Volume 65 - Number 2 - Summer 1999

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

No citations in this issue.

K.1.2. Economic Development and Population in Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

65:20616 Barba, Corazon V. C.; Rabuco, Lucila B. Overview of ageing, urbanization, and nutrition in developing countries and the development of the Reconnaissance project. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1997. 220-5 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Two of the major demographic trends in the developing and transitional countries are urbanization...and ageing.... These two trends are felt to present unresolved challenges regarding health, well-being, and quality of life. These uncertainties gave rise to the multicentre Reconnaissance project carried out in five Asian countries...and three Latin American countries.... The findings, experience and lessons from the preliminary qualitative (community), and quantitative (individual) surveys were shared among the investigators at a conference held at Wageningen, Netherlands."
Correspondence: C. V. C. Barba, University of the Philippines, Institute of Food and Nutrition, U.P. Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines. E-mail: eqj@nicole.upd.edu.ph. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

65:20617 El-Attar, Mohamed. Population and rural development: a new approach to an old problem with special attention to developing nations. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 147-53 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses the relation of rural development to population characteristics. "A model is proposed as one approach for placing demographic factors in the context of development planning...." The geographic focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: M. El-Attar, Mississippi State University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Drawer DB, Mississippi State, MS 39762. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20618 Jing, Yijia. Analysis of population structure in rural areas of China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 17-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents the results of the study and analysis of the actual condition, problems, and the opportunities of economic development in rural areas of China. Major population problems and key issues in these areas are discussed and analyzed using the qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. Some appropriate and suitable economic policies for these areas are proposed...." Particular attention is given to the characteristics of the rural population.
Correspondence: Y. Jing, Beijing University, Economic College, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20619 Mahadevan, Kuttan; Sumangala, M. Welfare model of development and demographic transition: successful programmes on health, nutrition, family planning and development. ISBN 81-7018-946-2. 1997. 332 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this book about Tamil Nadu [India] all the factors, innovative ideas, and viable strategies adopted in the state to achieve demographic transition are...presented." The book is a collection of papers by various authors. Papers are grouped into sections on policies, modernization, and empowerment of women; welfare programs and development; family planning and beyond; and demographic transition and quality of life.
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, A-6 Nimri Community Centre, Ashok Vihar, Phase IV, Delhi 110 052, India. E-mail: brpcltd@del2.vsnl.net.in. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20620 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Population change, development and women's role and status in Thailand. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 135, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1581. 1995. viii, 105 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a planned series of four case studies that examine the interrelationships among three sets of variables, economic development, women's role and status, and demographic change. This report is about Thailand. Part 1 examines these interrelationships in the context of educational investments, marriage rates, fertility rates, household structure, and the labor force participation rate. Part 2 presents an economic-demographic model of these interrelationships.
The studies on India and Japan, also published in 1995, are cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

65:20621 Zhang, Weiqing. Population--the key issue for continued economic progress in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 55-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author makes the case that population is the key issue for continued economic progress in China. He asks the questions: "What is the relationship between population growth and continued economic progress in China? What strategy will China take to achieve harmonious development of population growth, economic progress, the environment and natural resources in China?"
Correspondence: W. Zhang, National Family Planning and Birth Control Committee, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Economic Development and Population in Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

65:20622 Kato, Ryuta. Transition to an aging Japan: public pension, savings, and capital taxation. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1998. 204-31 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of public pension policies on savings and economic welfare in the transition to an aging Japan by applying a simulated method in the expanded life cycle growth model. It also places a special emphasis on the fact that interest income taxation produces a higher level of utility of younger generations (born after the beginning of the 1970s) than does consumption taxation, both of which are taxation schemes financing the public pension scheme in Japan."
Correspondence: R. Kato, Shiga University, Faculty of Economics, 1-1-1 Banba, Hikone, Shiga 522, Japan. E-mail: kato@biwako.shiga-u.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20623 Kelly, Mark. The demographic implications of economic growth in the Isle of Man. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 4, Mar 1999. 325-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between economic development and demographic growth in the Isle of Man. He discusses the implementation and results of a policy "directed at amending the Island's demographic profile over time. Implicit in the new residents campaign was the desire to attract younger, economically active persons who could expand the Island's potential labor force and thereby improve (decrease) the dependency ratio."
Correspondence: M. Kelly, Isle of Man Government Treasury, Economic Affairs Division, Illiam Dhone House, 2 Circular Road, Douglas, Isle of Man IM1 1PQ, United Kingdom. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20624 Miles, David. Modelling the impact of demographic change upon the economy. Economic Journal, Vol. 109, No. 452, Jan 1999. 1-36 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Over the next few decades there will be significant changes in the demographic structure of nearly all developed countries. Such dramatic demographic change could have a powerful impact upon saving behaviour, but estimates of how great the effects will be differ depending on what evidence is used. This paper argues that simulations based on calibrated general equilibrium models are likely to provide the most reliable evidence. A model is developed and is used to assess the impact of reforms to pension systems."
Correspondence: D. Miles, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:20625 Walker, Agnes. Australia's ageing population: how important are family structures? NATSEM Discussion Paper, No. 19, ISBN 0-85889-614-1. May 1997. v, 58 pp. University of Canberra, National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling [NATSEM]: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper traditional approaches to studying the effects of ageing in the [Australian] population are reviewed and a complementary approach, using dynamic microsimulation, is discussed. The advantage of dynamic microsimulation is that, in projecting future population patterns, the life cycles of individuals can be tracked, along with their family characteristics (such as spouses, children and grandparents) and household characteristics (including finances and wealth accumulation)."
Correspondence: University of Canberra, National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling, G.P.O. Box 563, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. E-mail: natsem@natsem.canberra.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

65:20626 de Sa, Paul. Population, carbon emissions, and global warming: comment. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 797-810 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In a recent article in this journal, Frederick Meyerson...examined the connection between population growth and the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases.... Focusing on the recent Kyoto Protocol...Meyerson claimed to show that `[a]t Kyoto, the negotiators appear to have overlooked or ignored the wide variation in projected population change among signatory countries'.... In this comment, I will point out flaws both in the evidence that Meyerson presents...and in a number of his other statements about the connection between climate change and population growth." A reply by Meyerson is included (pp. 804-10).
For the article by Meyerson, see 64:30686.
Correspondence: P. de Sa, Harvard University, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20627 Engelman, Robert. Plan and conserve: a source book on linking population and environmental services in communities. ISBN 1-889735-04-3. LC 98-84522. 1998. 112 pp. Population Action International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This reference book provides information sources for linking population and environmental services in communities. Chapters are included on community-based population and environment; how family planning protects women's and children's health; obstacles to success; models for linked-service projects; principles for community capacity building; and profiles of projects being conducted in Nepal, the Philippines, Mexico, Uganda, and Mali.
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Author's E-mail: re@popact.org. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20628 Harding, Ronnie. The debate on population and the environment: Australia in the global context. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 12, No. 2, Nov 1995. 165-95 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the debate on population and the environment. The Australian debate is emphasized, but set within a global context, in recognition of the important interdependencies between countries of the North and South.... This review has revealed a lengthy, and at times acrimonious, debate regarding human `carrying capacity' and linkages between population and environment both within Australia and globally. Despite the quantum shift towards more sophisticated analysis that has occurred in the 1990s, we are no closer to a conclusion, although we are a good deal better informed about the complexities of the issue."
Correspondence: R. Harding, University of New South Wales, Institute of Environmental Studies, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20629 Hartmann, Betsy. Population, environment and security: a new trinity. Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 10, No. 2, Oct 1998. 113-27 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper critically examines the literature which claims that internal conflict in Africa, Asia and Latin America is often the result of population pressures and resource scarcities.... This literature largely fails to consider the underlying economic and political causes of environmental degradation and violence, including the role of international companies, development assistance agencies and militaries.... The paper ends with a discussion of why it is important to challenge this ideology before it exercises a firmer hold on public policy and consciousness...."
Correspondence: B. Hartmann, Hampshire College, Population and Development Programme/SS, Amherst, MA 01002. E-mail: bhartmann@hamp.hampshire.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20630 Kulczycki, Andrzej; Saxena, Prem C. The population, environment, and health nexus: an Arab world perspective. Research in Human Capital and Development, Vol. 12, 1998. 183-99 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
The authors examine the interrelations among population, environment, and health in Arab countries. "The paper sets out the recent evolution and intersection of demographic patterns, environmental change, and health trends in the Arab region, especially the issues of water and urbanization. Greater attention is paid to the situation in Lebanon, a country engaged in a major reconstruction process following a lengthy civil war."
Correspondence: A. Kulczycki, American University of Beirut, Department of Population Studies, Beirut, Lebanon. E-mail: andrzej@aub.edu.lb. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20631 Murton, John. Population growth and poverty in Machakos District, Kenya. Geographical Journal, Vol. 165, No. 1, Mar 1999. 37-46 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses household-level data to show how...changes in Machakos District, Kenya have been accompanied by a polarization of land holdings, differential trends in agricultural productivity, and a decline in food self sufficiency.... Farmers have therefore become more dependent upon non-agricultural sources of income to maintain their livelihoods. Households with access to urban derived non-farm income are able to accumulate land and undertake agricultural innovation. In contrast, those who depend on agricultural labour markets are finding it difficult to cope with more people. These results demonstrate that when the `Machakos experience' of population growth and environmental transformation is examined at a household level it is shown to be neither a homogenous experience nor a fully unproblematic one."
Correspondence: J. Murton, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 51 Glove Wharf, 205 Rotherhithe Street, London SE26 1XS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20632 O'Connor, Mark. This tired brown land. ISBN 1-875989-36-6. 1998. 335 pp. Duffy and Snellgrove: Potts Point, Australia. Distributed by Pan Macmillan, 467 Plummer Street, Port Melbourne, Victoria 3207, Australia. In Eng.
"Australia's population, now 18.5 million, is set to rise to as many as 26 million by the year 2051. It will do this by accident--Australia has never had a population target. Do we understand the implications of this massive growth for our society and environment?" The author goes on to explain "how Australia's population and immigration debates have been stifled by political correctness. There is now an urgent need for all Australians to be able to discuss the future of their country openly."
Correspondence: Duffy and Snellgrove, P.O. 177, Potts Point, NSW 1335, Australia. E-mail: dands@magna.com.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20633 Prieto, Leonel. An overview of some population-development-environment interactions in Mexico. IIASA Interim Report, No. IR-97-53, Aug [1997]. 32 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This paper encompasses overviews of Mexico's population, development, and environment and briefly discusses some population-development-environment (PDE) interactions in Mexico.... A short presentation of the recent performance of some macro-economic indicators is provided.... The problems of soil and biotic erosion, water quantity and quality, and air pollution in Mexico [are then discussed]."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: info@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20634 Ryavec, Karl E. Research note: regional dynamics of Tibetan population change in eastern Tibet, ca. 1940-1982. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jan 1999. 247-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"As part of China's 1982 census in the Kandze Tibetan autonomous prefecture of western Sichuan...a fertility survey was conducted among agrarian and pastoral Tibetan women aged 15 to 64.... The findings of this survey shed light on indigenous relationships between Tibet's population and environment by quantifying regional variation in the average fertility of farmers versus herders, and the ratio of surviving children to the number of children ever born, from the 1940s up to 1982."
Correspondence: K. E. Ryavec, University of Minnesota, Department of Geography, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20635 Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Axinn, William G.; Bhandari, Prem; Chhetri, Netra B. The impact of community context on land use in an agricultural society. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jan 1999. 191-213 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"As an initial step toward new models of the population-environment relationship, this paper explores the relationship between community context and local land use in an agricultural setting. In this type of setting, we argue that aspects of the community context, such as schools and transportation infrastructure, impact important environmental characteristics, such as land use. We provide hypotheses which explain the mechanisms producing these effects. We then use data from a study of 132 communities in rural Nepal to test our hypotheses. These analyses show that community characteristics are strongly associated with land use in this agricultural setting."
Correspondence: G. P. Shivakoti, Asian Institute of Technology, School of Environment, Resource, and Development, Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20636 Treviño Carrillo, Ana H. Collective action around drinking water in two mid-sized cities in Mexico. [Las acciones colectivas en torno al agua potable en dos ciudades medias de México.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 15, Jan-Mar 1998. 193-219 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article is part of a research to find a way to analyze the social relationships and the organizational forms in two middle sized cities in Mexico: Queretaro and Celaya. This analysis had its beginning in the demands shown by the urban population for their basic needs of drinking water and sewers.... This study focuses on the theoretical discussion about...social movements and...collective actions, and it also looks into new social categories that are used to build-up and explain the present urban situation."
Correspondence: A. H. Treviño Carrillo. Instituto Mexicana de Tecnología del Agua, Mexico City, Mexico. E-mail: htrevino@cenca.imta.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20637 Vargas Velázquez, Sergio. The use of water: a critical focus on the population-environment-resources relationship. [El uso del agua: un enfoque crítico de la relación población-ambiente-recursos.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 15, Jan-Mar 1998. 177-92 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the relation between population growth and the availability of usable water supplies in Mexico. The author notes that, rather than being a simple relationship in which population growth puts an increasing burden on the carrying capacity of the available water supplies, a more complex relationship exists in which various socioeconomic factors influence who is able to have access to and profit from such water resources. Solutions to these problems involve changes in the socioeconomic structure of society and not just limits to the use of available water supplies.
Correspondence: S. Vargas Velázquez. Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua, Mexico City, Mexico. E-mail: svargas@chac.imta.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20638 Wongboonsin, Kua; Limskul, Kitti; Wongserbchart, Wilai; Suwannodom, Sunanta; Bunnag, Aurapin. Population, environment and resource sustainability in Thailand. IPS Publication, No. 209/93, ISBN 974-583-336-3. Aug 1993. 50 pp. Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This report examines the relationship between economic development in Thailand and the availability of natural resources, focusing on the impact of development on the environment. The concepts of renewable and nonrenewable resources are first outlined. Next, the authors discuss definitions of sustainable development. The effects of population growth on resources and the sustainability of development are examined. Finally, possible future actions in the areas of economic development, population policy, forest protection, water quality, air pollution, waste disposal, and public awareness are explored.
Correspondence: Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20639 Youngquist, Walter. The post-petroleum paradigm--and population. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 4, Mar 1999. 297-315 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The use of oil has changed world economies, social and political structures, and lifestyles.... This paper examines the role of oil in two contexts: Its importance in countries almost entirely dependent on oil income, and the role of oil in world agricultural productivity. Possible alternatives to oil and its close associate, natural gas are also examined." The impact of oil-generated prosperity on rapid population growth is discussed, and the consequences of a decline in oil production for world agriculture and carrying capacity are considered.
Correspondence: W. Youngquist, Box 5501, Eugene, OR 97405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

65:20640 Adamchak, Donald J.; Bloomquist, Leonard E.; Bausman, Kent; Qureshi, Rashida. Consequences of population change for retail/wholesale sector employment in the nonmetropolitan Great Plains: 1950-1996. Rural Sociology, Vol. 64, No. 1, Mar 1999. 92-112 pp. Bellingham, Washington. In Eng.
"A rural economic restructuring perspective and central place theory are used to assess the impact of population change on retail/wholesale sector employment for the 438 nonmetropolitan counties of the [U.S.] Great Plains region from 1950 to 1990. Findings indicate that county level population declined for every decade except the 1970 turnaround decade, and the greatest losses were in completely rural nonadjacent counties. The civilian labor force declined for all but the 1970 decade, when there was a substantial increase due to increased nonmetro manufacturing and the baby boom cohorts reaching labor force age. Retail/wholesale labor force increased in every decade except the 1980s."
Correspondence: D. J. Adamchak, Kansas State University, Department of Sociology, Manhattan, KS 66506-4003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20641 Badets, Jane; Howatson-Leo, Linda. Recent immigrants in the workforce. Canadian Social Trends, No. 52, Spring 1999. 16-22 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"The ease with which...newcomers integrate into Canadian society depends, to a large extent, on their ability to find jobs. How have...recent immigrants fared in terms of employment (or unemployment) and types of jobs they have found? And has their experience differed from that of others, including earlier groups of immigrants and people born in Canada? Using data from the [Canadian] Censuses of Population, this article explores the labour market experiences of recent immigrants in the 25 to 44 year age group from 1986 to 1996."
Correspondence: J. Badets, Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20642 Dermi, Lahouaria. The economically active Algerian population. Recent trends and future prospects. [Population algérienne active. Tendances récentes et perspectives.] Institut de Démographie Working Paper, No. 182, ISBN 2-87209-504-7. 1998. 41 pp. Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This is a summary of the author's thesis on the Algerian labor force. Following a discussion of some methodological issues, recent trends in the labor force are analyzed. The study ends with a look at some likely future developments and the prospects for developing effective policies in the light of such developments. The author notes the trend toward an increasingly young labor force and high rates of unemployment. Differences between the economic participation of men and women in the labor force are also analyzed, and directions for possible future research are suggested.
Correspondence: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20643 Drobnic, Sonja; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Rohwer, Götz. Dynamics of women's employment patterns over the family life course: a comparison of the United States and Germany. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 1, Feb 1999. 133-46 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We use event history analysis to study the effects of family-related factors on the employment behavior of U.S. and (West) German women in a dynamic life course perspective. Data from the National Survey of Families and Households and the German Socioeconomic Panel are analyzed to examine the differential determinants of entry into and exit from full-time and part-time employment during the family life course and the differences in these processes between the two countries. Marriage and childbearing continue to influence exit from and entry into paid work in both countries. Family structure plays a stronger role in women's working lives in Germany than in the U.S., and part-time work in Germany is more closely related to childbearing."
Correspondence: S. Drobnic, Universität Bremen, EMPAS/Sfb 186, Postfach 330 440, 28334 Bremen, Germany. E-mail: sdrobnic@sfb186.uni-bremen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20644 Ellis, Mark; Wright, Richard. The industrial division of labor among immigrants and internal migrants to the Los Angeles economy. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring 1999. 26-54 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Between 1985-90, metropolitan Los Angeles received about 400,000 working immigrants and about 575,000 working native in-migrants. We subdivide these native- and foreign-born migrants by national origin and ethnicity to examine the processes that channel recent arrivals into different industrial sectors.... We compare the employment of recent arrivals to residents for several groups across a large, diverse, regional economy. We also consider the role educational qualifications play in the allocation of different migrant groups to jobs at this aggregate analytical scale. The results show that both native- and foreign-born groups channel into particular industrial sectors."
Correspondence: M. Ellis, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20645 Evans, M. D. R. Women's labour force participation in Australia: recent research findings. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 1, May 1996. 67-92 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"My purpose in this review is to sketch recent discoveries concerning women's labour force participation, and to draw attention to unanswered questions and to relevant data sets for further analysis.... In particular, I focus on Australia in the context of some information for other developed countries...." Aspects considered include labor force participation and marriage; the effects on married women's labor force participation of education, husband's income, children, age, and cultural effects; and consequences of women's labor force participation.
Correspondence: M. D. R. Evans, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, International Survey Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20646 Foot, David K.; Venne, Rosemary A. The time is right: voluntary reduced worktime and workforce demographics. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1998. 91-114 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This applied demography paper assembles diverse literature in demography, economics, sociology, and industrial relations to examine the emergence of intergenerational conflict within labour force groups.... Using Canadian labour market data, it examines the situation facing groups in the labour force. The paper then reviews potential workplace solutions. The conclusion outlines a practical workforce policy that can ameliorate many of the concerns of younger workers and address the trend toward intergenerational conflict while also taking into account current fiscal and workplace realities."
Correspondence: D. K. Foot, University of Toronto, Department of Economics, 150 George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20647 Henz, Ursula; Sundström, Marianne. Earnings as a force of attraction and specialization. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 129, ISBN 91-7820-129-2. Dec 1998. 32 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper studies trends in earnings homogamy among married and cohabiting couples and in effects of own and spouse's earnings on women's specialization on market work and household work in Sweden. We analyze, first, correlations between spouses' earnings and, second, the effects of own earnings and spouse's earnings on women's transitions between part-time and full-time work, on their exits from and re-entries into the labour market and on their exits from parental leave over the years 1968-92."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20648 Higuchi, Yoshio; Abe, Masahiro; Waldfogel, Jane. Maternity leave, child care leave policy, and retention of female workers in Japan, the United States, and Britain. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1997. 49-66 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is a comparative analysis of the relationships between maternity and child leave policies and the retention of female workers in the labor force in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The focus is on the situation in the 1980s and 1990s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20649 Klerman, Jacob A.; Leibowitz, Arleen. Job continuity among new mothers. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 2, May 1999. 145-55 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In the early 1990s, both state and federal governments enacted maternity-leave legislation [in the United States]. The key provision of that legislation is that after a leave of a limited duration, the recent mother is guaranteed the right to return to her preleave employer at the same or equivalent position. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we correlate work status after childbirth with work status before pregnancy to estimate the prevalence, before the legislation, of returns to the preleave employer. Among women working full-time before the pregnancy, return to the prepregnancy employer was quite common. Sixty percent of women who worked full-time before birth of a child continued to work for the same employer after the child was born. Furthermore, the labor market behavior of most of the remaining 40% suggests that maternity-leave legislation is unlikely to have a major effect on job continuity. Compared with all demographically similar women, however, new mothers have an excess probability of leaving their jobs."
Correspondence: J. A. Klerman, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. E-mail: Jacob_Klerman@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20650 Light, Ivan; Bernard, Richard B.; Kim, Rebecca. Immigrant incorporation in the garment industry of Los Angeles. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring 1999. 5-25 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Migration network theory has conceptually overlooked the manner in which immigrants' social networks also expand the supply of jobs and housing in target destinations by means of the ethnic economy. An expanded migration network theory takes into account the ethnic economy's role in creating new resources in the destination economy.... Using evidence from the garment industry of Los Angeles [California], this paper estimates that only a third of immigrant employees found their jobs in a conventional ethnic economy. Half owed their employment to the immigrant economy in which, for the most part, Asian entrepreneurs employed Latino workers."
Correspondence: I. Light, University of California, Department of Sociology, Box 951551, Los Angeles, CA 90095. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20651 Liu, Baofen. Study on the situation of female employment in the Guangxi Zhuangzhu Autonomous Region. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 31-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The establishment of a market-oriented economy in China has created more employment opportunities for women in China. However, they are also faced with greater difficulty in finding good jobs. This paper analyzes the actual situation of female employment in the Guangxi Zhuangzhu Autonomous Region based on data from the fourth national census in 1990 and the national one percent population sampling investigation in 1995. This paper also discusses the problems encountered in female employment in this region."
Correspondence: B. Liu, Government of Guangxi Zhuangzhu Autonomous Region, Bureau of Statistics, Department of Employment Planning, Yunnan, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20652 Martin, Jacqueline. Family policy and working married women in France. A historical perspective: 1942-1982. [Politique familiale et travail des femmes mariées en France. Perspective historique: 1942-1982.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 1,119-53 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A historical perspective and a consideration of the socio-institutional context are used to show the development of an opposition to married women going out to work [in France], with the aim of keeping them in the role of full-time mothers, housewives and childrearers. This historical process influenced the family policy adopted in the 1940s, which appears as the product of half a century of debate over the place of married women in the home or the workplace.... Calculating the level and evolution of family allowances in relation to female wage rates, for three sizes of family, leads to a revision of earlier interpretations about changes in female labour force participation in the post-war period."
Correspondence: J. Martin, Université de Toulouse II, UFR Sciences, Espaces et Sociétés, Département d'Economie, 5 allées Antonio-Machado, 31058 Toulouse Cedex 1, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20653 Menjívar, Cecilia. The intersection of work and gender: Central American immigrant women and employment in California. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 4, Jan 1999. 601-27 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article examines the intersection of U.S. employment and gender relations in the family lives in Guatemalan and Salvadoran immigrant women and how immigration experiences affect gendered perceptions of work. It is based on intensive interviews with 26 Salvadoran women in San Francisco and 25 Guatemalan-ladinas and indigenous women in Los Angeles, complemented with ethnographic observations. The study shows that immigration affects gender relations, sometimes transforming and other times affirming them. Such changes do not depend automatically on entering paid work but on important social processes of working outside the home in the new context."
Correspondence: C. Menjívar, Arizona State University, School of Justice Studies, Tempe, AZ 85287-0403. E-mail: menjivar@asu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:20654 Myers, Dowell; Cranford, Cynthia J. Temporal differentiation in the occupational mobility of immigrant and native-born Latina workers. American Sociological Review, Vol. 63, No. 1, Feb 1998. 68-93 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We estimate changes over time in the occupational participation of Latina workers. Applying a `double cohort' method for longitudinal analysis with census data, we clarify the effects of economic restructuring and economic assimilation. We investigate multiple temporal effects: immigration cohort, birth cohort, age at migration, duration in the United States, and advancing age. The analysis compares Latinas in southern California who are employed in low-wage factory jobs with Latinas employed in better-paying office jobs. Results indicate sharp temporal differentiation among the Latina workers, even after controlling for human capital."
Correspondence: D. Myers, University of Southern California, School of Urban Planning and Development, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0042. E-mail: dowell@usc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20655 Pacheco, Edith; Blanco, Mercedes. Three modes of analysis in the incorporation of a gender perspective in socio-demographic studies of urban labor in Mexico. [Tres ejes de análisis en la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en los estudios sociodemográficos sobre el trabajo urbano en México.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 15, Jan-Mar 1998. 73-94 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to...review...the socio-demographic research literature about the urban labour market in Mexico, from the seventies to the mid nineties. The paper examines how the research about different labour market aspects [has noted] explicit sex differences and how [it has] tried to explain why these differences turn into inequalities."
Correspondence: E. Pacheco, El Colegio de México, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. E-mail: mpacheco@colmex.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20656 Phillips, Julie A.; Massey, Douglas S. The new labor market: immigrants and wages after IRCA. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 2, May 1999. 233-46 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We examine the effect of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) on migrants' wages using data gathered in 39 Mexican communities and their U.S. destination areas. We examine changes in the determinants of wages before and after the passage of IRCA, as well as the effects of its massive legalization program. Migrants' wages deteriorated steadily between 1970 and 1995, but IRCA did not foment discrimination against Mexican workers per se. Rather, it appears to have encouraged greater discrimination against undocumented migrants, with employers passing the costs and risks of unauthorized hiring on to the workers. Although available data do not permit us to eliminate competing explanations entirely, limited controls suggest that the post-IRCA wage penalty against undocumented migrants did not stem from an expansion of the immigrant labor supply, an increase in the use of labor subcontracting, or a deterioration of the U.S. labor market."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. E-mail: dmassey@lexis.pop.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20657 Rabusic, Ladislav. Temporal aspects of the Czech retirement age. [Casové aspekty ceského duchodového veku.] Sociologický Casopis, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1998. 267-83 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"The continued ageing of Czech society has provoked discussion over what measures should be taken to avert a prospective old age crisis. This paper deals with one aspect of pension reform, i.e., the retirement age. The first part outlines some possible unintended consequences of the currently low age of retirement.... The second part analyses in detail the attitudes of Czechs aged 50 and over towards various aspects of retirement. Their views, recorded by means of a representative survey, show that the age at which older Czechs consider a person as old is 66.5 years."
Correspondence: L. Rabusic, Masaryk University, School of Social Studies, Department of Sociology, Gorkého 7, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic. E-mail: rabu@fss.muni.cz. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20658 Rodríguez Osuna, Jacinto. Changes in the active population, occupation, and unemployment in Spain, 1976-1996. [Evolución de la población activa, ocupación y paro en España 1976-1996.] Política y Sociedad, No. 26, Sep-Dec 1997. 113-24, 188 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In the present article the evolution of the active population, occupation and unemployment in Spain is analyzed from 1976.... The activity and occupation rates...are characterized for being the lowest of the [European] Union, not only now, but from years ago. However the rate of occupation of the Spanish women of 25-54 years has experienced, in the last years, a considerable increase. On the other hand, the unemployment rate is very high in Spain, much higher than in [other countries] of the European Union."
Correspondence: J. Rodríguez Osuna, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Sociología II, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20659 Roe, Brian; Whittington, Leslie A.; Fein, Sara B.; Teisl, Mario F. Is there competition between breast-feeding and maternal employment? Demography, Vol. 36, No. 2, May 1999. 157-71 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Theory suggests that the decision to return to employment after childbirth and the decision to breast-feed may be jointly determined. We estimate models of simultaneous equations for two different aspects of the relationship between maternal employment and breast-feeding using 1993-1994 data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Infant Feeding Practices Study. We first explore the simultaneous duration of breast-feeding and work leave following childbirth. We find that duration of leave from work significantly affects the duration of breast-feeding, but the effect of breast-feeding on work leave is insignificant. We also estimate models of daily hours of work and breast-feeding at infant ages 3 months and 6 months postpartum. At both times, the intensity of work effort significantly affects the intensity of breast-feeding, but the reverse is generally not found. Competition clearly exists between work and breast-feeding for many women in our sample."
Correspondence: S. B. Fein, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, HFS-727, 200 C Street SW, Washington, DC 20204. E-mail: sfein@bangate.fda.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20660 Sundari, S.; Rukmani, M. K. Costs and benefits of female labour migration. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jul 1998. 766-90 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the trend, causes and pattern of female migration from Tamil Nadu to Delhi [India]. According to this study the most important push factor was lack of employment opportunity and the pull factor was the continuous demand for the labour of women in Delhi for domestic work. Though the migrants have made some gains, problems such as housing, illiteracy, indebtedness, job insecurity and drop outs amongst the children demand immediate policy prescriptions and actions."
Correspondence: S. Sundari, Mother Teresa Women's University, Department of Economics, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu 624 102, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20661 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). The impact of the economic crisis on employment, unemployment, and labour migration. ISBN 974-236-834-1. 1998. [xviii], 43 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
Data from Round 1 of the February 1998 Labour Force Survey of Thailand are used to analyze the impact of the economic crisis that started at the end of 1996. The effects on employment structure, changes in jobs, reductions in income, increased unemployment, and labor migration are considered. The results show that unemployment doubled to 1.5 million in February 1998 compared with the same time in the previous year. The largest stream of labor migration was former workers from Bangkok returning home to the northeast.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. E-mail: popres@nso.go.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20662 Tiano, S.; Ladino, C. Dating, mating, and motherhood: identity construction among Mexican maquila workers. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 31, No. 2, Feb 1999. 305-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We explore the construction of feminine identities among women maquila workers in Juárez, Mexico. The findings suggest that women workers' identities are fluid processes in permanent negotiation. Women's changing employment practices, gender roles and relations, and personal experiences have created spaces for new interpretations of courtship and motherhood. As Mexican women increasingly face controversial messages, they reconcile emerging and conventional feminine discourses by recreating images of Mexican womanhood."
Correspondence: S. Tiano, University of New Mexico, Department of Sociology, Albuquerque, NM 87131. E-mail: stiano@unm.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:20663 Vernez, Georges. Immigrant women in the United States labor force. Focus, Vol. 20, No. 1, Winter 1998-1999. 25-9 pp. Tulsa, Oklahoma. In Eng.
"Immigrant women are an ever-increasing proportion of working women in the United States. In 1960 they constituted 6 percent of the national female labor force; in 1994 they were 9 percent. Nationwide, one worker in 20 is an immigrant woman; in California, one worker in six is. Over half of all immigrants, and more than two of five immigrant workers, are women. Yet female immigrants have been nearly invisible in studies of the effects of immigration and the performance of immigrants in the labor market. Public perceptions tend to see them as a population facing many cultural and social barriers to work and, once working, subject to discrimination and exploitation in low-skill, dead-end jobs."
Correspondence: G. Vernez, Center for Research on Immigration Policy, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.