Studies on changes over time in population size and the bases of their estimation. Studies that are concerned primarily with the methodology of trends, estimations, and projections are classified under this heading and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are coded under D.2. Current Rates and Estimates and cross-referenced where appropriate.
Studies of observed data on population growth in the past and its components. Includes studies that are primarily concerned with population trends up to and including World War II.
65:30048 Gelbard, Alene; Haub, Carl; Kent,
Mary M. World population beyond six billion.
Population Bulletin, Vol. 54, No. 1, Mar 1999. 44 pp. Population
Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This Population Bulletin chronicles the demographic history of the world and the changes in population in less developed and more developed countries. It examines the social and economic factors that affect population change. It also discusses the heightened international concern in the second half of the century about the rapid rate of growth and large increases in population size. And, it looks at the ways that governments and private groups around the world have responded to these concerns. It describes a new world vision of what to do about population issues. This vision draws attention to particular population groups and the importance of their well-being for the quality of life for all people in the 21st century."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30049 Lee, James; Wang, Feng.
Malthusian models and Chinese realities: the Chinese demographic
system 1700-2000. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No.
1, Mar 1999. 33-65, 205, 207 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum.
in Fre; Spa.
"This article summarizes major recent findings on Chinese demographic behavior and outlines their relevancy for the Malthusian model of comparative population dynamics and Chinese population in particular. Specifically, it considers four distinctive and persistent features of Chinese behavior during the last 300 years--high rates of female infanticide and abortion, high rates of bachelorhood, low marital fertility, and high rates of male and female adoption--and discusses the origins and implications of such a demographic regime for Chinese economic and social development. Contrasting Chinese demographic behavior with European demographic behavior, the article argues the existence of a demographic system and a demographic transition different from current Malthusian and neo-Malthusian models, and the existence of a system regulating collective demographic behavior in ways distinctly different from Western experience."
Correspondence: J. Lee, California Institute of Technology, Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30050 Vallin, Jacques; Caselli,
Graziella. When England caught up with France. [Quand
l'Angleterre rattrapait la France.] Population et
Sociétés, No. 346, May 1999. 4 pp. Institut National
d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The demographic developments that occurred in France and in England and Wales are compared from 1750 up to the present day. The authors contrast the demographic experience of the two countries, in which France began with a much larger population than England; however, due to differences in fertility over time, the present situation arose in which both countries have populations of about the same size and with similar age distributions.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: email@example.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Studies of censal and other estimates based on current data, together with the relevant methodological studies. Includes studies from World War II up to the present day.
65:30051 Barkalov, N. B.; Darsky, Leonid
E. Russia: fertility, contraception, induced abortion,
infant and maternal mortality. Mar 1994. ii, 56 pp. Futures Group
International, Options II Project: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors analyze demographic trends in Russia. Chapters are included on population size and growth, fertility, infant and maternal mortality, contraception, and induced abortion.
Correspondence: Futures Group International, Options II Project, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30052 Chile. Instituto Nacional de
Estadísticas [INE] (Santiago, Chile). Chile:
population estimates by sex, region, province, and commune,
1990-2005. [Chile: estimaciones de población por sexo,
regiones, provinicias, comunas, 1990-2005.] LC 97-163196. 1996. 129 pp.
Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
Population estimates for Chile based on data from the 1982 and 1992 censuses are presented. Separate projections are provided for the total population and for the male and female population for each year from 1990 to 2005, by region, province, and commune.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas, Casilla 7597, Correo 3, Santiago, Chile. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Gérard-François. A little sunshine on a cold
day: demographic trends in France in 1998. [Un peu de soleil dans
l'eau froide: l'évolution démographique de la France en
1998.] Population et Avenir, No. 641, Jan-Feb 1999. 12-3 pp. Paris,
France. In Fre.
Demographic trends in France in 1998 are briefly reviewed. The author suggests that, although the slight increase in fertility recorded is an encouraging sign, it is primarily due to a change in the timing of births rather than to an increase in their number. Meanwhile, the decline in the percentage of the population under age 20, below-replacement fertility, and a small decline in nuptiality are evidence of the country's continuing demographic problems.
Correspondence: G.-F. Dumont, 16 rue de Lorraine, 78100 Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France. E-mail: Gerard-Francois.Dumont@paris4.sorbonne.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30054 Fetto, John. Six billion
served. American Demographics, Vol. 21, No. 6, Jun 1999. 14-7 pp.
Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"On July 17 , at approximately 8:45 p.m., the world population is expected to cross the 6 billion mark." The author briefly discusses changes in worldwide population trends and the reasons for changes in these patterns.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30055 Japan. Statistics Bureau (Tokyo,
Japan). Annual report on current population estimates as
of October 1st, 1998. Population Estimates Series, No. 71, May
1999. 98 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
This report presents official estimates of the population of Japan as of October 1, 1998. The estimates are presented by age and sex for Japan as a whole and by five-year age group and sex for prefectures.
For previous estimates for 1997, see 64:40068.
Correspondence: Statistics Bureau, Management and Coordination Agency, 19-1 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8668 Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30056 Kerjosse, Roselyne; Tamby,
Irène. The demographic situation in 1996:
population changes. [La situation démographique en 1996:
mouvement de la population.] INSEE Résultats:
Démographie-Société, No. 70-71, ISBN
2-11-067004-5. Apr 1999. 308 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et
des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is one in a series of reports in which demographic trends in France are reviewed. It consists mainly of statistical data organized into sections on population, marriages, divorces, legitimizations of children born outside of marriage, births, induced abortions, deaths, monthly data, migration, departmental and regional data, and international data. The French vital statistics system is described in an appendix, and some methods and definitions used in producing these data are described.
For a previous report concerning 1995, see 64:20075.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe-Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30057 McDevitt, Thomas.
Population trends: Peru. International Brief, No. IB/99-1, Mar
1999. 4 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author provides a brief summary of recent population trends in Peru. Information is included on social and economic disparities, fertility and mortality trends, contraceptive use, unwanted fertility, and the need for contraception.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233-8860. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30058 Perevedentsev, Victor.
The demographic situation in post-Soviet Russia. In:
Population under duress: the geodemography of post-Soviet Russia,
edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya.
1999. 17-38 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In
"Russia is experiencing a profound demographic crisis, which has no parallel in its long history. In 1992, the natural increase of population turned negative, and the excess of deaths over births has been growing since then.... To comprehend [the] current demographic situation, one must analyze the evolution of that population in the past. Such an analysis will inevitably result in the conclusion that Russia has been steadily and rapidly heading for its current demographic crisis and that the crisis is not rooted in the 1990s but rather in the 1960s. In other words, the current population decline was preordained in, and by, the past."
Correspondence: V. Perevedentsev, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Comparative Politics, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30059 Romero Calcerrada, Raúl;
Martínez Vega, Javier. Recent evolution of the
Mancha Occidental's population. [Evolución reciente de la
población de la Mancha Occidental.] Estudios Geográficos,
No. 230, Jan-Mar 1998. 75-97 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in
The authors examine population trends in the Mancha Occidental region of Spain, with a focus on similarities to and differences from national trends. Depopulation in the region is analyzed.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
François-Olivier. Transition and new demographic
dynamics: the example of the Republic of Karelia. [Transition et
nouvelles dynamiques démographiques: l'exemple de la
République de Carélie.] Espace, Populations,
Sociétés, No. 3, 1998. 389-404 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq
Cedex, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Since the collapse of Communism, the Republic of Karelia [Russia] has been undergoing a demographic crisis, parallel to that in Russia, which is characterized by harsh modification of transverse indicators of demographic dynamics such as fertility, mortality, and marriage rates. These found expression in growth of the internal disparities at the `rayons' level and also in modification of the...fertility and mortality factors.... It is possible to catch a glimpse of the new explanatory variables, such as the ethnic dimension, as well as geographic dimensions...."
Correspondence: F.-O. Seys, Université de Lille I, U.F.R. de Géographie, avenue Paul Langevin, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30061 Simkins, Charles E. W.
How large is South Africa's population? Contemporary problems and
puzzles in quantitative demography. PRU Working Paper, No. 4, Apr
1999. 34 pp. Rhodes University, Population Research Unit: East London,
England. In Eng.
"The release in June 1997 of the `Preliminary Estimates of the Size of the Population of South Africa at the time of the October 1996 Census' caused a stir in demographic circles and beyond. Up to then, Central Statistical Services had put the South African population at 41.2 million in 1995, with a growth rate of 2.0% [per year]. This implies a population of 42.3 million in October 1996. Instead, the preliminary estimate put the population at 37.9 million, just over 10% lower.... The present analysis suggests a population in 1996 midway between the old CSS estimate and the 1996 preliminary estimate."
Correspondence: Rhodes University, Population Research Unit, East London Campus, Box 7426, 50 Church Street, East London, 5200 England. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30062 United Nations. Department of
Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New
York). World population prospects: the 1998 revision.
Volume I: comprehensive tables. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/177, Pub. Order
No. E.99.XIII.9. ISBN 92-1-151333-2. 1999. xi, 627 pp. New York, New
York. In Eng.
The tables presented in this volume are from the 1998 UN revision of its official world population estimates and projections, the sixteenth round of such estimates and projections undertaken by the UN Population Division. It is part of a three-volume set, the other volumes presenting the tables on sex and age distribution and a description of the results, methods, and sources. The data are provided for the world, its regions, and individual countries. The data are also available on magnetic tape and diskettes that can be purchased.
For a related volume providing data on age and sex distribution, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, DC2 1950, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30063 Vishnevskii, A. The
demographic potential of Russia. Problems of Economic Transition,
Vol. 41, No. 9, Jan 1999. 28-53 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the current demographic situation in Russia. Topics considered include the low birth rate, high mortality rate, age distribution, migration, growth forecasts, life expectancy, demographic aging and the dependency burden, and pension support.
Correspondence: A. Vishnevskii, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of National Economic Forecasting, Center for Demography and Human Ecology, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
65:30064 Zakharov, Sergei.
Fertility, nuptiality, and family planning in Russia: problems and
prospects. In: Population under duress: the geodemography of
post-Soviet Russia, edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and
Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya. 1999. 41-58 pp. Westview Press: Boulder,
Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author investigates population trends in Russia, with a focus on problems resulting from long-term historical patterns. Past policy measures and their impact are discussed. Current trends are examined, and prospects for the future are considered.
Correspondence: S. Zakharov, Institute for Economic Forecasting, Fertility Research Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Studies of both long-term and short-term future trends and studies on the appropriate methodology.
65:30065 Courbage, Youssef. New
demographic prospects in the Mediterranean basin. [Nouveaux
horizons démographiques en Méditerranée.] INED
Travaux et Documents, No. 142, ISBN 2-7332-0142-5. 1999. vi, 200 pp.
Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France.
This study, which is translated from the original Italian, analyzes demographic trends in the 22 developing countries to the south and east of the Mediterranean Sea, as well as Iran and the Arab countries of the Middle East. The focus is on projections of population growth for the region, and the case is made that most projections currently available do not take into account the pace of the demographic transition. The author suggests that, although there are significant differences among countries, the total fertility rate is likely to decline from 4 to 2.3 children per woman, and the overall population of the region is likely to grow to only 586 million by the year 2025, rather than the 700 million previously projected. Particular attention is given to issues of employment and to trends in the labor force.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: email@example.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30066 Knodel, John.
Deconstructing population momentum. Population Today, Vol. 27,
No. 3, Mar 1999. 1-2, 7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Population momentum refers to the fact that the future growth of any population will be influenced by its present age distribution.... Discussions of future global population growth invariably mention that, even if world fertility falls to the replacement level, momentum will cause population to continue to increase for some time." The author discusses methods of measurement, positive momentum, and negative momentum.
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 426 Thompson Street, P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30067 Li, Nan; Tuljapurkar,
Shripad. Population momentum for gradual demographic
transitions. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jul 1999. 255-62
pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We present results concerning the momentum of a population whose demographic transition is completed within a finite time. First, we provide an exact analytical formula for such a population's momentum. Second, for rapid fertility transitions, we obtain a simple exact expression for momentum that reduces to Keyfitz's [expression] if the transition is instantaneous. We show, by example, that our simpler formulae are accurate approximations to population momentum for transitions that take as long as 100 years. Finally, we show that the speed of fertility decline makes a substantial difference to population momentum."
Correspondence: N. Li, Mountain View Research, 2251 Grant Road, Suite A, Los Altos, CA 94024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30068 Rees, Philip. Problems
and solutions in forecasting geographical populations. Journal of
the Australian Population Association, Vol. 14, No. 2, Nov 1997. 145-66
pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper asks the question: How does the multistate population model need to be adjusted to provide forecasts of geographical populations? Following an exposition of the standard model, possible solutions to the problems posed by excessive number of parameters are discussed. Decomposition, aggregation and parameterization are described, drawing on some new results. Issues in the temporal forecasting of model components are outlined and the alternative approach of using a spatial interaction model is considered. The paper concludes by arguing that the design of forecasting models is a powerful learning device for both designers and users."
Correspondence: P. Rees, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30069 Szajnowska-Wysocka, Alicja.
Demographic change of population during the transition period in
Poland. Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 3, 1998.
361-9 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"On the background of demographic changes in Poland since 1989 concerning population, fertility, death rate and internal migration, the author presents projections of [the] population in Poland 1996--2020 which will cover the following: change in demographic structures and territorial differences in a prognosis of changes of the population structure."
Correspondence: A. Szajnowska-Wysocka, University of Lódz, Institute of Economic Geography and Spatial Organization, Al. Kosiuszki 21, 90 418 Lódz, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30070 Thouez, J. P.; Bussière, Y.;
Bernard, A.; Laroche, P. Regional forecasts of the elderly
population with reduced mobility in Quebec and indicators of their
potential needs. [Prévisions régionales des
clientèles âgées à mobilité
réduite au Québec et indicateurs de besoins potentiels.]
In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure,
Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de
Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 628-38 pp. Association
Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française
[AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris,
France. In Fre.
Some projections of the elderly population in the Canadian province of Quebec are made by region, the emphasis being on identifying the elderly population with limited mobility and the need for support from the community. Attention is also given to the methods available for making estimates of this kind.
Correspondence: J. P. Thouez, Université de Montréal, Département de Géographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30071 United Nations. Centro
Latinoamericano de Demografía [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile);
Guatemala. Instituto Nacional de Estadística [INE] (Guatemala
City, Guatemala). Guatemala: population estimates for
departments by age and sex for 1990-2010 and population estimates by
municipality for 1990-2005. [Guatemala: estimaciones de
población por departamento segun edad y sexo 1990-2010 y
estimaciones de población por municipio segun sexo 1990-2005.]
CELADE Serie OI, No. 121, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/R.273. Apr 1997. 107
pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
Official population projections are presented for Guatemala. The projections for departments are for each five-year interval and are provided from 1990 up to the year 2010 by age and sex. The projections for municipalities are also given by age and sex for five-year intervals but only up to the year 2005.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Edificio America, 8a Calle 9-55, Zona 1, Guatemala City CA, Guatemala. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30072 United Nations. Comisión
Económica para América Latina y el Caribe [CEPAL]
(Santiago, Chile); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano y
Caribeño de Demografía [CELADE] (Santiago,
Chile). Latin America: urban and rural population
projections 1970-2025. [América Latina: proyecciones de
población urbana y rural 1970-2025.] Boletín
Demográfico/Demographic Bulletin, No. 63, Pub. Order No.
LC/G.2052. Jan 1999. 256 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
Population estimates and projections are presented for Latin America as a whole and for 20 countries that make up the region for the period 1970-2025. The data concern total, urban, and rural population by sex and five-year age groups.
Correspondence: Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía, Casilla 179-D, Santiago de Chile. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30073 United States. Bureau of the Census
(Washington, D.C.). World population at a glance: 1998 and
beyond. International Brief, No. 98-4, Pub. Order No.
ST/ESA.SER.A/145. Jan 1999. 4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This brief describes trends in population growth and other key demographic indicators over the next quarter century. It summarizes the [U.S.] Census Bureau's latest estimates and projections of worldwide population, population growth, fertility, life expectancy, and infant mortality. Trends in family planning utilization, which are likely to play a key role in determining fertility and natural increase during the coming decades, and the increasingly important matter of population aging also are discussed."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233-8860. E-mail: email@example.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30074 Yadava, R. C.; Yadava, K. N. S.;
Singh, V. S. Population projection under a changed regime
of fertility. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998.
275-86 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The estimation of size of population at any future time has been of considerable interest to planners and researchers.... The objective of the present paper is to derive expressions for projecting the population up to [a particular] time...allowing the similar change in fertility schedule.... The expressions for birth trajectory and population sizes are worked out and their illustration with one example [for India] is given."
Correspondence: R. C. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Studies on changes in population between two specific points in time. Includes studies on negative growth, natural increase, zero population growth, and population reproduction.
65:30075 Carmichael, Gordon A.
Things ain't what they used to be! Demography, mental cohorts,
morality and values in post-war Australia. Journal of the
Australian Population Association, Vol. 15, No. 2, Nov 1998. 91-113 pp.
Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This is the "presidential address to the Ninth Biennial Conference of the Australian Population Association, Brisbane, 30 September 1998.... I propose to look back 50 or so years, at a period of demographic change in Australia that I have found intensely interesting, and that it is hard to imagine will be rivalled in extent or profoundness over the next half century." Aspects considered include morality and values--demographic evidence of change; broad changes in nuptiality and fertility; the sexual revolution; contraception; and life cycle changes.
Correspondence: G. A. Carmichael, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30076 Kuz, Tony J.; James, Aaron.
Population changes in southern Manitoba: trends and policy
implications 1971-1991. Canadian Journal of Urban Research, Vol.
7, No. 1, Jun 1998. 72-100 pp. Winnipeg, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in
"This study analyzes the patterns and trends in rural and urban population change in Southern Manitoba [Canada] and the Winnipeg region between 1971 and 1991. Census data for five-year intervals is analyzed and compared and conclusions are drawn about major influences at work. The conclusions reached in this study are considered within the context of broader regional, national, and international trends of rural and urban population change. In addition, the issues, conflicts, and governmental policy surrounding exurban development are briefly addressed."
Correspondence: T. J. Kuz, University of Winnipeg, Department of Geography, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9, Canada. Location: University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, PA.
65:30077 Monnier, Alain. Eastern
Europe: an exceptional demographic situation. [Europe de l'Est:
une conjoncture démographique exceptionnelle.] Espace,
Populations, Sociétés, No. 3, 1998. 323-38 pp. Villeneuve
d'Ascq Cedex, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article [discusses] the demographic evolution in Central Europe and the states of the former USSR since the political and socio-economic changes. It then endeavours to answer two questions: Do these shocks constitute the continuation of tendencies prior to the changes? Do they demonstrate the irresistible diffusion of the Western European model?... The observations presented suggest that the demographic shocks in Eastern Europe illustrate the demographic impact of the transition toward a market economy. Simultaneously, they reveal the old structural weaknesses, which are well known in the case of the death rate."
Correspondence: A. Monnier, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30078 Tuirán, Rodolfo.
The demographic situation in Mexico. [La situación
demográfica de México.] Papeles de Población, Vol.
4, No. 16, Apr-Jun 1998. 17-38 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa.
The author analyzes trends in the components of population growth over the past several decades in Mexico, and presents some medium and long-term projections. He notes the process of mortality decline that has been occurring for nearly seven decades, and illustrates the fertility decline that has been a principal determinant in the reduction of population growth and in the recent changes in age distribution.
Correspondence: R. Tuirán, Consejo Nacional de Población, Avenida Angel Urraza 1137, Col. Del Valle, C.P. 03100 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
65:30079 Zvidrins, Peteris.
Changes in living standards and depopulation in Latvia in the
1990s. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, Feb 1998.
121-40 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Latvia has experienced adverse economic development following the onset of the political and economic revolutions in 1989-1991.... Simultaneously with political and economic changes, there are essential shifts in demographic behavior and demographic indicators. In this paper the present situation in living standards and demographic trends is discussed. The analysis focuses on the time patterns in Latvia since the end of the 1980s."
Correspondence: P. Zvidrins, University of Latvia, Bulvar Raina 19, 1586 Riga, Latvia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.