Volume 65 - Number 2 - Summer 1999

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications. Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations, as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

65:20549 Dantec, Alexis. Convergence of aging and retirement in Europe. [Convergence des vieillissements en Europe et retraites.] Revue de l'OFCE, No. 64, Jan 1998. 177-202 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the process of demographic aging in the 15 member countries of the European Union. The author notes that although the long-term trends in aging are broadly similar, there are significant differences among these countries that have implications for the financing of retirement costs. In particular, some countries experienced increases in either fertility or immigration around 1985. Despite similarities in mortality trends among the countries, these factors will make it very difficult to develop a common policy concerning retirement, as the aging process will vary by country.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20550 Denton, Frank T.; Spencer, Byron G. How old is old? Revising the definition based on life table criteria. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1999. 147-59 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Sixty-five has long been thought of as the point of entry into `old age'. We propose a number of life table criteria for answering the following questions: If 65 was considered appropriate four decades ago, what is the corresponding age today? If 65 was (implicitly) a male-oriented definition four decades ago, as we believe it was, what would have been the appropriate definition for women at that time, and what is it today? We address these questions by applying our criteria to Canada, using 1951 and 1991 life tables, but the criteria could be applied equally well to other countries. For other developed countries we would expect broadly similar results."
Correspondence: F. T. Denton, McMaster University, Department of Economics, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. E-mail: dentonf@mcmaster.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20551 Heigl, Andreas; Mai, Ralf. Demographic aging within the regions of the European Union. [Demographische Alterung in den Regionen der EU.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1998. 293-317 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
"The article deals with the demographic ageing phenomenon on a regional level within the European Union. A comparative longitudinal analysis of the period between1995 and 2025 is taken as the basis for determining the course of demographic ageing.... The results show that while there are differences in the extent and regional pattern of ageing the trend of progressive ageing continues everywhere. In most cases, this is combined with increased demographic disparities within the various countries. Our results appear to indicate that the reason for this disparity is less the settlement structure (type of region, population density) and has more to do with the fertility level within the individual regions."
Correspondence: A. Heigl, Universität Bamberg, Lehrstuhl für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Hornthalstraße 2, 96045 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20552 Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong, China). A profile of Hong Kong population analysed by District Board district, 1998. Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, Feb 1999. 1-13 pp. Hong Kong, China. In Eng; Chi.
The demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population of Hong Kong are analyzed at the District Board level as at mid-1998 using official data. Data are included on population size, sex and age distribution, educational status, and labor force participation.
Correspondence: Census and Statistics Department, 19/F Wanchai Tower I, 12 Harbour Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong, China. E-mail: genenq@censtad.gcn.gov.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20553 Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas. The rise in old age longevity and the market for long-term care. NBER Working Paper, No. 6547, May 1998. 28, [11] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes how markets for old-age care respond to the aging of populations. We consider how the biological forces, which govern the stocks of frail and healthy persons in a population, interact with economic forces, which govern the demand and supply for labor-intensive care.... We test our predictions empirically using state- and county-level evidence on the U.S. market for long-term care in nursing homes over the last three decades."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:20554 Li, Rongshi. An analysis of the sex ratio at birth in impoverished areas in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 65-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Recent statistics show that the sex ratio at birth (SRB) is growing in China. This has become an important subject in the studies by governmental and research institutions and scholars.... This author...has conducted a comparative analysis of the SRB in impoverished areas in China based on the data he [has] gathered [since 1982]."
Correspondence: R. Li, General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Division of Surveys and Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20555 Lindsay, Colin. Seniors: a diverse group aging well. Canadian Social Trends, No. 52, Spring 1999. 24-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"As part of Statistics Canada's involvement with the [UN] International Year of Older Persons, Canadian Social Trends will feature a series of articles over the next four quarters that address some of the issues affecting older Canadians. This first article sets the stage by highlighting the key demographic and socio-economic characteristics of seniors in Canada." Aspects considered include social support, health, income, lifestyle, and living arrangements.
Correspondence: C. Lindsay, Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20556 Morgan, David L. Facts and figures about the baby boom. Generations, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1998. 10-5 pp. San Francisco, California. In Eng.
"This article will consider the broad question, What kinds of things can we learn about the aging of the baby boom through available data? The article is thus organized around four basic themes that can be readily investigated: 1. What were the origins of the baby boom generation? 2. How will the U.S. population change with the aging of the baby boom? 3. How does the baby boom compare to other generations? [and] 4. What are important differences within the baby boom generation?"
Correspondence: D. L. Morgan, Portland State University, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Portland, OR 97207-0751. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20557 Pachauri, Saroj. Adolescents in Asia: issues and challenges. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 117-28 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Although youth across Asia have several common concerns, there is tremendous diversity in this region, especially between South Asia and Southeast Asia. Significant social and cultural differences between these regions make generalizations regarding policy and programme interventions tenuous if not impossible. The lack of data on youth further compounds the problem of making a comprehensive analysis of the challenges faced by youth across Asia and the nature and scope of efforts required to address them."
Correspondence: S. Pachauri, Population Council, Sangha Rachna, 3rd Floor, 53 Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20558 Rogers, Andrei; Raymer, James. The regional demographics of the elderly foreign-born and native-born populations in the United States since 1950. Research on Aging, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1999. 3-35 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article is an examination of the influence of birthplace on the internal migration and spatial redistribution patterns of elderly foreign-born and native-born populations in the United States during 1950 to 1990.... We begin our analysis by examining the regional age compositions and geographies of U.S. elderly foreign-born and native-born populations.... Elderly migration streams are analyzed with the aid of measures drawn from formal multiregional demography. Following that, we address the question of whether continuing concentration or emerging dispersion lies ahead for the elderly foreign-born and native-born subpopulations in the United States."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20559 Rogers, Carolyn C. Nonmetro elders better off than metro elders on some measures, not on others. Rural Conditions and Trends, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1997. 52-9 pp. Herndon, Virginia. In Eng.
The author examines characteristics of the nonmetropolitan elderly in the United States. "A larger share of the nonmetro population was age 60 and older (18 percent) in 1996 than the metro population (15 percent). At ages 75 and older, half of all elderly persons are living alone. This is associated with a greater likelihood of being poor: 42 percent of nonmetro persons age 75 and older were poor or near-poor, compared with 28 percent of their metro counterparts."
Correspondence: C. C. Rogers, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20005. E-mail: crogers@econ.ag.gov. Location: Pennsylvania State University Library, University Park, PA.

65:20560 Schneider, Edward L. Aging in the third millennium. Science, Vol. 283, No. 5403, Feb 5, 1999. 796-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The aging revolution in the United States in the 20th century was the result of a spectacular 50% increase in life expectancy. What will happen to our aging society in the 21st century? The answer will depend on our success in improving the health of future older Americans." Aspects considered include the number of older Americans, social security, health, housing, transportation, and economic status of the aged.
Correspondence: E. L. Schneider, University of Southern California, Leonard Davis School of Gerontology, Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191. E-mail: eschneid@usc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

65:20561 Shenk, Dena; Sokolovsky, Jay. Cultural perspectives on aging. Brief Bibliography: A Selective Annotated Bibliography for Gerontology Instruction, LC 98-123284. 1997. 8 pp. Association for Gerontology in Higher Education: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this bibliography we have focused on the key literature on cultural perspectives on aging in two main areas. We have selected the key literature on aging in cross-cultural perspective and the best examples of deep-cultural analysis of the process and experience of aging."
Correspondence: Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, 1001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 410, Washington, D.C. 20036-5504. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20562 Spain. Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales (Madrid, Spain). The population under age 18 in Spain and its family environment. [Población menor de 18 años en España y su entorno familiar.] La Infancia en Cifras, No. 4, ISBN 84-7850-959-3. 1997. 360 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is the fourth in a series of publications presenting data on the population of Spain under age 18. The data, which concern the young population and the households in which they live, are primarily taken from the 1991 census. The data are provided separately for the whole country, autonomous communities, and provinces. A section is also included on changes since the previous census of 1981.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Augustín de Bethencourt 11, 28071 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20563 Sun, Fubin. Ageing of the population in China: trends and implications. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1998. 75-92 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In this paper, after a brief discussion of the past population changes in China, the future trends in population age structure are described with emphasis on the elderly.... In the trend analysis, nine population projection scenarios with three variants of fertility and three variants of mortality are made and analysed. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the effects of population ageing on social and economic development, and a number of implications and suggestions are provided."
Correspondence: F. Sun, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Institute for Population and Economy Studies, 26 Xianning Road, Xian, Shaanxi Province 710049, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20564 Vossen, Ad; Nelissen, Jan. Single elderly people and the meaning of the age difference between partners: causes and consequences. [Alleenstaande ouderen en de betekenis van het leeftijdsverschil tussen partners: oorzaken en gevolgen.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1998. 79-105 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
This article is about how demographic factors influence the numerical increase in single elderly people in the Netherlands. "Using microsimulation the central research question focuses on the impact of the age difference on the proportions of single people in the future and its consequences for the population in homes for the elderly and nursing homes, as well as for public old age pension expenditures. As a general conclusion it was found that a decreasing difference in the age of partners will result in a more balanced distribution of male and female single persons, but that the overall benefit is limited."
Correspondence: A. Vossen, Katholieke Universiteit Brabant, Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20565 Walker, Agnes. Australia's ageing population: what are the key issues and the available methods of analysis? NATSEM Discussion Paper, No. 27, ISBN 0-85889-683-4. Feb 1998. v, 49 pp. University of Canberra, National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling [NATSEM]: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Drawing on the extensive Australian and international literature on ageing, this paper first identifies key economic and social factors that are likely to have a strong impact on age related public expenditure in Australia.... The paper then reviews the tools available to analyse these key factors, either individually or simultaneously.... The paper concludes with a discussion of how the static and dynamic microsimulation models developed at NATSEM could provide additional insights when studying the effects of the ageing of Australia's population."
Correspondence: University of Canberra, National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling, 170 Haydon Drive, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia. E-mail: natsem@natsem.canberra.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20566 Xenos, Peter; Kabamalan, Midea; Westley, Sidney B. A look at Asia's changing youth population. Asia-Pacific Population and Policy, No. 48, Jan 1999. 4 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This issue...highlights findings from a recent East-West Center study on demographic and social changes among young people in Asia. The project...covered 17 countries in East, Southeast, and South Asia. It brought together information on the changing numbers of young people--age 15-24--and on trends in marriage, school enrollment, and workforce participation among youth populations in the region."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601. E-mail: poppubs@ewc.hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

65:20567 Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana. Reproductive characteristics and the age at inception of the perimenopause in a British National Cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 7, Apr 1, 1999. 612-20 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data from a British national cohort of women born in 1946 were used to investigate the hypothesis that the rate of depletion of oocyte numbers is associated with the age at which a woman reaches the inception of the perimenopause.... Parous women entered the perimenopause later than nulliparous women. Those with the most children had the latest perimenopause, where the estimated hazard ratio for women having four or more children compared with those having none was 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.39-0.81). Women who had a unilateral oophorectomy reached perimenopause earlier than those who had not (hazard ratio = 1.96, 95% confidence interval 1.15-3.35). There was some evidence that early age at menarche and short menstrual cycles were associated with an earlier perimenopause. No relation was observed with oral contraceptive pill use."
Correspondence: R. Hardy, University College London Medical School, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20568 Kuropka, Ireneusz. Life expectancy of the population in Silesia. [Trwanie zycia mieszkanców Dolnego Slaska.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 43, No. 10, Oct 1998. 42-52 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes changes in average life expectancy in Silesian voivodships in Poland from 1976 to 1995. Differences according to sex, age, and place of residence are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20569 Manton, Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric. Changes in health functioning and mortality. In: The legacy of longevity: health and health care in later life, edited by Sidney M. Stahl. [1998?]. 140-62 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
"We [present] a model describing functional impairment at advanced ages [in the United States] as graded and multidimensional. With that model, we [assess] the potential for improving active life expectancy through the control of selected diseases.... The simulations suggest that considerable improvement in active life expectancy may result if action is targeted against specific diseases.... In addition, studies of disease impact must be improved methodologically."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, Box 90088, Durham, NC 27708-0088. E-mail: kgm@cds.duke.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20570 Papadimitriou, A.; Gousia, E.; Pitaouli, E.; Tapaki, G.; Philippidis, P. Age at menarche in Greek girls. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 175-7 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"This study reports menarcheal age in 1,134 contemporary Greek girls and the duration of their menstrual cycle. Comparison with a similar study performed 15 years ago shows that in Greek girls there is still a secular trend, although a small one, towards earlier menarcheal age."
Correspondence: A. Papadimitriou, Penteli Children's Hospital, First Department of Paediatrics, Palea Penteli, Athens 152 36, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20571 Pasquet, P.; Manguelle-Dicoum Biyong, A.; Rikong-Adie, H.; Befidi-Mengue, R.; Garba, M.-T.; Froment, A. Age at menarche and urbanization in Cameroon: current status and secular trends. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 89-97 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"Status quo data on the age at menarche were obtained on samples of Cameroonian girls living in urban (Yaoundé) (n=205), suburban (n=505) and rural areas (n=201).... Comparison with retrospective data on age at menarche during previous decades reveals the presence of a clear secular trend towards earlier maturation, at a rate of 2.5-3.2 months per decade, only in the main cities of the country (Yaoundé/Douala) and a lack of temporal variation in rural areas. The degree of urbanization influences maturational age and its evolution, probably through improvements in the nutritional standards."
Correspondence: P. Pasquet, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 9935, Université de Paris VII (case 7041), 2 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20572 Santow, Gigi. Emmenagogues and abortifacients in the twentieth century: an issue of ambiguity. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 128, ISBN 91-7820-127-6. Oct 1998. 35 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this chapter I describe some of the professional and popular literature of the last century or so that documents concerns that menstruation should be regular, lists the causes of irregularity, and in some cases recommends treatment with emmenagogues. I then address the contemporaneous rise of abortion, focusing in particular on attempts to procure abortion by non-surgical means. I turn finally to address a number of ambiguous issues that emerge from these accounts...."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20573 Strickland, S. S.; Shetty, P. S. Human biology and social inequality: 39th symposium volume of the Society for the Study of Human Biology. Society for the Study of Human Biology Symposium Series, No. 39, ISBN 0-521-57043-3. LC 97-23261. 1998. xii, 346 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Measures of biological variation have long been associated with many indices of social inequality. Data on health, nutrition, fertility, mortality, physical fitness, intellectual performance and a range of heritable biological markers show the ubiquity of such patterns across time, space and population. This volume reviews the current evidence for the strength of such linkages and the biological and social mechanisms that underlie them. A major theme is the relationship between the proximate determinants of these linkages and their longer term significance for biologically selective social mobility. This book therefore addresses the question of how social stratification mediates processes of natural selection in human groups. Data like this pose difficult and sensitive issues for health policy, and recent developments in this area and in eugenics are reviewed for industrialized and developing countries." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population, and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation.

65:20574 Borjas, George J. The economic progress of immigrants. NBER Working Paper, No. 6506, Apr 1998. 44, [9] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper presents a theoretical and empirical study of the economic progress experienced by immigrants in the U.S. labor market.... The empirical analysis uses the 1970-1990 decennial Census data. The evidence indicates that the correlation between the log entry wage and the rate of wage growth is positive, but this correlation is weakened and perhaps turns negative when we compare immigrants who start out in the United States with similar human capital endowments."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: gborjas@harvard.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:20575 Butcher, Kristin F.; DiNardo, John. The immigrant and native-born wage distributions: evidence from United States censuses. NBER Working Paper, No. 6630, Jul 1998. 29, [14] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Using data from four U.S. Censuses (1960-1990) we examine changes in the wage structure and their role in explaining comparisons between immigrants and the native-born in mean wages. Inter alia, we document that patterns of comparison between the immigrants and the native-born are not the same for men and for women, and that these differences in immigrant/native-born comparisons among men and women are a consequence of different evolutions in the wage structure."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: butcherk@bc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:20576 Cancian, Maria; Reed, Deborah. The impact of wives' earnings on income inequality: issues and estimates. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 2, May 1999. 173-84 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We estimate the extent to which rising family income inequality can be explained by changes in the earnings of married women. We develop a decomposition equation that separates single persons from married couples...and, for married couples, distinguishes the impact of wives' earnings from other sources of income.... Despite the rising correlation between husbands' and wives' earnings, changes in wives' earnings do not explain a substantial portion of the increase in family income inequality. Our results contradict those of some previous analyses. The inconsistency of recent estimates can be traced to the use of a variety of conceptually different approaches in the previous literature. We clarify these approaches by explicitly distinguishing the conceptual issues, analyzing the empirical components, and providing comprehensive estimates."
Correspondence: M. Cancian, University of Wisconsin, La Follette Institute of Public Affairs, School of Social Work, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: cancian@lafollette.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20577 Card, David; DiNardo, John; Estes, Eugena. The more things change: immigrants and the children of immigrants in the 1940s, the 1970s, and the 1990s. NBER Working Paper, No. 6519, Apr 1998. 42, [18] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper we present a comparative perspective on the economic performance of [U.S.] immigrants and their children, utilizing data from the 1940 and 1970 Censuses, and from recent (1994-96) Current Population Surveys. We find important intergenerational links between the economic status of immigrant fathers and the economic status and marriage patterns of their native born sons and daughters. Much of this linkage works through education...."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: card@econ.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:20578 Douidich, Mohamed. Employment, unemployment, and family strategies in Morocco. [Emploi, chômage et stratégies familiales au Maroc.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 1,185-206 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The growing number of family businesses in Morocco is noteworthy for two reasons: unemployment is three times lower among the households which own a family business and two in three jobs are in this sector of the economy. An analysis of the demographic and socio-occupational structure of the household and of the logics responsible for the family unit operating as both labour supply and source of work, help to elucidate the employment strategies of Moroccan families. These strategies are highly diverse, heavily based on pluriactivity, and involve employing the less competitive members in the family business while encouraging the more able into better paid salaried positions."
Correspondence: M. Douidich, Direction de la Statistique, B.P. 178, avenue Maâ El Ainine, Rabat, Morocco. E-mail: mdouidich@statistic.gov.ma. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20579 Fuchs, Victor R. Provide, provide: the economics of aging. NBER Working Paper, No. 6642, Jul 1998. 19, [13] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Data from the [U.S.] Bureau of the Census, the Health Care Financing Administration, the NBER Tax File, and the Current Population Survey are used to estimate for the elderly (ages 65 and above) consumption of health care and income available for other goods and services in 1975, 1985, and 1995.... Changes in age-specific consumption of health care are found to be much more important than demographic changes. Income inequality among the elderly in 1995 is found to be much less than at younger ages."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: claire@newage3.stanford.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:20580 Gijselinckx, Caroline. The dynamics of poverty in Belgium. [Bestaansonzekerheid in dynamisch perspectief.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1998. 17-43 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Panel-analysis shows that long-term as well as short-term poverty [in Belgium] seems to be concentrated among a clearly identifiable group: the low-skilled. The direct effect of the level of education is significant. Furthermore, lifecycle-transitions and changes in labour market position seem to effect the poverty-risk of the low-skilled more."
Correspondence: C. Gijselinckx, Universiteit Antwerpen, Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid, Prinsstraat 13, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20581 Gorman, Elizabeth H. Bringing home the bacon: marital allocation of income-earning responsibility, job shifts, and men's wages. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 1, Feb 1999. 110-22 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Three dominant perspectives on the allocation of household responsibilities suggest that married couples are likely to assign more income-earning responsibility to the husband.... Married men are likely to be more attentive to opportunities to increase their earnings and to risks that could reduce their earnings. Using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study focuses on men's job-shift processes. Findings indicate that married men are more likely than single men to pursue job-shift patterns that result in greater wage gains and to avoid those that result in lower wage gains and that a portion of the marriage differential in men's wages is attributable to job-shift processes."
Correspondence: E. H. Gorman, Harvard University, Department of Sociology, William James Hall, Cambridge, MA 02138. E-mail: gorman@wjh.harvard.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20582 Gustman, Alan L.; Steinmeier, Thomas L. Social Security benefits of immigrants and U.S. born. NBER Working Paper, No. 6478, Mar 1998. 85, [6] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"For each year of work under the [U.S.] Social Security System, immigrants realize a higher benefit than U.S. born, even when their earnings are identical in all years the immigrant has been in the U.S. Two features of the social security benefit calculation are responsible for the relatively favorable treatment of immigrants: the social security benefit formula transfers benefits toward those with low lifetime covered earnings, and all years an immigrant spends outside the U.S. are treated as years of zero earnings."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: Alan.L.Gustman@Dartmouth.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:20583 Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Aal, Mohamed A. Forms of economic security and the family. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3, Autumn 1998. 429-49 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This work stresses differences between two forms of economic security [in Egypt]. One is formal and is provided by coverage through public programs. The other is informal and the family is its major source. Our primary concern is with the processes involved in the transformation of the family economic security system and family culture and social structures. To this end, we test the influence of two major hypotheses, one emphasizing the importance of economic independence that is associated with industrial employment and coverage by formal economic security programs and the other the importance of space or geographical mobility."
Correspondence: S. K. Houseknecht, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20584 Kim, Meesook. Racial and gender differences in income before and after retirement in the U.S. Health and Social Welfare Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, Winter 1998. 3-34 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"This study examines [U.S.] racial and gender differences in income (earnings, social security benefit, pension, and assets income) before and after retirement, employing data from the Social Beneficiary Survey.... It was found that human capital, in terms of formal education, positively affects income from all four sources examined, and also serves as an important intervening variable, reducing the income disadvantage of nonwhites, but not of women.... Contrary to public belief, this study finds that racial and gender inequality continues to exist after retirement, as well as before."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20585 Macadar, Daniel; Mendive, Carlos. Indirect estimation of income and proportion of poor households: a methodological hierarchy for small areas. [Estimación indirecta de ingresos y proporción de hogares pobres: una metodología para jerarquizar áreas menores.] Notas de Población, Vol. 25, No. 66, Dec 1998. 111-55 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to produce indicators of income insufficiency at geographically disaggregated levels by combining information from the Continuous Household Survey (CHS) and the Population and Housing Censuses (PHC) of Uruguay, 1985.... Estimates allowed [us] to construct a hierarchy of the geographical areas according to the proportion of poor households and other income distribution indicators, including measures of distance within the income distribution and of the intensity of poverty...."
Correspondence: D. Macadar, Universidad de la República Oriental, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Avenida 18 de Julio 1968, 11200 Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20586 Ohtake, Fumio; Saito, Makoto. Population aging and consumption inequality in Japan. Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 44, No. 3, Sep 1998. 361-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper analyses how consumption inequality within a fixed cohort grows with age using Japanese household microdata. Following the method developed by Deaton and Paxson (1994), we obtain the following results. First, consumption inequality starts to increase at the age of 40. Second, younger generations face a more unequal distribution from the beginning of their life-cycle. Third, half of the rapid increase in the economy-wide consumption inequality during the 1980s was caused by population aging, while one-third was due to the increasing cohort effect. The paper compares the above results with those of Deaton and Paxson."
Correspondence: F. Ohtake, Osaka University, Institute of Social and Economic Research, 6-1 Mihogaoka Ibaraki, Osaka 567, Japan. E-mail: ohtake@iser.osaka-u.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20587 Olmedo, Catón. Population trends and poverty. [Tendencias demográficas y pobreza.] Correo Poblacional y de la Salud, Vol. 6, No. 1, Apr 1998. 5-7 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The author considers the relation between population dynamics and poverty in Ecuador. The standard of living of the poor population is noted to depend on gross domestic products, social services such as health and education, and the size of the economically active population.
Correspondence: C. Olmedo, Centro de Estudios de Población y Paternidad Responsable, Toribio Montes 423 y Daniel Hidalgo, Casilla No. 17-01-2327, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20588 Rabusic, Ladislav. Are the Czech elderly poor? [Jsou cestí seniori chudí?] Sociologický Casopis, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1998. 303-20 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The extent to which the elderly in the Czech Republic are poor is examined. The author concludes that poverty among the retired population is rare, although the standard of living of many of the elderly is quite low, and between 30 and 50 percent of elderly people think of themselves as being poor. The author also examines the relationship between the concepts of poverty and social exclusion, which is an issue of growing concern for the elderly.
Correspondence: L. Rabusic, Masarykovy Univerzity, Fakulta Sociálních Studií, Gorkého 7, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic. E-mail: rabu@fss.muni.cz. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20589 Rabusic, Ladislav. The poverty of the Czech elderly--myth or reality? Czech Sociological Review, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1998. 5-24 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng.
"Poverty among the Czech elderly is considered from two perspectives: objective and subjective. Various indicators of objective poverty are analysed, such as the relation of average monthly income to average old-age pension, pension inequalities, the structure of household expenditures, and the structure of consumer durables ownership, as are representative survey data measuring subjective poverty. It is concluded that from the objective point of view the Czech elderly are as a whole well above subsistence poverty. However, their subjective poverty seems quite far-reaching, affecting between 30 and 50 percent."
Correspondence: L. Rabusic, Masaryk University, Faculty of Social Studies, Department of Sociology, Gorkého 7, 660 88 Brno, Czech Republic. E-mail: rabu@phil.muni.cz. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20590 Samwick, Andrew A. New evidence on pensions, social security, and the timing of retirement. NBER Working Paper, No. 6534, Apr 1998. 54 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Using a unique dataset that links the economic and demographic information of [U.S.] households with the details of their pension formulas, I estimate the combined effect of Social Security and pension benefits on the probability of retirement in a cross-section of the population near retirement age. The accrual rate of retirement wealth is shown to be a significant determinant of the probability of retirement."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: samwick@dartmouth.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:20591 Shields, Michael A.; Price, Stephen W. The earnings of male immigrants in England: evidence from the quarterly LFS. Applied Economics, Vol. 30, No. 9, Sep 1998. 1,157-68 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we estimate earnings functions for native born and foreign born white and non-white males in the English labour market, using data from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey.... Our results highlight the importance of distinguishing between native born and foreign born males when investigating the labour market experience of ethnic minorities. Furthermore, the earnings performance amongst white immigrants varies considerably."
Correspondence: M. A. Shields, University of Leicester, Department of Economics, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, England. E-mail: mas9@le.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:20592 Siklos, Pierre L.; Marr, William. The unemployment insurance compensation. Usage of Canada's immigrants in selected provinces, 1981-1988. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1998. 337-56 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper explores the relationship between province of residence and the use of unemployment insurance (UI) among immigrants who landed in Canada during the period 1981-88. Use of a new data set, the Longitudinal Immigration Data Base, overcomes the restriction that other data sets are cross-sectional only in nature or do not identify birthplace. Our principal conclusion is that more generous UI benefits and poorer economic conditions than the Canadian average have a positive impact on the fraction of immigrants who receive UI. In addition, the province of residence has a separate effect on the likelihood of claiming UI, perhaps due to mobility costs. Because national immigration policies have a differential impact across provinces, it is understandable that provincial policymakers wish to have greater influence over federal immigration policies."
Correspondence: P. L. Siklos, Wilfrid Laurier University, Department of Economics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20593 Sinn, Hans-Werner. The pay-as-you-go pension system as a fertility insurance and enforcement device. NBER Working Paper, No. 6610, Jun 1998. 28 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"It is argued that a PAYGO system may have useful allocative functions in that it serves as an insurance against not having children and as an enforcement device for `rotten kids' who are unwilling to pay their parents a pension. It is true that the system has amoral hazard effect in terms of reducing the investment in human capital, but, if it is run on a sufficiently small scale, this effect will not be strong enough to prevent a welfare improvement."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: hans-werner.sinn@ces.vel.uni-muenchen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:20594 Spener, David; Bean, Frank D. Self-employment concentration and earnings among Mexican immigrants in the U.S. Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 3, Mar 1999. 1,021-47 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"In this article, we draw upon the ethnic entrepreneurship and urban ecological literatures to develop a hypothesis about how the relative size of the local ethnic market conditions the extent to which interurban variation in the self-employment rate of Mexican immigrants will influence the incomes of Mexican immigrants who are not self-employed. Further, we use data from the 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing to investigate this hypothesis for Mexican immigrants residing in sixty U.S. metropolitan statistical areas. Results from the analyses indicate that the effects of variation in levels of self-employment depend upon the relative size of the local ethnic market...."
Correspondence: D. Spener, Trinity University, Department of Sociology, 715 Stadium Drive, San Antonio, TX 78212. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

65:20595 Akbari, Ather H. Immigrant "quality" in Canada: more direct evidence of human capital content, 1956-1994. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring 1999. 156-75 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides direct evidence about educational attainments of new arrivals in Canada over the period 1956 to 1994.... Immigrant data are also compared with the educational attainment of the Canadian-born population in corresponding periods.... Results show that, in the total immigrant inflows of any subperiod since 1956, the percentages of those with high school education or less have been declining and have been lower than those for the Canadian-born population, while the percentages of those with university degrees have been rising and have been higher than those for the Canadian-born population."
Correspondence: A. H. Akbari, Saint Mary's University, Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20596 Brutsaert, Herman. Risks for grade retention in elementary school: family structure and school context. [Risicofactor bij het oplopen van schoolachterstand in het basisonderwijs: gezinsstructuur en schoolcontext.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1998. 119-30 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper examines single-sex and coeducational schooling in its effects upon grade retention differences between girls and boys [in Belgium]. Use was made of data concerning 2,139 sixth grade pupils from 24 coeducational and 36 single-sex...private schools in Belgium. A logistic regression analysis was performed taking into account the effect of socioeconomic status, family intactness, maternal employment status, family size and gender composition of the teaching staff. The results indicate that boys are more likely to experience a retention in coeducational than in boys' schools."
Correspondence: H. Brutsaert, Universiteit Gent, Vakgroep Sociologie, Universiteitstraat 4, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20597 Chaube, S. K. The scheduled tribes and Christianity in India. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 9, Feb-Mar 1999. 524-6 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"A glance at the census reports on religion will show that the growth rate of the Christian community is the lowest among all the religious communities in India. Another feature is the recent association of Christianity with the scheduled tribes, largely because Christianity happens to constitute religious identity of the overwhelming majority of the tribals in the four north-eastern states of India." Data are from the period 1951-1991.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:20598 Crowder, Kyle D. Residential segregation of West Indians in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area: the roles of race and ethnicity. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring 1999. 79-113 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"To assess the relative roles of race and ethnicity in shaping patterns of residential segregation, this article utilizes indices of segregation and a geographic mapping strategy to examine the residential patterns of West Indian blacks in the greater New York City area. The socioeconomic characteristics of neighborhoods occupied by West Indian blacks are also examined and compared to those of areas occupied by African Americans. The results indicate that, on one hand, West Indians are largely denied access to residential areas occupied predominantly by whites and are confined to areas of large black concentrations. On the other hand, West Indians appear to have carved out somewhat separate residential enclaves within these largely black areas...."
Correspondence: K. D. Crowder, Western Washington University, Department of Sociology, Arntzen Hall 510, MS-9081, Bellingham, WA 98225-9081. E-mail: crowder@cc.wwu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20599 Jones, Gavin W. Human resource development in the Asia-Pacific region: implications for Australia. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 14, No. 2, Nov 1997. 127-44 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Educational development has played a role in rapid economic development in East and Southeast Asia.... Australia faces problems in common with countries of the region, including the need to provide greater equality of educational opportunity to students from disadvantaged backgrounds, and to find the appropriate disciplinary mix in tertiary education. The massive growth of the numbers with secondary and higher education in the region will provide opportunities to market our education, pose issues for Australian immigration policy, and provide both risks and opportunities in building a favourable image of Australia."
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20600 Krivo, Lauren J.; Kaufman, Robert L. How low can it go? Declining black-white segregation in a multiethnic context. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 1, Feb 1999. 93-109 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We extend research on whites' neighborhood contact with blacks, population composition, and prospects for desegregation by developing a new measure of the floor of racial residential segregation under conditions of low black-white contact. The measure incorporates the way in which multiethnic contexts further constrain levels of black-white segregation. The results show that black-white desegregation is likely when the black population is small, but is unlikely otherwise. Yet, when multiple ethnic groups are sufficiently large, a moderate level of black-white segregation is necessary for whites to maintain low neighborhood contact with blacks, even when the proportion of African Americans is small."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. J. Krivo, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: krivo.1@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20601 Liska, Allen E.; Logan, John R.; Bellair, Paul E. Race and violent crime in the suburbs. American Sociological Review, Vol. 63, No. 1, Feb 1998. 27-38 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examine the effects of racial composition on crime rates, but we give equal weight to the opposite causal order--the violent crime rate itself could cause a change in racial composition." The authors test the hypothesis using data "for a national sample of [U.S.] suburbs for the period 1970 to 1990. We find significant and approximately equal causal effects in both directions; specifically, it is the robbery component of crime that affects racial composition. High robbery rates are associated with black population growth while stimulating white flight."
Correspondence: A. E. Liska, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. E-mail: ael62@cnsibm.albany.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20602 Maguire, Daniel C.; Rasmussen, Larry L. Ethics for a small planet: new horizons on population, consumption, and ecology. SUNY Series in Religious Studies, ISBN 0-7914-3645-4. LC 97-9361. 1998. xv, 151 pp. State University of New York Press: Albany, New York. In Eng.
"This book offers an original and realistic assessment of the crisis caused by the combined impact of overpopulation, overconsumption, and economic and political injustice. It summons religious scholarship into urgent dialogue with the other disciplines and with the world's policymakers. The authors seek a new understanding of religion and its power.... Both authors argue that there are positive and renewable moral energies in the world's religions and that unless religion, understood as a response to the sanctity of life, animates our ethical debates, the prospects for the world are grim. The sense of the sacred is presented here as the nucleus of the good and the only force that can bring about the lifestyle changes and power reallocations that are necessary to prevent terracide."
Correspondence: State University of New York Press, State University Plaza, Albany, NY 12246. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20603 Nixon, Lucia A.; Robinson, Michael D. The educational attainment of young women: role model effects of female high school faculty. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 2, May 1999. 185-94 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"To test for the presence of role model effects of female high school faculty and professional staff on young women in high school, we estimate several models of educational attainment for young women using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Exposure to female high school faculty and professional staff has a positive impact on the educational attainment of young women. This result, combined with our finding that female faculty and professional staff have no significant impact on the educational attainment of young men, supports a female role model hypothesis."
Correspondence: M. D. Robinson, Mount Holyoke College, Department of Economics, South Hadley, MA 01075. E-mail: mirobins@mtholyoke.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20604 Sanders, Todd. Making children, making chiefs: gender, power and ritual legitimacy. Africa, Vol. 68, No. 2, 1998. 238-62 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article explores indigenous notions of power and chiefly legitimacy among the Ihanzu, a relatively small Bantu-speaking community located in north central Tanzania. Particular attention is paid to local ideas and ideals of gender...in an effort to show the complex ways in which gender categories, when combined, are powerful and capable of effecting transformations of different sorts.... It is suggested that the strategic combination of the cultural categories `male' and `female' provides the underlying transformative model both for sexual reproduction and for rainmaking."
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:20605 Schiltz, Marie-Ange. Young homosexual itineraries in the context of HIV: establishing lifestyles. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1998. 417-45 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article analyses the itineraries of young male homo/bisexuals based on a survey conducted in the gay press [in France] in 1995.... Young homosexuals have to face the double problem of finding a place in a circle of tolerant relations and creating a way of life which will allow a full development of their sexual orientation. To this there is now added a dramatic epidemiological context, in the form of the very high incidence of HIV in this group.... General population studies are used to examine whether the process whereby young homosexuals become autonomous is similar to that of other young people and to what extent their trajectory is influenced by their marginal sexuality."
Correspondence: M.-A. Schiltz, CAMS/Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

65:20606 Aleksakhina, Natal'ia A. Changing tendencies in national identity of the peoples of Russia. Sociological Research, Vol. 38, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 70-8 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The author examines changes in the ethnic composition of the population of Russia over time, with particular reference to the factors that influence people to change their ethnic affiliation in response to political or other pressures. Attention is also given to the effects of ethnically mixed marriages on the nationality chosen by the children of such marriages.
Translated from the Russian article in Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 2, 1998, pp. 49-54.
Correspondence: N. A. Aleksakhina, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Socioeconomic Problems of the Population, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20607 Banton, Michael. Are there ethnic groups in South Asia? Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 21, No. 5, Sep 1998. 990-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The question whether there are ethnic groups in South Asia is relevant to the application of international law, as when states report under the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. Whether it is important to the advancement of social science is less certain. To classify certain groups as ethnic groups adds little to the explanation of the character of inter-group relations in the region."
Correspondence: M. Banton, University of Bristol, Department of Sociology, 12 Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UQ, Avon, England. E-mail: michael@banton.demon.co.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20608 Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine. The Chinese in Britain. New Community, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan 1997. 123-31 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This research note offers a brief historical perspective on the relationship between Hong Kong and Britain and describes the demographic profile of the Chinese community in Britain...[using] information obtained from the 1991 [UK] Census.... The data analysis shows that the Chinese population is widely dispersed and increasing rapidly, and is characterised by a high child-bearing capacity and a low rate of unemployment."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20609 Haug, Werner; Courbage, Youssef; Compton, Paul. The demographic characteristics of national minorities in certain European states, Volume 1. Population Studies, No. 30, ISBN 92-871-3769-2. Dec 1998. 159 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
This is the first of two planned volumes that are concerned with both quantitative and qualitative assessments of minority populations in Europe. This volume examines the demographic characteristics of the main national minorities in Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia as well as in two communities in Northern Ireland. It also contains a survey of the statistical sources on religion, language, and national and ethnic groups in Europe, as well as a discussion on some of the scientific and political aspects related to the collection of data on such minorities in European countries.
Correspondence: Council of Europe Publishing, 67075 Strasbourg Cedex, France. E-mail: publishing@coe.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20610 Hooper, Linda M.; Bennett, Claudette E. The Asian and Pacific Islander population in the United States: March 1997 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 512, Sep 1998. 2 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Detailed tabulations are now available which provide demographic characteristics on the social and economic status of the civilian noninstitutional Asian and Pacific Islander population in the United States, based on the March 1997 Current Population Survey.... The set of detailed tabulations consists of 11 tables (87 pages) from the 1997 Current Population Survey. The electronic version of these tables is available on the Internet, at the Census Bureau's World-Wide Web site (http://www.census.gov).... A paper version of these tables is available as PPL-108 for $28.40."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOM, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20611 Kurien, Prema. Gendered ethnicity: creating a Hindu Indian identity in the United States. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 4, Jan 1999. 648-70 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Based on a study of three Hindu Indian religio-cultural organizations whose members live in and around a metropolitan area in California, this article examines the central role played by gender in the creation of ethnic communities and cultures among Hindu Indian immigrants.... The author argues that migration and settlement result in an interrelated but distinct sequence of gendered processes at three analytical levels--the household, the local ethnic community, and the pan-Indian umbrella organizations. The processes occurring at the three levels intermesh in a complicated and contradictory dynamic. The contradictions are manifested in the construction of gendered ethnicity and in gender practice, particularly at the organizational level."
Correspondence: P. Kurien, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:20612 Luther, Norman Y.; Gaminiratne, K. H. W.; Gray, Alan. Consistent correction of data for aboriginal populations. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 12, No. 2, Nov 1995. 147-64 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"A consistent correction procedure is used to determine improved, consistent estimates by sex of census age distributions, intercensal births, intercensal deaths and net migration by age for the Aboriginal populations of the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia during the period 1986-91. Undercount estimates and life tables show the Aboriginal populations to have lower coverage in statistical collections and much higher death risks than the total Australian population. Inter-regional net migration estimates show that component of change can no longer be ignored."
Correspondence: N. Y. Luther, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20613 Martin, David; Taylor, John. Ethnographic perspectives on the enumeration of aboriginal people in remote Australia. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 1, May 1996. 17-31 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper compares population counts and age distributions from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) enumerations of the Aboriginal population of Aurukun, Cape York Peninsula, with the results of detailed ethnographic surveys of the same population at similar points in time. This reveals substantially lower numbers for the ABS counts, particularly of young adults and children. Reasons for this discrepancy are sought in the ethnographic realities of remote indigenous communities and an alternative methodology for Aboriginal enumeration in remote regions is suggested."
Correspondence: D. Martin, Australian National University, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20614 Naidu, T. S. The Shompen aboriginal tribal population and problems of survival in Great Nicobar Island. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jun 1998. 59-66 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Great Nicobar Island [India] is one of the Andaman and Nicobar islands and home to the Shompen aborigine tribe.... The present article attempts...to enumerate the Shompen population and to study in detail the population structure and their problems of survival." Information is provided on population growth, structure, and composition; number of living children; age and sex distribution; household size; and spatial distribution.
Correspondence: T. S. Naidu, Pondicherry Central University, Centre for Futures Studies, Pondicherry 605 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20615 Wong, David W. S. A geographical analysis of multiethnic households in the United States. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 31-48 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Using the household-level data provided by the 5% PUMS [Public Use Microdata Sample] data from the 1990 Census, this paper reports the pattern of ethnic mixing at the household level in the U.S. and also describes the geographical patterns of different types of multiethnic households at both the state level and the PUMA [Public Use Microdata Area] level. Several of the largest metropolitan areas are also examined in greater detail. The strong dominance of whites in the process of ethnic mixing is clear, as is the expected dominance of blacks in southeastern U.S. and the dominance of Hispanics in the southwest at the state level. The PUMA-level analysis reveals local clusters of ethnic mixing that are not apparent at the state-level analysis."
Correspondence: D. W. S. Wong, George Mason University, Geography and Earth Science, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030. E-mail: dwong2@gmu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.