Volume 65 - Number 2 - Summer 1999

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

65:20694 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Comparative study of population policies in Asia: focus on eight Asian countries. 1998. 224 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The purpose of this research is to study the history and condition of population policy in the Asian countries at the present moment which may well be the turning point when the problem of population is seen as a global problem and to set out short- and long-term outlooks on these matters." Chapters are included on policies in China, South Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
Correspondence: Asian Population and Development Association, Collins 3 Building 3F, 1-5-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0022, Japan. E-mail: apdatyoj@gol.com. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20695 Behrman, Jere R.; Knowles, James C. Population and reproductive health: an economic framework for policy evaluation. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 697-737, 898-900 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article provides a standard economic framework to evaluate policies in the population and reproductive health fields and illustrates its use in order to facilitate cross-disciplinary exchanges between economists and others working in these areas.... The article illustrates this framework with a cost-benefit analysis of a safe motherhood project in Indonesia and a distributional analysis of family planning and reproductive health services in Vietnam. Application of the policy framework to a number of resource and finance issues in population and reproductive health suggests that a significant program bias favors publicly provided services and hinders the emergence of a more efficient mix of private and public providers competing on an equal basis."
Correspondence: J. R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, McNeil 160, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. E-mail: jbehrman@econ.sas.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20696 Birg, Herwig. Demographic knowledge and political responsibility: considerations concerning population development in Germany in the 21st century. [Demographisches Wissen und politische Verantwortung: Überlegungen zur Bevölkerungsentwicklung Deutschlands im 21. Jahrhundert.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1998. 221-51 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The article deals with the question as to why the current state of knowledge and the general awareness as far as the interdependence of the demographic and social problems in Germany are concerned are unsatisfactory.... The urgency of providing objective information on the demographic facts and trends is explained on the basis of demographic projections for 21st century Germany.... It is shown that demography and democracy are closely connected to each other and that a democracy which does justice to its responsibility for the living conditions of the coming generations which are determined by...demographic development cannot make population politics taboo by pointing to the abuse of demography which took place during the National Socialist period. The thesis of this article is that population [policy]--especially family [policy], migration [policy] and integration [policy]--is not only in agreement with the aims of our democratic society but is urgently required in order to achieve such aims."
Correspondence: H. Birg, Universität Bielefeld, Institut für Bevölkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20697 Bittles, A. H.; Chew, Y.-Y. Eugenics and population policies. In: Human biology and social inequality, edited by S. S. Strickland and P. S. Shetty. 1998. 272-87 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The history of the eugenics movement as a whole is first reviewed, and the problems that were caused for the eugenics movement by the adoption and implementation of eugenic objectives by the authorities in Nazi Germany are discussed. The authors then describe the more recent development of population policies with some eugenic objectives in China and Singapore. The authors conclude that the efficacy of such policies remains to be determined. They also suggest that the ethical concerns about such policies are less likely to be of concern in Asia, as they are primarily related to the experiences of European societies.
Correspondence: A. H. Bittles, Edith Cowan University, Department of Human Biology, Joondalup Campus, Perth, WA 6027, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20698 Hayes, Adrian C. Cairo and the changing definition of population and development issues. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 12, No. 1, May 1995. 15-23 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The goal of the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo in September 1994, was to agree on a Programme of Action in the field of population and development which would supersede the Plan of Action agreed to at Bucharest in 1974 and subsequently amended ten years later in Mexico City. The main purpose of the present paper is to characterize some of the principal intellectual and ideological developments of the last 20 years which have had an impact on the definition of this goal. I conclude with some brief comments on the Programme of Action adopted by consensus at the Conference."
Correspondence: A. C. Hayes, Australian National University, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20699 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Institutional impediments to population policy in Australia. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 12, No. 2, Nov 1995. 97-112 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Despite being near the top of the OECD league in rate of population growth, Australia does not have any explicit population policy.... Vague, demographically ill-informed, and mutually inconsistent views of a desired population size or trajectory for Australia co-exist, with no arena for systematic engagement and considered debate among them.... However, there are also specific historical circumstances that led to this outcome, and that perpetuate it."
Correspondence: G. McNicoll, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20700 Shenstone, Michael. World population: why we should pay heed. International Journal, Vol. 53, No. 3, Summer 1998. 554-74 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
"By 1999, five years will have passed since the huge International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. In the meantime, the key population issues...have receded from public attention. To bring them to the forefront once again, the United Nations, with support from Canada and others, is organizing a series of events over the coming year...on various ICPD themes.... It is hoped that this article may help to indicate what is at stake, for, in the field of population, there are major long-term implications for international relations and for Canadian policy."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:20701 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). National population policies. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/171, Pub. Order No. E.99.XIII.3. 1998. x, 444 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This publication is part of an ongoing effort by the UN Population Division to monitor and disseminate information on the implementation of the Programme of Action agreed to at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. It provides a summary overview of population policies and changes in those policies for all countries for which such information is available. The focus is on three basic policy components: government perceptions of population size, growth, structure, and distribution, and of the demographic components of fertility, mortality, and migration that affect them; government objectives with respect to each of these variables; and government policies concerning interventions designed to influence each variable. "The material is presented in the form of two-page data sheets: the first page contains population policy data for each country around the dates 1976, 1986 and 1996, and the second page provides demographic and socio-economic indicators for the corresponding years."
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, DC2 1950, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

65:20702 Alberdi, Inés. The family. Similarity and difference in Spanish family models in the European context. [La familia. Convergencia y divergencia de los modelos familiares españoles en el entorno europeo.] Política y Sociedad, No. 26, Sep-Dec 1997. 73-94, 187-8 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper analyses the political decisions related to family matters in European countries in order to compare family policies in each of them. The author makes the distinction between explicit and tacit family policies. In some European countries, like France, the policy of the family is explicit and the public debate on family affairs is open and frequent. In Spain, on the contrary, there is not a public debate on family issues and related policies.... The paper points out the difficult task of comparing family policies in European countries due to the variety of measures, the diversity of objectives and the different ideological design in each case." A section is included on the situation in Spain.
Correspondence: I. Alberdi, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Sociología I, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20703 Ashford, Lori; Makinson, Carolyn. Reproductive health in policy and practice. Case studies from Brazil, India, Morocco, and Uganda. Jan 1999. 32 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"To asses how the Cairo [The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)] program is being implemented in diverse settings, senior researchers in Brazil, India, Morocco, and Uganda conducted case studies that document changes in reproductive health policies and services, as well as in the political and social environment in which initiatives are carried out. They also analyzed how resources have been raised and allocated to support reproductive health programs."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: popref@prb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20704 Atoh, Makoto. Social and economic background of very low fertility and policy responses to it. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1998. 1-6 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is a general review of the trend toward below-replacement fertility in developed countries and of the policy initiatives that have been developed in response to such trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20705 Cleland, John; Lush, Louisiana. Population and policies in Bangladesh, Pakistan. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, Vol. 12, No. 2, Summer 1997. 46-50 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The authors compare population trends and policies in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Aspects considered include reasons for differences between the two countries, fertility trends, family planning programs, and falling birth rates.
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 49-51 Bedford Square, Keppel Street, London WC1B 3DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20706 Hardee, Karen; Agarwal, Kokila; Luke, Nancy; Wilson, Ellen; Pendzich, Margaret; Farrell, Marguerite; Cross, Harry. Reproductive health policies and programs in eight countries: progress since Cairo. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, Suppl., Jan 1999. 2-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article, we present case studies from eight countries conducted to assess their progress in implementing the Cairo Programme of Action. These countries--Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Jordan, Nepal, Peru and Senegal--span a diverse range of cultural, social, economic and family planning program contexts." Results indicate that "while all but two of the countries have adopted the ICPD [International Conference on Population and Development] definition of reproductive health and all have initiated policy reforms to reflect a new focus, less has been accomplished in implementing integrated reproductive health programs."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. Hardee, Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20707 Jain, Anrudh. Do population policies matter? Fertility and politics in Egypt, India, Kenya, and Mexico. ISBN 0-87834-091-2. LC 98-28679. 1998. xix, 203 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The four country studies in this volume [investigate] population policymaking and the politics surrounding it from historical and contemporary perspectives. The countries [examined were] Egypt, India, Kenya, and Mexico.... Issues related to the evolution of a population policy include the role of key stakeholders, the influence of internal politics and international agencies, the administrative structures guiding the program and providing coordination, and the degree of flexibility and autonomy at the local level. An introductory essay offers observations on the politics of fertility transition over the past several decades, while a concluding essay speculates on the future of population policies."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20708 Landwerlin, Gerardo M. The present and future of family planning in Spain. [Presente y futuro de la política familiar en España.] Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, No. 70, Apr-Jun 1995. 67-90 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper deals with the three main features that underpin family policy in Spain today, namely privatisation, inclusion in the sphere of welfare, and fragmentation, placing them in the broader context of the development of this component of social policy. The author contends that we are witnessing a shift in the political arena, marked by an increasing awareness of the need to redirect the current thrust of family policy. The article goes further into the study of how the state provides for dependent relatives in different family situations, from the viewpoint of, on the one hand, comparisons with other countries and, on the other, of the risk of skidding into poverty that results from the presence of dependent relatives."
Correspondence: G. M. Landwerlin, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20709 Liang, Zhongtang; Tan, Kejian. Demographic analysis of the effect of the population policy of "deferred marriage and reproduction plus interval" in Yicheng County, Shanxi Province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 1-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors report on a program instituted in Yicheng County, China, in 1985. "The `one family, one child' policy that had been in effect in Yicheng County was replaced with the policy of `deferred marriage and reproduction plus interval'.... This study is an analysis of the experiment conducted...from a new perspective based on empirical data."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20710 Mitchell, Jennifer D. Before the next doubling. World Watch, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1998. 20-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Over the past 40 years, the world's population has doubled. This paper argues that because of the size of the next reproductive generation, we probably have only a relative few years to stop [the] next doubling. It assesses the effectiveness of existing strategies to reduce population in developing countries, and explores the three dimensions of population explosion; unmet demand for family planning, desire for large families, and population momentum."
Correspondence: J. D. Mitchell, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20711 Mukerji, S. Family planning and target-setting. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jun 1998. 25-7 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The recommendation of setting family planning targets for India and its major states on the assumption of attaining a net reproduction rate (NRR) of unity by target year(s) resulted in a period of considerable disagreement among demographers and social scientists.... Though...the author [had previously] supported NRR-based target-setting, after nearly a decade, the conviction has waned a little mainly due to a few theoretical considerations outlined in [this paper]."
Correspondence: S. Mukerji, Flat No. 401, Sector 7, Plot No. 1103, Kophar Khairne, Navi Mumbai 400 703, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20712 Oláh, Livia Sz. Do public policies influence fertility? Evidence from Sweden and Hungary from a gender perspective. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 130, ISBN 91-7820-131-4. Dec 1998. 57 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In the industrialized world, public policies may play a crucial role in reducing the incompatibility of employment and parenthood and thus may influence fertility. This paper provides a partial test of this hypothesis from a gender perspective. I focus on public-policy impacts on second-birth rates of women and men in Sweden and Hungary from the late 1960s to the early 1990s [using] data from the Swedish and Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of 1992/93...."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Author's E-mail: f63os5f8@students.su.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20713 Srinivasan, K. Population policies and programmes since independence (a saga of great expectations and poor performance). Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 1-22 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author critically examines the population policies and programs adopted in India since 1951. Four periods are studied: 1951-1975, when the national program was health-department operated, incentive based, target oriented, time bound, and sterilization focused; June 1975-March 1977, an emergency period during which a coercive approach was taken; 1977-1994, the post-emergency recovery period; and 1995 onward, which focused on a reproductive and child health approach.
Correspondence: K. Srinivasan, Population Foundation of India, B-28 Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20714 Takahashi, Miyuki. Akago-yoiku-shihou, the fertility increase law in Nihonmatsu-domain. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 23, Nov 1998. 41-53 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of a [Japanese] Tokugawa-period [1603-1868] law known as Akago-yoiku-shihou, an administrative attempt to shape fertility behavior of the domestic population. Akago-yoiku-shihou refers to the law to increase fertility under which local authorities distributed money and clothing to fathers according to the number of children they had.... By observing the relationship between the law and demographic variables such as the fertility rate, the births of twins and the births of mothers working as gejo, or servant, this paper gauges the effects of the Akago-yoiku-shihou."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20715 Wissenburg, Marcel. The rapid reproducers paradox: population control and individual procreative rights. Environmental Politics, Vol. 7, No. 2, Summer 1998. 78-99 pp. Ilford, England. In Eng.
"In this article, I consider the impact of population policies on individual rights (in a very broad sense of the word), a topic that has received disproportionately little attention in debates on the legitimacy of population rights. I first concentrate on arguments in favour of very radical antinatalist policies and assess these on the basis of rather strict conditions that are typical for liberal democratic morality, but I also show that many objections to these policies can apply to far less radical policies and under far less stringent conditions. My main objection to population policies is that they create a paradox: although they may be beneficial overall, they punish individuals who do not contribute to overpopulation and reward those who do."
Correspondence: M. Wissenburg, University of Nijmegen, Department of Political Science, Comeniuslaan 4, P.O. Box 9201, 6500 HC Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

65:20716 Alba, Francisco. Mexican migration policies after IRCA. [La política migratoria mexicana después de IRCA.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1999. 11-37, 261 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The responses given by Mexico, particularly its government, to the issue of Mexican immigration to the United States, have become more important since the changes in U.S. immigration legislation, initiated in 1986 and updated in 1996, and following the intensification of the immigrant and xenophobic demonstrations carried out by large sectors of American society. This paper briefly reviews Mexican policies implemented when the Bracero programs ended and provides a more detailed analysis of how government policies changed from the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) to the more recent 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, exploring some of the implications of these changes and Mexico's current migration policy."
Correspondence: F. Alba, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20717 Betts, Katharine. The character bill and migration rights. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1998. 39-53 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"For a decade and a half the executive and the judiciary in Australia have been engaged in a low-key struggle over who should have the final word on questions of immigration control. The Character Bill represents the latest move in this struggle.... The Bill aims to protect the community from non-citizens who may be of bad character, particularly people who may be criminals, when they apply for visas.... The Bill throws the conflict between the interests of the Australian community and the interests of some non-citizens into stark relief."
Correspondence: K. Betts, Swinburne University of Technology, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20718 Birrell, Bob. Skilled migration policy under the Coalition. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1998. 37-51 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"All of the major permanent skilled migration categories have been or are currently under review by [Australia's] Coalition Government. An analysis of the review processes and outcomes (where complete) indicate that the Coalition has mostly left these programs intact. However, in the case of the Independent and Skilled--Australia Linked categories, an important new element of skills targeting is about to be introduced which indicates that the Coalition has taken account of some criticism of past selection policies in regard to these categories."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20719 Centre d'Information et d'Etudes sur les Migrations Internationales (Paris, France). New laws on immigration in Europe. [De nouvelles lois sur l'immigration en Europe.] Migrations Société, Vol. 10, No. 57, May-Jun 1998. 128 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This special issue contains a selection of articles on recent changes in laws concerning immigration in Europe. There are articles about these changes in France, Italy, and Spain. A selective bibliography and a review of press coverage of the recent changes in the law in France are included. The volume also contains an article on return migration by the late Abdelmalek Sayad, which is cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Centre d'Information et d'Etudes sur les Migrations Internationales, 46 rue de Montreuil, 75011 Paris, France. E-mail:ciemiparis@aol.com. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

65:20720 Cummings, Scott; Lambert, Thomas. Immigration restrictions and the American worker: an examination of competing interpretations. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 6, Dec 1998. 497-520 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines three competing interpretations of support for tougher immigration restrictions [in the United States]. One interpretation posits that tighter restrictions are favored by those in direct competition with immigrants for jobs, namely low or unskilled workers who toil in labor markets that are low-paying and often unstable. A second line of thought is that greater restrictions are favored by workers who perceive immigrants as potential competitors in labor markets, even though there may be no real basis for such perceptions. The third interpretation explaining support for tougher restrictions is rooted in a broad based cultural nativism or nationalism, and relies heavily on traditional theories of prejudice and discrimination. Data for the study are derived from the 1992 National Election Survey [conducted by the Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan]. Contrary to theoretical expectations, neither actual nor perceived economic insecurity explain variations in current levels of support for tougher immigration restrictions among American workers. The theoretical significance of the findings [is] discussed and elaborated. Suggestions are made for future research in this important area of inquiry."
Correspondence: S. Cummings, University of Louisville, Urban Studies Institute, 426 West Bloom, Louisville, KY 40208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20721 Curran, Michael R. Flickering lamp beside the golden door: immigration, the constitution, and undocumented aliens in the 1990s. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Vol. 30, No. 1, Winter 1998. 57-142 pp. Cleveland, Ohio. In Eng.
"This article presents a discussion of the rights and privileges of aliens in general and undocumented aliens in particular as premised on constitutional and legal bases. It addresses universal historical, economic, and socio-political aspects of the undocumented alien issue, and also discusses future trends and some recent [U.S.] Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and court decisions dealing particularly with undocumented aliens, deportation, etc. Finally, the material concludes with suggestions for ways in which the legal system should approach a subject that is as germane to and as much a part of America's heritage as its governmental and political institutions."
Location: Pennsylvania State University Library, University Park, PA.

65:20722 Davis, Susan M.; Saunders, Mark N. K. Freedom of movement for professionals: an assessment of the effectiveness of European Union policy and the barriers that remain. Journal of Applied Management Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1997. 199-218 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the impact of EU [European Union] legislation in overcoming barriers to professionals' migration, thereby facilitating freedom of movement between EU states.... Research on...factors influencing migration levels of EU professionals and the possible ways organisations overcome barriers is reviewed and a typology of skilled...labour migration is proposed.... The paper concludes with an evaluation of the effectiveness of policy and an assessment of barriers that must be overcome in order to enable inter-EU state migration."
Correspondence: S. M. Davis, Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education, Human Resource Management Research Centre, P.O. Box 220, Park Campus, The Park, Cheltenham, GL50 2QF, England. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

65:20723 Elmas, Hasan B. The intervention of the immigration factor in Turco-European relations. [L'intervention du facteur "immigration" dans les relations turco-européennes.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1998. 77-101 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article compares the demographic, economic and political changes in Turkey since the end of the Fifties, with [a focus on immigration trends and] relations between Turkey and the European Community.... The current strong potential for emigration in Turkey is...described, with its political and economic determining factors. The European policies for mastering immigration, which are essentially of a security nature, do not take all of these new dimensions into account. The analysis of the Turkish case shows the inefficiency of the measures adopted by the European countries, since...populations of Turkish origin, Turks and Kurds, [have] quadrupled since 1974, increasing from 1 to 4 million people."
Correspondence: H. B. Elmas, Université de Paris VIII, Département de Science Politique, Centre d'Etudes sur la Turquie, Le Moyen-Orient et les Balkans, 2 rue de la Liberté, 93526 St. Denis Cedex 02, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20724 Federation for American Immigration Reform [FAIR] (Washington, D.C.). How to win the immigration debate. ISBN 0-935776-24-9. 1997. vi, 147 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This manual presents the case for a reform of U.S. immigration policy involving a reduction in present levels of immigration. The basic arguments are that "present immigration policy violates our immigration tradition; even if it didn't, it is damaging to the economy; even if it weren't, it causes social strain; and even if you disregard that, immigration drives population growth and environmental degradation."
Correspondence: Federation for American Immigration Reform, 1666 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20725 Freeman, Gary P. Reform and retreat in United States immigration policy. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1998. 1-11 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Immigration policy in the United States has been dominated by a form of client politics in which the relatively small number of beneficiaries of high migration have been able to prevail against the interests of the diffuse majority who pay the costs. However, in the mid 1990s, Congress introduced tighter controls on illegal immigration and restrictions on access to welfare benefits to migrants who were not citizens. There were also attempts to cut the level of legal immigration. Do these new moves indicate that client politics no longer prevails? The outcome of the push for reform suggests that the answer is no."
Correspondence: G. P. Freeman, University of Texas, Department of Politics, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20726 Hakura, Fadi S. The external EU immigration policy: the need to move beyond the orthodoxy. European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1998. 115-34 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Anti-immigration sentiments have recently engrossed the European Union (EU).... This article will, first, give an overall picture on immigration in the Union; secondly, show that the...justifications for barring EU bound immigrants are flawed and generate negative repercussions on the EU's foreign policy and external relations with third states; thirdly, propose an alternative paradigm within which to conduct the discourse on the EU immigration policy."
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:20727 Jonas, Susanne; Thomas, Suzie D. Immigration: a civil rights issue for the Americas. ISBN 0-8420-2775-0. LC 98-37844. 1999. xv, 206 pp. Scholarly Resources: Wilmington, Delaware. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles by different authors "offering a range of perspectives among those who agree that immigrants [to the United States] have rights but may differ about how to assert those rights." Articles are as follows: Riding the endless immigration roller coaster (a true story), by J. C. Malone; Beyond sovereignty: immigration policy making today, by Saskia Sassen; The battle for the border: notes on autonomous migration, transnational communities, and the state, by Néstor Rodríguez; The expansion of California agriculture and the rise of peasant-worker communities, by Juan Vicente Palerm; Gender and international labor migration: a networks approach, by Linda M. Matthei; Are immigration controls ethical?, by John Isbister; Rethinking immigration policy and citizenship in the Americas: a regional framework, by Susanne Jonas; Chinese suburban immigration and political diversity in Monterey Park, California, by John Horton; U.S. immigration and intergroup relations in the late 20th century: African Americans and Latinos, by Néstor Rodríguez; Treacherous waters in turbulent times: navigating the recent sea change in U.S. immigration policy and attitudes, by Lowell Sachs; For an immigration policy based on human rights, by David Bacon; right-wing politics and the anti-immigration cause, by Sara Diamond; and The immigration crisis: detention as an emerging mechanism of social control, by Michael Welch.
Correspondence: Scholarly Resources, 104 Greenhill Avenue, Wilmington, DE 19805-1897. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20728 Nackerud, Larry; Springer, Alyson; Larrison, Christopher; Issac, Alicia. The end of the Cuban contradiction in U.S. refugee policy. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring 1999. 176-92 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides a description and analysis of the 1994 Cuban Balsero (rafter) Crisis that prompted a decision by the Clinton administration on May 2, 1995, to officially end the open door era for Cuban acceptance into the United States.... The authors examine the interaction of variables that set the stage for the Balsero Crisis and analyze how and why its resolution catalyzed the historic policy change. Implications of the resolution of the Balsero Crisis upon problems underlying U.S. relations with Cuba are discussed."
Correspondence: L. Nackerud, University of Georgia, School of Social Work, 301 Tucker Hall, Athens, GA 30602-7016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20729 Rapson, Virginia. New Zealand's migration policy: a revolving door? People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1998. 52-62 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Recent publicity in Australia concerning the New Zealand Government's decision to increase its migration target suggests that this reflected a new willingness to embrace an outward-looking migration program. Analysis of the decision shows that it also derives from a desire to compensate for the sharp increase in emigration from New Zealand."
Correspondence: V. Rapson, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20730 Rotte, Ralph; Vogler, Michael; Zimmermann, Klaus F. South-North refugee migration: lessons for development cooperation. Review of Development Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997. 99-115 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Migration has become a major concern of European development policies. By improving socio-economic and political conditions through development cooperation, a reduction of South-North migration flows is envisaged. This new approach is examined by analyzing the causes of asylum migration from developing countries to Germany. The econometric findings suggest that support of democracy, economic development and trade will not reduce migration, at least not in the medium-run. However, restrictive legal measures work. Migration control by international development cooperation therefore seems to need a long-term perspective."
Correspondence: R. Rotte, University of Munich, 80539 Munich, Germany. E-mail: Ralph.Rotte@selapo.vwl.uni-muenchen.de. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

65:20731 Santibáñez Romellón, Jorge. Some empirical effects of U.S. immigration policies on the flow of Mexican immigrants. [Algunos impactos empíricos de las políticas migratorias de Estados Unidos en los flujos migratorios de mexicanos.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1999. 39-74, 261 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article describes how the basic characteristics of the migratory flow between Mexico and the United States evolved between April 1993 and November 1995, emphasizing changes in volume, sociodemographic traits, the labor market, and familial and social links with the places of arrival and departure in both countries. This article places particular emphasis on California, which is not only the principal destination of Mexican immigrants but also the North American state which best illustrates the tensions between a series of anti-immigrant policies and the economy's reliance on an immigrant labor force.... This paper also posits a series of hypotheses on the short-term impact of U.S. immigration policy."
Correspondence: J. Santibáñez Romellón, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20732 So, Alvin C. H. Population movement in contemporary China. Department of Geography Occasional Paper, No. 138, Jun 1997. 25 pp. Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography: Hong Kong, China. In Eng.
"This study aims to achieve an overview of population migration in contemporary China with special reference to socio-economic development and state policy changes before and after the economic reform launched in the late 1970s.... The relaxation of migration controls by the Chinese government since 1984 has facilitated migration from rural labour surplus areas to urban labour deficit areas. Labour migration has become the most prominent type of population movement in China, especially towards the more developed coastal regions."
Correspondence: Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20733 Suro, Roberto. Tightened controls and changing flows: evaluating the INS border enforcement strategy. Research Perspectives on Migration, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1998. 1, 3-7, 10-3 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "assesses the progress made [in the United States] toward reducing unauthorized immigration through enhanced border control. It concludes that the failure to set up proper evaluation criteria handicaps any serious appraisal.... The primary impact of enhanced enforcement at key border crossings has been to divert flows to other areas.... Another predictable consequence has received much less public attention: the increase in the stocks of unauthorized immigrants who choose to remain in the United States rather than making regular round trips to Mexico."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20734 Timmer, Ashley S.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. Immigration policy prior to the 1930s: labor markets, policy interactions, and globalization backlash. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 739-71, 899-900 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The authors construct an index of immigration policy for five countries of immigration--Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, and the United States--for 1860-1930.... The exercise reveals that the doors to the New World did not suddenly slam shut on immigrants after World War I.... Instead, there was a gradual closing of the doors, although the rate and timing of the closing varied across countries. The authors find that poor wage performance and the perceived threat from more, low-quality foreign workers were the main influences on shifts in immigration policy. They also offer some support for the idea that immigration policy was as much an interactive process as were the tariff policies of the time."
Correspondence: A. S. Timmer, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20735 Yeoh, Brenda S. A.; Huang, Shirlena; Gonzalez, Joaquin. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring 1999. 114-36 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Beginning with a brief examination of [Singapore] state policy on transnational labor migration relating to female domestic workers, this article goes on to explore the debates within public discourse as well as private accounts on the impact of foreign maids on a range of issues, including female participation in the workforce; the social reproduction of everyday life including the delegation of the domestic burden and the upbringing of the young; the presence of `enclaves' of foreign nationals in public space; and bilateral relations between host and sending countries."
Correspondence: B. S. A. Yeoh, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.