1517 Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30110 Termote, Marc. The synthetic mortality index. An unknown indicator. [L'indice synthétique de mortalité. Un indicateur méconnu.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 183-90 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The various advantages of the synthetic mortality index are first described. The value of this indicator is then demonstrated with some empirical examples using data for Canada and a selection of developed countries.
Correspondence: M. Termote, Université du Québec, INRS-Urbanisation, C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30111 Thierry, Xavier. Excess mortality related to widowhood. The impact of trauma by sex, age, and duration of time since the event. [La surmortalité consécutive au veuvage. L'impact d'un traumatisme selon le sexe, l'âge et la durée écoulée depuis l'événement.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 157-71 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the impact of becoming a widow or a widower on the mortality of the surviving partner, using French vital statistics data for the period 1969-1974. There are sections on the available data, mortality immediately following the event, mortality differentials by duration of widowhood, and duration of the time period over which the event affects mortality. A methodological annex is included.
Correspondence: X. Thierry, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30112 Turner-Musa, Jocelyn; Leidner, David; Simmens, Samuel; Reiss, David; Kimmel, Paul L.; Holder, Barbara. Family structure and patient survival in an African-American end-stage renal disease population: a preliminary investigation. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 10, May 1999. 1,333-40 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We explore the relationship between family structure, defined as marital status and household composition, and patient survival [in the United States]. Patient gender was examined as a possible moderator in this relationship. Using data from a survey of 476 African-American end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, a significant association between household composition and patient survival was found. Results...indicated that patients who live in `complex' households (i.e. those with a partner and/or others) are at greater risk for shortened survival as compared to those who live alone or with a spouse/partner (p>0.05). When we examined whether patient gender moderates this relationship, female patients who live in these households were found to be at 2 times greater risk for shortened survival (p>0.01) than female patients who live alone or with their spouse/partner only."
Correspondence: J. Turner-Musa, Johns Hopkins University, School of Public Health, Department of Mental Hygiene, 624 North Broadway Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30113 Valkovics, Emil. Mortality after World War II. [Halandóság a második világháború után.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 77, No. 1, Jan 1999. 16-36 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality trends in Hungary since World War II are analyzed. Two periods are distinguished; the first, from 1946 to 1966, was a period of declining mortality and increasing life expectancy, and the second, from 1966 until the present, was a period of rising mortality and declining life expectancy, particularly for males, coupled with relatively stable mortality levels for females. The author analyzes differences in causes of death by age in these two periods.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30114 Vallin, Jacques; Meslé, France. The role of vaccination in the mortality decline. [Le rôle des vaccinations dans la baisse de la mortalité.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 74, Jan 1999. 16 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an attempt to estimate the impact of the use of vaccinations against certain infectious diseases on the mortality decline, and to isolate this specific factor from the many other medical advances that also helped to bring about that decline. The authors first present a comparative analysis of the relationship between vaccination and mortality in developed countries for which the data needed for such an analysis are available, focusing in particular on data for France. The extent to which the results of such an analysis can be applied to the current situation in Sub-Saharan Africa is then considered.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30115 Vishnevsky, Anatoly; Shkolnikov, Vladimir. Russian mortality: past negative trends and recent improvements. In: Population under duress: the geodemography of post-Soviet Russia, edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya. 1999. 59-71 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on the significant mortality decline of 1995-1996 and on the dramatic structural distinctions of mortality processes in Russia as compared to those in the West." Sections are included on the 1995-1996 rise in life expectancy at birth; age peculiarities of recent changes in mortality; mortality decline and causes of death; peculiarities of the contemporary Russian mortality pattern; losses from premature deaths; and forecasts of mortality changes.
Correspondence: A. Vishnevsky, Institute for Economic Forecasting, Center for Demography and Human Ecology, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology, and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion. Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

65:30116 Carlson, Elwood; Hoem, Jan M.; Rychtarikova, Jitka. Trajectories of fetal loss in the Czech Republic. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 327-37 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using data for 555,038 pregnancies conceived in the Czech Republic in 1987-1990, we show that pronounced differences in fetal survival in the middle trimester of pregnancy by marital status, educational level, and labor force attachment become much smaller at full term; survival differences by age at conception and number of previous deliveries show relatively constant proportional hazards throughout gestation. Social inequalities in postpartum life chances have been documented previously, but we show that similar inequalities exist before birth."
Correspondence: E. Carlson, University of South Carolina, Department of Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. E-mail: carlson@garnet.cla.sc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30117 Forssas, Erja; Gissler, Mika; Sihvonen, Marja; Hemminki, Elina. Maternal predictors of perinatal mortality: the role of birthweight. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jun 1999. 475-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"By using a nationwide set of data [for Finland] the purpose of this study was to make a broad analysis of the role of eight maternal characteristics in perinatal mortality, first by identifying potential risks for perinatal mortality and second by assessing how much of the excess mortality of these risk factors can be attributed to their tendency to cause low birthweight." Results indicate that "excess mortality due to maternal risk factors occurred mainly through their tendency to cause low birthweight."
Correspondence: E. Forssas, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Health Services Research Unit, P.O. Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: erja.forssas@stakes.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30118 Rajan, S. Irudaya; Mohanachandran, P. Estimating infant mortality in Kerala. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 12, Mar 20-26, 1999. 713-6 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This brief note has two objectives: Firstly, to explore the possible reasons of high stillbirth rate and perinatal mortality in Kerala [India]; secondly, [to determine] why the SRS [Sample Registration System] underestimates the IMR as low as 14.... In the process, we also assess the reasons for high infant mortality rate (37 in 1991) in Kerala as revealed using the census data...."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30119 Senturia, Kirsten D. A woman's work is never done: women's work and pregnancy outcome in Albania. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1997. 375-95 pp. Arlington, Virginia. In Eng.
"During 1993 and 1994, a cohort of 1,199 pregnant women [in Albania], were followed to identify how work factors related to spontaneous abortion, infant low birth weight, gestation length, and perinatal mortality.... Results reveal that certain work factors directly correlated with low birth weight, miscarriage, and/or perinatal death. The significant factors included: fewer household helpers, standing, working in a hot environment, commuting, walking and carrying, and lifting heavy weights on the job."
Correspondence: K. D. Senturia, Seattle King County Department of Public Health, Seattle, WA. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

65:30120 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. The geodemography of infant mortality in the Soviet Union, 1950-1990. In: Population under duress: the geodemography of post-Soviet Russia, edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya. 1999. 73-103 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We focus on a major dimension of the trends in infant mortality in the Soviet Union: the geographic distribution of infant mortality and the relative contributions of different regions to the all-Union rates. We examine the diversity of changes in infant mortality by region...and for the urban and rural populations of the Soviet Union. Our main goal is to provide an accurate description of regional trends and distributions of reported infant deaths and infant mortality rates between 1950 and 1990."
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30121 Barbieri, Magali; Toulemon, Laurent. The social inequality of children with regard to mortality. Problems of observation and measurement. [L'inégalité sociale des enfants devant la mort. Problèmes d'observation et de mesure.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 115-25 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The two sources of data on differentials in infant mortality by socioeconomic status in France are first described. These are the registered births and deaths recorded in the vital statistics system, and data collected in family surveys conducted in conjunction with the national census. The main purpose of this study is to demonstrate that, although the linking of vital records is the only way to obtain exact data, family surveys using large samples can also provide useful and reliable data.
Correspondence: M. Barbieri, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30122 Blayo, Yves. Mortality by sex among young children in China. [La mortalité selon le sexe des jeunes enfants en Chine.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 327-36 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The reasons for excess mortality of female infants and children up to five years of age revealed in recent Chinese data are analyzed. The author first examines sex ratios in general and the quality of the available Chinese data. He then notes that the country's population control policy, combined with the socioeconomic and cultural pressures to have at least one surviving son, have combined to create conditions encouraging higher mortality among female infants and children. The specific causes include sex-selective abortion, the abandonment of female children, non-registration of girl babies, sex-specific differences in breast-feeding and infant nutrition, and sex-selective usage of available health services.
Correspondence: Y. Blayo, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30123 Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Smedman, Lars. Child mortality in Stockholm during 1885-1910: the impact of household size and number of children in the family on the risk of death from measles. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 12, Jun 15, 1999. 1,134-41 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study investigated the effect of crowding on the risk of measles death. Individual entries in a population-based register and on death certificates for children aged 0-15 years living in one parish in Stockholm in 1885, 1891, and 1910 (n=36,718) were used to analyze cause-specific and overall death rates in relation to household size and the number of children in the household, using Cox regression analysis. Bivariate analysis identified significant relations between crowding and the cause-specific risk of death, which were subsequently tested while controlling for other known risk factors for childhood death."
Correspondence: B. Burström, Karolinska Institute, Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Norrbacka, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30124 Cooper, William O.; Hickson, Gerald B.; Mitchel, Edward F.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Thapa, Purushottam B.; Ray, Wayne A. Early childhood mortality from community-acquired infections. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 150, No. 5, Sep 1, 1999. 517-24 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The present study focused on deaths during a 10-year period [1985-1994] from confirmed community-acquired infections in children less than 5 years of age. The study was conducted in Tennessee and utilized linked birth and death certificate files, U.S. Census Bureau data, Medicaid enrollment files, and hospital medical records. The study objectives were to identify maternal and child characteristics that were independent predictors of death from infection and to determine if these factors could be used to identify a segment of the population with a substantial excess risk of mortality from infection, who might serve as target groups for future interventions."
Correspondence: W. O. Cooper, Division of General Pediatrics, Suite 5028 Medical Center East, Nashville, TN 37232-8555. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30125 De Braekeleer, Marc. The effects of consanguinity on infant mortality: an epidemiological approach. [Les effets de la consanguinité sur la mortalité infantile: une approche épidémiologique.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 498-510 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The effects of consanguinity on infant mortality are analyzed using data from published studies. The results indicate that there are higher risks of abnormalities in children born to those who are closely related: both first cousins and uncles/nieces. The implications for societies where such marriages are common are discussed.
Correspondence: M. De Braekeleer, Université du Québec, 555 boulevard de l'Université, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30126 Elghffar, F. Abd; Bhuyan, K. C. Socio-economic factors influencing child mortality in north-eastern Libya. Turkish Journal of Population Studies/Nüfusbilim Dergisi, Vol. 20, 1998. 57-77 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
The authors analyze determinants of child mortality in northeastern Libya. "This study...attempts to (i) estimate the average child mortality by selected socio-demographic factors, (ii) discriminate the couples by child mortality level, and (iii) identify the important social factors which influence mortality."
Correspondence: F. A. Elghffar, Garyounis University, Department of Statistics, Benghazi, Libya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30127 Filmer, Deon; Pritchett, Lant. Child mortality and public spending on health: How much does money matter? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 1864, Dec 1997. 41 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors "use cross-national data to examine the impact on child (under 5) and infant mortality of both nonhealth (economic, cultural, and educational) factors and public spending on health.... [They find that] roughly 95 percent of cross-national variation in mortality can be explained by a country's per capita income, the distribution of income, the extent of women's education, the level of ethnic fragmentation, and the predominant religion [and that] public spending on health has relatively little impact...."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Room MC3-638, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: sfallon@worldbank.org. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

65:30128 Kanaiaupuni, Shawn M.; Donato, Katharine M. Migradollars and mortality: the effects of migration on infant survival in Mexico. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 339-53 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We apply multilevel methods to data from Mexico to examine how village migration patterns affect infant survival outcomes in origins. We argue that migration is a cumulative process with varying health effects at different stages of its progression, and test several related hypotheses. Findings suggest higher rates of infant mortality in communities experiencing intense U.S. migration. However, two factors diminish the disruptive effects of migration: migradollars, or migrant remittances to villages, and the institutionalization of migration over time. Mortality risks are low when remittances are high and decrease as migration becomes increasingly salient to livelihoods of communities."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. M. Kanaiaupuni, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. E-mail: skanaiau@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30129 Krishan, Gopal. Map Series: 3. Infant mortality in India. Population Geography, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1996. 65-71 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author assesses the extent of infant mortality in India, with a focus on geographical variations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30130 Li, Liying. Causes of infant mortality in China: 1988-1990. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, Vol. 26, No. 512, May 1998. 2 pp. Stillwater, Oklahoma. In Eng.
"Using the data for infant mortality in China in 1988-1990 from the World Health Organization, this paper offers a preliminary examination of causes of infant mortality in China during the period from 1988 to 1990. The major findings of the study are (1) the pattern of Chinese infant mortality is generally consistent with that of most developing countries; (2) diseases of the respiratory system, perinatal mortality and accidents as well as injuries consist of the 3 major categories which all together account for about 80 to 90 percent of overall infant mortality rates; (3) rural infants still die at a higher rate than urban infants; and (4) no significant gender discrepancy exists between male and female infant deaths [from] the different causes. The study shows [that] although Chinese infant mortality rates have declined dramatically during the last few decades, the infant mortality patterns still resemble those in less developed nations. Hence, there is room for improvement in sanitary conditions and public health measures, for economic development and higher living standards, and for advances in medical technology."
Correspondence: L. Li, Southwest Missouri State University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 901 South National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804-0095. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30131 MacDorman, Marian F.; Atkinson, Jonnae O. Infant mortality statistics from the 1997 period linked birth/infant death data set. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 23, Jul 30, 1999. 23 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents 1997 period [U.S.] infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a wide variety of maternal and infant characteristics.... [It] presents infant mortality data by race and Hispanic origin of the mother, birthweight, period of gestation, sex of infant, plurality, trimester of pregnancy prenatal care began, maternal age, maternal educational attainment, live-birth order, marital status, mother's place of birth, maternal smoking during pregnancy, age at death, and underlying cause of death for the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data for Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam are available on the linked file and other vital statistics public-use data tapes."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30132 Milimo, John T. PRA study of the rising childhood mortality in Zambia. LC 98-980108. Apr 1997. viii, 35 pp. University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies [IDS]: Brighton, England. In Eng.
An analysis of recent trends in childhood mortality in Zambia is presented, with particular reference to mortality differentials between districts served by a mission hospital and those served by a government facility. Data are from hospital records and from focus group and other participatory appraisal methods. Attention is given to the causes of rising levels of mortality in children under five years of age. The deteriorating health system in the country is identified as a major reason for increases in child mortality. Areas served by mission hospitals suffer less from such declines in the quality of health services.
Correspondence: University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RH, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30133 Muñoz Pradas, Francisco. The regional distribution of infant mortality in Spain around 1860: a reconsideration of data and levels. [La distribución territorial de la mortalidad infantil en España entorno a 1860: una reconsideración de datos y niveles.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1998. 187-222 pp. Barcelona, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author examines regional patterns of infant mortality in Spain around 1860. "This article presents a methodology of correction of demographic data of that time involved in the estimation of infant mortality rates.... Comparisons between results presented here and other available estimations stress territorial differences between North...and South...of the Iberian peninsula and, especially, high levels of infant mortality in some provinces in central Spain."
Correspondence: F. Muñoz Pradas, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30134 Muthulakshmi, R. Female infanticide: its causes and solutions. ISBN 81-7141-383-8. 1997. [xii], 132 pp. Discovery Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a study of female infanticide in India, using the example of the Piramalai Kallar, a dominant caste in a tribal community in which girls are seen as economic burdens. Particular attention is given to the relationship between illiteracy and female infanticide.
Correspondence: Discovery Publishing House, 4831/24, Prahlad Street, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30135 Pinnelli, Antonella; Mancini, Paola. Mortality by cause of death in Italy from 1887 to 1940. [Mortalité par cause de décès en Italie de 1887 à 1940.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 337-49 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in Italian infant and child mortality up to age 14 are analyzed by cause over the period 1887-1940. The primary objective is to identify the main reasons why infant and child mortality declined so much over this period by examining changes in the causes of death. The authors identify improvements in general hygiene at the end of the nineteenth century as the first major cause of the decline. The increasing control achieved during the 1920s over diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis was the next major contributor, together with improvements in infant nutrition and health. The importance of improvements in the health infrastructure is also noted.
Correspondence: A. Pinnelli, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30136 Popa, Ion; Enachescu, Dan; Florescu, Silvia. Changes in infant mortality levels and trends in Romania. [Les modifications du niveau et l'évolution de la mortalité infantile en Roumanie.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 108-14 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Using data on infant mortality in Romania over the last 43 years, the authors evaluate trends in infant mortality in relation to other demographic trends. They compare probabilities of death for children under one year of age at three points in time. A model of monthly variations in infant mortality is developed in order to permit decision makers to identify and act on problems as they arise.
Correspondence: I. Popa, Institut d'Hygiène, de Santé Publique, de Services de Santé et de Management, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30137 Riddle, Liesl. The Turkish child mortality puzzle continues: evidence from the 1993 Demographic and Health Survey. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 97-98-06, 1997-1998. 22 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the Gürsoy model, based on a small sample with limited generalizability, will be applied to a nationally representative demographic and health survey to examine the effectiveness of paternal and household characteristics as predictors of child mortality. Second, variables not included in the Gürsoy model but available in the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) will be incorporated into the model."
Correspondence: L. Riddle, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. E-mail: lriddle@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30138 Root, Graham P. M. Disease environments and subnational patterns of under-five mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 117-32 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper maps and describes the distribution of under-five mortality at the provincial level for spatially contiguous countries in East and southern Africa and West Africa. Following this, the degree to which socio-economic factors and regional disease environments are responsible for the spatial patterns is examined with the aid of regression models and join-count statistics."
Correspondence: G. P. M. Root, WHO, Southern Africa Malaria Control Program, Box 348, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30139 Rychtaríková, Jitka. Social and biological factors of infant mortality. [Sociální a biologické faktory kojenecké úmrtnosti.] Demografie, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1999. 95-104 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"The study was based on individual records of births linked with individual records of infant deaths for the Czech Republic in 1986-1992. The linked file contained 882,316 records (single live births). The research focused on analyzing the differences in the risk of children dying according to [the] following factors: birth weight, duration of gestation, sex, birth order, age of child at death, mother's age, education and marital status.... Standardization showed that birth weight and the duration of gestation were the key predictors of infant survival, followed by birth order and the mother's education. The mother's age and marital status did not affect significantly infant mortality risk."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30140 Scott, Susan; Duncan, C. J. Malnutrition, pregnancy, and infant mortality: a biometric model. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 30, No. 1, Summer 1999. 37-60 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Changes with time in endogenous and exogenous infant mortality in a community in preindustrial Northwest England suggest that the population was living under marginal conditions with poor nutritive standards. Overall, farming practices and quality of the diet did not improve until 1750 when a reduction in infant mortality apparently led to a population boom. Bourgeois-Pichat plots of infant mortality were different in the three social classes that have been identified. The clear breaks in the plots for the elites and tradesmen classes probably reflected the different nutrition of mothers before and during pregnancy, as well as the different infant feeding practices before and after weaning."
Correspondence: S. Scott, University of Liverpool, School of Biological Sciences, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

65:30141 Staiculescu Brezeanu, Ana R. Infant mortalitya challenge for Romanians. Results of socio-demographic research in the department of Constanta. [La mortalité infantile--un défi pour les roumaines. Résultats de recherches socio-démographiques dans le département de Constanta.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 370-5 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in infant mortality in the Romanian department of Constanta are analyzed using data from official sources. Information is included on seasonal variations in infant mortality from 1988 to 1995 and on neonatal mortality from 1991 to 1995.
Correspondence: A. R. Staiculescu Brezeanu, Académie Roumaine, Centre de Recherches Anthropologiques, 76117 Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30142 Terra de Souza, Ana C.; Cufino, Ennio; Peterson, Karen E.; Gardner, Jane; Vasconcelos do Amaral, Maria I.; Ascherio, Alberto. Variations in infant mortality rates among municipalities in the state of Ceará, Northeast Brazil: an ecological analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 1999. 267-75 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"To determine the interrelationships between potential predictors of infant mortality [in the state of Ceará, Brazil], we classified 11 variables into proximate determinants..., health services variables..., and socioeconomic factors...and included the variables in each group simultaneously in linear regression models.... The paradoxical direct association between household income and infant mortality was present only in models including female illiteracy rate, and suggests that among these municipalities, increases in income unaccompanied by improvements in female education may not substantially reduce infant mortality."
Correspondence: A. C. Terra de Souza, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Maternal and Child Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

65:30143 Koschin, Felix. What about the height of the force of mortality at the end of human life? [Jak vysoká je intenzita úmrtnosti na konci lidského zivota?] Demografie, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1999. 105-19 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author assesses the use of a modified Gompertz-Makeham model to measure mortality above age 85 in the Czech Republic. "This curve corresponds very well with the empirical data for ages of 85-95 years not only for the Czech but even for the West-European populations.... At the end of the Eighties and during the Nineties mortality decrease of 80 years old and above has significantly accelerated; at...this rate we should reach the European level in about 10 years. As regards the...population [65 and above] mortality decrease has considerably accelerated only with males; in [the] case of females acceleration was lower."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30144 Preston, Samuel H.; Elo, Irma T.; Stewart, Quincy. Effects of age misreporting on mortality estimates at older ages. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jul 1999. 165-77 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines how age misreporting typically affects estimates of mortality at older ages. We investigate the effects of three patterns of age misreporting--net age overstatement, net age understatement, and symmetric age misreporting--on mortality estimates at ages 40 and above. We consider five methods to estimate mortality.... For each of the age misreporting patterns and each of the methods of mortality estimation, we find that age misstatement biases mortality estimates downwards at the oldest ages."
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30145 Rahman, M. Omar. Age and gender variation in the impact of household structure on elderly mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jun 1999. 485-91 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the impact of relationship to head of household, and the presence of co-resident spouses and sons on elderly mortality in rural Bangladesh with a particular focus on age and gender differences.... Relationship to head of household and the presence of spouses and sons have powerful impacts on reducing mortality for elderly men and women in rural Bangladesh with the effects varying significantly by gender and age. Furthermore, individual rather than joint access to material resources is an important determinant of elderly mortality."
Correspondence: M. O. Rahman, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

65:30146 Maccheroni, Carlo; Billari, Francesco. A generalization from the extinct generations method for estimating a multistate table by marital status in extreme old age. [Une généralisation de la méthode des générations éteintes pour l'estimation d'une table multi-états par état matrimonial aux très grands âges.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 172-82 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Official Italian data are used to develop life tables by marital status in extreme old age for women born between 1870 and 1879.
Correspondence: C. Maccheroni, Università Bocconi, Institut de Méthodes Quantitatives, Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

65:30147 Agnihotri, Satish B. Inferring gender bias from mortality data: a discussion note. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 35, No. 4, Apr 1999. 175-200 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In a recent issue of this journal Klasen (1996) and Svedberg (1990, 1996) have expressed diverging opinions on the nature of gender bias in sub-Saharan Africa. The divergence arises partly out of the choice of indicators and partly out of the choice of standards. It is possible, however, to infer the existence of such bias without using referents from some external `standard' population. Such an approach, using the infant and the under-five mortality data by sex and the data on sex ratios in the 0-4 and 5-9 age groups from the Indian population census of 1981, is described below. It is suggested that this type of approach will be useful in resolving the above debate."
Correspondence: S. B. Agnihotri, Government of Orissa, Department of Women and Child Development, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa 751 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30148 Benach, Joan; Yasui, Yutaka. Geographical patterns of excess mortality in Spain explained by two indices of deprivation. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 7, Jul 1999. 423-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "analyse the geographical patterns and the magnitude of the association between deprivation and mortality in Spain [and] estimate the excess of mortality in more deprived areas of the country by region. [Data are from a] cross sectional ecological study using 1991 census variables and mortality data for 1987-1992.... Two indices of deprivation strongly predict mortality in two age groups. Excess number of deaths in the most deprived geographical areas account for 10% of total number of deaths annually. In Spain there is great potential for reducing mortality if the excess risk in more deprived areas fell to the level of the most affluent areas."
Correspondence: J. Benach, Pompeu Fabra University, Occupational Health Unit, Department of Experimental Sciences, Health and Technology, Carrer Dr. Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30149 Bobak, Martin; Hense, Hans-Werner; Kark, Jeremy; Kuch, Bernhard; Vojtisek, Petr; Sinnreich, Ronit; Gostomzyk, Johannes; Bui, Mai; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Junker, Ralf; Fobker, Manfred; Schulte, Helmut; Assmann, Gerd; Marmot, Michael. An ecological study of determinants of coronary heart disease rates: a comparison of Czech, Bavarian and Israeli men. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jun 1999. 437-44 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors investigate possible determinants of the large differences in cardiovascular disease rates between Eastern and Western Europe. "This was an ecological study comparing random samples of men aged 45-64 years selected from three cities representing populations with different rates of cardiovascular mortality: Pardubice (Czech Republic), Augsburg (Bavaria, Germany), and Jerusalem (Israel).... The mortality rates in the study populations, as well as the prevalence of coronary heart disease in study samples, were highest in Czech, intermediate in Bavarian and low in Israeli men.... The results provide indirect support for the importance of dietary factors in the East-West morbidity and mortality divide."
Correspondence: M. Bobak, University College London, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, International Centre for Health and Society, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30150 Brimblecombe, Nic; Dorling, Danny; Shaw, Mary. Mortality and migration in Britain, first results from the British Household Panel Survey. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 7, Oct 1999. 981-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study investigates the extent to which current geographical variations in mortality are influenced by patterns of migration since birth. It is based on a longitudinal study of migrants which consists of a representative sample of 10,264 British residents born after 1890 and enumerated as part of the British Household Panel Study in 1991. Between 1991 and 1996, 527 of the study members died and these deaths were analysed by area of residence at birth and in 1991 at both the regional and local district geographical scales. These were compared with findings from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study.... The majority of geographical inequalities in mortality are found at the local, not regional level.... In Britain, between region mortality ratios vary by a few percentage points whereas between districts mortality ratios vary by as much as a factor of two...."
Correspondence: N. Brimblecombe, University of Bristol, School of Geographical Science, University Road, Bristol BS8 1SS, England. E-mail: danny.dorling@bristol.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30151 Denis, Marie-Noële. Mortality and causes of death in Alsace: a lifestyle in question. [Mortalité et causes de décès en Alsace: un mode de vie en question.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 413-21 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Despite the relative prosperity and the high quality of medical services in Alsace, mortality in the region remains relatively high in comparison with France as a whole, particularly for men and women over age 45. The main cause of this excess mortality is to be found in the lifestyle that predominates in the region, involving an unhealthy diet combined with high levels of alcohol and tobacco consumption.
Correspondence: M.-N. Denis, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30152 Gragnolati, Michele; Elo, Irma T.; Goldman, Noreen. New insights into the Far Eastern pattern of mortality. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 1, Mar 1999. 81-95 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Some of the highest levels of excess mortality of males found anywhere in the world were present in several Far Eastern populations during the 1960s and 1970s but have progressively disappeared since that time. This study uses cause-of-death data to determine the diseases responsible for the existence and attenuation of these sex differences in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan. The results indicate that respiratory tuberculosis is the single most important underlying cause of the existence and attenuation of the pattern, that the role of liver diseases is not clear cut, and that other causes (such as cardiovascular diseases) are also important."
Correspondence: M. Gragnolati, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 2l Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30153 Gutmann, Myron P.; Frisbie, W. Parker; DeTurk, Peter; Blanchard, K. Stephen. Dating the origins of the epidemiologic paradox among Mexican Americans. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 97-98-07, 1997-1998. 26 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper describes the history of the epidemiologic paradox, the surprising finding that in many circumstances Mexican American infants, children, and adults have lower mortality than one would expect given their social, economic, and demographic situation. In particular, they have mortality equal to or lower than comparable non-Hispanic whites, and lower than that of comparable African Americans.... In this paper we want to describe the history of the epidemiologic paradox, and try to reveal when it began."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. P. Gutmann, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. E-mail: myron@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30154 Hemström, Örjan. Does the work environment contribute to excess male mortality? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 7, Oct 1999. 879-94 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of the present study is to examine whether work-related factors contribute to excess male mortality. All Swedish deaths during 1970-80 and 1980-86 were analysed with Poisson regressions--for all individuals and for labour force participants--in order to estimate gender mortality rate ratios for all causes, circulatory diseases and external causes. Results for all men and women, as well as results restricted to those in full-time employment, revealed that no work-related factors contribute to excess male mortality. For the period 1980-86, a more detailed analysis was performed, and work environment exposures were aggregated from a secondary data source. In accordance with previous studies, it was found that men experience unhealthier physical work environments than women and that women experience unhealthier psychosocial work environments than men."
Correspondence: Ö. Hemström, Stockholm University, Department of Sociology, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: hemstrom@sociology.su.se. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30155 Hemström, Örjan. Explaining differential rates of mortality decline for Swedish men and women: a time-series analysis, 1945-1992. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 12, Jun 1999. 1,759-77 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to identify social factors that could be related to differential rates of mortality decline for men and women in Sweden. The annual changes in fifteen indicators and their relationship with changes in absolute excess male mortality were analyzed by means of time series analysis for the period 1945-1992.... I discuss the finding that there seem to be connections between, on the one hand, changes in general social factors such as economic growth and labor market factors, and perhaps urbanization and alcohol and cigarette consumption on the other. I therefore suggest that gender-specific consumer behavior, seen as an outcome of gender-specific norm systems, is one mechanism which links changes in general social factors to changes in excess male mortality."
Correspondence: Ö. Hemström, Stockholm University, Department of Sociology, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: hemstrom@sociology.su.se. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30156 Johnson, Norman J.; Sorlie, Paul D.; Backlund, Eric. The impact of specific occupation on mortality in the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 355-67 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We compare mortality differences for specific and general categories of occupations using a national cohort of approximately 380,000 persons aged 25-64 from the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study.... Higher risk is observed in moving across the occupational spectrum from the technical, highly skilled occupations to less-skilled and generally more labor-intensive occupations. Mortality differences obtained for social status groups of specific occupations are almost completely accounted for by adjustments for income and education. Important differences are shown to exist for selected specific occupations beyond those accounted for by social status, income, and education."
Correspondence: N. J. Johnson, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Demographic Statistical Methods Division, Room 3725-3, Washington, DC 20233. E-mail: norman.j.johnson@ccmail.census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30157 Juel, Knud; Mosbech, Johannes; Hansen, Eva S. Mortality and causes of death among Danish medical doctors 1973-1992. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jun 1999. 456-60 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "examine the mortality pattern of Danish doctors for the period 1973-1992.... The doctors' mortality was lower than that of the general population. Both sexes showed a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) below one for cancer, circulatory diseases and other natural causes.... The SMR for suicide was significantly increased..., in particular because of an increased number of suicides by poisoning. In addition female doctors displayed a relatively high mortality due to accidents and other types of violent death."
Correspondence: K. Juel, Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology, 25 Svanemollevej, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. E-mail: kj@dike.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30158 Korten, A. E.; Jorm, A. F.; Jiao, Z.; Letenneur, L.; Jacomb, P. A.; Henderson, A. S.; Christensen, H.; Rodgers, B. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial factors as predictors of mortality in an elderly community sample. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 2, Feb 1999. 83-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "examine whether cognitive and psychosocial factors predict mortality once physical health is controlled...[using data from] Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia [that covered] a sample of 897 people aged 70 or over and living in the community.... For the sample as a whole, the significant predictors of mortality were male sex, poor physical health, poor cognitive functioning, and low neuroticism. Men had an adjusted relative risk of mortality of 2.5 compared with women. For the male sub-sample, poor self rated health and a poor performance on a speeded cognitive task were significant predictors, while for women, greater disability, low systolic blood pressure, and a low score on a dementia screening test were the strongest predictors."
Correspondence: A. E. Korten, Australian National University, NHMRC Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30159 Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard; Quine, Susan; Kerr, Charles; Western, John. A case-control study of employment status and mortality in a cohort of Australian youth. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 3, Aug 1999. 383-92 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to correlate mortality with employment status in two cohorts of young Australian males, aged 17-25 years, from 1984 to 1988. Two youth cohorts consisting of an initially unemployed sample (n=1,424 males) and a population sample (n=4,573) males, were surveyed annually throughout the study period.... A statistically significant increasing linear trend in odds ratios of male mortality for most cause groups was found across the employment categories.... Suicide was higher, but not statistically significantly, in those unemployed or not in the workforce."
Correspondence: R. Taylor, University of Sydney, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Edward Ford Building A-27, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. E-mail: richardt@pub.health.usyd.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30160 Rahman, M. Omar. Family matters: the impact of kin on the mortality of the elderly in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jul 1999. 227-35 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study uses high quality longitudinal data on kin availability, proximity, and marital status from the Matlab surveillance area in rural Bangladesh to explore the impact of kin members on the survival of the elderly over a six year period. The results--from discrete time hazard models--suggest that the presence of a spouse, sons, and brothers substantially improves survivorship, but with differing effects by the sex of the elderly and the number of sons and brothers."
Correspondence: M. O. Rahman, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30161 Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Verheij, Robert A.; de Bakker, Dinny H. Relative importance of urbanicity, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors regarding area mortality differences. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 7, Jul 1999. 444-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A higher mortality rate in areas with increased socioeconomic deprivation has been found in many studies. Results are difficult to compare, however, because different indicators of area deprivation have been used.... The aim of this study is to examine the relative importance of income and dependence on benefits when looking at small area differences in premature mortality [in the Netherlands], and the influence of other area characteristics such as ethnicity and urbanicity."
Correspondence: S. A. Reijneveld, TNO Institute of Prevention and Health, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 2215, 2301 CE Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30162 Robinson, W. Courtland; Lee, Myung Ken; Hill, Kenneth; Burnham, Gilbert M. Mortality in North Korean migrant households: a retrospective study. Lancet, Vol. 354, No. 9175, Jul 24, 1999. 291-5 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"We assessed mortality trends in North Korea since 1995.... At 15 randomly selected sites in China, 440 North Korean adult migrants were interviewed during July-September, 1998. Respondents were asked about births, deaths, and migration patterns in their households between mid-1994 and mid-1998, and about household food sources.... Among North Korean households that include a recent migrant to China, mortality has increased and household size has declined since 1995."
Correspondence: W. C. Robinson, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Center for Refugee and Disaster Studies, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: wcrobinson@hotmail.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30163 Sorenson, Susan B.; Shen, Haikang. Mortality among young immigrants to California: injury compared to disease deaths. Journal of Immigrant Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 1999. 41-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "investigated adolescent and young adult immigrants' risk of death due to disease and injury.... The death certificates of 15- to 34-year-old California residents who died from 1989 through 1993 comprised the study population. Disease and injury deaths were identified using ICD-9 codes on the California Master Mortality data files. Frequencies and gender-standardized rates and risk ratios were calculated by nativity (U.S., non-U.S.) and by ethnicity and nativity." The results suggest that "young immigrants, at least in terms of mortality, do not constitute a burden in that they are at lower or similar risk of death than U.S.-born youth."
Correspondence: S. B. Sorenson, University of California, School of Public Health, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772. E-mail: sorenson@ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30164 Thierry, Xavier. Risks of mortality and excess mortality during the first ten years of widowhood. [Risques de mortalité et de surmortalité au cours des dix premières années de veuvage.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 177-204 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article breaks down the different factors responsible for the excess mortality of widowed persons compared with married persons: an immediate excess mortality due to the `shock of widowhood', an excess mortality due to the living conditions of widowed persons, [and] an excess mortality that predates widowhood. Using French civil registration data for the period from 1969 to 1991, the article describes the evolution in mortality risks after widowhood by sex, age at widowhood, and in particular by the duration of widowhood.... In relative terms, the excess mortality of widowed persons is lower the longer the time since the start of widowhood, the improvement being rapid in the first three years, and slower subsequently."
Correspondence: X. Thierry, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: thierry@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30165 Trovato, Frank; Lalu, N. M. Changing sex differences in life expectancy in Australia between 1970 and 1990. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 14, No. 2, Nov 1997. 187-200 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In this study we decompose the gender based survival difference [in Australia] in 1970, 1980 and 1990 into components that can be attributed to different causes of death. Our analysis indicates that a significant component of the constriction in the differential was due to males having made larger gains than females over time with respect to heart disease, accidents and violence excluding suicide, and lung cancer.... We discuss [the] findings in the context of emerging epidemiological trends in the industrialized world, and the implications these have for the future of the sex differential in survival."
Correspondence: F. Trovato, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30166 Vaccarino, Viola; Parsons, Lori; Every, Nathan R.; Barron, Hal V.; Krumholz, Harlan M. Sex-based differences in early mortality after myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 341, No. 4, Jul 22, 1999. 217-25 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"There is conflicting information about whether short-term mortality after myocardial infarction is higher among [U.S.] women than among men after adjustment for age and other prognostic factors. We hypothesized that younger, but not older, women have higher mortality rates during hospitalization than their male peers.... We analyzed data on 384,878 patients (155,565 women and 229,313 men) who were 30 to 89 years of age and who had been enrolled in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 2 between June 1994 and January 1998.... After myocardial infarction, younger women, but not older women, have higher rates of death during hospitalization than men of the same age. The younger the age of the patients, the higher the risk of death among women relative to men. Younger women with myocardial infarction represent a high-risk group deserving of special study."
Correspondence: V. Vaccarino, Yale University, School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 60 College Street, P.O. Box 208034, New Haven, CT 06520-8034. E-mail: viola.vaccarino@yale.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30167 Valkovics, Emil. Some considerations on the nature of transformations in the functions of life tables in light of changes in mortality rates by age and cause. [Quelques considérations sur la nature des transformations des fonctions de la table de mortalité sous l'influence du changement des taux de mortalité par âge et par causes.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 231-46 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study is concerned with the problems of analyzing the differences among various life expectancies at birth and at other ages, and particularly with the role of specific causes of death in those differences. The concepts discussed are illustrated with Hungarian life tables.
Correspondence: E. Valkovics, Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Institute of Demographic Research, Keleti Karoly U.5-7, 1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30168 Wood, Evan; Sallar, Anthony M; Schechter, Martin T.; Hogg, Robert S. Social inequalities in male mortality amenable to medical intervention in British Columbia. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 12, Jun 1999. 1,751-8 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to examine the rates of mortality among different social classes and socioeconomic groups of British Columbian males from causes of death amenable to medical intervention.... For almost every cause of death examined, the rate of mortality was higher in individuals of lower social and socioeconomic classes than in individuals of the upper social and socioeconomic classes. These results were consistent regardless of the social class component, education, occupation, or income...being measured. The mortality gradient was most notable in deaths due to hypertensive heart disease, tuberculosis, asthma and pneumonia and bronchitis."
Correspondence: R. S. Hogg, University of British Columbia, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada. E-mail: bobhogg@hivnet.ubc.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30169 Yen, Irene H.; Kaplan, George A. Neighborhood social environment and risk of death: multilevel evidence from the Alameda County Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 10, May 15, 1999. 898-907 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The current research examined the effect of overall neighborhood social environment on 11-year risk of death.... The authors developed a three-component neighborhood social environment scale: (1) commercial stores; (2) population socioeconomic status; and (3) environment/housing. Data from the 1983 wave of the Alameda County Study (n=1,129) [California] and deaths over 11 years were analyzed with two-level logistic regression models. Age- and sex-adjusted risk of death was higher for residents in low social environment neighborhoods.... Mortality risks were significantly higher in neighborhoods with a low social environment.... When each component of the neighborhood social environment characteristics score was examined separately, each was found to be associated with higher risk for mortality, independent of individual risk factors."
Correspondence: I. H. Yen, University of California, School of Public Health, Behavioral Risk Factors Training Program, 140 Warren Hall, Box 7360, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

65:30170 Ayiga, Natal; Ntozi, James P. M.; Ahimbisibwe, Fred E.; Odwee, Jonathan O.; Okurut, Francis N. Causes, patterns, differentials and consequences of AIDS mortality in northern Uganda. In: The continuing HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa: responses and coping strategies, edited by I. O. Orubuloye, John C. Caldwell, and James P. M. Ntozi. 1999. 139-54 pp. Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Increased AIDS mortality in northern Uganda is worrying. This paper used data from a base line survey of three ethnic groups in northern Uganda, the Iteso, the Langi and the Lugbara. Mortality levels in northern Uganda are high among those under five (27%), young and middle-aged adults 20-39 years (26.7%) and adults aged 40 years and over (35.1%).... AIDS and AIDS-related mortality was found to be rising between 1982 and 1997 and its rate of increase among females was nearly twice that among males. The most affected age groups were adolescents and young adults. All cause-specific mortality was significantly affected by age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, time periods, and ethnicity."
Correspondence: N. Ayiga, Makerere University, Department of Population Studies, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30171 Booth, Heather. Patterns of suicide: factors affecting age-sex distributions of suicide in Western Samoa and Fiji Indians. Working Papers in Demography, No. 77, 1999. 34 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines age-sex patterns of suicide in...two high-suicide populations [Western Samoa and the Indian population of Fiji] and seeks to explain why female youth suicide exceeds that of males. Female suicide is concentrated at young ages to a greater extent than male. It is argued that this is due to differing causal factors. For females in both populations, these comprise sexuality, marriage and childbearing, whilst for males, economic and social status are important. The underlying factors for both sexes are gender and power in the context of social change."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30172 Bourgoin, Nicolas. Suicide and professional activity. [Suicide et activité professionnelle.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 73-101 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article explores the variable effect of joblessness on suicide, by sex and age, with middle-aged men emerging as the most sensitive to job loss. For people in work, the suicide rate rises as social class falls, which is the same pattern as for general mortality. The relationship between occupation and suicide is explored through an analysis of the correlations between frequency of unemployment, level of income and education, and suicide.... [Results suggest] that in addition to life-style factors, related to social class, there are other effects due to the professional activity itself and the conditions in which it is exercised."
Correspondence: N. Bourgoin, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: bourgoin@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30173 Burnley, I. H. Socio-demographic and spatial aspects of male mortality from HIV-AIDS related diseases in New South Wales, Australia, 1990-1994. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 6, Sep 1999. 751-62 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines differential and spatial dimensions of mortality of males from HIV-AIDS related diseases in New South Wales [Australia] during the five-year period 1990-1994. The analysis involves direct standardisation in broad age groups from 15 upwards, with investigation of variations by marital status, occupational status, large birthplace groups and geographic area. The aim is to examine which marital status, socioeconomic and birthplace groups were [at] greater risk of dying from HIV-AIDS related diseases, which age-groups contained the greater mortalities within each of the socio-structural dimensions examined, which communities contained the highest mortality levels and whether there were socio-demographic variations in mortality profiles between communities. These analyses may assist in the more precise targeting of groups at risk."
Correspondence: I. H. Burnley, University of New South Wales, School of Geography, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. E-mail: I.burnley@unsw.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30174 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. Homicide and suicide in the industrial world. The case of Russia. [L'homicide et le suicide dans le monde industriel. Le cas russe.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 127-30 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author compares current trends in Russia concerning violent deaths with the situation in other developed countries. The data sources for deaths from homicide and suicide are first reviewed. The author notes that, if current rates persist, one out of every 25 men will commit suicide between the ages of 25 and 65; if the risks of homicide are added, then the risk of death for men between these ages increases to 1 in 15. With regard to violent deaths as a whole, the author notes that if Russia could achieve the same levels of mortality as France, almost 250,000 lives a year could be saved. Alcohol abuse is a major cause of the high rate of male mortality.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30175 Florescu, Silvia; Popa, Ion; Niculae, Constantinovici. Mortality differentials from gynecological causes associated with pregnancy and delivery in relation to changes in abortion laws. [Les variations de la mortalité par pathologie gynécologique et associée à la grossesse et à l'acouchement par rapport au changement survenu dans la législation de l'avortement.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 126-35 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Maternal mortality in Romania over the past 10 years is analyzed. The objectives are to analyze maternal mortality trends in general, to investigate the extent to which changes in the laws concerning abortion have influenced mortality from abortion and other related gynecological causes, and to examine how these changes in maternal mortality have affected infant life expectancy at birth.
Correspondence: S. Florescu, Institut d'Hygiène, de Santé Publique, de Services de Santé et de Management, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30176 Geronimus, Arline T.; Bound, John; Waidmann, Timothy A. Poverty, time, and place: variation in excess mortality across selected U.S. populations, 1980-1990. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 6, Jun 1999. 325-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "describe variation in levels and causes of excess mortality and temporal mortality change among young and middle aged adults in a regionally diverse set of poor local populations in the USA.... Substantial variability exists in levels, trends, and causes of excess mortality in poor populations across localities. African American residents of urban/northern communities suffer extremely high and growing rates of excess mortality. Rural residents exhibit an important mortality advantage that widens over the decade.... Deaths attributable to circulatory disease are the leading cause of excess mortality in most locations."
Correspondence: A. T. Geronimus, 1420 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30177 Gorjanc, Michael L.; Flanders, W. Dana; VanDerslice, James; Hersh, Joel; Malilay, Josephine. Effects of temperature and snowfall on mortality in Pennsylvania. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 12, Jun 15, 1999. 1,152-60 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relation between exposure to severe cold weather and mortality is examined in a retrospective [U.S.] study of deaths occurring during the month of January from 1991 to 1996 in Pennsylvania.... The authors estimated mortality rates for total deaths and deaths due to ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases by analyses based on generalized estimating equations. Total mortality increased on days of `extreme' climatic conditions, that is, when snowfall was greater than 3 cm and when temperatures were below -7degrees C.... On days of extreme conditions, mortality due to ischemic heart diseases tripled among males aged 35-49 years..., increased for men aged 50-64 years..., and rose for males aged 65 years and older.... Among females, mortality for those aged 65 years and older increased for respiratory causes...and cerebrovascular causes...."
Correspondence: J. Malilay, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Hazards Epidemiology Section, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Mailstop F-46, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30178 Greenland, Philip; Daviglus, Martha L.; Dyer, Alan R.; Liu, Kiang; Huang, Cheng-Fang; Goldberger, Jeffrey J.; Stamler, Jeremiah. Resting heart rate is a risk factor for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 9, May 1, 1999. 853-62 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In a prospective cohort study, associations of resting heart rate with risk of coronary, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality in age-specific cohorts of black and white men and women were examined over 22 years of follow-up. Participants were employees from 84 [U.S.] companies and organizations in the Chicago, Illinois, area.... In summary, heart rate was a risk factor for mortality from coronary disease, all cardiovascular diseases, and all causes in the younger men and in middle-aged men and women, and for cancer mortality in middle-aged men and women."
Correspondence: P. Greenland, Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, 680 North Lake Shore Drive, Suite 1102, Chicago, IL 60611. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30179 Gu, Ken; Cowie, Catherine C.; Harris, Maureen I. Diabetes and decline in heart disease mortality in U.S. adults. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 281, No. 14, Apr 14, 1999. 1,291-7 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors "compare [U.S.] adults with diabetes with those without diabetes for time trends in mortality from all causes, heart disease, and ischemic heart disease [using data from]...the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) conducted between 1971 and 1975 (n=9,639) and the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Survey conducted between 1982 and 1984 (n=8,463).... The decline in heart disease mortality in the general U.S. population has been attributed to reduction in cardiovascular risk factors and improvement in treatment of heart disease. The smaller declines in mortality for diabetic subjects in the present study indicate that these changes may have been less effective for people with diabetes, particularly women."
Correspondence: M. I. Harris, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Natcher Building, Room 5AN24, 45 Center Drive, MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892. E-mail: harrism@ep.niddk.nih.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30180 Hossain, M. Zakir; Mian, M. Abul B.; Kumar, Alok. Effect of elimination of leading causes of death in rural Bangladesh: potential gains in life expectancies. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998. 301-10 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt has been made to observe the effect of the elimination of infectious and diarrhoeal diseases on the expectation of life at different age groups [in rural Bangladesh] by sex during 1984 and 1995.... The data analyzed here were collected and primarily reported by Demographic Surveillance system (DSS)-Matlab.... The obtained results reflect that the gain in the expectation of life was affected more by diarrhoeal diseases than infectious diseases for all age groups and for both the sexes in both Comparison and Treatment [areas] in both [the] 1984 and 1995 periods with a few negligible exceptions."
Correspondence: M. Z. Hossain, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Department of Statistics, Sylhet, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30181 Keuzeta, Jean J. Mortality from malaria: how can it be measured? [La mortalité par paludisme: comment la mesurer?] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 86-90 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Problems related to measuring mortality from malaria are examined, with particular reference to the situation in Cameroon. The impact of temperature, which in turn is dependent on altitude, on the incidence of malaria is noted. Recognizing the weakness of current methods used to measure mortality from this cause, the author requests more input from demographers to improve measurement methods.
Correspondence: J. J. Keuzeta, OCEAC, Observatoire Régionale de la Santé, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30182 Law, Malcolm; Wald, Nicholas. Why heart disease mortality is low in France: the time lag explanation. British Medical Journal, Vol. 318, No. 7196, May 29, 1999. 1,471-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In France mortality from ischaemic heart disease is about a quarter of that in Britain. The major risk factors are no more favourable in France, and this so called `French paradox' has not been satisfactorily explained.... The French paradox is usually attributed to the higher consumption of alcohol in France, notably of wine, and some have suggested a specific effect of red wine. In this article we assess quantitatively the extent to which this and other possible explanations can account for the low rate of heart disease in France. We then consider a novel `time-lag' hypothesis, which, we believe, is the main explanation for the paradox."
Correspondence: M. Law, Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, London EC1M 6BQ, England. E-mail: M.R.Law@mds.qmw.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30183 Llorca, Javier; Prieto, M. Dolores; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel. Increase in cervical cancer mortality in Spain, 1951-1991. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 7, Jul 1999. 408-11 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The trend in cervical cancer mortality in Spain from 1951 to 1991 is examined.... The age standardised mortality rate in Spain is lower than in other developed countries (USA or Estonia) and equal to Norwegian and Finland rates; but whereas in these countries the trend is to decrease, the Spanish rate has increased during this period, because of a cohort effect. A misclassification bias could be responsible for the trend in women aged 40 and older but the increasing trend in younger women could not be interpreted as espurious. The Gompertzian analysis suggests as an increase in environmental factors causing cervical cancer."
Correspondence: J. Llorca, University of Cantabria, School of Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Avenida Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30184 Meslé, France. Classifying causes of death according to an aetiological axis. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 1, Mar 1999. 97-105 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The analysis of mortality by cause usually relies on groups of causes created by consolidating items from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). However, this type of grouping is not a very efficient means of describing the real trends in pathological processes. In this paper an alternative classification based on aetiological definitions is proposed. Redistributing deaths between eight aetiological categories offers a different perception of the main determinants of health transition and of mortality prospects. It also provides a view of inter-country differences which may help explain recent variation in trends."
Correspondence: F. Meslé, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30185 Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard; Slaytor, Emma; Ford, Paul. Urban and rural suicide differentials in migrants and the Australian-born, New South Wales, Australia 1985-1994. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jul 1999. 81-91 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We estimated risk of suicide in adults in New South Wales (NSW) [Australia] by sex, country of birth and rural/urban residence, after adjusting for age; we also examined youth suicide (age 15-24 years). The study population was the entire population of NSW, Australia, aged [is greater than or equal to] 15 years during the period 1985-1994.... Male migrants overall were at significantly lower risk of suicide than the Australian-born. While female migrants overall had a significantly higher risk of suicide than Australian-born females.... We conclude that suicide among migrant males living in non-metropolitan areas accounts for most of the excess of male suicide in rural NSW, and the significantly lower risk of suicide for non-metropolitan Australian-born women does not apply to migrant women."
Correspondence: R. Taylor, University of Sydney, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Edward Ford Building A-27, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. E-mail: richardt@pub.health.usyd.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30186 Orubuloye, I. O.; Caldwell, John C.; Ntozi, James P. M. The continuing HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa: responses and coping strategies. 1999. iii, 236 pp. Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The papers contained in this volume are a selection from the Workshop on Intervention Strategies for the Prevention and Control of STDs, HIV/AIDS in Africa: Achievements, Obstacles and Prospects held at the Nigeria Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Ibadan, Nigeria, 15-16 December 1997. Other papers relevant to the theme of the workshop are also included." A section on AIDS mortality and morbidity contains papers on causes, patterns, differentials, and consequences of AIDS mortality in Uganda, and changes in household composition and family structure during the AIDS epidemic in that country.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30187 Ranjan, Alok. Maternal mortality in Madhya Pradesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 4, Dec 1998. 55-61 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper utilises information commonly available at the district level to obtain estimates of maternal mortality ratios for Madhya Pradesh [India] and for of its 45 districts through an indirect regression procedure. The estimates thus obtained have then been used to discuss inter-district variations in the risk of death due to complications of pregnancy and child birth in the state."
Correspondence: A. Ranjan, Shyam Institute of Public Cooperation and Community Development, Mudian ka Kuan, Datia, Madhya Pradesh 475 661, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30188 Roizen, Ron; Kerr, William C.; Fillmore, Kaye M. Cirrhosis mortality and per capita consumption of distilled spirits, United States, 1949-94: trend analysis. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7211, Sep 11, 1999. 666-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In the United States mortality from cirrhosis peaked in 1973 after climbing steadily since the second world war. This occurred several years before total per capita consumption of alcohol peaked and began to decline. [The authors] report that cirrhosis mortality is more strongly associated on the aggregate level with the consumption of distilled spirits than with either total alcohol consumption (which combines the consumption of all types of alcohol beverages) or the consumption of wine or beer. This suggests the merit of devoting multidisciplinary research attention to the link between specific alcoholic beverages and cirrhosis."
Correspondence: R. Roizen, University of California, Institute for Health Policy Studies, San Francisco, CA 94143-0612. E-mail: ron@roizen.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30189 Romelsjö, Anders; Leifman, Anders. Association between alcohol consumption and mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke in 25 year follow up of 49,618 young Swedish men. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7213, Sep 25, 1999. 821-2 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The association between alcohol consumption and the incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality in young men is analyzed using data on 49,618 Swedish men conscripted in 1969-1970 and followed up over a 25-year period. The results clearly indicate that alcohol consumption had a negative effect on health up to age 45. A cardioprotective effect is also noted, but is not significant, since myocardial infarction among young men is rare.
Correspondence: A. Romelsjö, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Novum, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden. E-mail: anders.romelsjo@smd.sll.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30190 Rosefielde, Steven. Documented homicides and excess deaths: new insights into the scale of killing in the USSR during the 1930s. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, Sep 1997. 321-31 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Getty, Rittersporn and Zemskov recently claimed that no more than 2 million people could have perished from collectivization, famine, execution, terror, and forced labor in the USSR during the 1930s. Prior demographic confirmation of this estimate was provided by Anderson and Silver who contended that killings were unlikely to exceed a few million and could not be more than 4.8 million victims. This essay disproves both these contentions by introducing new demographic evidence proving that Stalin killed at least 5.2 million Soviet citizens 1927-1938, with a best estimate in the vicinity of 10 million."
Correspondence: S. Rosefielde, University of North Carolina, Department of Economics, CB No. 3305, Gardner Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3305. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30191 Ruzicka, Lado; Choi, C. Y. Youth suicide in Australia. Working Papers in Demography, No. 78, 1999. 38 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the incidence of youth mortality by suicide in Australia in comparison with other industrialized countries around the mid-1990s. It focuses on fatal suicides in Australia and records changes in suicide mortality levels and patterns since the 1950s. The discussion concentrates on the presumed causes of what is often considered as a recent epidemic of self destruction among young Australian males: drug and alcohol abuse, unemployment. An attempt is made to estimate the global extent of the problem of suicidal behaviour (suicides plus attempted suicides)."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30192 Ruzicka, Lado T. A note on suicide in Russia, 1965-1993. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 2, Nov 1996. 187-93 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Recently, the Centre for Demography and Human Ecology in Moscow in collaboration with the Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques in Paris undertook a reconstruction of registered deaths in individual republics of the former Soviet Union.... The present article extracts from the data set information on registered suicide mortality and reviews its trends and age and sex patterns. The link between alcoholism and suicide is strongly suggested."
Correspondence: L. T. Ruzicka, Major's Creek, Braidwood, NSW 2622, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30193 Shen, Ce; Williamson, John B. Maternal mortality, women's status, and economic dependency in less developed countries: a cross-national analysis. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 2, Jul 1999. 197-214 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In [past] studies of maternal mortality...there has been very little effort to assess the potential relevance of the gender stratification and dependency theory perspectives. Using lagged cross-sectional and path analysis with a sample of 79 less developed countries, this article focuses on the impact of predictors linked to three theoretical perspectives--modernization, economic dependency, and gender stratification. We find that women's status, as measured by indicators such as level of education relative to men, age at first marriage, and reproductive autonomy, is a strong predictor of maternal mortality. We find that economic dependency, especially multinational corporate investment, has a detrimental effect on maternal mortality that is mediated by its harmful impacts on economic growth and the status of women. We also find support for development theory, a variant of modernization theory."
Correspondence: C. Shen, Boston College, School of Education, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167. E-mail: shenc@bc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30194 Suleiman, Abu B.; Mathews, Alex; Jegasothy, Ravindran; Ali, Roslinah; Kandiah, Nadeswary. A strategy for reducing maternal mortality. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 77, No. 2, 1999. 190-3 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A confidential system of enquiry into maternal mortality was introduced in Malaysia in 1991. The methods used and the findings obtained up to 1994 are reported...and an outline is given of the resulting recommendations and actions."
Correspondence: A. B. Suleiman, Seremban Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 70300 Seremban, Malaysia. E-mail: jravi@tm.net.my. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30195 Treurniet, Henriëtte F.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; van der Maas, Paul J.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Variations in "avoidable" mortality: A reflection of variations in incidence? International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 1999. 225-32 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We studied the association between regional variations in `avoidable' mortality and variations in disease incidence [in the Netherlands]. For a selection of conditions we also analysed whether the proportion of in-hospital deaths can explain the regional variations in incidence-adjusted mortality.... Significant regional mortality variations were found for cervical cancer, cancer of the testis, hypertensive and cerebrovascular disease, influenza/pneumonia, cholecystitis/lithiasis, perinatal causes and congenital cardiovascular anomalies. Regional mortality differences in general were only partly accounted for by incidence variations."
Correspondence: H. F. Treurniet, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30196 Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Mähönen, Markku; Tolonen, Hanna; Ruokokoski, Esa; Amouyel, Philippe. Contribution of trends in survival and coronary-event rates to changes in coronary heart disease mortality: 10-year results from 37 WHO MONICA Project populations. Lancet, Vol. 353, No. 9164, May 8, 1999. 1,547-57 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The WHO MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) Project monitored, from the early 1980s, trends over 10 years in coronary heart disease (CHD) across 37 populations in 21 countries. We aimed to validate trends in mortality, partitioning responsibility between changing coronary-event rates and changing survival.... During 371 population-years, 166,000 events were registered. Official CHD mortality rates, based on death certification, fell.... By MONICA criteria, CHD mortality rates were higher, but fell less.... Changes in non-fatal rates were smaller.... MONICA coronary-event rates (fatal and non-fatal combined) fell more...than case fatality.... Contribution to changing CHD mortality varied, but in populations in which mortality decreased, coronary-event rates contributed two thirds and case fatality one third."
Correspondence: H. Tunstall-Pedoe, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland. E-mail: h.tunstallpedoe@dundee.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30197 Weber, Amy E.; Hogg, Robert S. Morbidity and mortality related to human immunodeficiency virus in Canadian men and women, 1987-94. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique, Vol. 90, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 127-32 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors "assess the impact of HIV/AIDS on hospitalization and mortality patterns in Canada...among men and women across provinces, regions and select cities between 1987-94.... This work reveals the considerable impact of HIV/AIDS on patterns of hospitalization and mortality in Canada. When compared with select leading causes of morbidity and mortality, HIV/AIDS was found to be the leading cause of hospitalization and death for men and women, especially during early adulthood."
Correspondence: R. S. Hogg, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada. E-mail: bobhogg@hivnet.ubc.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.