Volume 65 - Number 2 - Summer 1999

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

65:20664 Aso, Yoshibumi. Does the increase in fertility rate reduce the burden of a public pension system? Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1997. 32-48 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author examines how changes in fertility in Japan might affect the country's ability to fund a pension program for the elderly over the course of the twenty-first century.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20665 Bernat i Martí, Joan S.; Alcañiz Moscardó, Mercedes; Martí Castillo, Raquel. The demographic situation of women in Villarreal. [Situació sociodemogràfica de la dona a Vila-real.] ISBN 84-88331-36-3. 1999. 271 pp. Regidoria de la Dona: Villarreal, Spain. In Cat.
This study examines the socioeconomic and demographic situation of women in the Spanish town of Villarreal in the province of Valencia. The data are from a number of official sources as well as a 1996 survey of 100 women aged 21 to 59. The focus of the study is on women's status, roles, and gender relations; a chapter on time use is included.
Correspondence: Regidoria de la Dona, Ajuntament de Vila-real, Plaça Sant Pasqual 19, 12540 Villarreal, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20666 Montgomery, Mark R.; Casterline, John B. Social networks and the diffusion of fertility control. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 119, 1998. 59 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Theories of the fertility transition now routinely reserve a place for diffusion effects. Two fundamental behavioral mechanisms account for such effects: social learning and social influence.... Our aim in this paper is threefold: to assemble the disparate concepts of the diffusion perspective into a coherent whole; to review the literature in and outside demography in the light of these concepts; and to present simulations and new data on the role of social networks, through which social learning takes place and social influence is exercised. Throughout the paper, we illustrate the issues with applications to Ghana, one of the sites being explored in new longitudinal research."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Author's E-mail: mmontgomery@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20667 Phillips, James F.; Hossain, Mian B. The impact of family planning household service delivery on women's status in Bangladesh. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 118, 1998. 31 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Since 1982, the Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Extension Project in Bangladesh has compiled longitudinal panel data on rural women's contact with household service providers who visit homes to discuss family planning and offer services to women on request. This study tests the hypothesis that home-based services reinforce customs of purdah (female seclusion) by sustaining the dependency and isolation of the women served by the program. Results show that household services improve women's status. This effect is largely attributable to the impact of outreach on effective fertility regulation. Findings do not support the hypothesis that household service delivery is detrimental to women's status in Bangladesh. Policy implications of this research are discussed."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Author's E-mail: jphillips@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20668 Quilodrán, Julieta. Women, poverty and demographic change. IUSSP Policy and Research Paper, ISBN 2-87108-056-9. [1998?]. 19 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author investigates the interrelations among women's status, poverty, and population dynamics. Reference is made to the 1994 IUSSP Seminar on Women, Poverty and Demographic Change.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. E-mail: fdevpop1@vm1.ulg.ac.be. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20669 Settersten, Richard A. Time, age, and the transition to retirement: new evidence on life-course flexibility? International Journal of Aging and Human Development, Vol. 47, No. 3, 1998. 177-203 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
"The past twenty-five years have seen dramatic changes in the transition to retirement. This article considers an overlooked set of social processes--informal age structuring--within the context of these changes. Data are drawn from a random sample of 319 adults from the Chicago area. For about half of the respondents, age was considered an irrelevant dimension for both men's and women's retirement. Those respondents who found age relevant cited deadlines that were clustered not only around the critical points at which researchers have observed regularity in retirement patterns, but they also included the lower junctures that are emerging as part of the shift toward earlier retirement."
Correspondence: R. A. Settersten, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Sociology, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7124. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

65:20670 Courbage, Youssef. Demography and elections in Northern Ireland. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1998. 477-81 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author discusses the links between demography and politics in Northern Ireland, with a focus on recent election results and characteristics of the electorate.
For the original French version, see 64:20669.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: courbage@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20671 Eberstadt, Nicholas. Demography and international relations. Washington Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 2, Spring 1998. 33-52 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author assesses the role of population in international affairs. "This essay has attempted to explain why a number of the demographic issues that currently arouse great concern, or great interest, may have less bearing on a `pivotal states' approach to strategy than proponents of such an approach might expect. There are other population issues facing developing countries, however, that may merit greater political and strategic attention in the years to come. The first is differential fertility.... A second issue is population aging.... A third possible issue involves mortality trends."
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, Harvard University, Center of Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:20672 Nurun Nabi, A. K. M.; Krishnan, P. Political demography of Bangladesh: a preliminary analysis. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 129-46 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Rapid population growth has been perceived as a great threat to the development of Bangladesh.... This paper presents a critical look at the dimensions that make the socio-demographic modernization of Bangladesh difficult.... [It] deals with the situation after the independence of the country in 1971." Sections are included on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, changes in government and politics, foreign assistance and development, and population programs and performances.
Correspondence: A. K. M. Nurun Nabi, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

65:20673 Graham, Wendy J.; Newell, Marie-Louise. Seizing the opportunity: collaborative initiatives to reduce HIV and maternal mortality. Lancet, Vol. 353, No. 9155, Mar 6, 1999. 836-9 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
In the light of growing global concern with the HIV epidemic, and the provision of more resources to tackle this epidemic, the authors examine the prospects for using this new concern to also make improvements in maternal mortality and morbidity. The opportunities for mutual benefit in tackling both health burdens are explored.
Correspondence: W. J. Graham, Aberdeen University, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aberdeen AB25 2ZL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20674 Greenwood, Brian; De Cock, Kevin. New and resurgent infections: prediction, detection, and management of tomorrow's epidemics. ISBN 0-471-98174-5. LC 97-46506. 1998. xvi, 220 pp. John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the Seventh Annual Public Health Forum of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The focus is on new and resurgent infections. The 17 papers provide a review of "the role of local, global, environmental and sociological factors in the emergence of new infections; variability in pathogens and the way this leads to resurgence of infections; surveillance; the public health response; and examples of new and resurgent diseases such as malaria, ebola, CJD/BSE and E. coli."
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester PO19 1UD, England. E-mail: cs-books@wiley.co.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20675 Hardee, Karen; Agarwal, Kokila; Luke, Nancy; Wilson, Ellen; Pendzich, Margaret; Farrell, Marguerite; Cross, Harry. Post-Cairo reproductive health policies and programs: a comparative study of eight countries. POLICY Occasional Paper, No. 2, Sep 1998. vii, 69 pp. Futures Group International, POLICY Project: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper presents information from case studies carried out in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Jordan, Ghana, Senegal, Jamaica, and Peru to assess each nation's process and progress in moving toward a reproductive health focus. The case studies show that within their unique social, cultural, and programmatic contexts, the eight countries have made significant progress in placing reproductive health on the national health agenda."
Correspondence: Futures Group International, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: policyinfo@tfgi.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20676 Hewitt, Christopher. Homosexual demography: implications for the spread of AIDS. Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 390-6 pp. Mt. Vernon, Iowa. In Eng.
"Using both national surveys and surveys of self-identified gay men in the United States, the numbers, age distribution, life expectancy, and marital status of men who have sex with men is examined. It is concluded that five types can be distinguished.... These five categories have different patterns of sexual behavior, and the numbers in each category are influenced by changing social conditions, in particular the growth of gay neighborhoods, and public tolerance. The typology is used to explain the low rate of reported HIV transmission from bisexual men to their female partners."
Correspondence: C. Hewitt, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 1000 Hilltop Road, Baltimore, MD 21250. E-mail: chrishewitt@erols.com. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20677 Honduras. Ministerio de Salud (Tegucigalpa, Honduras); Asociación Hondureña de Planificación de Familia [ASHONPLAFA] (Tegucigalpa, Honduras); United States. Agency for International Development [USAID] (Washington, D.C.); United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). National Survey of Male Health, 1996. ENSM-96. Final report. [Encuesta Nacional de Salud Masculina--1996. ENSM-96. Informe final.] Dec 1998. xlix, 539 pp. Tegucigalpa, Honduras; Washington, D.C.; Atlanta, Georgia. In Spa.
This is the final report from a survey on male health undertaken in Honduras in 1996 involving a scientifically selected sample of 2,925 men aged 15-59 from both rural and urban areas. There are chapters on survey methodology, the characteristics of the men surveyed, health status, fertility, family planning, the use of and demand for vasectomy, condoms, young adults, sexual behavior, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, and attitudes.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Salud, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20678 Khlat, Miriam; Sermet, Catherine; Laurier, Dominique. Morbidity in households of North African origin, based on the INSEE health survey, 1991-1992. [La morbidité dans les ménages originaires du Maghreb, sur la base de l'enquête Santé de l'INSEE, 1991-1992.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 1,155-84 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Using data from the INSEE-CREDES Health Survey for 1991-92, this article describes the morbidity and other health-related indicators of households [in France] whose head is of North African origin. All the analyses are adjusted by age and socio-occupational category and a comparison is made with members of French-headed households. Members of households whose head is of North African origin are found to report far fewer illnesses, the disparity being greater for men than for women. An examination of the differences by the chapters in the classification of illnesses reveals a remarkable protection of men with respect to diseases of the circulatory system, whereas women have a disproportionate risk of endocrine and metabolic diseases."
Correspondence: M. Khlat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: khlat@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20679 Le Tertre, A.; Quenel, P.; Medina, S.; Le Moullec, Y.; Festy, B.; Ferry, R.; Dab, W. Short-term modeling between air pollution and health. An example: SO2 and total mortality, Paris, 1987-1990. [Modélisation des liens à court terme entre la pollution atmosphérique et la santé. Un exemple: SO2 et mortalité totale, Paris, 1987-1990.] Revue d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Vol. 46, 1998. 316-28 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Since 1990, many epidemiological time series studies have provided evidence that ambient air pollution levels have adverse health effects. The ERPURS study (Evaluation des Risques de la Pollution Urbaine pour la Santé) has permitted [us] to quantify this impact in the Paris region. This study was based on an ecological time series approach. We present, step by step, the method used, illustrated by an example: association between SO2 levels and total mortality (excluding external causes), 1987-1990.... The central issue is the control of seasonal variations and long term [trends]."
Correspondence: A. Le Tertre, Réseau National de Santé Publique, 14 rue du Val d'Osne, 94415 Saint-Maurice Cedex, France. E-mail:a.letertre@rnsp-sante.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20680 Liao, Youlian; McGee, Daniel L.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Cao, Guichan; Cooper, Richard S. Socioeconomic status and morbidity in the last years of life. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 4, Apr 1999. 569-72 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study evaluated the effect of socioeconomic status, as characterized by level of education, on morbidity and disability in the last years of life.... The analysis used data from the [U.S.] National Health Interview Survey (1986-1990), with mortality follow-up through December 1991.... Among 10,932 decedents 50 years or older at baseline interview, educational attainment was inversely associated with long-term limitation of activity, number of chronic conditions, number of bed days, and days of short hospital stay during the year preceding the interview. [The authors conclude that] decedents with higher socioeconomic status experienced lower morbidity and disability and better quality of life even in their last years of life."
Correspondence: Y. Liao, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153. E-mail: yliao@maya.medctr.luc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20681 Mathers, Colin. Trends in health expectancies in Australia 1981-1993. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 1, May 1996. 1-15 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Health expectancy indices combine the mortality and morbidity experience of a population into a single composite indicator. This paper summarizes and evaluates methods for the calculation of health expectancies and presents trends in the expectation of life with disability and handicap in Australia from 1981 to 1993. Unlike other countries for which recent health expectancy time series are available, Australian results indicate that the expectation of years with disability has increased for both males and females. Possible explanations for this are examined."
Correspondence: C. Mathers, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, G.P.O. Box 570, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20682 Mitchell, Marc D.; Littlefield, Joan; Gütter, Suzanne. Costing of reproductive health services. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, Suppl., Jan 1999. 17-21, 29 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The principles endorsed by delegates to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development expanded on the areas typically included in reproductive health. Yet implementation of more comprehensive reproductive health programs has been slow, and the impediments to program expansion need to be identified.... We...provide data on the costs associated with some...reproductive health services, based upon research conducted in 1995 by MEXFAM, a nongovernmental organization in Mexico that is affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council (ZNFPC). Finally, we explore the implications of the cost data."
Correspondence: M. D. Mitchell, Harvard University, Harvard Institute for International Development, One Eliot Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20683 Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Dayaratna, Varuni; Winfrey, William; Sine, Jeffrey; McGreevey, William P. Reproductive health costs: literature review. POLICY Working Paper Series, No. 3, Jul 1998. viii, 76 pp. Futures Group International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The studies highlighted in this paper offer some quantitative data on the costs of reproductive health services identified as part of the Cairo agenda. In this review, cost data are reported for eight categories of reproductive health interventions: family planning, safe motherhood programs, maternal/infant nutrition and immunizations, obstetric care, abortion/postabortion care, STIs/HIV/AIDS, reproductive cancers, and miscellaneous gynecology.... This literature review identifies the gaps in cost information regarding potential reproductive health interventions within the individual reproductive health elements; within geographic regions; and by costing methods." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Futures Group International, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: policyinfo@tfgi.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20684 Ndong, Isaiah; Becker, Robert M.; Haws, Jeanne M.; Wegner, Mary N. Men's reproductive health: defining, designing and delivering services. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, Suppl., Jan 1999. 53-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors report on a 1997 meeting that aimed to "identify the core reproductive health services that would constitute basic reproductive health care for men and to devise a model that would serve as a framework for program development and service delivery." The model was reviewed by panelists from Kenya, Pakistan, and the United States.
Correspondence: I. Ndong, AVSC International, 79 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20685 Potts, Malcolm; Walsh, Julia; McAninch, Jana; Mizoguchi, Nobuko; Wade, Timothy J. Paying for reproductive health care: what is needed, and what is available? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, Suppl., Jan 1999. 10-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) established goals for the expansion of reproductive health services and estimated the funding that would be required from the international community and national governments to meet those objectives.... Available data are examined to determine the extent to which funding has met the ICPD estimates of resources needed.... [It is found that] funding for reproductive health services falls substantially below ICPD goals. Consumer spending may be able to fill part of the shortfall, but other strategies for meeting the goals will be needed that do not adversely affect demand or social justice."
Correspondence: M. Potts, University of California, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20686 Riley, James C. Sick, not dead: the health of British workingmen during the mortality decline. ISBN 0-8018-5411-3. LC 96-26961. 1997. xvii, 349 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The life expectancy of British workers rose dramatically during the nineteenth century, a period in which workingmen began routinely to consult doctors. But while death rates fell, episodes of disease and injury lasted longer. Instead of dying at relatively young ages, workingmen lived longer and experienced more sickness. [The author] traces these developments and examines the arrangements made for providing medical care to workers. Drawing on the work attendance and sick visit records of British friendly societies, [he] explores how these organisations provided workingmen with access to doctors and regulated compensation for wages lost due to sickness.... Using the extensive claims records of the societies, [he] also explores the regional patterns of sickness in Britain from 1870 to 1910, illuminating how occupations and living conditions influenced the incidence and outcome of disease."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4319. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20687 Sherris, Jacqueline D. Cervical cancer prevention: a strategic opportunity to improve women's reproductive health. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, Suppl., Jan 1999. 56-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Screening and necessary follow-up care for gynecologic cancers are considered an integral part of reproductive health by a range of international organizations, and were included in the Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development. Integrating preventive cervical cancer interventions into existing reproductive health services would help to answer the broad-based call for making a range of reproductive health services more accessible through the primary health care system."
Correspondence: J. D. Sherris, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, 4 Nickerson, Seattle, WA 98109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20688 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Summary and conclusions of the document "Population, reproductive health, and poverty" [Síntesis y conclusiones del documentro "Población, salud reproductiva y pobreza"] Notas de Población, Vol. 25, No. 66, Dec 1998. 187-202 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This paper briefly examines the impact on reproductive health of social inequalities and poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean. The need to improve the quality of health services and to develop appropriate programs that promote reproductive rights is emphasized.
Correspondence: Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía, Casilla 179-D, Santiago, Chile. E-mail: jchackie@eclac.cl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20689 Wan, Jiahua; Qi, Qiwei; Li, Rikuen; Feng, Qingchai; Li, Qiang. Study on reproductive health and sexual behavior of the migrant population of Qingdao City. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 39-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents a study on the social characteristics, marital status, sexual behavior, and contraceptive use before marriage, pregnancy status before and after marriage, sex education and education on contraceptive use after marriage of the migrant females in Qingdao City [China]. It also presents a statistical analysis of sexual behavior of the migrant population in Qingdao City."
Correspondence: J. Wan, Institute for Birth Control and Family Planning, Qingdao City, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20690 Wawer, Maria J.; Sewankambo, Nelson K.; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C.; Paxton, Lynn A.; Kiwanuka, Noah; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Li, Chuanjun; Lutalo, Thomas; Nalugoda, Fred; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Meehan, Mary O.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H. Control of sexually transmitted diseases for AIDS prevention in Uganda: a randomised community trial. Lancet, Vol. 353, No. 9162, Feb 13, 1999. 525-35 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The extent to which community-level control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) would result in lower incidence of HIV-1 infection in Uganda is explored. The study was carried out in Rakai District and involved some 6,000 individuals aged 15-59 and a control group of similar size. The results showed no effect of the STD intervention on the incidence of HIV infection, suggesting that a substantial proportion of HIV acquisition appears to occur independently of treatable STD cofactors.
Correspondence: M. J. Wawer, Columbia University School of Public Health, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue, Floor B-2, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20691 Zhu, Bao-Ping; Rolfs, Robert T.; Nangle, Barry E.; Horan, John M. Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 340, No. 8, Feb 25, 1999. 589-94 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The relationship between short intervals between pregnancies and adverse perinatal outcomes is analyzed using data from the birth certificates of 173,205 singleton infants born alive to multiparous mothers in Utah from 1989 to 1996. Factors examined included low birth weight, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age. The results showed that "infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a previous live birth had the lowest risks of adverse perinatal outcomes; shorter and longer interpregnancy intervals were associated with higher risks."
Correspondence: B.-P. Zhu, Michigan Department of Community Health, Division of Epidemiology Services, 3423 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, Lansing, MI 48909. E-mail: zhub@state.mi.us. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

65:20692 Castro de Guerra, D.; Arvelo, H.; Pinto-Cisternas, J. Population structure of two black Venezuelan populations studied through their mating structure and other related variables. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 141-50 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"In order to obtain information about the population structure of two black Venezuelan populations with historical differences both in their origins and development, a variety of variables were utilized, especially on marital structure, including: frequency of surnames, isonymy, population genealogical consanguinity, multiple unions, and marital distances, all of which provided information and isolation, migration, endogamy, consanguinity, and patri-matrifocality. Results showed differences in the extent of isolation and endogamy, as well as differences in population structure, which can be directly related with historical conditions of each population."
Correspondence: J. Pinto-Cisternas, Universidad de Valparaiso, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento Biologia, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20693 Dorsten, Linda E.; Hotchkiss, Lawrence; King, Terri M. The effect of inbreeding on early childhood mortality: twelve generations of an Amish settlement. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 2, May 1999. 263-71 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"An unresolved issue in research on child survival is the extent to which familial mortality risk in infancy is due to biological influences net of sociodemographic and economic factors. We examine the effect of consanguinity on early childhood mortality in an Old Order Amish settlement by using the inbreeding coefficient, an explicit measure of the degree of relatedness in one's ancestry. Inbreeding has a net positive effect on neonatal and postneonatal deaths. We find social, demographic, and population-based socio-cultural explanations for this effect among the Amish population, which is known to experience certain genetically transmitted defects associated with mortality."
Correspondence: L. E. Dorsten, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Fredonia, NY 14063. E-mail: dorsten@cs.fredonia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.