Volume 65 - Number 2 - Summer 1999

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

65:20413 Brey, Hansjörg. Migration and demographic processes in Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey. [Migration und Bevölkerungsprozesse in Zypern, Griechenland und der Türkei.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 31-48 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
Migratory flows in Cyprus, both internal and external, are summarized from colonial times to the present. Post-World War II urbanization and emigration is first described; then the author focuses on developments after Cyprus achieved independence in 1960. These include segregation of Turkish and Greek Cypriots through forced resettlement in the 1970s, leading to the permanent division of Cyprus in 1983; emigration, especially to Great Britain and then to Greece; and recently, increased immigration. The extent of immigration from mainland Turkey to northern Cyprus is not precisely known and is heavily politicized. In a concluding section, the author looks at internal demographic shifts in Cyprus from 1960 to 1992.
Correspondence: H. Brey, Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft, Widenmayerstraße 49, 80538 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20414 Burnley, I. H. Associations between overseas, intra-urban and internal migration dynamics in Sydney, 1976-91. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 1, May 1996. 47-66 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper investigates spatial statistical associations between overseas in-migration rates and internal migration loss within Sydney and between housing costs in Sydney and internal migration outflows. The hypothesis was that housing cost changes and overseas migration contributed additively to migration losses from the metropolis. The integration of metropolitan Sydney and Australia into the `Pacific rim' economy is examined with reference to wider explanations of house cost changes and migration flows."
Correspondence: I. H. Burnley, University of New South Wales, School of Geography, NSW 2052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20415 Crkvencic, Ivan. Emigration and demographic processes in Croatia. [Auswanderungen und demographische Prozesse in Kroatien.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 267-81 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
The author sketches out a history of Croatia and its population, emphasizing the role of immigration in creating an ethnic mix of Croatians and other nationalities. He then outlines the population dynamics in Croatia from 1857 to 1991, pointing out that epidemics, wars, and emigration have significantly slowed the rate of increase. He also suggests that demographic aging and rural-urban migration pose problems. In the final sections, emigration from Croatia from 1880 to the present is examined in detail, including forced outmigration of ethnic minorities and the guest-worker phenomenon. The depopulation of rural areas within Croatia is addressed as an important barrier to Croatia's further development.
Correspondence: I. Crkvencic, University of Zagreb, Trg Marsala Tita 14, P.O. Box 815, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20416 DeJong, Gordon F.; Warland, Rex H.; Root, Brenda D. Family interaction and migration decision making. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 155-67 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Using data from the Residential Preference and Migration Survey, a panel study of Pennsylvania households on migration intention and behavior, the authors examine some aspects of the decision to migrate. "We first examine the impact of the presence or absence of household interaction on the desire to move, migration expectations, and actual migration behavior. We hypothesize that the presence of household interaction is associated with migration behavior, while the absence of household interaction on migration-related issues is a predictor of staying in the present residence. Second, we test an expanded residential satisfaction migration decision model.... The expanded model permits us to test the thesis that household interaction frequency and consensus/conflict are moderating factors in explaining and predicting the outcome of migration decision making."
Correspondence: G. F. DeJong, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20417 Doka, Dhimiter; Berxholi, Arqile. Migration and socioeconomic processes in Albania's transitional period. [Migration und sozioökonomische Prozesse in der Übergangsperiode Albaniens.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 217-22 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
This chapter begins with a brief synopsis of the history of emigration out of Albania, which has always been a feature of Albanian life. The authors then focus on migration trends after 1990, when the Communist regime fell. They describe the extent of emigration, the destination countries, and some demographic and economic characteristics of the emigrants. The motivation for emigration is primarily economic. Advantages for Albania include decreased unemployment, remittances, an increase in living standard, and increased investment. Disadvantages include poor social and economic integration of Albanian illegal immigrants into their host country, increased criminality, and separation of families. The authors also discuss internal migration despite the lack of data, pointing out that it involves mainly people from the poor rural areas in the north migrating south, particularly into the cities, to increase their economic well-being. In conclusion, some guidelines for shaping Albania's migration policies are given.
Correspondence: D. Doka, University of Tiranë, Insitute of Geography, Tiranë, Albania. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20418 Flanders, Stephen A. Atlas of American migration. ISBN 0-8160-3158-4. LC 98-13452. 1998. ix, 214 pp. Facts on File: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This publication examines migration to and within the United States by means of a series of maps accompanied by explanatory texts. The focus is on migration over the course of U.S. history from pre-Columbian times up to the present.
Correspondence: Facts on File, 11 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20419 Gaber, Natasha. Migration and socioeconomic transformation in the Republic of Macedonia. In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 223-42 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Eng.
After a short historical overview of emigration from the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia through the time of the Yugoslav federation, the author focuses on Macedonian emigration in recent decades. She looks at differences in emigration from the various districts and ethnic groups in Macedonia and summarizes some demographic characteristics of the migrants, including education and occupational skills. The destinations of these emigrants are also discussed. Demographic trends for various ethnic groups in Macedonia are then examined. A section on internal migration follows, discussing urbanization and depopulation of rural areas as well as brain drain to other formerly Yugoslav republics. Finally, the socioeconomic development of Macedonia's population is examined, stressing high unemployment levels, and the author points out some differences between ethnic groups. She also makes some recommendations aimed at aiding the further development of Macedonia.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20420 Gallup, John L. Theories of migration. Development Discussion Paper, No. 569, Jan 1997. 17 pp. Harvard University, Harvard Institute for International Development: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper surveys theoretical models of migration decision-making. It considers more or less chronologically: the gravity model, the human capital model, expected income, the two-sector model, family decision-making, information and networks, search models, and return migration. It is followed by a general expected utility decision-making framework within which the earlier models are situated."
Correspondence: Harvard University, Harvard Institute for International Development, 14 Story Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20421 Ghosh, Bimal. Gains from global linkages: trade in services and movements of persons. ISBN 0-312-16235-9. LC 96-17551. 1997. xvii, 165 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York; Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
The growth of the services sector of the economy in developing countries is examined with reference to its implications for migration. The focus is on possibilities for better management of migration in the context of trade liberalization, as exemplified by the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The study suggests that by creating jobs in developing countries, growth of the service sector decreases the potential for disruptive migration. It underlines the need for freer movement of individuals in order to benefit from the liberalization of the trade in services. The extent to which temporary migration can be substituted for more permanent migration is considered. Finally, the need for developing an internationally harmonized visa and migration regime to facilitate, monitor, and manage trade-related migration is noted.
Correspondence: St. Martin's Press, Scholarly and Reference Division, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20422 Gosar, Anton. Migration, demographic structural changes, and their effects in Slovenia. [Migration und demographische Strukturveränderungen samt deren Auswirkungen in Slowenien.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 243-66 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The cultural history of Slovenia is briefly outlined, and its ethnic composition is discussed. During the Communist regime, the pre-World War II mix of Slovenes with Germans, Italians, and Hungarians was replaced by an almost exclusively Slavic population, with Slovenia becoming a destination country for immigrants from the other Yugoslav republics. The author examines the refugee flows created by the Balkan wars since 1991 and discusses the current legal status of the various ethnic groups in Slovenia.
Correspondence: A. Gosar, University of Ljubljana, Kongresni trg 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20423 Heller, Wilfried. Migration and socioeconomic transformation in southeastern Europe. [Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa.] Südosteuropa-Studie, No. 59, ISBN 3-925450-68-8. LC 97-221701. 1997. 326 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Eng; Ger.
This publication contains 20 papers that were first presented at a symposium held at Potsdam University, Germany, in September 1996, on migration and socioeconomic transformation in the countries of southeastern Europe. The papers are grouped by geographic region; there are contributions discussing aspects of migration in Cyprus, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and the republics of the former federation of Yugoslavia, as well as several general contributions and one on the political significance of the migration problem in Germany.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft, Widenmayerstraße 49, 80538 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20424 Janjic, Dusan. Yugoslav war migrations. In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 295-302 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Eng.
The author analyzes the ethnic mix of Serb, Croat, and Muslim migrations from 1981 to the 1990s, both within and outside the former Yugoslavian federation. He concludes that the net result of the migratory flows has been to concentrate the three ethnic groups in separate, more homogeneous areas than had been the case in Communist Yugoslavia.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20425 Kalter, Frank. Partnership and migration. A theoretical explanation of an empirical effect. [Partnerschaft und Migration. Zur theoretischen Erklärung eines empirischen Effekts.] Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jun 1998. 283-309 pp. Opladen, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
People who share a common household with their life partner tend to demonstrate very low residential mobility. Attempts to explain this have been fruitful to an extent, but controlling for appropriate third variables does not entirely account for the effect of partnership status on mobility. A simple microeconomic model makes a first attempt to explain the independent effect of partnership status on migration decisions. This first attempt is here expanded into a behavior theory model and an expanded model of decision making in the context of uncertainty. According to this analysis, within certain parameters, the decisive obstacle to the mobility of couples living together consists of the risks and costs associated with negotiations. The anticipation of possible negotiating problems frequently results in a potentially positive migration opportunity not even being considered for a decision. The proposed theoretical models are empirically tested using data from the study on migration potential undertaken by the University of Mannheim's Center for European Social Research.
Correspondence: F. Kalter, Universität Mannheim, Fakultät für Sozialwissenschaften, 68131 Mannheim 1, Germany. E-mail: fkalter@sowi.uni-mannheim.de. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20426 Laurian, Lucie; Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Murphy, Laura. Migration decisions among settler families in the Ecuadorian Amazon: the second generation. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 169-85 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors use survey data collected in 1990 from 418 household heads of recent settlements in the Ecuadorian Amazon to study the extent of and reasons for out-migration of the settlers' children. "Our research identifies the types and incidence of out-migration of young adults from settler households in the Ecuadorian Amazon, as well as the effects of individual and household-level factors of out-migration. Important gender differences in both the levels and patterns of migration and in the factors affecting migration decisions are documented."
Correspondence: L. Laurian, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20427 Rakhmaninova, M.; Varshavskaya, N. The migration situation in Russia. [O migratsionnoi situatsii v Rossii.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 10, 1998. 78-81 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
This is a general review of migration trends in Russia from 1959 to 1997. The authors compare trends in the period 1959-1974, when people were moving away from highly populated regions to more remote areas such as Central Asia and Kazakhstan, with those since 1974, and particularly since the breakup of the Soviet Union. The demographic impact of these migrations on the population of Russia as a whole is discussed. Data are also presented on the different migration patterns affecting the various regions of the country. Finally, the article analyzes recent migration trends, particularly the return of ethnic Russians to Russia from the near abroad (primarily because of armed conflicts) and Russian emigration to the West. The cities and regions most affected by this emigration, and the destinations of the migrants, are discussed.
Correspondence: M. Rakhmaninova, Goskomstat Rossii, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20428 Scalabrini Migration Center (Quezon City, Philippines). The impact of the crisis on migration in Asia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2-3, 1998. 137-393 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
This special issue features papers presented at the International Conference on the Impact of the Crisis on Migration in Asia, which was held in Manila, the Philippines, on May 14-15, 1998. The 11 papers are: The impact of the Asian financial crisis on foreign workers in Taiwan, by Joseph S. Lee; Hong Kong labor market in the aftermath of the crisis: implications for foreign workers, by Ng Sek-hong and Grace O. M. Lee; The regional economic crisis and Singapore: implications for labor migration, by Weng-Tat Hui; The financial crisis and foreign workers in Korea, by Young-bum Park; The economic crisis and migrant workers in Japan, by Susumu Watanabe; The impact of the economic crisis on migrant labor in Malaysia: policy implications, by Patrick Pillai; Migrant labor: the Sabah experience, by Bilson Kurus; The impact of the crisis on migration in Thailand, by Yongyuth Chalamwong; The impact of the economic crisis on international migration: the case of Indonesia, by Aris Ananta, Daksini Kartowibowo, Nur H. Wiyono, and Chotib; Conceptualizing and simulating the impact of the Asian crisis on Filipinos' employment opportunities abroad, by W. R. Böhning; and The impact of the Asian crisis on migrant workers: Bangladesh perspectives, by Shamsun N. Ahmed.
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, P.O. Box 10541 Broadway Centrum, 1113 Quezon City, Philippines. E-mail: smc@mnl.sequel.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20429 Simeunovic, Dragan. Migration and socioeconomic transformation in Yugoslavia/Serbia. [Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Jugoslawien/Serbien.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 283-93 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
The author first summarizes migration trends in Communist Yugoslavia to 1991. In the 1940s, most emigrants were members of non-Slavic ethnic groups returning to their cultural homeland; from the 1950s to 1991, migration was driven both by economic and by political or ethnic factors and took place mainly inside the Yugoslavian federation. The next section focuses on migration after the collapse of Yugoslavia; the author discusses refugee flows into Serbia as well as emigration to other countries, pointing out that the emigration of highly educated and skilled people is creating a brain drain. In the final sections, population dynamics are discussed and the problems of demographic aging, changing ethnic composition, and economic underdevelopment are addressed.
Correspondence: D. Simeunovic, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Political Sciences, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade 6, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20430 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report of the migration survey, 1997. ISBN 974-236-847-3. 1998. [x], 69, 129 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
"This is the report for 1997 [migration survey of Thailand] which is the third one after the coverage has been extended to cover the entire area of the country. Data presented are regarding pattern, rate, flow and direction of migration during 2 years preceding the survey. Included were data on demographic and socio-economic characteristics of migrants together with reasons for migration."
For a report on the 1994 survey, see 64:20466.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20431 van Huis, L. T.; Nicolaas, H. Persons in their twenties move furthest and most often. [Twintigers verhuizen het verst en het vaakst.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 12, Dec 1998. 30-5 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine changes of residence in the Netherlands in 1997. Aspects considered include family relationships, distance, international migration, age, sex, native or nonnative status, place of birth, and number of changes of residence per person.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20432 Wilson, F. Gendered histories: garment production and migration in Mexico. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 31, No. 2, Feb 1999. 327-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data gathered in Aguascalientes during the 1990s are used to analyze how the garment industry in Mexico has responded to economic recession and trade liberalization. In particular, the relationship between industrial change and gendered patterns of migration are explored. The author concludes that "migration over recent years has increasingly allowed working women the possibility of entering a transnational labour force and given them important labouring and living experiences on both sides of the border."
Correspondence: F. Wilson, Roskilde University, International Development Studies, P.O. Box 260, Universitetsvej 1, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. E-mail: Fiona@ruc.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

65:20433 Ahlburg, Dennis A.; Brown, Richard P. C. Migrants' intentions to return home and capital transfers: a study of Tongans and Samoans in Australia. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 35, No. 2, Dec 1998. 125-51 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the attributes of migrants from the Pacific island states of Tonga and Samoa living in Australia to assess the extent to which return migrants could contribute to the human and physical capital stock of the migrant-sending countries. It also examines the impact of intention to return on remittances and asset accumulation. The study finds that very few migrants plan to return home and very little evidence that those who plan to return embody significant human capital (education, experience and skills). Intention to return may be important, nevertheless, since those who plan to return remit significantly more than those that do not and also accumulate far more physical capital at home than those that do not intend to return."
Correspondence: D. A. Ahlburg, University of Minnesota, Industrial Relations Center, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:20434 Almandoz, María G. Immigration from across the border in Tandil: Chileans and Bolivians in the 1990s. [Inmigración limitrofe en Tandil: Chilenos y Bolivianos en los años noventa.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 12, No. 37, Dec 1997. 491-521 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article deals with [the] settlement of immigrants from Chile and Bolivia in a town in the province of Buenos Aires [Argentina], far away from the borders and from the metropolitan area. Although underrepresented when compared with the overall percentage of immigrants from those two countries in Argentina, the interest of this case lies in the possibility of understanding settlement of new immigrants in dynamic areas of the country. Chilean immigrants live in Tandil in greater number than Bolivian immigrants, but are also older. Though a certain mobility is not unknown, they usually hold low skilled jobs and are only by exception granted social security and medical insurance."
Correspondence: M. G. Almandoz, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Humana, Pinto 399, 2do. piso, Oficina PROPIED (Cig), 7000 Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: almandoz@fch.unicen.edu.ar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20435 Alotta, Stefania. Italy and Spain in the face of immigration. [Italia e Spagna di fronte all'immigrazione.] Critica Sociologica, No. 122-123, Jul-Oct 1997. 69-79 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"Spain and Italy share a common heritage as far as emigration is concerned. Their country men went abroad looking for jobs for a long period of their history. At present this is the fate of the extra community immigrants. Scholars maintain that Spain and Italy face this new situation with a fear greater than necessary. An attempt is made to explain immigration in a more rational way. At the same time...the debate about racism and antiracism [is examined]."
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:20436 Althammer, Walter. The political significance of the migration problem in Germany. [Die politische Bedeutung des Migrationsproblems in Deutschland.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 25-30 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
The author gives a brief overview of the immigration problems Germany has faced since World War II, including the influx of Turkish guest workers in the 1960s and the stream of asylum seekers since 1987. He summarizes the laws that have been passed in reaction to the problems caused by these migrations, and makes some broad policy recommendations aimed at decreasing migratory pressures in the countries of origin.
Correspondence: W. Althammer, Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft, Widenmayerstraße 49, 80538 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20437 Belozerov, Vitaly S.; Touroun, Pavel P.; Galkina, Tamara A.; Kolossov, Vladimir A. The Armenian and Greek diaspora in the ethnic mosaic of the Northern Caucasus (Stavropol Province, Russia). [Les diasporas arménienne et grecque dans la mosaïque ethnique du Caucase du Nord (Province de Stavropol, Russie).] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1998. 103-25 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors examine migration trends among Greeks and Armenians in Stavropol Province, Russia. "Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union migrations from the most troubled Transcaucasian zones (Azerbaijan and Georgia) or from those which are going through great economic difficulties (Armenia), have begun again. The refugees flooded in to set themselves up in medium and large towns in the Stavropol province sometimes with the objective of re-emigrating abroad. The Armenians, closer to their homeland and essentially urban, are distinctly more numerous than the Greeks, who come from various areas of their diasporic space and set themselves up more in rural areas."
Correspondence: V. S. Belozerov, State University of Stavropol, Department of Geography, 1 rue Pouchkine, 355009 Stavropol, Russia. E-mail: stavsu@stavsu.stavropol.ru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20438 Benencia, Roberto. New trends in border migration on the Paraguayan border. [Nuevas tendencias de la migración limitrofe en la frontera paraguaya.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 12, No. 37, Dec 1997. 523-30 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The author reviews a series of sociodemographic works concerning migration from and to Paraguay from border regions during the past decade.
Correspondence: R. Benencia, CEIL-CONICET, Saavedra 15, 4o piso, 1083 Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: rbenencia@ciudad.com.ar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20439 Bernasconi, Alicia. Marchigiani in Buenos Aires: work and associated life. [Marchigianos en Buenos Aires: trabajo y vida asociativa.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 12, No. 37, Dec 1997. 447-66 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Studies on Italian immigration in Argentina have shown that approaches at the provincial level add to our understanding of migration patterns and processes. The case study of urban immigrants from a region in central Italy shows similarities and differences with Italian immigration in Buenos Aires in general. Residential patterns and occupations are analyzed through a combination of mutual association membership registers and shipping lists; the linkage of available sources showed, at least for these immigrants, a considerable gap between arrival and entry in a mutual aid society, a fact which reduces the importance of the voluntary associations in assisting recent immigrants to obtain a job."
Correspondence: A. Bernasconi, Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Avenida Independencia 20, 1099 Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: cemla@ciudad.com.ar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20440 Biffl, Gudrun. Migration, free trade and regional integration in central and eastern Europe. Schriftenreihe des Bundeskanzleramts, ISBN 3-7046-1089-5. 1997. 384 pp. Verlag Österreich: Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers on migration, free trade, and regional integration in Central and Eastern Europe. "The objective of this seminar is to provide us with a better insight into the potential impact upon the labour market and migration of widening EU membership to include Central and Eastern European countries.... Different development strategies may result in widely differing deployment of labour, thus implying a varying composition and scale of migratory flows as a consequence. The research input of this seminar therefore concentrates upon aspects of strategic importance for economic and social development in Central and Eastern European countries and their implications for migratory flows."
Correspondence: Österreichische Staatsdruckerei, Rennweg 12a, 1037 Vienna, Austria. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20441 Boncompagni, Adriano. Migrants from Tuscany in Western Australia. Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 131, Sep 1998. 390-406 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author investigates social and historic reasons for the emigration of Tuscans to Western Australia. "The particularity of the seasonal migration [from Lucca, Italy], first towards other Italian regional areas and later abroad and overseas, aimed at a strategy of a possibly quick economic individual dividend, which could warrant a financially sound return home. We have suggested reasons for the objective obstacles which they might have faced in their aim to return to Lucca and how this migration flow started following a different pattern since the late 1950s."
Correspondence: A. Boncompagni, University of Western Australia, Department of Geography, Nedlands, WA 6907, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20442 Brandi, M. Carolina. The training and occupation of resident foreigners in Rome in l996: potential human resources in science and technology. [La formazione e l'occupazione degli stranieri residenti a Roma nel 1996: potenziali risorse umane per la scienza e la tecnologia.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 131, Sep 1998. 453-82 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The OECD recently recognised that the Human Resources for Science and Technology (HRST) stock of any given country is sharply affected by migration flows of qualified people. We have thus undertaken a study of highly-qualified immigrants in Rome.... The conclusion is that the resident foreign population in Rome has a high mean level of instruction by no means lower than the mean level of Romans, at least up until the 1991 census. It also emerges, however, that among graduates differences in level of instruction vary according to geographical areas and, above all, the level of industrialisation of the country of origin."
Correspondence: M. C. Brandi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20443 Brown, Richard P. C. Estimating remittance functions for Pacific island migrants. World Development, Vol. 25, No. 4, 1997. 613-26 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"There is concern that Pacific island economies dependent on remittances of migrants will endure foreign exchange shortages and declining living standards as remittance levels drop due to lower migration rates and the belief that migrants' willingness to remit decreases over time.... From survey data on Tongan and Western Samoan migrants in Sydney, this paper estimates remittance functions using Tobit regression analysis. It is found that the remittance-decay hypothesis has no empirical validity and migrants are motivated by factors other than altruistic family support, including asset accumulation and investment back home."
Correspondence: R. P. C. Brown, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:20444 Butcher, Kristin F.; Piehl, Anne M. Recent immigrants: unexpected implications for crime and incarceration. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 51, No. 4, Jul 1998. 654-79 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This analysis of data from the 5% 1980 and 1990 Public Use Microdata Samples shows that among 18-40-year-old men in the United States, immigrants were less likely than the native-born to be institutionalized (that is, in correctional facilities, mental hospitals, or other institutions), and much less likely to be institutionalized than native-born men with similar demographic characteristics. Furthermore, earlier immigrants were more likely to be institutionalized than were more recent immigrants. Although all immigrant cohorts appear to have assimilated toward the higher institutionalization rates of the native-born as their time in the country increased, the institutionalization rates of recent immigrants did not increase as quickly as would be predicted from the experience of earlier immigrant cohorts."
Correspondence: K. F. Butcher, Boston College, Department of Economics, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:20445 Corry, Dan. Economics and European Union migration policy. ISBN 1-86030-041-3. 1996. 136 pp. Institute for Public Policy Research [IPPR]: London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at a conference held in London in 1996. Papers included are as follows: The politics of trade and migration, by Stuart Bell; Is migration into EU-countries demand based? by Peter A. Fischer and Thomas Straubhaar; The contribution of international aid to the long-term solution of the European migration problem, by Willem Molle; Economic developments within the EU: the role of population movements, by John Salt; Old and new labour migration to Germany from Eastern Europe, by Elmar Hönekopp; European migration with respect to the Maghreb and Turkey: the social and policy challenge, by Donatella Giubilaro.
Correspondence: Institute for Public Policy Research, 30-32 Southampton Street, London WC2E 7RA, England. E-mail: ippr@easynet.co.uk. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20446 de Jong, A. H.; Visser, H. Effect of the economy on international migration flows. Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 12, Dec 1998. 50-2 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article examines the relationship between economic growth and international migration. On the basis of regression analysis of immigration into the Netherlands it may be concluded that a rise in unemployment in the Netherlands has a negative influence on immigration. A rise in unemployment in the country of origin of migrants has a positive effect on the migration to the Netherlands."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20447 de Jong, A. H.; Visser, H. International migration scenarios for the European Economic Area. Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 12, Dec 1998. 36-49 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article describes the assumptions on international migration underlying the new population scenarios for countries of the European Economic Area. Three scenarios will be presented. The Baseline scenario describes a situation in which observed developments are continued. In the High scenario net migration is assumed to increase in the short run. In the long run this will provoke a political reaction, resulting in a significant reduction in the influx of migrants. In the Low scenario it is assumed that current net migration figures of the EEA will be halved in the next decade."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20448 Delaunay, Daniel. The regional dimension of Mexican migration to the United States. [La dimensión regional de la emigración mexicana hacia Estados Unidos.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1999. 117-63, 263 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Although Mexican migration to the United States dates back over a century, reliable statistics documenting its geographical distribution have only recently become available. This new information, together with the creation of a Geographical Data System and the recent development of multilevel analysis, have allowed one to examine the regional context of Mexican migration to the U.S.... This paper draws on two new tools for context analysis and examines how they can be used to study international migration: first, the Geographical Data systems, which measure physical factors (aridity, isolation, land use, environmental degradation), together with socioeconomic statistics and familial organization and reproduction."
Correspondence: D. Delaunay, Institut Français de Recherche pour le Développement en Coopération, 24 rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20449 Dövényi, Zoltán. International migration in Hungary. [Außenmigration in Ungarn.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 155-60 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
The author briefly reviews international migration waves in Hungary from the end of the 1980s, when many thousands of Romanian nationals sought refuge in Hungary, to the 1990s, when even more refugees came from the former Yugoslavia, many of whom were ethnic Magyars. The national composition and destinations of the migrants are described; Finally, the labor market participation of immigrants in Hungary is discussed. The author notes that immediately after the fall of the Iron Curtain, 90% of employed foreigners were manual laborers; Budapest harbors more than a third of all foreigners in Hungary; many foreigners are active in the black market; and many Hungarians work in other countries, mainly Germany and Austria.
Correspondence: Z. Dövényi, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography, Roosevelt tér 9, 1051 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20450 Droukas, Eugenia. Albanians in the Greek informal economy. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1998. 347-65 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article addresses the issue of Albanian immigration to Greece, underlines its special character and discusses the problems arising from the Greek immigration policy which, so far, has focused on short-term, inefficient and sometimes conflicting solutions. This article also delineates the current situation of Albanian immigrants, who constitute the largest group amongst all immigrants in Greece and who are largely undocumented. It examines the controversial issue of Albanian criminality, and the social construction of negative stereotypes through prejudicial representations of Albanians by the Greek media."
Correspondence: E. Droukas, University of Edinburgh, Faculty of Law, Old College, South Bridge, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland. E-mail: e.droukas@sms.ed.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20451 Effland, Anne B. W.; Butler, Margaret A. Fewer immigrants settle in nonmetro areas and most fare less well than metro immigrants. Rural Conditions and Trends, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1997. 60-5 pp. Herndon, Virginia. In Eng.
"Recent attention to the issue of immigration in the United States has led to the addition of questions about immigration status to the Current Population Survey. Data from the March 1996 version show that Mexico has been the single largest source of immigration to the nonmetro United States, that a large proportion of nonmetro immigrants are children, and that nonmetro immigrants generally have lower earnings, higher unemployment, and higher poverty rates than metro immigrants and nonmetro natives. Fewer immigrants live in nonmetro areas than in metro, but they are concentrated in particular areas."
Correspondence: A. B. W. Effland, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20005. E-mail: aeffland@econ.ag.gov. Location: Pennsylvania State University Library, University Park, PA.

65:20452 Ellis, Mark; Wright, Richard. The balkanization metaphor in the analysis of U.S. immigration. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 88, No. 4, Dec 1998. 686-98 pp. Malden, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Recent social commentary and social science research invokes the term `balkanization' to describe geographical trends in contemporary U.S. society.... We take issue with the use of the balkanization metaphor for two reasons. First, we cite alternative evidence against the proposition of immigration-driven ethnic fragmentation in the U.S. The bulk of our argument, however, attends to the expression itself. Given that the term balkanization is associated with ethnic territorial conflict, we assert that the balkanization metaphor carries with it an implicit and deeply negative commentary on current immigration to the U.S."
Correspondence: M. Ellis, University of California, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1524. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20453 Enchautegui, María E. Low-skilled immigrants and the changing American labor market. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 811-24, 899, 901 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this note, I examine the economic status and economic prospects of low-skilled immigrants in the changing American labor market.... While low-skilled immigrants maintain strong employment levels, they are concentrated in the most menial low-skilled jobs, and their wages are declining relative to those of natives. The substantial deterioration of the economic status of low-skilled immigrants in the last decade raises important policy questions concerning ways to address the plight of this growing segment of U.S. workers."
Correspondence: M. E. Enchautegui, University of Puerto Rico, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 23300, UPR Station, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20454 Etemad, Bouda. Europe and migration after decolonisation. Journal of European Economic History, Vol. 27, No. 3, Winter 1998. 457-70 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"In this study of the origins and the aftermath of decolonisation, preference is given to the political and economic dimensions of the phenomenon to the detriment of its demographic aspects.... The aim [is] to assess the position of Europe and the Europeans in population movements caused by decolonisation." Sections are included on the loneliness of white colonies in the tropics, the return to the home countries, and migration currents within the colonized world.
Correspondence: B. Etemad, Université de Genève, 24 rue Général-Dufour, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20455 Fakiolas, Rossetos. International migration in Greece. [Außenmigration in Griechenland.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 49-70 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
This is an overview of migration to and from Greece from the end of World War II to the present. While emigration of Greeks to Europe and overseas dominated until the 1970s, in recent times there has been an influx of migrants from formerly Communist and third world countries, including refugees and illegal labor migrants. The author examines the economic motives of the Greek emigrants of the past and the illegal immigrants of the present, as well as the economic and social effects of immigration on Greece, and discusses Greek policy regarding migration.
Correspondence: R. Fakiolas, National Technical University of Athens, Department of Economic Sciences, Polytechnioupoli, Zografou, 15780 Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20456 Fertig, Georg. Balancing, networking and the causes of emigration: early German transatlantic migration in a local perspective, 1700-1754. Continuity and Change, Vol. 13, No. 3, Dec 1998. 419-42 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Population growth, social relations and transatlantic emigration in and from Göbrichen (Baden [Germany]) during the eighteenth century are investigated in this article. The traditional explanation for emigration--overpopulation--is dismissed. During the process of population growth, local social networks became more close-meshed and inegalitarian.... Loose-knit transatlantic networks provided information on opportunities in America which made emigration an option for all social strata. It is suggested that networks provide a more useful context for the understanding of emigration than territorial demographic and economic systems, and that the workings of networks can be both positive and negative."
Correspondence: G. Fertig, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Historisches Seminar, 48149 Münster, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20457 Findlay, Allan M.; Jones, Huw; Davidson, Gillian M. Migration transition or migration transformation in the Asian dragon economies? International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1998. 643-63 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"It has been claimed that economic progress in the Asian dragon economies (Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korean and Taiwan) has produced a switch in these states from net emigration to net immigration. This article is concerned [with investigating] the recent changes experienced by the migration systems of these four countries. It contends that the term `migration transition' has been incorrectly employed by many researchers, imbuing it with explanatory power and seeking to raise the `migration transition' to the level of a theoretical model. Instead the authors prefer to conceive of changes in the migration processes in terms of a transformation driven by the powerful, but diverse, influences of globalization."
Correspondence: A. M. Findlay, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. E-mail: a.m.findlay@dundee.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:20458 Fischer, Peter A.; Straubhaar, Thomas. Migration and economic integration in the Nordic Common Labour Market. Nord, No. 1996:2, ISBN 92-9120-737-3. 1996. 248 pp. Nordic Council of Ministers: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
This study examines the 40-year experience of the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden with unrestricted migration among the five countries and economic integration. "It includes information on the Nordic migration policy and co-operation arrangements as well as an analysis of intra-Nordic migration flows, their causes and consequences. The study compares actual Nordic experiences with a survey of theoretical expectations on the causes and consequences of migration and economic integration. Given the ongoing European integration process, it concludes with some general suggestions on how Nordic experiences may contribute to a better understanding and handling of migration within an integrating Europe."
Correspondence: Nordic Council of Ministers, Store Strandstræde 18, 1255 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library, Annex A.

65:20459 Geschev, Gescho; Kaltschev, Jordan; Donev, Donio. International migration in Bulgaria. [Außenmigration in Bulgarien.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 205-16 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
The history of twentieth-century emigration from Bulgaria is briefly described. Emigration of ethnic groups, including Jews and Turks, far outweighed emigration of Bulgarians for economic reasons. The opening of borders in 1989 caused a massive exodus of ethnic Turks. The emigration of people of working age has contributed to demographic aging in Bulgaria. The authors analyze the motivations of potential emigrants during the recent transition from Communism; most seek a higher standard of living. Finally, migration policy in Bulgaria and the destination countries is discussed, including policies dealing with immigrants to Bulgaria, and some recommendations aimed at making the emigration process smoother are made.
Correspondence: G. Geschev, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography, 15 Noemvri 1, 1040 Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20460 Goldmann, Gustave. The measurement of acculturation. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1998. 115-44 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Acculturation, as described in the demographic, sociological and psychological literature, is defined as a process of change and adaptation that results from contact between members of different cultural groups. Therefore, it embodies the strategies of integration, assimilation, separation or segregation and marginalization. Data from the 1991 Census Public Use Microdata File are used to derive an index of acculturation.... The index is applied in a preliminary analysis of selected characteristics of immigrants [in Canada] (place of birth and mother tongue) to demonstrate the potential for this indicator."
Correspondence: G. Goldmann, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20461 Gordon, April. The new diaspora--African immigration to the United States. Journal of Third World Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, Spring 1998. 79-103 pp. Americus, Georgia. In Eng.
"In the current spotlight focused on immigration to the U.S., little attention has been paid to the growing numbers of African immigrants, an omission I seek to address. My focus is on the causes of the new diaspora, its history and current trends, the origins of migrants, the consequences for Africa and the U.S., and the prospects for future immigration."
Correspondence: A. Gordon, Winthrop University, Department of Sociology, Rock Hill, SC 29733. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20462 Greenwood, Michael J.; McDowell, John M.; Waldman, Donald M.; Zahniser, Steven S. The influence of social programs in source countries on various classes of U.S. immigration. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 94, No. 445, Mar 1999. 64-74 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article uses a unique set of pooled cross-sectional and time series data to examine the annual rate of U.S. immigration during 1972-1991 from 60 source countries. One distinguishing feature of the article is that it breaks out and cross-classifies various classes of immigrants--numerically limited versus numerically exempt and new immigrant versus adjustment of status. A second distinguishing feature is that it utilizes a unique vector of variables relating to the presence and characteristics of various social programs in source countries. The models developed here emphasize the importance of both differential economic advantage and the ease with which a prospective migrant can transfer skills to the U.S. labor market. Hausman-Taylor instrumental variable estimates of the coefficients indicate that in addition to other factors, social programs in source countries are significant determinants of immigration to the USA." Data are from the Immigration and Naturalization Service's Public Use Files.
Correspondence: M. J. Greenwood, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, Boulder, CO 80309. E-mail: michael.greenwood@colorado.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

65:20463 Hagan, Jacqueline M. Social networks, gender, and immigrant incorporation: resources and constraints. American Sociological Review, Vol. 63, No. 1, Feb 1998. 55-67 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"I present a dynamic and variable portrayal of networks to demonstrate how they gradually assume different forms and functions for women and for men [immigrants] that differentially affect settlement outcomes, particularly opportunities to become legal. The gendered social relations of neighborhood, work, and voluntary associations interact to produce this outcome. The conclusions suggest that social networks can both strengthen and weaken over time, can change differentially for different segments of the immigrant community, and therefore can have disparate effects on incorporation.... This research is based on a three-year ethnographic study focusing on the settlement of a Maya community in Houston [Texas]."
Correspondence: J. M. Hagan, University of Houston, Department of Sociology, Houston, TX 77204-3474. E-mail: jhagan@uh.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20464 Heller, Wilfried. Migration and socioeconomic transformation in southeastern Europe: the current significance of this topic, research gaps, and open questions. [Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa: zur aktuellen Bedeutung des Themas, zu Forschungsdefiziten und zu offenen Fragen.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 11-23 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
The historical, political, and economic contexts of the migratory flows of the past decade in southeastern Europe are discussed. The author points out two gaps in the research on this topic: first, it has been studied almost exclusively from the point of view of the developed Western countries, and second, the links between migration and socioeconomic transformation have not been well studied. He also suggests that it may be misleading to speak of a "transition" to the same sort of society found in today's western European countries; at present, no methodology exists to study the transformation of formerly Communist countries to their post-Iron Curtain realities, and the extent of their comparability to third world countries is debatable. Finally, it is not clear whether the recent migrations are continuations of those existing during the Communist regimes, or if they are qualitatively different. The author concludes with some broad policy recommendations aimed at guiding the transformations of southeastern Europe to a desirable outcome.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20465 Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. Gender and contemporary U.S. immigration. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 4, Jan 1999. 566-76 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
This is an introductory essay to a special issue concerned with gender issues in contemporary immigration to the United States. "This article discusses the trajectory of scholarship as it has moved from the `immigrant women only' approach, one closely aligned with sex-role theory, to one that examines both men and women as gendered actors in migration and that recognizes key institutions as distinctively gendered.... New arenas such as gendered transnational communities, the geographical and spatial contours of immigrant occupational sex segregation, and the inclusion of youth and children in gendered analysis of immigrant communities are also changing the landscape of the gender and immigration literature."
Correspondence: P. Hondagneu-Sotelo, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:20466 Ianos, Ioan; Nica-Guran, Liliana. Geographical considerations on recent international migration in Romania. In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 185-92 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Eng.
The authors examine emigration from and immigration to Romania from the 1970s to the present. While emigration was strictly controlled during the Communist regime, from 1989 onward people were free to leave Romania. Until 1991, most emigrants were ethnic Germans or Hungarians. The level of immigration remains quite low. Some consequences of emigration for Romania are discussed, including brain drain, remittances, and impetus for development.
Correspondence: I. Ianos, Academia Româna, Institutul de Geografie, Str. Dimitrie Racovita 12, 70307 Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20467 Ilahi, Nadeem; Jafarey, Saqib. Guestworker migration, remittances and the extended family: evidence from Pakistan. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 58, No. 2, Apr 1999. 485-512 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper places migration in the context of the extended family. It models informal loans between migrant and extended family for financing the costs of international labor migration. To show repayments to extended family is important; we trace the effects of such loans on migrant savings and remittance to the immediate family. We employ a standard life-cycle approach, which predicts that the demand for extended family financing rises with migration costs and falls with pre-migration wealth. Remittance to the immediate family and savings retained abroad both fall with the pre-migration loan." These hypotheses are tested using data from a 1986 survey of return migrants to Pakistan.
Correspondence: N. Ilahi, World Bank, Room I8-113, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: nilahi@worldbank.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:20468 Ip, David; Anstee, Mark; Wu, Chung-Tong. Cosmopolitanizing Australian suburbia: Asian immigration in Sunnybank. Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, Oct 1998. 53-79 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper argues that the settlement of affluent immigrants from Asia, especially those from the northeast region including Hong Kong and Taiwan, into traditionally high socio-economic, Anglo-dominated and culturally homogeneous dormitory suburbia [in Australia], has brought many dramatic changes. Particularly apparent is the case of Sunnybank in Australia's third largest city--Brisbane--where it was infused with consumer cosmopolitanism, accompanied by an increase in the intensity of commercial and recreational activities, and ultimately followed by a total transformation of the built environment."
Correspondence: D. Ip, University of Queensland, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Queensland 4072, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20469 Jerome Levy Economics Institute of Bard College (Annandale-on-Hudson, New York). Immigration, economy, and policy in America. Policy forum proceedings. [1996]. 40 pp. Annandale-on-Hudson, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a forum on immigration and ethnicity held on May 3, 1996, at the Jerome Levy Economics Institute at Annandale-on-Hudson, New York. The forum consisted of two sessions: "the first on the state of scholarly research on the economic effects of immigration and the second on the current debate over immigration policy and reform. The remarks of the participants in these sessions are presented in this publication."
Correspondence: Jerome Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, Blithewood, P.O. Box 5000, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504-5000. E-mail: info@levy.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20470 Jokisch, Brad D. From labor circulation to international migration: the case of south-central Ecuador. Yearbook--Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, Vol. 23, 1997. 63-75 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng. with sum. in Spa.
"This paper describes the process, patterns, and scale of the international emigration phenomenon from south-central Ecuador. The phenomenon is placed in the historical context of agrarian change and patterns of migration/circulation in the sierra, drawing on field work from two subregions in Cañar Province and linking it to Ecuadorian census and Immigration and Naturalization data."
Correspondence: B. D. Jokisch, Clark University, Graduate School of Geography, Worcester, MA 01610-1477. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20471 Jones, Huw; Pardthaisong, Tieng. The impact of overseas labour migration on rural Thailand: regional, community and individual dimensions. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan 1999. 35-47 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides a case study of the impact at origin of recent labour migration from rural Thailand to East Asian destinations. It does so through survey information on 63 villages and detailed biographic interviews with recently returned workers. It is concluded that work abroad is regarded by migrants as a strategy of life support; it is sometimes life-enhancing, but only rarely life-changing."
Correspondence: H. Jones, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20472 Klaver, Jeanine. From the land of the sun to the city of angels: the migration process of Zapotec Indians from Oaxaca, Mexico to Los Angeles, California. Nederlandse Geografische Studies/Netherlands Geographical Studies, Vol. 228, ISBN 90-6809-248-0. 1997. 261 pp. Dutch Geographical Society: Utrecht, Netherlands; Universiteit van Amsterdam, Faculteit der Ruimtelijke Wetenschappen: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Dut; Spa.
This doctoral dissertation examines peasant migration from Oaxaca, Mexico, to Los Angeles, California. The first chapter looks at theoretical aspects of labor migration by indigenous peasant populations in general. The economic context of Mexican migration to the United States and the relevant migration policies are then examined, and the research methodology used in the study is described. The results of the analysis are then presented, with the focus on two Zapotec villages, San Marcos and Jaltianguis, and on the social network linking these villages and Los Angeles that has evolved over time.
Correspondence: Dutch Geographical Society, P.O. Box 80123, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. E-mail: KNAG@frw.ruu.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20473 Krasinets, E.; Barinova, N. Labor migration to Russia from nearby countries. [Trudovaya migratsiya v Rossiyu iz stran blizhnego zarubezh'ya.] Voprosy Ekonomiki, Vol. 1, Jan 1996. 85-94 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Labor migration to Russia from the newly independent countries that were formerly part of the USSR is reviewed for the period since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Consideration is also given to issues of unemployment and productivity.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20474 Latuch, Mikolaj. Immigration dilemmas. [Dylematy imigracyjne.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 43, No. 10, Oct 1998. 25-30 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Recent trends in immigration to Poland are reviewed, including both voluntary migration and migration forced by extreme political or economic circumstances. Data are also presented on illegal immigrants and on their countries of origin.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20475 Lazear, Edward P. Diversity and immigration. NBER Working Paper, No. 6535, Apr 1998. 43 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"One of the economic benefits of immigration is that the diversity of the population is enhanced.... The argument in favor of diversity is evaluated both theoretically and empirically using the 1990 [U.S.] Census. Diversity cannot be the justification of U.S. immigration policy.... Further, the results suggest that our immigration policy has resulted in differences in the characteristics of immigrants that reflect the effects of selection as much as they do the underlying characteristics of the populations from which the immigrants are drawn."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: lazear_edward@gsb.standford.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:20476 Lebon, André. Immigration and the foreign presence in France, 1997-1998. [Immigration et présence étrangère en France 1997/1998.] ISBN 2-11-004250-8. Dec 1998. 129 pp. Ministère de l'Emploi et de la Solidarité, Direction de la Population et des Migrations: Paris, France. Distributed by Distributed by La Documentation Française, 29-31 quai Voltaire, 75334 Paris Cedex 07, France. In Fre.
This is one in a series of annual reports concerning immigration in France. This report is based on the data available up to and including 1997, but also covers immigration legislation for 1998. The first chapter analyzes immigrants by country of origin, emigrants, and acquisition of French nationality. The second chapter analyzes the demographic and economic characteristics of the immigrant population, particularly concerning employment. The third chapter describes policy and legislative developments in 1997-1998. A comprehensive set of over 50 tables makes up a statistical annex.
For a previous report for the period 1995-1996, see 63:10505.
Correspondence: Ministère de l'Emploi et de la Solidarité, Direction de la Population et des Migrations, 8 avenue de Ségur, 75350 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20477 López de Lera, Diego. Immigration in Spain at the end of the twentieth century. Those who come to work and those who come to relax. [La inmigración en España a fines del siglo XX. Los que vienen a trabajar y los que vienen a descansar.] Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, No. 71-72, Jul-Dec 1995. 225-45 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper examines recent shifts in international migration flows with regard to Spain.... In addition to the Northbound flow of workers arriving in European countries, Spain is receiving a new influx of immigrants from Northern and Central Europe in response to leisure factors. This new flow establishes a connection between the ageing processes of the populations of these countries and the systems of social benefits which enable retirees to maintain the purchasing power they need to finance these shifts."
Correspondence: D. López de Lera, Universidad de La Coruña, A Maestranza s/n, 15001 La Coruña, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20478 Mahler, Sarah J. Engendering transnational migration: a case study of Salvadorans. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 4, Jan 1999. 690-719 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article examines how transnational practices and discourses affect existing social identities and power relationships in a northeastern section of El Salvador that has become tightly networked to some of New York City's suburbs owing to years of migration. The author identifies various practices, discourses, and processes influencing gender relations and argues that transnational factors are a significant but not singular agent for change. Conversely, she finds that multiple agents and agencies at the local, regional, and transnational levels affect gender relations.... In the conclusion, she addresses girls' and boys' attitudes in northern La Unión toward migration and speculates how they have been shaped by transnational processes and gender relations."
Correspondence: S. J. Mahler, Florida International University, Department of Sociology/Anthropology, University Park, Miami, FL 33199. E-mail: mahlers@fiu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:20479 Münz, Rainer; Ulrich, Ralf. Germany and its immigrants: a socio-demographic analysis. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1998. 25-56 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The authors examine how the immigrant population of Germany has risen despite the fact that the German government has sought to restrict it. They analyse six major streams of migration: refugees and expellees who came immediately after World War II, German resettlers from Eastern Europe (`Aussiedler'), emigration of (West) Germans, migration between East and West Germany, foreign labour migrants and asylum seekers. The dynamics of immigration within each of these channels was remarkably different. As far as absorption and integration are concerned the authors argue that different groups of immigrants should be treated more equally."
Correspondence: R. Münz, Humboldt-Universität, Department of Social Sciences, 10099 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: Rainer.Muenz@sowi.hu-berlin.de. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20480 Nagasaka, Itaru. Kinship networks and child fostering in labor migration from Ilocos, Philippines to Italy. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1998. 67-92 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt to analyze the process of contemporary overseas labor migration from a village in the Ilocos region in the Philippines to Italy. As such, it will seek to outline the basic characteristics of the process of migration and examine them in relation to the local social structure. It will demonstrate how the Ilocanos responded to new opportunities of migration by manipulating existing social relations. Particular attention will be given to the process of constructing kinship networks among the migrants and the practice of fosterage in the homeland community, both of which are considered as adaptive processes to the new migration opportunity."
Correspondence: I. Nagasaka, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20481 Nicollet, Albert. The women from black Africa on the road to Europe... [Femmes d'Afrique noire sur les chemins d'Europe...] Cahiers de Sociologie Economique et Culturelle, No. 29, Jun 1998. 81-99, 173 pp. Le Havre, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author assesses the implications of the increasing participation of women in the migration that is taking place between Africa and Europe. He notes that the policies governing this migration were largely developed in the context of male labor migration, and are therefore inappropriate for dealing with the problems associated with female migration. The need to develop policies in France that would help to enhance the status of women and alleviate the problems of assimilation is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20482 Oropesa, R. S.; Landale, Nancy S. Migration and child poverty among Puerto Ricans: a mainland-island comparison. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 97-07, 1997. 34 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In recent years, interest in the consequences of migration to the United States for children's economic well-being has been stimulated by high rates of immigration. Existing studies typically compare immigrants with the native-born population or with higher-order generations of the same ethnic group. We use the 1990 Census Public Use Microdata Samples for the United States and Puerto Rico to demonstrate the benefits of a comparative approach that includes children at the point of origin as well as children at the destination.... The results show that migration from the island to the mainland reduces the risks of child poverty, but return migration to Puerto Rico is associated with impoverishment. Mainland-island differences in family structure and parental human capital cannot explain observed differences in child poverty. Instead, interactive models provide the greatest insights into how child poverty is structured in the two locations."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 706 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20483 Perotti, Antonio. Migration and multicultural societies in Europe. [Migrations et société pluriculturelle en Europe.] ISBN 2-7384-4582-9. 1996. 240 pp. Centre d'Information et d'Etudes sur les Migrations Internationales [CIEMI]: Paris, France; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This work consists of a selection of the author's work undertaken between 1978 and 1994, some of which has been published previously, on aspects of international migration and the development of multicultural societies in Europe. In many of his contributions, the author develops the theme that the multicultural aspects of modern European societies are not just the product of recent immigration, but are the result of more long-term and historical trends. He also suggests that migrations are generally a product of cultural and socioeconomic factors that are embedded in the human experience, and are therefore not easily subject to control and manipulation by the governments of individual sovereign states.
Correspondence: Editions l'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole-polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20484 Pessar, Patricia R. Engendering migration studies: the case of new immigrants in the United States. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 4, Jan 1999. 577-600 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This review highlights contributions made by scholars who have treated gender as a central organizing principle in migration and suggests some promising lines for future inquiry. Many significant topics emerge when gender is brought to the foreground, such as how and why women and men experience migration differently and how this contrast affects settlement, return, and transmigration.... Several migration scholars have replaced early feminist frameworks in which gender hierarchy was privileged with more comprehensive and flexible models. These map the simultaneity of gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, class, and legal status on the lives of immigrant and native-born men and women."
Correspondence: P. R. Pessar, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:20485 Price, Charles A. Net settler migration to Australia by birthplace: 1947-98. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1998. 12-4 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Between 1947 and 1998 there was a net inflow of 4.8 million migrants to Australia. Only 29.6 per cent were born in Britain and Ireland. Other surprising findings are that more were born in Indo China than Greece and Cyprus and that more were born in New Zealand than Italy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20486 Reyneri, Emilio. The role of the underground economy in irregular migration to Italy: Cause or effect? Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1998. 313-31 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"As three mass legalisations have revealed, migrants in Italy were predominantly staying on without a permit and without being entitled to pursue regular work. It was further uncovered that many legal migrants carried out unregistered work in agriculture, building, housekeeping, street trading, small manufacturing firms and within urban services.... Migratory chains transmit an image of Italy being a country where it is easy to stay and to earn an income, even in the absence of a permit to stay and the presence of a significant underground economy means that Italy exerts a particular pull effect on those migrants more prone to accepting irregular conditions."
Correspondence: E. Reyneri, Università di Parma, Istituto di Scienze Economiche, via Kennedy 6, 43100 Parma, Italy. E-mail: reyneri@economia.econ.unipr.it. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20487 Rystad, Göran; Tägil, Sven. Encountering strangers: responses and consequences. CESIC Studies in International Conflict, No. 16, ISBN 91-7966-398-2. 1997. 248 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
This is a selection of 10 papers by various authors on problems concerning the admission of immigrants and refugees. The papers are organized into three sections, which are entitled: Changing realities--new legislation; Immigration as an issue for traditional and populist parties; and Toward a multicultural society: problems, pitfalls and possibilities. The primary geographical focus is on the developed countries.
Correspondence: Lund University Press, Box 141, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20488 Schmidt di Friedberg, Ottavia; Saint-Blancat, Chantal. Female migrants: Moroccan women in Northern Italy. A study in Venice. [L'immigration au féminin: les femmes marocaines en Italie du nord. Une recherche en Vénétie.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 131, Sep 1998. 483-98 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Immigration of Moroccan women has only recently become in Italy the object of specific studies. Female migrants, although representing a minority when compared to their male counterparts, have drawn the attention of local society...because of their demands in the field of public health, family planning and education. This is the case of the Venetian Region." Differences between the immigrants' values and cultural background, and those of the receiving country, are considered.
Correspondence: O. Schmidt di Friedberg, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20489 Schuck, Peter H. Citizens, strangers, and in-betweens: essays on immigration and citizenship. New Perspectives on Law, Culture, and Society, ISBN 0-8133-6886-3. LC 98-11323. 1998. xviii, 475 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book contains 14 essays, some of which have been published previously, written by the author between 1984 and 1997 on aspects of U.S. immigration. The essays focus on the challenge that immigration since 1965 has posed to traditional American values and practices. They explore how effective American legal and political institutions are in dealing with these challenges, and they address the coherence and meaning of the three categories into which all U.S. residents are classified: citizens, legal aliens, and illegal immigrants. The essays are grouped into five sections. The first section describes the current immigration system. Other sections deal with the courts and immigration, the politics of immigration, citizenship and community, and current policy debates.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20490 Sensi-Isolani, Paola A. From the Alps to Atitlan: Italian emigration to Guatemala, 1870-1945. Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 131, Sep 1998. 407-25 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Based on interviews and archival research, this paper traces Italian immigration to Guatemala from 1870 to the immediate post-war period. The author notes that among European immigrants, Italians and Spaniards were favored by most Guatemalan governments because they were viewed as more likely to assimilate.... In a country where the majority indigenous population was considered an obstacle to progress, Italians were looked upon favorably, as skilled workers who would develop the country's agriculture, commerce, and industry."
Correspondence: P. A. Sensi-Isolani, Saint Mary's College of California, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Moraga, CA 94575. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20491 Stark, Oded; Helmenstein, Christian; Prskawetz, Alexia. Human capital depletion, human capital formation, and migration: a blessing or a "curse"? Economics Letters, Vol. 60, 1998. 363-7 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"We specify conditions under which a strictly positive probability of employment in a foreign country raises the level of human capital formed by optimizing workers in the home country. While some workers migrate, `taking along' more human capital than if they had migrated without factoring in the possibility of migration (a form of brain drain), other workers stay at home with more human capital than they would have formed in the absence of the possibility of migration (a form of brain gain)."
Correspondence: O. Stark, University of Oslo, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 1095, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20492 Tsai, Hong-Chin. Recent migrants from Macau, Hong Kong, and Chinese Mainland to Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, Oct 1998. 81-92 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"This study attempts to present demographic characteristics and to analyze factors, problems and policy implications of Chinese migration from Macau, Hong Kong and [the] Chinese Mainland to Taiwan in the last decade. Important demographic characteristics of migration covering the number, age, sex, educational and occupational composition are presented. Factors of migration include political, social, economic and policy aspects in Taiwan, Macau, Hong Kong and [the] Chinese Mainland."
Correspondence: H.-C. Tsai, National Taiwan University, Department of Agricultural Extension, 1 Roosevelt Road IV, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20493 Tyner, James A. The global context of gendered labor migration from the Philippines to the United States. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 4, Jan 1999. 671-89 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to situate gendered labor migration from the Philippines to the United States within a global context. I argue that the migration of Filipinos to the United States and to the rest of the world must be seen as part of an institutional response to a changing global economy. Significantly, however, a state's position in the global economy translates into different institutional pursuits."
Correspondence: J. A. Tyner, Kent State University, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 5190, Kent, OH 44242-0001. E-mail: jtyner@kent.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:20494 United States. New York. Department of City Planning (New York, New York). The newest New Yorkers: an analysis of immigration into New York City during the 1980s. Pub. Order No. DCP #92-16. Jun 1992. [xiv], 219 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study looks at the social, economic, and geographic characteristics of the approximately 685,000 aliens who became permanent residents and declared their intended residence to be within New York City between 1982 and 1989." Chapters are included on a historical overview of U.S. immigration policy; places of birth of recent immigrants into New York City; pathways to permanent resident status; demographic, social, and economic characteristics of recent immigrants into the city; settlement patterns of recent immigrants; naturalized citizens; and immigration and planning.
For a related volume covering the period 1990-1994, see 64:30551.
Correspondence: New York City Department of City Planning, 22 Reade Street, New York, NY 10007. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20495 Van Hook, Jennifer; Glick, Jennifer E.; Bean, Frank D. Public assistance receipt among immigrants and natives: how the unit of analysis affects research findings. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 1, Feb 1999. 111-20 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Differences between immigrant and native households in rates of welfare receipt depend on nativity differences in individual-level rates of receipt, in household size, in mean number of recipients in receiving households, and in household nativity composition. We present algebraic derivations of these relationships and use data from the 1990 and 1991 panels of the [U.S.] Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine empirically the extent to which levels of welfare receipt for immigrants and natives are sensitive to the use of household-, family-, or individual-level units of analysis or presentation. The findings show that nativity differences are statistically significant only at the level of larger units."
Correspondence: J. Van Hook, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. E-mail: jvanhook@ui.urban.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20496 Verduzco Igartúa, Gustavo. The Mexican Farm Workers' Program in Canada: a comparison with the U.S. experience. [El Programa de Trabajadores Agrícolas Mexicanos con Canadá: un contraste frente a la experiencia con Estados Unidos.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1999. 165-91, 263-4 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article describes the main features of an international worker program which has been operating for over twenty-five years, although it been hitherto largely unknown. The article focuses on the economic changes undergone by Canada, which led to the need to supplement its seasonal labor requirements with Caribbean and Mexican temporary workers.... Data on the Canadian program has shown that it has satisfactorily supplemented certain farm work requirements without experiencing any problems that could demerit its success, despite the number of years it has been operating."
Correspondence: G. Verduzco Igartúa, El Colegio de México, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20497 Wenzel, Uwe; Bös, Mathias. Immigration and the modern welfare state: the case of USA and Germany. New Community, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1997. 537-48 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article presents a comparison of the inclusion of migrants into welfare programmes in the USA and in Germany. In the first part of the article a brief overview is provided of immigration categories in both countries in order to demonstrate the relevance of these administrative regulations for the opportunities of individual migrants to participate in the welfare system. In the second part we elaborate in more detail on how welfare programmes have developed as basic mechanisms to include or exclude migrants. Our findings illustrate an increasing differentiation of membership statuses parallel to the expansion of modern welfare systems. In both the USA and Germany, the territorial principle and participation in the labour market are of prime importance to the access to social rights. In both cases all migrants may profit from contributory programmes."
Correspondence: M. Bös, Heidelberg University, Institute of Sociology, 6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20498 Wong, Siu-lun; Salaff, Janet W. Network capital: emigration from Hong Kong. British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 49, No. 3, Sep 1998. 358-74 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we argue that it would be fruitful to regard personal networks as a form of capital capable of generating economic returns by drawing on our research findings on the recent wave of emigration from Hong Kong. By putting network capital on a par with economic and cultural capital, we seek to identify its distinctive features in terms of institutionalization, capacity, moral economy, and processes of conversion and reproduction. In substantiating our argument, we present some quantitative evidence from our survey data on the uneven distribution of kinship ties which can be mobilized for emigration among different occupational classes."
Correspondence: S.-l. Wong, University of Hong Kong, Centre for Asian Studies, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China. E-mail: casgen@hkucc.hku.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20499 Zenteno, René M.; Massey, Douglas S. Specificity versus representativeness: methodological approaches to the study of Mexico-U.S. migration. [Especificidad versus representatividad: enfoques metodológicos en el estudio de la migración mexicana hacia Estados Unidos.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1999. 75-116, 262 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article compares two sources of data on Mexico-U.S. migration, based on radically different methodologies: the Mexican Migration Project (Promig) and the National Survey of Population Dynamics (Enadid).... This comparative study shows that a micro-social design drawing on multiple community samples, such as Promig, can solve the methodological conflict between specificity and representativeness.... The authors' research also highlights the problem of selectivity and specificity entailed by traditional surveys such as Enadid as a result of restricting their samples to international residents in Mexico and attempting to explain such a complex, socioeconomic process using a limited number of variables."
Correspondence: R. M. Zenteno, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Centro de Estudios Estratégicos, Campus Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

65:20500 Aratame, Natsumi; Singelmann, Joachim. Migration and race in the southern United States. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 113-30 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1985-1990 [U.S.] County-to-County Migration Flow Files..., which facilitate a disaggregated analysis of the effects of migration patterns on the extent of black concentration in the South, this paper analyzes and assesses how migration to and from the South has affected the distribution of blacks and whites in both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas."
Correspondence: N. Aratame, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, 126 Stubbs Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20501 Barker, Ross; Ward, Gary; Moore, Iain. 1996 census findings on interstate migration to Queensland focusing on South-East Queensland. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1998. 15-24 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"South-East Queensland continues to be the fastest-growing region in Australia, largely because of net migration. This paper examines the contribution of net interstate migration between the 1991 and 1996 censuses to this growth.... The paper also analyses some of the characteristics of interstate migrants to South-East Queensland."
Correspondence: R. Barker, Queensland Department of Communication and Information, Information and Forecasting Unit, Local Government and Planning, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20502 Bergesen, Albert; Herman, Max. Immigration, race, and riot: the 1992 Los Angeles uprising. American Sociological Review, Vol. 63, No. 1, Feb 1998. 39-54 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We test the hypothesis that the 1992 Los Angeles race riot represents backlash violence in response to recent Latino and Asian immigration into African American neighborhoods. We propose a variant of ethnic competition theory that links residential ethnic succession with propensities for riot violence. We depart from previous research on riots by comparing census tracts rather than cities, and we find that, controlling for economic conditions and racial/ethnic composition, there is a significant association between ethnic succession in neighborhoods (Latino and Asian in-migration and black out-migration) and riot violence."
Correspondence: A. Bergesen, University of Arizona, Department of Sociology, Tucson, AZ 85721. E-mail: albert@u.arizona.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20503 Borrero Vega, Ana L.; Vega Ugalde, Silvia. Women and migration: a national and regional phenomenon. [Mujer y migración: alcances de un fenómeno nacional y regional.] ISBN 9978-04-273-3. [1996?]. 116 pp. Abya-Yala: Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The internal migration of women in Ecuador is analyzed in this study. In the first part, the characteristics of female interprovincial migration are described for the period 1982-1990, and the sociodemographic characteristics of migrating women are explored. In the second part, case studies of internal migration in the province of Azuay and international migration in the Austro region are presented.
Correspondence: Abya-Yala, Avenida 12 de Octubre 1430, Casilla 17-12-719, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20504 Chan, Kam Wing. Recent migration in mainland China: impact and policy issues. Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, Oct 1998. 33-52 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on information drawn from many large migration surveys carried out in mainland China, this paper analyses the impacts of recent migration, especially those in the category of `floating population' and related policy issues. It is argued that the plentiful supply of cheap migrant labor is crucial to China's recent economic growth in the coastal region.... China needs to reverse its urban-biased policy, reform its household registration system and articulate a more coordinated policy on migration, integrating it into the national development strategy."
Correspondence: K. W. Chan, University of Washington, Department of Geography, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20505 Cingi, Aydin. Labor migration in Turkey. [Arbeitsmigration in der Türkei.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 83-104 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
After a brief overview of labor migration out of and into Turkey, the author focuses on Turkey's internal labor migration. Two main migration trends are identified: from east to west, and from rural to urban areas. The author identifies economic and developmental inequalities as the main causes underlying these trends. In the second half of the chapter, labor migration to Istanbul is examined more closely, and the ethnic heterogeneity of the city's population is stressed. The problem of Istanbul's shantytowns is briefly described, and the relatively high emigration from Kurdish areas is noted. Finally, recent migratory trends are described on the basis of surveys conducted in 1994, and possible policy responses are sketched out.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20506 Cséfalvay, Zoltán. The transformation process and internal migration in Hungary after the fall of the Iron Curtain. [Der Transformationsprozess und die Binnenmigration in Ungarn nach der Wende.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 129-54 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
The author first attempts to define the development process underway in Eastern Europe since the fall of the Iron Curtain. He examines the effect of this development on internal migration in Hungary, whose most prominent feature is urbanization, and he briefly describes the role of the border regions. There is a section on theoretical explanations of internal migration during the transition to a market economy, followed by a description of Hungary's actual population trends during the period 1970-1993 and projections into the future. Contrary to expectations, internal migration has declined significantly. Finally, some socioeconomic factors underlying Hungary's mobility patterns are examined; these include income, unemployment, number of enterprises, wage disparities, and industrial job losses. In conclusion, geographic migration patterns are summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20507 Davin, Delia. Internal migration in contemporary China. ISBN 0-333-71731-7. LC 98-28378. 1998. xii, 177 pp. Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England; St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Migrants in China make an important contribution to the economy, yet everywhere they go they meet discrimination and rejection. This book looks at their lives. It considers why people migrate, the push and pull factors that operate, and what the migrants gain and lose from the gamble that they take. It looks at the different types of migration and the very different effects that it has on the lives of men and women. Marriage and prostitution also receive attention. Migration in China occurs against a background of uneven economic development in a society that is moving from a system of rigid controls on all aspects of life towards something nearer to a market economy. The household registration system has had to adapt to these changes. The government is caught between its recognition that the rapidly growing economy of the coastal areas needs cheap labour and its fear of chaos and urban unrest. This...book explores these tensions."
Correspondence: Macmillan Press, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS, England. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20508 Enchautegui, María E. Welfare payments and other economic determinants of female migration. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 15, No. 3, Part 1, Jul 1997. 529-54 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article investigates the effects of welfare payments, wages, and unemployment on women's probability of interstate migration [in the United States]. It also investigates if the income attraction of locations varies with recency of labor market experience. Welfare gains increase the probability of interstate migration. Welfare effects are largest for single mothers with small children and stronger among women with no recent labor market experience. The welfare effects, albeit small, are larger than the wage effects. The wage effects are weaker among women with no recent work experience. Ethnic-specific analyses suggest differences in migration behavior among Anglos, African-Americans, and Puerto Ricans."
Correspondence: M. E. Enchautegui, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

65:20509 Fang, Di; Brown, David. Geographic mobility of the foreign-born Chinese in large metropolises, 1985-1990. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring 1999. 137-55 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The spatial assimilation and ethnic resources models, two major theoretical explanations of the adaptation of immigrants, provide different views on the mechanism of spatial mobility of immigrants. We used the 1990 census 5 percent Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) to analyze the migration of foreign-born Chinese in three large metropolises--New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. We tested the two explanations in this study and argue that our results largely support the assimilation model. In addition, we contend that macroeconomic conditions of ethnic enclaves and characteristics of ethnic economies are also important in affecting the geographic redistribution of immigrants."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Brown, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20510 Geschev, Gescho; Kaltschev, Jordan; Donev, Donio. Internal migration and demographic processes in Bulgaria. [Binnenmigration und Bevölkerungsprozesse in Bulgarien.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 193-204 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
Good data are available for Bulgaria's internal migration flows dating back to 1881 and include local registration information as well as regular censuses. The authors first note the linkages between internal migration and emigration; between 1878 and 1990 most Bulgarian migrants were ethnic Turks, who preferred to emigrate to Turkey. After the fall of the Iron Curtain, many ethnic Bulgarians also emigrated, but since destination countries implemented stricter immigration controls, more ethnic Bulgarians have been migrating internally. Between 1956 and 1965, significant urbanization took place; from 1976 to 1985, the main flows were between cities. Since the transition from a socialist to a market economy, there has been significant return migration from the cities to the villages, involving mostly older people who are retiring. Fertility has dropped below replacement level, and widespread unemployment and low incomes have contributed to a decline in the standard of living and increased poverty among the population. The chapter's final section addresses internal migration policies in light of Bulgaria's development goals.
Correspondence: G. Geschev, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography, 15 Noemvri 1, 1040 Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20511 Heleniak, Timothy. Out-migration and depopulation of the Russian North during the 1990s. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, Vol. 40, No. 3, Apr-May 1999. 155-205 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
The large-scale out-migration from Russia's northern regions that has taken place over the course of the 1990s is analyzed. "The study is based on unpublished oblast-level migration data compiled by the Russian Government, field work by the author, as well as two extensive 1998 surveys of recent and potential migrants, respectively. Age, gender, and educational level of migrants are analyzed to determine the extent of change in Northern population structure attributable to migration. A concluding section presents Russian Government projections of the North's population to 2010."
Correspondence: T. Heleniak, World Bank, Development Economics, Development Data Group, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20512 Hoy, Caroline. Gender preferences for children and its consequences for migration in China. CAPR Research Paper, No. 98/3, [1998]. 17 pp. University of Dundee, Center for Applied Population Research: Dundee, Scotland. In Eng.
The author examines "one way in which fertility behaviour, embedded within a patrilineal society, may influence the migration opportunities of women.... The paper uses fertility and migration histories from a survey of a migration population in Beijing, China to examine women's mobility patterns. It is suggested that migrants are selected by the sex of their children."
Correspondence: University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Center for Applied Population Research, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20513 Ishikawa, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Takashi; Matsunaka, Ryoji. An adjustment procedure for comparing migration data based on different definitions in Japanese censuses. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 23, Nov 1998. 25-40 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"Change of migration definition in [the] 1990 census of Japan prevents us from comparing the migration data reported in it with those in [the] 1970 and 1980 censuses. However, the adjustment procedure we propose in this article enables us to directly compare them.... The observed migration data based on the 1970/80 definition and the estimated data based on the 1990 definition are compared for the period of 1965-70 and 1975-80. Furthermore, temporal changes of age-specific inter-regional migration size during the period between 1965-70 and 1985-90 are explained."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20514 Ishikawa, Yoshitaka. Contribution of the demographic factor to the migration turnarounds in Japan, Sweden and Canada. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 1-17 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"It is well known that similar changes of migration pattern occurred during recent decades in most developed countries; core regions recorded a greatly decreased net in-migration in the 1970s, but increased net in-migration in the 1980s. Based on shift-share analysis of the migration data of Japan, Sweden and Canada, this paper reveals that changing cohort size, especially related to the fertility fluctuation of baby boom and bust, has played an important role in the turnarounds. Furthermore, it is elucidated from a series of correlation analyses that this demographic factor was closely linked with labour-market restructuring in terms of industrial/occupational employment changes."
Correspondence: Y. Ishikawa, Kyoto University, Department of Geography, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, 606-8501 Japan. E-mail: d54676@sakura.kudpc.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20515 Kok, Herman. Migration patterns in Hungary: a life course approach. Földrajzi Értesíto/Geographical Bulletin, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, 1997. 47-68 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the consequences of the ongoing transformation for migration in Hungary. We investigate migration flows towards the Hungarian capital, provincial capitals, towns and rural areas, using a life-course approach. A main aspect within this question is whether there are substantial differences in the migration patterns between the different settlement types. We present answers to questions [about] how the migration patterns changed in the period 1970-1994 and what changes in the kind of triggers resulting [in] moves occurred. The analysis is focused on different settlement types in Hungary: the capital Budapest, 18 provincial capitals, the towns and the rural communities."
Correspondence: H. Kok, Universiteit Utrecht, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Department of Applied Geography and Planning, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC AV Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

65:20516 le Borgne-David, Anne. Peasant migration from southern Brazil to Amazonia: choosing salaries over malaria. [Les migrations paysannes du sud-Brésil vers l'Amazonie: le salariat plutôt que la malaria.] Recherches et Documents Amériques Latines, ISBN 2-7384-6539-0. 1998. 219 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of recent trends in internal migration in Brazil based on data concerning 66 families originally from the southwest region of the state of Paraná. The results show that, although migration continues to be an essential factor in the survival of peasant families, difficulties encountered by migrants to virgin lands in Amazonia have resulted in changes in migration patterns. In recent years, the trend has been toward migration to urban areas in search of wage-paying jobs.
Correspondence: Editions L'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole-polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20517 Liaw, Kao-Lee; Lin, Ji-Ping; Frey, William H. Impacts of low-skilled immigration on the internal migration of the U.S.-born low-skilled Americans in the United States: an assessment in a multivariate context. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 23, Nov 1998. 5-23 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper assesses the impacts of low-skilled immigration on the interstate migration of...U.S.-born low-skilled Americans, based on the disaggregated data of the 1990 Census. Our results reveal that the push effects of...immigration on the departure process [were] much stronger than its discouraging and complementary effects on the destination choice process; and that the push effects of low-skilled immigration are (1) stronger on whites than on non-whites, (2) much stronger on the poor than on the non-poor, (3) weaker on the 15-24 age group than on older age groups, and (4) the strongest on poor whites."
Correspondence: K.-L. Liaw, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20518 Long, Larry; Nucci, Alfred. Accounting for two population turnarounds in nonmetropolitan America. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 47-70 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The turnaround [in U.S. rural-to-urban migration] of the 1970s, the metropolitan resurgence of the 1980s, and the rural rebound of the 1990s [have been] described as three unanticipated changes in migration.... [This chapter] compares the magnitude of the three changes in net migration and contrasts the two nonmetropolitan turnarounds.... The results support a view of the 1970s turnaround as the outcome of long-term deconcentrating trends that were interrupted from the late 1970s to the late 1980s by circumstances that favored metropolitan areas. The return of nonmetropolitan territory to net in-migration in the 1990s appears to be due in part to favorable economic conditions that allow more people to act on preferences for smaller places."
Correspondence: L. Long, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20519 Mazur, Robert E. Migration dynamics and development in rural South Africa: demographic and socioeconomic perspectives. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 197-225 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper addresses five key questions related to migration dynamics and development in rural South Africa: (1) Which individual and household level factors are particularly important in understanding migration patterns? (2) Taken together, are sociodemographic or socioeconomic factors more influential? (3) Do present patterns of migration and remittance flows reflect strategies that connote survival, or do they represent household efforts to advance their well-being and their position in society? (4) Which segments of the population appear to gain or lose from contemporary patterns of migration and remittance flows? and (5) How might remittances shape trends in local level development and equality, or inequality?... The data source is the nationwide representative sample survey `Project for Statistics on Living Standards and Development' undertaken in the latter part of 1993."
Correspondence: R. E. Mazur, Iowa State University, Department of Sociology, Ames, IA 50011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20520 Myrizakis, Ioannis. Internal migration and demographic processes in Greece. [Binnenmigration und Bevölkerungsprozesse in Griechenland.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 71-81 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
The extent and causes of post-World War II internal migration in Greece are outlined, consisting mainly of large-scale urbanization due to economic factors. The effects of emigration on the population structure are discussed, and the causes and nature of several significant twentieth-century demographic shifts are examined. These include two world wars and two Balkan wars, a failed war against Turkey, two waves of emigration, two dictatorships, and a civil war. Changes in population dynamics and age distribution are also covered briefly.
Correspondence: I. Myrizakis, National Centre for Social Research, 1 Sophocleous Street, 105 59 Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20521 Newbold, K. Bruce. Internal migration of the foreign-born: Population concentration or dispersion? Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jan 1999. 259-76 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper explores the proposition that the internal migration of the foreign-born (pre-1985 arrivals) is likely to reinforce the demographic effects of immigration. Analysis is based on the five-percent Public Use Microdata file on the U.S. Census.... Despite high internal migration rates and large net migration, there was little change in the overall distribution and concentration of the foreign-born population between 1985 and 1990. More important, however, distinctions were found across the national origin groups."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, 607 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20522 Pooley, Colin G.; Turnbull, Jean. Migration and mobility in Britain since the eighteenth century. ISBN 1-85728-867-X. LC 98-186667. 1998. xix, 419 pp. UCL Press: London, England. In Eng.
"This book provides a new perspective on migration in [Great Britain] in the past, examining in detail the life-time residential moves of over sixteen thousand people, spanning the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries.... The migration experience [is] related both to other life-cycle events affecting families and individuals, and also to broader social, economic and cultural changes in the structure of society. [The book] discusses in detail the reasons why people moved, and the ways in which migration was related to factors such as employment change, housing aspirations, family circumstances, personal crises and external events such as war."
Correspondence: UCL Press, 1 Gunpowder Square, London EC4A 3DE, England. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20523 Poston, Dudley L.; Mao, Michael X. Interprovincial migration in China, 1985-1990. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 227-50 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the patterns and determinants of interprovincial migration streams in China for the period 1985-1990.... Migration flow data from the 1990 Chinese census permit us to examine these issues and policies, and to ascertain the degree to which the objectives of the country's migration policies are being met. We address these and related matters by developing a human ecological model of interprovincial migration that is grounded in a straightforward gravity model which should help us better understand the patterns of migration to, and from, each of the provinces of China between 1985 and 1990."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Texas A&M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20524 Rotariu, Traian; Poledna, Rudolf. Internal migration and demographic processes in Romania. [Binnenmigration und Bevölkerungsprozesse in Rumänien.] In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 161-84 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Ger.
This chapter focuses on residential mobility and demographic aging in Romania. The main result of internal migration in this century has been a certain degree of urbanization, particularly during Ceausescu's time in power from 1966 onward. An east-west trend is also observed. The authors present internal migration statistics by region. The second half of the chapter explores the extent of and reasons for Romania's demographic aging. In rural areas, the ratio of older to younger people is almost twice as high as in the cities, and the authors point out that the agricultural population is in danger of dying off in the not-so-distant future.
Correspondence: T. Rotariu, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Strasse M, Kogalniceanu 1, 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20525 Saltz, Ira S. State income tax policy and geographic labour force mobility in the United States. Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 5, No. 10, Oct 1998. 599-601 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study empirically investigates the impact of state income tax policy on U.S. interstate migration [of the labor force] for the period 1985-89. It finds that people vote with their feet and prefer to move so as to minimize their state income tax liabilities."
Correspondence: I. S. Saltz, Valdosta State University, Department of Marketing and Economics, Valdosta, GA 31698-0075. Location: Princeton University Library (SXF).

65:20526 Schwarzweller, Harry K.; Mullan, Brendan P. Focus on migration. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, ISBN 1-55938-998-2. 1998. xx, 255 pp. JAI Press: Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This volume presents papers by various authors on migration in rural contexts. The first three papers discuss the unanticipated migration back to nonmetropolitan areas that has been taking place in the United States during the 1990s. The next three contributions concern regional trends in the United States, studying migration patterns in the Great Plains, the Mountain West, and the South. The next two are methodological in nature; one uses public school enrollment data to study residential mobility, and the other studies interactions among family members as part of the migration decision-making process. The last three papers focus on rural migration in three non-Western contexts: the Ecuadorian Amazon, rural South Africa, and China.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: JAI Press, 100 Prospect Street, Stamford, CT 06901-1640. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20527 Singh, D. P. Female migration in India. Indian Journal for Social Work, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jul 1998. 728-42 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The migration pattern in India indicates that the percentage of migrants to total enumerated population is consistently declining among both the male and the female population.... This paper discusses the emerging migration pattern in India using place of birth and place of last residence concept data. Census data from 1961 to 1991 are used to examine the migration level, reasons for migration by type of migration streams, work force participation rate [and] education level of migrants."
Correspondence: D. P. Singh, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Research Methodology, P.O. Box 8313, Sion-Trombay Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20528 Singh, D. P. Internal migration in India: 1961-1991. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 245-61 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes recent migration trends in India, using data from the 1991 census. Aspects considered include volume, distance, place of last residence, duration of residence and migration stream, reasons for migration, and international migration.
Correspondence: D. P. Singh, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Research Methodology, P.O. Box 8313, Sion-Trombay Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20529 South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle D. Leaving the `hood: residential mobility between black, white, and integrated neighborhoods. American Sociological Review, Vol. 63, No. 1, Feb 1998. 17-26 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We use data from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to explore patterns and determinants of residential mobility between census tracts with varying racial composition. Among both blacks and whites, age, home ownership, being married, and having children are all inversely related to the probability of moving from the tract of origin. Conditional on moving, higher socioeconomic status increases the likelihood of moving to a `whiter' tract.... Blacks exhibit low rates of moving into white tracts, but high rates of moving out, while the reverse mobility streams dominate among whites."
Correspondence: S. J. South, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. E-mail: s.south@albany.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20530 Tiefelsdorf, Michael; Braun, Gerhard O. The migratory system of Berlin after unification in the context of global restructuring. Geographia Polonica, No. 69, 1997. 23-44 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The migration process within the politically unified Berlin seems to be an excellent indicator in how far these two sub-systems have already merged socially and economically or have restructured under the present global economic stress." The authors pose several questions regarding the behavior of an intraurban migration system. "An origin-destination constrained interaction model and descriptive statistics are used to address these questions. Preliminary results provide sufficient evidence to disaggregate the complexity of the migration flows into two levels comprised of local and global systems."
Correspondence: G. O. Braun, Free University of Berlin, Department of Geography, Urban Studies and GIS, Grunewaldstraße 35, 12165 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20531 Walmsley, D. J.; Epps, W. R.; Duncan, C. J. Migration to the New South Wales North Coast 1986-1991: lifestyle motivated counterurbanisation. Geoforum, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1998. 105-18 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Some of [Australia's] most rapid population growth rates have been recorded on the North Coast of New South Wales. The paper sets this migration flow in an international context and looks in detail at the profile, decision-making, and experience of 150 households who moved to the North Coast in the 1986-1991 intercensal period. Results corroborate earlier findings that many coastal migrants are motivated by non-economic considerations. `Pull' factors are much more important than `push' factors, with the influence of the physical environment, climate and relaxed lifestyle dominant."
Correspondence: D. J. Walmsley, University of New England, Department of Geography and Planning, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia. E-mail: dwalmsle@met2.une.edu.au. Location: State University of New York Library, Albany, NY.

65:20532 Westerlund, Olle. Internal migration in Sweden: the effects of mobility grants and regional labour market conditions. Labour, Vol. 12, No. 2, Spring 1998. 363-88 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether variations in mobility grants have affected internal migration in Sweden. The paper also contains an exploration of how changing labour market conditions influence the migratory behaviour of the unemployed in comparison with other individuals. The results indicate that total migration flows respond to changes in labour market conditions in accordance with predictions from economic theory. This finding seems mainly to stem from the migratory behaviour of the unemployed. Furthermore, non-matching migration subsidies at the levels employed are not found to be migration enhancing."
Correspondence: O. Westerlund, Umeå University, Department of Economics, 901 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

65:20533 White, Lynn T. Migration and politics on the Shanghai delta. Issues and Studies, Sep 1994. 63-94 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"Shanghai delta migration statistics indicate that the ability of the PRC [People's Republic of China] to control where people live has declined since about 1973.... The paper includes a table of registered migrants in and out of Shanghai for every year from 1950 to 1992, which aids a periodization of the topic and an awareness that migration by uneducated people has not received enough attention. Migration in the Shanghai delta increasingly resembles patterns found for other developing countries during the `construction phase', in terms of distance moved, by age and gender, from and to different sizes of settlement."
Correspondence: L. T. White, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

65:20534 de Beer, J. Assumptions about the future number of asylum seekers. [Veronderstellingen over het toekomstige aantal asielzoekers.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 47, No. 2, Feb 1999. 8-14 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Projections of the future number of asylum seekers [in the Netherlands] are very uncertain. This article examines how the number of asylum seekers can be projected. A distinction is made between projections for the short and for the long term.... This article introduces a model based on the assumption that there are two types of policy reaction to changes in the number of asylum seekers. On the one hand, if the number of asylum seekers is increasing policies tend to become more strict in order to reduce the number of new asylum seekers. On the other hand the capacity to house asylum seekers is expanded."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20535 Kirisci, Kemal. Forced migration into, inside and out of Turkey. In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 105-27 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Eng.
After a brief review of forced migrations to and from Turkey during the Ottoman Empire, this paper focuses on more recent developments. The author first examines forced migration into Turkey during the 1980s and 1990s, mainly of Iranians, Bulgarian Turks, Kurds, Bosnian Muslims, and other asylum seekers or refugees. The second part of the paper looks at forced resettlement within Turkey and forced migration out of Turkey, both of which mainly involve Kurds.
For a translation into German, see 65:10475.
Correspondence: K. Kirisci, University of the Bosphorus, Institute for Political Sciences and International Relations, 80815 Babek, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20536 Riddle, Liesl; Buckley, Cynthia. Forced migration and destination choice: Armenian forced settlers and refugees in the Russian Federation. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 97-98-05, 1997-1998. [iii], 21 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Many analysts have criticized resettlement institutions for placing displaced people in inappropriate and desolate areas. We seek to determine the extent to which the Russian Federal Migration Service plays an active, systematic role in the placement of dislocated peoples, focusing on refugees (bezhentsii) and forced settlers (pereselentsii) in the Russian Federation arriving from the Republic of Armenia. Using data on regional-level forced migrations flows, we investigate structural- and choice-based models for the prediction of settlement patterns. Findings indicate that variables associated with models of individual choice best predict the resettlement pattern for forced settlers and refugees from the Armenian Republic in the Russian Federation."
Correspondence: L. Riddle, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. E-mail: lriddle@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20537 Sopf, Davor. Repatriation in Bosnia and Herzegovina: perspectives. In: Migration und sozioökonomische Transformation in Südosteuropa, edited by Wilfried Heller. 1997. 303-14 pp. Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft: Munich, Germany. In Eng.
The author discusses the recent history and future prospects of ethnically based migration in two municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sanski Most and Travnik. Before the war, Sanski Most had roughly equal proportions of Serbs and Muslims, with a small Croat minority; Travnik had fairly equal numbers of Muslims and Croats, with a small Serbian minority. As a result of the inter-ethnic hostilities, Muslims and Croats migrated from Sanski Most to Travnik in great numbers; in the end, the Croats left Travnik as well, leaving it under Muslim control. After the Dayton accords, only a small number of refugees returned to their place of origin. The author points out that many highly skilled and educated people have chosen to relocate to third countries, and that there is no mechanism to support the practical challenges of returning people to their original homes.
Correspondence: D. Sopf, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Zagreb, Croatia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

65:20538 Green, A. E.; Hogarth, T.; Shackleton, R. E. Longer distance commuting as a substitute for migration in Britain: a review of trends, issues and implications. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 49-67 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Drawing on analyses of commuting data from secondary sources as well as on selected results from a research project on long-distance commuting in Britain, this article investigates the extent to which, and why, households may choose to substitute longer distance commuting for migration. Reasons for long-distance weekly commuting, and associated advantages and disadvantages from individual, household and employer perspectives, are outlined. The evidence points to increasing complexity in home and working lives, with important implications for housing, transport and human resource management policies, as well as for family life."
Correspondence: A. E. Green, University of Warwick, Institute for Employment Research, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. E-mail: A.E.Green@warwick.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20539 Portera, Agostino. Migration, identity, drawbacks, and opportunities. Results of a longitudinal study of young Italians in Germany and in Italy. [Migrazione, identità, disagi e opportunità. Risultati di uno studio longitudinale tra giovani di origine italiana in Germania ed in Italia.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 131, Sep 1998. 499-516 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The study presents the results of...research conducted among young people of Italian origin who, after a migratory experience in Germany (South Baden), have settled in the South of Italy. The analysis refers to the process of identity building in the migratory and multicultural environment."
Correspondence: A. Portera, Università degli Studi di Verona, Cattedra di Pedagogia Interculturale, Via dell'Artigliere 8, 37129 Verona, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20540 Rogaly, Ben. Workers on the move: seasonal migration and changing social relations in rural India. Gender and Development, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1998. 21-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper considers seasonal migration in different regions of India, and argues the need for a better understanding of social and economic relations and the circumstances under which migration can affect these to the benefit of poor migrant workers.... Based on the limited evidence available, hypotheses are suggested for further research into why there is a greater possibility of changing social relations through seasonal outmigration in some regions than in others."
Correspondence: B. Rogaly, University of East Anglia, School of Development Studies, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ, England. E-mail: b.rogaly@uea.ac.uk. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

65:20541 Sayad, Abdelmalek. The return, a basic element of the immigrant condition. [Le retour, élément constitutif de la condition de l'immigré.] Migrations Société, Vol. 10, No. 57, May-Jun 1998. 9-45 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of the importance that the idea of a possible return to the place of origin plays in the life of most migrants, whether they be rural-urban or international migrants. The author distinguishes between labor migration and migration for purposes of settlement. The problems of immigrant assimilation and of the reinsertion of returning migrants are also discussed. The geographical scope is worldwide, with particular attention to France.
Correspondence: A. Sayad, CNRS, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

65:20542 Shu, Jing; Hawthorne, Lesleyanne. Asian female students in Australia: temporary movements and student migration. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 12, No. 2, Nov 1995. 113-30 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The most significant population movement affecting Australia in recent years has been a dramatic growth in the number of short term arrivals.... While a substantial literature has evolved concerning overseas students' temporary migration and settlement, there has been only limited demographic analysis undertaken to date, including minimal attempt to explore the participation and specific student experience of women. This paper seeks to address this omission through presentation of a detailed analysis of the characteristics of Asian female students within the overall student movement, together with a preliminary exploration of issues related to their personal and academic transition."
Correspondence: J. Shu, Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research, P.O. Box 659, South Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

65:20543 Boyle, Paul; Halfacree, Keith. Migration into rural areas: theories and issues. ISBN 0-471-96989-3. LC 97-50257. 1998. viii, 330 pp. John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, England. In Eng.
This book contains 16 papers on the theoretical aspects of migration from urban to rural areas in the modern developed world. The papers were either originally presented at a conference entitled Migration Issues in Rural Areas held at the University of Wales in Swansea or commissioned subsequently. The primary geographical focus is on the United Kingdom, but there are also papers examining urban-rural migration in Australia, the United States, and Europe as a whole.
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20544 Chiré, A. S. Djibouti: migration and the urban integration of women. [Djibouti: migrations de populations et insertion urbaine des femmes.] L'Afrique Politique, 1998. 120-46 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The history of the Republic of Djibouti coincides with the history of migration in the region. Djibouti, the capital, has been attracting most of the rural people desperate to escape successive droughts and conflicts, to such an extent that its population increased from 60,000 to 400,000 between 1967 and 1997. In order to survive in such an urban context, immigrants develop multiple strategies. The specificity of women's insertion--they are mainly illiterate and unskilled--lies in their dynamism within the informal sector. Yet, the strategies they display, save for a few remarkable exceptions, fail to compensate for their extreme poverty and to ensure the survival of their household."
Correspondence: A. S. Chiré, Université Michel de Montaigne-Bordeaux III, ESPL, Michel-Montaigne, Domaine Universitaire, 33405 Talence Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20545 Olmedo, Catón; Herrera, Inés. Highland migration toward Quito. [Migración serrana hacia Quito.] Correo Poblacional y de la Salud, Vol. 6, No. 1, Apr 1998. 2-4 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The authors examine migration from highland areas of Ecuador to the capital, Quito. Aspects considered include household characteristics, the situation of migrants before moving, and reasons for migrating.
Correspondence: C. Olmedo, Centro de Estudios de Población y Paternidad Responsable, Toribio Montes 423 y Daniel Hidalgo, Casilla No. 17-01-2327, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20546 Tsuburai, Kaoru. The historical process of urbanization and industrialization in modern Tokyo: based on the perspective of social mobility. Riron to Hoho/Sociological Theory and Methods, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1998. 5-22 pp. Suita, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author investigates urbanization in Tokyo since World War II, with a focus on differences in social mobility between new arrivals and the city's original population. The impact of educational status on employment and occupation is considered.
Correspondence: K. Tsuburai, Tokyo Institute of Technology Graduate School, Department of Social Engineering, Meguro Ku, Tokyo 152-8856, Japan. E-mail: piggy@soc.titech.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.