Volume 65 - Number 2 - Summer 1999

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

65:20170 Amin, Sajeda; Lloyd, Cynthia B. Women's lives and rapid fertility decline: some lessons from Bangladesh and Egypt. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 117, 1998. 62 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper provides an in-depth exploration of the demographic transition in [Bangladesh and Egypt] as seen through the dual lens of society-wide gender systems and a range of relevant state policies. It addresses three basic questions: (1) have measurable improvements in economic opportunities for women been a factor in the fertility decline in either country?; (2) have differences in gender systems at the societal level provided a more favorable environment for fertility decline in Bangladesh in comparison to Egypt, despite the former's more modest economic achievements?; (3) in what ways can the development strategies adopted by the governments of Bangladesh and Egypt...be seen as additional factors in explaining the similar rural fertility declines despite dissimilar economic circumstances? After reviewing the evidence, the paper concludes that neither differences in existing gender systems nor measurable changes in women's opportunities have been key factors in the notable demographic successes recorded in these two countries.... However, there is a case to be made that Bangladesh's distinct approach to development, with considerable emphasis on reaching the rural poor and women and a strong reliance on nongovernmental institutions, may have played a part in accelerating the transition in that environment and in helping women to become more immediate beneficiaries of that process."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20171 Andreev, E.; Bondarskaya, G.; Khar'kova, T. The decline in fertility in Russia: hypotheses and facts. [Padenie rozhdaemosti v Rossii: gipotezy i fakty.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 10, 1998. 82-93 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The recent decline in fertility that has occurred in Russia is analyzed from 1973 onward. Factors considered include age and marital status. The characteristics of women who gave birth to children in 1993 are analyzed, and the relationship between desired and actual fertility is discussed.
Correspondence: E. Andreev, Goskomstat Rossii, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20172 Atoh, Makoto. Below-replacement fertility and family policy. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1997. 88 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This special issue contains five papers on aspects of below-replacement fertility and family policy, with the primary geographical focus on the situation in Japan.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, 1-2-3 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20173 Atoh, Makoto. Below-replacement fertility and family policy. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1998. 128 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This special issue is the second that concentrates on aspects of below-replacement fertility and family policy; it contains six papers comparing the situation in Japan to that in other developed countries. Four of these papers were also published in English in the journal Review of Population and Social Policy and are cited elsewhere in this issue.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Articles from the first special issue on this topic are also cited in this issue.
Correspondence: National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, 1-2-3 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20174 Atoh, Makoto. Research on below-replacement fertility in Japan: its review and new agenda. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1997. 1-14 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is a general review of the research that has been conducted on the problems associated with below-replacement fertility in Japan, along with some suggestions concerning topics for future research.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20175 Audinarayana, N. The effect of status of women on fertility in an urban setting of Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 58, No. 4, Oct 1997. 542-56 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper throws light on the status of women (at the household level) and fertility linkage with data drawn from 300 currently married women residing in a small town of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Cross-tabular, hierarchical and multiple classification analyses have been used. Results suggest that all the dimensions of the status of women have played a crucial role in influencing their cumulative fertility (children ever born)."
Correspondence: N. Audinarayana, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. E-mail: popstu@as250.bharathi.ernet.in. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20176 Bongaarts, John. The fertility impact of changes in the timing of childbearing in the developing world. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 120, 1999. 33 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the role of tempo effects in the fertility declines of developing countries.... An analysis of data from the World Fertility Surveys and the Demographic and Health Surveys demonstrates that fertility trends observed in many developing countries are likely to be distorted by changes in the timing of childbearing. In most countries women are delaying childbearing, which implies that observed fertility is lower than it would have been without tempo changes. This pattern is most clearly documented in Taiwan, where accurate birth statistics from a vital registration system make it possible to estimate the tempo components of fertility annually from 1978 to 1993. The small but unexpected rise in total fertility rates in Colombia in the early 1990s is attributed to a decline in the negative tempo distortion that prevailed in the 1980s."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20177 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. Below-replacement fertility in the European Union (EU-15): facts and policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No. 7, 1998. 83-101 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
Fertility trends in the 15 countries that now make up the European Union are reviewed over the period 1960-1997, with the emphasis on the trend toward below-replacement fertility and its consequences. The author notes that although the desired number of children in the European Union is about 2.1, the total fertility rate is only 1.4, and that this means there is a latent demand for family support and for measures designed to help people have more children. "In countries where family support is better...the gap between the ideal and the real family size is narrow, whereas in societies where family support is minimal...this gap is maximal. This is the essence of the present feminist paradox: feminism and pronatalism work together; in societies that alleviate the burden of working...mothers, the fertility rate is higher than in societies where traditional roles prevail. Two basic measures have a decisive impact: the implementation of parental leave and the allocation of pension benefits to parents for each child."
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20178 Courbage, Youssef. Economic and political issues of fertility transition in the Arab world--answers and open questions. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 4, Mar 1999. 353-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews recent fertility trends in Arab countries. Sections are included on the impact of later marriage and the spread of contraception; atypicalities of Arab fertility transition; the impact of the oil boom and the related economic and political trends; the distinctive regional attitude toward fertility; and the effects of implicit or explicit governmental population policies.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75020 Paris Cedex 14, France. E-mail: courbage@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20179 Elizarov, Valerii V. The demographic situation and problems of family policy. Sociological Research, Vol. 38, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 79-90 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The decline in fertility that occurred in Russia from the early 1960s to the 1980s is analyzed. The author focuses on the factors that influence young parents to have children, and on the extent to which social policies can be developed to influence them in such decisions. The impact of the declining economy and of changing patterns of marriage and divorce on fertility is also considered.
For the original Russian version of this article, see 64:20257.
Correspondence: V. V. Elizarov, Moscow State University, Center for the Study of Population Issues, 119899 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20180 Guzmán, José M. The Latin American contribution to the analysis of fertility determinants. [El aporte latinoamericano al análysis de los factores determinantes de la fecundidad.] Notas de Población, Vol. 25, No. 66, Dec 1998. 87-109 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The present article discusses significant aspects of the Latin American contribution to the study of fertility determinants, presenting in systematic form the main theoretical and methodological approaches that have been developed in analysing the fertility transition in the region.... The article seeks to determine whether there is such a thing as a uniquely Latin American contribution to the subject, or whether much of that must be considered an intellectual reflection of work going on in other regions of the world."
Correspondence: J. M. Guzmán, United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20181 Heaton, Tim B.; Forste, Renata. Education as policy: the impact of education on marriage, contraception, and fertility in Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1998. 194-213 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Using data from the World Fertility and Demographic and Health Surveys of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, we model the effects of education on three demographic outcomes: the timing of first sexual union, contraceptive use, and fertility. These effects are examined over time and across geographic areas using a multivariate framework. We find substantial improvements in female educational attainment over the last fifty years and a strong relationship between education and the demographic outcomes.... Our results indicate that educational differences in reproductive behavior are reduced as the level of development increases and societies pass through their demographic transition."
Correspondence: T. B. Heaton, Brigham Young University, Department of Sociology, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20182 Henz, Ursula; Huinink, Johannes. Problems concerning the parametric analysis of the age at first birth. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1999. 131-45 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The application of parametric split models to analyse the birth of the first child is discussed by applying the model of Coale and McNeil and the log-logistic model. We show that serious problems of estimating the final survival probability may occur when the empirical age distribution of the analysed event is not fully known and the model deviates considerably from the empirical distribution. We suggest strategies to handle these problems in a pragmatic way."
Correspondence: U. Henz, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: ursula.henz@suda.su.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20183 Jackson, Sharon. Wages and fertility in Australia. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 12, No. 1, May 1995. 25-34 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper applies a simple economic model to explain short run movements in Australian fertility, abstracting from social and cultural conditions. It shows that Australian fertility can be modelled with some success using only wages and employment data, once we allow for the different effects of changes in men's and women's wages for the period 1966-90. The elasticity of the total fertility rate over this period is found to be negative with respect to women's wages and positive with respect to men's wages. As well as having the expected sign, the estimated elasticities are similar in magnitude to those for the United States over the period 1948-75."
Correspondence: S. Jackson, University of New South Wales, University College, Australian Defence Force Academy, Department of Economics and Management, Northcott Drive, Campbell, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20184 James, K. S. Fertility decline in Andhra Pradesh: a search for alternative hypotheses. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 34, No. 8, Feb 20-26, 1999. 491-9 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The southern states in India, on the whole, are undergoing a fertility transition. Of these Kerala and Tamil Nadu have already attained a replacement level fertility. The dramatic fertility decline in Andhra Pradesh shows that the state will follow the other two soon. This paper attempts to depict the fertility decline in that state and to consider plausible explanations." The data are taken primarily from the census, the Sample Registration System, and the National Family Health Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:20185 Japan. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (Tokyo, Japan). The Eleventh Japanese National Fertility Survey in 1997. Volume I: marriage and fertility in present-day Japan. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research Survey Series, No. 13, Sep 1998. 211 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Results are presented from this national fertility survey of Japan, which is undertaken at five-year interval, and involves a nationally representative sample of about 9,000 women aged 15-49. The introductory text has chapters on the timing of marriage, fertility, number of children desired, women's labor force participation, and opinions about marriage and fertility.
Correspondence: National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Kasumigaseki 1-2-3, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20186 Kekovole, John. Factors associated with fertility decline in Kenya. [1998?]. iv, 29 pp. Population Council: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This report provides a summary of the major findings derived from the analysis of data collected in four national demographic surveys carried out between 1977 and 1993 (Kenya Fertility Survey of 1977/78, Kenya Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984 and Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys of 1989 and 1993) and in the 1979 and 1989 Population censuses to ascertain levels, trends, and differentials of fertility in Kenya as well as provide some insights into some of the factors which have contributed to the fertility decline."
Correspondence: Population Council, Multichoice Towers, Upper Hill, P.O. Box 17643, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20187 Kiernan, Kathleen E. Parenthood and family life in the United Kingdom. Review of Population and Social Policy, No. 7, 1998. 63-81 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Within the context of Europe, the United Kingdom has had one of the highest and most consistent total fertility rates over the last twenty years. This paper examines the demographic, policy and cultural dimensions that may form part of the explanation for this relatively high level of fertility. The demographic impetuses identified include the comparatively youthful pattern of childbearing and more importantly the strong adherence to a two-child norm. The paper reviews economic activity patterns, childcare and parental leave provision, attitudes toward mothers working and toward family life more generally, as well as the division of labor in the home. It highlights how in the absence of state support for childcare, families in Britain have reached their own pragmatic solutions to combining work and family life, which has at its core mothers working part-time and the family (including grandparents) being the chief providers of childcare."
Correspondence: K. E. Kiernan, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20188 Kojima, Hiroshi; Rallu, Jean-Louis. Fertility in Japan and France. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1998. 319-47 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Fertility in Japan and France was very similar between 1975 and 1985, but the subsequent decline has been greater in Japan, where levels have stood at below 1.5 births per woman since 1993. A study of fertility using civil registration and survey data, and from indices based on the parity-specific birth probabilities, reveals that the decline in fertility in Japan was due to the fall in nuptiality until the mid-1980s but that since then there has also been a fall in fertility within marriage. Unlike in France, extra-marital fertility has not increased in Japan.... There are various cultural and economic obstacles in Japan to an increase in fertility outside marriage and among older women."
For the original French version, see 64:20265.
Correspondence: H. Kojima, Ministry of Health and Welfare, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Kasumigaseki 1-2-3, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20189 Lindstrom, David P.; Berhanu, Betemariam. The impact of war, famine, and economic decline on marital fertility in Ethiopia. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 2, May 1999. 247-61 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We examine recent fertility trends in Ethiopia for evidence of short- and long-term responses to famine, political events, and economic decline. We use retrospective data on children ever born from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey to estimate trends in annual marital conception probabilities, controlling for women's demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The results of our analysis provide evidence of significant short-term declines in conception probabilities during years of famine and major political and economic upheaval. In the longer term, marital fertility in both urban and rural areas declined in the 1980s after increasing moderately in the 1970s."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. P. Lindstrom, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Population Studies and Training Center, Maxcy Hall, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: David_Lindstrom_1@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20190 López, Elsa. Contraception and abortion: its role and impact on reproductive life. [Anticoncepción y aborto: su papel y sentido en la vida reproductiva.] Colección Sociedad, No. 6, ISBN 950-29-0380-3. Sep 1997. 124 pp. Universidad de Buenos Aires, Oficina de Publicaciones del CBC: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
These are the results of a reproductive health survey undertaken in 1992-1993 among the low-income population in the greater metropolitan region of Buenos Aires. The sample surveyed involved 561 women aged 15-49. There are chapters on fertility, contraception, induced abortion, attitudes about reproduction, and health services. The primary focus of the study is on the reasons for persisting levels of high fertility.
Correspondence: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Oficina de Publicaciones del CBC, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón III P.B., 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20191 Merlo, Rosangela. First birth timing in Australia. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 12, No. 2, Nov 1995. 131-46 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines the concept of delayed childbearing in Australia, in comparison with other Western countries. In addition to presenting statistics to examine changes in the age at which women enter parenthood, survey data from the Australian Family Project are used to investigate the factors influencing the timing of the first birth. Using a framework proposed by Bloom (1984), the paper presents a proportional hazards regression model of first birth timing. Some attempt is made to examine changes over time in the factors affecting the age at first birth."
Correspondence: R. Merlo, Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, Graduate Studies in Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20192 Misra, K. N.; Ramnath, T. Some fertility parameters from the desert regions of Rajasthan State. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 3, Sep 1998. 53-60 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"An attempt was made to explore some fertility related biological parameters in the arid regions of Rajasthan [India]. Specifically, the study sought to estimate the average [age] at menarche and effective marriage, the average duration of breastfeeding and postpartum amenorrhoea at various parities and ages and their interrelationships, and to compare the fecundability measure of women in the region with that of women from other parts of the country."
Correspondence: K. N. Misra, Jai Narayan Vyas University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Jodhpur, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20193 Morgan, S. Philip; Rindfuss, Ronald R. Reexamining the link of early childbearing to marriage and to subsequent fertility. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 1, Feb 1999. 59-75 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1980, 1985, and 1990 [U.S.] Current Population Surveys, we show that the link between early fertility and nonmarital births has become stronger. Women who give birth earlier are increasingly likely to be unmarried. In contrast, we find a weaker association between first births at young (versus older) ages and (1) a rapid pace of subsequent childbearing and (2) higher completed fertility. We discuss possible causes and consequences of these changes."
Correspondence: S. P. Morgan, Duke University, Department of Sociology, 268 Soc-Psych Building, Box 90088, Durham, NC 27708-0088. E-mail: pmorgan@soc.duke.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20194 Nath, Dilip C.; Land, Kenneth C.; Goswami, Giti. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan 1999. 55-69 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam.... The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, NC 27708-0088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20195 Palloni, Alberto; Rafalimanana, Hantamala. The effects of infant mortality on fertility revisited: new evidence from Latin America. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 1, Feb 1999. 41-58 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine empirical evidence for a relation between infant and child mortality and fertility in Latin American countries from 1920 to 1990. We investigate the relation at several levels of aggregation and evaluate the extent to which evidence at one level is consistent with evidence at other levels.... The evidence we assemble from [several] data sets is remarkably consistent and suggests small positive effects of infant mortality on fertility. These effects, however, may be too small to support the hypothesis that changes in child mortality are of more than modest importance in the process of fertility decline in Latin America in the late twentieth century."
Correspondence: A. Palloni, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. E-mail: palloni@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20196 Pitt, Mark M.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; McKernan, Signe-Mary; Latif, M. Abdul. Credit programs for the poor and reproductive behavior in low-income countries: are the reported causal relationships the result of heterogeneity bias? Demography, Vol. 36, No. 1, Feb 1999. 1-21 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Group-based lending programs for the poor have drawn much attention recently. As many of these programs target women, an important research question is whether program participation significantly changes reproductive behavior and whether the gender of the participant matters. Using survey data from 87 Bangladeshi villages, we estimate the impact of female and male participation in group-based credit programs on reproductive behavior while attending to issues of self-selection and endogeneity. We find no evidence that women's participation in group-based credit programs increases contraceptive use or reduces fertility. Men's participation reduces fertility and may slightly increase contraceptive use."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. M. Pitt, Brown University, Department of Economics, Box B, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: Mark_Pitt@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20197 Reed, Holly; Briere, Rona; Casterline, John. The role of diffusion processes in fertility change in developing countries: report of a workshop. ISBN 0-309-06478-3. 1999. xi, 30 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report summarizes presentations and discussions at the Workshop on the Social Processes Underlying Fertility Change in Developing Countries, organized by the Committee on Population of the National Research Council (NRC) in Washington, D.C., January 29-30, 1998.... Fourteen papers were presented at the workshop; they represented both theoretical and empirical perspectives and shed new light on the role that diffusion processes may play in fertility transition. These papers served as the basis for the discussion that is summarized in this report.... A selection of the papers will be edited and published as a separate volume."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20198 Rendall, Michael S.; Clarke, Lynda; Peters, H. Elizabeth; Ranjit, Nalini; Verropoulou, Georgia. Incomplete reporting of men's fertility in the United States and Britain: a research note. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 1, Feb 1999. 135-44 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We evaluate men's retrospective fertility histories from the British Household Panel Survey and the U.S. Panel Study of lncome Dynamics (PSID). Further, we analyze the PSID men's panel-updated fertility histories for their possible superiority over retrospective collection. One third to one half of men's nonmarital births and births within previous marriages are missed in estimates from retrospective histories.... More recent retrospective histories and panel-updated fertility histories improve reporting completeness, primarily by reducing the proportion of marital births from unions that are no longer intact at the survey date."
Correspondence: M. S. Rendall, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: rendall@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20199 Sathar, Zeba A.; Casterline, John B. The onset of fertility transition in Pakistan. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 773-96, 899, 901 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article we present empirical evidence from multiple and independent studies carried out in the past eight years demonstrating that the decline of marital fertility has finally begun in Pakistan.... We review the evidence suggesting that important demographic changes are underway; describe the large-scale social and economic changes that have motivated the recent changes in reproductive behavior; and examine the more-direct causes of these changes and the constraints on further changes. We conclude by speculating about the prospects for further declines in fertility in Pakistan."
Correspondence: Z. A. Sathar, Population Council, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20200 Sato, Ryuzaburo. A demographic analysis of marital fertility in recent Japan, focusing on age at marriage, marital duration, and birth order. Nihon Minzoku Eisei Gakkai/Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology, Vol. 64, No. 4, Jul 1998. 245-65 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to analyze the levels, timing and trends of marital fertility in recent Japan, in which total fertility has been below the replacement level. Using...vital statistics, marital duration-specific fertility rates, broken down by age at marriage and birth order, for the 1980, 1985 and 1990 marriage cohorts and rates for first birth for the 1970 and 1975 marriage cohorts were estimated, and...related demographic factors were also examined."
Correspondence: R. Sato, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, 1-2-3 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20201 Sollova Manenova, Vera. Fertility, work, and women's education in the state of Mexico, 1990. [Fecundidad, trabajo y educación de la mujer en el estado de México, 1990.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 15, Jan-Mar 1998. 127-44 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article analyzes the situation of fertility in the state of Mexico at the beginning of the nineties. The fertility levels in Mexico have been decreasing since the seventies.... The performed study at [the] municipality level shows the differences among the fertility levels, education, and the inequalities in the economic participation rates of the female population. The last two phenomena, education and economic participation, are presented as the explicative variables which have had more influence in the lowering of fertility."
Correspondence: V. Sollova Manenova, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Facultad de Economia, Avenida Instituto Literario No. 100 OTE. Col. Centro, 50000 Toluca, Mexico. E-mail: VSM@mail.UAEMEX.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20202 Udjo, Eric O. The effect of child survival on fertility in Zimbabwe: a micro-macro level analysis. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 43, No. 5, Oct 1997. 255-66 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study attempts to measure the effect of child survival on birth intervals in Zimbabwe using a micro-macro analytical approach based on the individual and community data from the 1988 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, and the 1989/1990 Zimbabwe Service Availability Survey, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that there is a replacement effect in the relationship between child survival and fertility independent of individual characteristics of women in Zimbabwe. The analysis also showed that health interventions as measured by coverage and visit by a mobile family planning clinic, and access to a health service have differential impact on fertility in Zimbabwe controlling for the survival status of the previous to the last child and individual characteristics of the women."
Correspondence: E. O. Udjo, Central Statistical Service, Directorate of Analysis, Private Bag X44, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

65:20203 Ueno, Chizuko. The declining birthrate: Whose problem? Review of Population and Social Policy, No. 7, 1998. 103-28 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper argues that the decline in the Japanese total fertility rate was caused mainly by the rise in the unmarried population. Possible explanations are late marriages, high educational expenditures and housing costs, women's higher education and increased participation in the workforce, and a change in cultural values. The fertility rate among married women has remained at the replacement level for the last few decades, and the number of illegitimate births is almost negligible.... It is difficult to measure the impact of family policies, but the high level of privatization of reproductive costs and the low value assigned to care work can be seen as signs of a child-unfriendly society. If an individual couple makes a voluntary decision to have fewer children, on the other hand, the low fertility rate may not constitute a problem."
Correspondence: C. Ueno, University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20204 Valero Lobo, Angeles. Fertility in Spain. Dropping without limits or going up? [La fecundidad en España. ¿Caída sin límites o recuperación?] Política y Sociedad, No. 26, Sep-Dec 1997. 25-39, 186 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"From all points of view the demographic situation in advanced societies is entirely unusual in every way. Not only has fertility dropped to record lows, but other factors that determine demographic evolution (such as mortality, nuptiality and migration) have stopped behaving like they used to in the past. The purpose of this article is to reexamine the present significance of nuptiality from a demographic standpoint and its influence on fertility and the formation of the family in Western society, and in Spain in particular."
Correspondence: A. Valero Lobo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Sociología II, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20205 Van de Kaa, D. J. Anchored narratives: history and results of half a century of investigations on fertility determinants. [Narraciones ancladas: historia y resultados de medio siglo de investigaciones sobre los determinantes de la fecundidad.] Notas de Población, Vol. 25, No. 66, Dec 1997. 9-85 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"It is argued that the quest for the determinants of fertility behaviour and change during [the past 50 years] can best be interpreted as the development of a series of sub-narratives from different disciplinary perspectives and orientations.... There is every reason to believe that the research process identified will continue and will lead to a further accumulation of knowledge.... That it will, ultimately, lead to a single, consolidated narrative fully satisfactory for all settings and for all time is, however, highly unlikely."
Correspondence: D. J. Van de Kaa, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20206 Wasao, Samson W. Fertility and agricultural change in Kenya, 1979-1989. African Population Policy Research Center Working Paper, No. 1, 1998. 36 pp. Population Council, African Population Policy Research Center: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between fertility change and selected socioeconomic and demographic factors at the district level in Kenya during the inter-censal period of 1979-1989.... We...examine whether the demand for children was associated, albeit indirectly, with some key agricultural activities.... The main finding of this study with reference to agriculture is that fertility decline was significantly associated with the population pressure on land. Also increased urbanization and female wage employment had significant influence on fertility at the district level."
Correspondence: Population Council, Multichoice Towers, Upper Hill, P.O. Box 17643, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20207 Waynforth, David; Hurtado, A. Magdalena; Hill, Kim. Environmentally contingent reproductive strategies in Mayan and Ache males. Evolution and Human Behavior, Vol. 19, No. 6, Nov 1998. 369-85 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The primary goal of this article is to explore causes of variation in male reproductive strategies in two traditional societies: the Ache of Paraguay, and Mayans living in rural Belize. The specific focus of the first part of the article concerns variation in the timing of age at first reproduction in the presence or absence of certain predictors.... Theoretical perspectives then are applied to additional aspects of male reproduction in the Belizean sample only, using data on lifetime number of sex partners, number of offspring produced, and information on willingness to accept time and energy costs to maintain a sexual relationship."
Correspondence: D. Waynforth, University of New Mexico, Department of Anthropology, Albuquerque, NM 87131. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20208 Yashiro, Naohiro. The economic factors for the declining birthrate. Review of Population and Social Policy, No. 7, 1998. 129-44 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper examines economic factors affecting the declining fertility rate in Japan. A major cause of this continuous decline is the increasing participation of women in the labor force. This, in turn, increases the opportunity costs of having children for a family. These opportunity costs are closely related to the scarcity of full-time jobs for women due to the fixed employment practices of major Japanese companies. A crucial policy for stabilizing the fertility rate is to reduce the opportunity costs [for] women by increasing child-care services and promoting the creation of jobs for those who are beyond the child-rearing age."
Correspondence: N. Yashiro, Sophia University, Institute of International Relations, Chiyoda-ku, Kioicho 7-1, Tokyo 102-8554, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20209 Zakharov, S. V.; Ivanova, E. I. Birth and marriage rates in Russia. [Rozhdaemost' i brachnost' v Rossii.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 24, No. 7, 1997. 70-80 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Recent trends in fertility and marriage rates in Russia are reviewed. The author notes that fertility rates remained relatively high until the 1970s, and since then they have declined rapidly to below-replacement levels. Some comparisons are made with the situations in other developed countries. Trends in age at marriage and age at first birth are also analyzed. The article concludes with some consideration of possible future trends and of policies that could be adopted in order to influence those trends.
Correspondence: S. V. Zakharov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of National Economy Prognostication, Leninsky Prospekt 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20210 Zhou, Haibo; Weinberg, Clarice R. Potential for bias in estimating human fecundability parameters: a comparison of statistical models. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 4, Feb 28, 1999. 411-22 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Traditional development in fertility studies has been based on an implicit assumption that binary outcomes for different menstrual cycles are mutually independent. We contrast traditional models to a random effects model where cycle viability is modelled as subject-specific. We clarify the interpretations for different parameters from different models. We show that the traditional approach yields some regression parameters that depend on follow-up time, limiting the generalizability of inferences based on this analytic approach. By contrast, the subject-specific model consistently estimates parameters of interest, if the underlying distribution is properly specified. Data from a fecundability study carried out in North Carolina serves to illustrate these points."
Correspondence: H. Zhou, University of North Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, CB #7400, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. E-mail: zhou@bios.unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

65:20211 Alagarajan, Manoj; Kulkarni, P. M. Fertility differentials by religion in Kerala: a period parity progression ratio analysis. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 213-27 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the fertility differentials in the state [of Kerala, India] primarily on the basis of the data from the [1992-1993] National Family Health Survey (NFHS).... The paper first describes the trends in fertility differentials by religion in Kerala and then examines whether the religion factor has an effect net of socio-economic variables. Finally, a period parity progression ratio analysis has been carried out, to see if the family building process varies by religion and further whether the differentials have changed over time."
Correspondence: M. Alagarajan, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20212 Andersson, Roland; Lambe, Mats; Bergström, Reinhold. Fertility patterns after appendicectomy: historical cohort study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 318, No. 7189, Apr 10, 1999. 963-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Fertility among women who had their appendix removed during childhood in Sweden is analyzed using data on 9,840 women under age 25 who underwent appendectomy between 1964 and 1983, and who were followed until 1994. "A history of perforated appendix in childhood does not seem to have long term negative consequences on female fertility. This may have important implications for the management of young women with suspected appendicitis as the liberal attitude to surgical explorations with a subsequently high rate of removal of a normal appendix is often justified by a perceived increased risk of infertility after perforation. Women whose appendix was found to be normal at appendicectomy in childhood seem to belong to a subgroup with a higher fertility than the general population."
Correspondence: R. Andersson, Ryhov Hospital, Department of Surgery, 551-85 Jönköping, Sweden. E-mail: roland.andersson@ryhov.ltjkpg.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20213 Crognier, Emile. Environmental constraints, social inequality and reproductive success. A case-study in Morocco. In: Human biology and social inequality, edited by S. S. Strickland and P. S. Shetty. 1998. 239-71 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The extent to which agro-ecological zones and socioeconomic status differences are associated with differences in reproductive success is explored using data from a 1984 survey of some 6,000 Berber nuclear families living in rural areas of the province of Marrakesh, Morocco. The results suggest that variations in socioeconomic status had greater impact on reproductive success, defined as number of live births and survival of offspring to sexual maturity, than differences in agro-ecological environment. The importance of having many children as a measure of socioeconomic success in peasant communities is noted.
Correspondence: E. Crognier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UPR 221, Pavilion de Lanfant 346, Route des Alpes, 13100 Aix-en-Provence, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20214 Diop, Nafissatou J. Adolescent fertility in Senegal. [La fécondité des adolescentes au Senegal.] Rapport d'Etude, No. 11, Mar 1995. ix, 191 pp. Union pour l'Etude de la Population Africaine: Dakar, Senegal. In Fre.
The author examines adolescent fertility in Senegal. Chapters are included on a review of the literature; the social context of adolescent fertility; data sources, data quality, and methodology; analysis of fertility determinants; the study of fertility; and consequences of adolescent fertility for maternal health.
Correspondence: Union pour l'Etude de la Population Africaine, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20215 Hernández Espinoza, Patricia O. The probabilities of increasing the family and fertility by birth order in Sonora, according to the 1980 and 1990 censuses. [Las probabilidades de agrandamiento de la familia y la fecundidad por orden de nacimiento en Sonora, según los censos de 1980 y 1990.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 15, Jan-Mar 1998. 145-75 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes variations in fertility among women born in the periods 1930-1934 and 1940-1944 in the state of Sonora, Mexico. The results indicate that in three levels of disaggregation there is a tendency to a decrease in family size in Mexico over time, particularly among Sonoran natives. Data are primarily from the censuses of 1980 and 1990.
Correspondence: P. O. Hernández Espinoza, Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Col. Isidro Fabela, C.P. 14030, Mexico. E-mail: USCENAH@viernes.IWM.com.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20216 Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H. Consanguineous marriage and differentials in age at marriage, contraceptive use and fertility in Pakistan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan 1999. 121-38 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Reproductive behaviour among women in consanguineous (first cousin) and non-consanguineous unions [in Pakistan] was compared.... The results show that, although female age at first marriage has been gradually rising in both study samples, women in consanguineous unions married at younger ages and were less likely to use modern contraceptive methods. In the Karachi sample, women in first cousin unions experienced a higher mean number of pregnancies and also reported a higher mean number of children ever born (CEB). However, their mean number of surviving children did not differ from those born to women in none-consanguineous unions...."
Correspondence: R. Hussain, University of Wollongong, P.O. Box 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20217 Kaufmann, Rachel B.; Spitz, Alison M.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Morris, Leo; Santelli, John S.; Koonin, Lisa M.; Marks, James S. The decline in U.S. teen pregnancy rates, 1990-1995. Pediatrics, Vol. 102, No. 5, Nov 1998. 1,141-7 pp. Elk Grove Village, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors "estimate pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates for 1990 to 1995 for all teens, sexually experienced teens, and sexually active teens [using a] retrospective analysis of national [U.S.] data on pregnancies, abortions, and births.... Approximately 40% of women aged 15 to 19 years were sexually active in 1995.... From 1991 to 1995, the annual pregnancy rate for women aged 15 to 19 years decreased by 13% to 83.6 per 1,000. The percentage of teen pregnancies that ended in induced abortions decreased yearly; thus, the abortion rate decreased more than the birth rate (21% vs. 9%). From 1988 to 1995, the proportion of sexually experienced teens decreased nonsignificantly."
Correspondence: R. B. Kaufmann, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop F-42, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20218 Mueller, Ulrich; Mazur, Allan. Reproductive constraints on dominance competition in male Homo sapiens. Evolution and Human Behavior, Vol. 19, No. 6, Nov 1998. 387-96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Here we present the first example of reproductive constraints on high rank attainment in male Homo sapiens, based on lifetime professional and reproductive performances of 337 military officers, all graduates of the class of 1950 of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.... We conclude that the lower reproductive success of the highest ranking officers...results from high rank attainment and, therefore, possibly might indicate some selection against an extreme expression of characteristics that facilitate high rank attainment."
Correspondence: U. Mueller, University of Marburg, School of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sociology and Social Medicine, 35033 Marburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20219 Otor, Samuel C. J.; Pandey, Arvind. Puberty and the family formation process in Sudan: age-at-menarche differential fecundity hypothesis revisited. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1998. 246-59 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper revisits and extends an inquiry on the age-at-menarche differential fecundity hypothesis.... Using the WFS [World Fertility Survey] data for Sudan, the authors address the entire reproductive life of the women in terms of their transition from one parity to the next, as well as the speed with which birth intervals are closed, as a way to infer biological fecundity among the women. The study concludes that there is little evidence that early menarcheal women are more fecund than their late puberty counterparts."
Correspondence: S. C. J. Otor, Kenyatta University, Department of Environment Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20220 Pozo Avalos, Arturo. Reproductive health of adolescent girls. [Salud reproductiva de las adolescentes.] Correo Poblacional y de la Salud, Vol. 6, No. 1, Apr 1998. 35-42 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The author examines reproductive health among adolescent girls in Ecuador. Aspects considered include adolescent fertility, average number of children, fertility preferences, premarital pregnancy, sexual experience, age at first intercourse and contraceptive use, and sexual activity.
Correspondence: A. Pozo Avalos, Centro de Estudios de Población y Paternidad Responsable, Toribio Montes 423 y Daniel Hidalgo, Casilla No. 17-01-2327, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20221 Santow, Gigi; Bracher, Michael. Explaining trends in teenage childbearing in Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 131, ISBN 91-7820-133-0. Jan 1999. 25, [6] pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The teenage fertility rate fell precipitately in Sweden after 1966, and is now one of the lowest in Europe.... We examine by means of microsimulation the possible roles of contraception and induced abortion in causing teenage fertility to fall.... We draw parallels with the experience of other European countries, and draw contrasts with the United States, where no such developments have occurred."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20222 Tang, Zongli; Trovato, Frank. Discrimination and Chinese fertility in Canada. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1998. 172-93 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The study examines Chinese fertility in Canada in the context of minority-status and fertility. Chinese-Canadians are compared with British-Canadians, who are considered in this analysis as the majority group.... We conclude that discrimination variations over social classes combined with normative influence are a major factor in causing class fertility differentials between the Chinese and the British in Canada."
Correspondence: Z. Tang, University of Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institute of Social and Economic Research, Thompson Hall, Box 37515, Amherst, MA 01003-7515. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20223 Ventura, Stephanie J.; Curtin, Sally C. Recent trends in teen births in the United States. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 80, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1999. 2-12 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This article focuses on recent trends in [U.S.] births and birth rates for teenagers 15-19 years, incorporating the most recent information for 1997, based on preliminary vital statistics data. The total number of teen pregnancies includes live births combined with estimates of induced abortions and fetal losses. From the mid 1970s to the mid 1990s, the teen pregnancy rate has been about twice the teen birth rate. Although not as current as data for live births, recent abortion data indicate that the decline in teen birth rates has been accompanied by decreases in abortion rates as well."
Correspondence: S. J. Ventura, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Reproductive Statistics Branch, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20224 Voland, Eckart; Chasiotis, Athanasios. How female reproductive decisions cause social inequality in male reproductive fitness: evidence from eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Germany. In: Human biology and social inequality, edited by S. S. Strickland and P. S. Shetty. 1998. 220-38 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Using church records and other historical data sources, the authors present empirical evidence on social group differences in reproductive fitness for a number of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century communities in Germany. Reproductive fitness is defined here as fertility, infant survival, and social placement of adult offspring. By comparing prosperous farmers with landless workers, the authors examine how far the mating and reproductive decisions of women, and their social mobility through marriage, resulted in social inequality in the reproductive fitness of men. The results indicate that land ownership was a component of natural selection, and that differential reproductive success accumulated to result in significant and long-lasting social status differences. The authors conclude that the reproductive success of elite groups is a largely female-driven phenomenon that is in turn contingent on male social status.
Correspondence: E. Voland, Johnder Strasse 1, 37127 Scheden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

65:20225 Dickman, M. D.; Leung, C. K. M.; Leong, M. K. H. Hong Kong male subfertility links to mercury in human hair and fish. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 214, No. 1-3, 1998. 165-74 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The focus of the present study was on the relationship between Hong Kong male subfertility and fish consumption. Mercury concentrations found in the hair of 159 Hong Kong males aged 25-72...was positively correlated with age and was significantly higher in Hong Kong subjects than in European and Finnish subjects.... Mercury in the hair of 117 subfertile Hong Kong males...was significantly higher than mercury levels found in hair collected from 42 fertile Hong Kong males.... Although there were only 35 female subjects, they had significantly lower levels of hair mercury than males in similar age groups."
Correspondence: M. D. Dickman, University of Hong Kong, Ecology and Biodiversity Department, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China. E-mail: dickman@hkusua.hku.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (ST).

65:20226 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. Infertility in India--levels, patterns and consequences: priorities for social science research. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jun 1998. 15-24 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Infertility has been relatively neglected as both a health problem and a subject for social science research in South Asia, as in the developing world more generally.... The objective of this paper is to present a profile of the little that is available on the subject of infertility, and to identify social science research needs in the area of infertility." The geographical focus is on India.
Correspondence: S. J. Jejeebhoy, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20227 Stephen, Elizabeth H.; Chandra, Anjani. Updated projections of infertility in the United States: 1995-2025. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 70, No. 1, Jul 1998. 30-4 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
The authors "project the number of infertile [U.S.] women aged 15-44 every 5 years from 2000 to 2025.... Data are used from Cycle 5 of the National Survey of Family Growth.... The number of women experiencing infertility will range from 5.4-7.7 million in 2025 with the most likely number to be just under 6.5 million.... This is a substantial revision (upward) in the number of infertile women, largely a result of the increase in the observed percentage of infertile women in 1995."
Correspondence: E. H. Stephen, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, Box 571214, Washington, D.C. 20057-1214. E-mail: stepheel@gunet.georgetown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20228 Yadava, R. C.; Srivastava, Meenakshi. Extent of infecundity derived from open birth interval data. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 205-11 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors estimate the probability of females progressing to another birth, with a focus on determining the extent of infecundity or voluntary childlessness. "A description of the proposed methodology is presented...followed by the estimation of proportion of fecund females in different open birth interval groups." Data are from a study conducted in 1978 in Varanasi, India.
Correspondence: R. C. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

65:20229 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L. Population programme in Sri Lanka: the environment, strategies, structure, managerial processes and strategic issues for the future. Population Information Centre Research Paper Series, No. 8, Nov 1996. 24 pp. Ministry of Health, Highways and Social Services, Population Information Centre: Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The author describes the Sri Lankan population program, from its inception in 1965 through the year 2000. The phases of the program are outlined, and information for each phase is provided on program environment, strategy, structure, and management.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health, Highways and Social Services, Population Division, Population Information Centre, 231 De Saram Place, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20230 Addai, Isaac. Ethnicity and contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Ghana. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan 1999. 105-20 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using a sub-sample of ever-married women from the 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS), this study examines differentials in contraceptive use in six cultural groups.... Multivariate analysis is used to explore whether reported ethnic differentials in contraceptive use can be attributed to ethnicity or to other characteristics that distinguish the ethnic groups. Overall, the findings are generally more consistent with the `characteristics' hypothesis, because contraceptive use differentials by ethnic group are accounted for by differences in socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of these women."
Correspondence: I. Addai, Lansing Community College, Department of Social Sciences, P.O. Box 40010, Lansing, MI 48901-7210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20231 Anderson, John E.; Wilson, Ronald; Doll, Lynda; Jones, T. Stephen; Barker, Peggy. Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 24-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we present results from a major survey of the U.S. adult population--the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA).... Our objectives are to use the NHSDA data to describe the frequency of condom use among U.S. adults, to determine how this varies by type of sex partner and by the characteristics of respondents (including their engagement in HIV risk behaviors), and to evaluate progress toward achieving specific goals for levels of condom use." Results indicate that "substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner."
Correspondence: J. E. Anderson, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Mailstop E-45, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20232 Araoye, Margaret O.; Fakeye, Olurotimi O. Sexuality and contraception among Nigerian adolescents and youth. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 142-50 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Sexual behaviour and use of contraceptives among [971] adolescents in a college in Nigeria was studied in order to identify their needs for reproductive health programmes.... Sixty-three percent of them had (ever had) sexual intercourse, but only 72 percent and 81 percent of sexually experienced males and females, respectively, had ever used contraception. The most common methods ever used by the males and females, respectively, were the condom (43%) and rhythm (31%). Twenty-one percent of the adolescents engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour."
Correspondence: M. O. Araoye, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, Ilorin, Nigeria. E-mail: fhsilorin@anpa.net.ng. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20233 Bélanger, Alain. Trends in contraceptive sterilization. Canadian Social Trends, No. 50, Autumn 1998. 16-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"Compared with other industrialized nations, voluntary sterilization for contraceptive purposes is remarkably widespread in Canada. By 1995, some 3.3 million couples had undergone a vasectomy or tubal ligation in order to end their ability to have children. The prevalence of this practice, the early age at which it is often performed, and its generally irreversible nature have had a significant effect on women's fertility rates and the size of families. This article outlines the changing patterns of male and female sterilization between 1984 and 1995, and examines some of the characteristics of couples who choose this option."
Correspondence: A. Bélanger, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20234 Besharov, Douglas J.; Stewart, Felicia H.; Gardiner, Karen N.; Parker, Molly. Why some men don't use condoms: male attitudes about condoms and other contraceptives. Sexuality and American Social Policy, No. 8, ISBN 0-944525-29-6. 1997. xvii, 50 pp. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation: Menlo Park, California. In Eng.
"To understand better why some men at risk for STDs and HIV/AIDS do not use condoms consistently or at all, the Kaiser Family Foundation and the American Enterprise Institute devoted [a seminar]...to a discussion about male attitudes toward and use of condoms. Leading scholars presented the most up-to-date research on condom use, focusing on male adolescents and gay men, two of the groups most at risk for HIV/AIDS and STDs.... The papers and survey data presented at the seminar and the ensuing discussion among participants are included in this monograph." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Suite 100, Menlo Park, CA 94025-6944. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20235 Brown, Joseph W.; Boulton, Matthew L. Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 39-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this special report, we describe results of a survey conducted in Michigan in October 1996...to assess Title X-funded family planning providers' attitudes toward and perceptions about the provision of emergency contraception. Results of this survey illuminate obstacles to the provision of postcoital pills and provide insights into how best to integrate this method within the range of Title X reproductive health services."
Correspondence: J. W. Brown, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20236 Burnhill, M. S. Contraceptive use: the U.S. perspective. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 62, Suppl., Aug 1998. 17-23 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The author discusses "a number of factors [that] impact population trends and contraceptive utilization. Recent fertility trends in the United States are heavily influenced by the passage of the large `baby boomer' cohort from highly fertile to less fertile ages. Another set of factors has to do with age of marriage, timing of pregnancies, and the modal age at which reproduction is completed."
Correspondence: M. S. Burnhill, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 810 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20237 Calvès, Anne-Emmanuèle. First report: 1998 Rwanda Sexual Behavior and Condom Use survey. [1998]. [xii], 128 pp. Population Services International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of the 1998 Rwanda Sexual Behavior and Condom Use survey (RSBCU) was to provide information on sexual behavior and condom use in Rwanda that can be used to design and implement effective AIDS awareness and condom promotion campaigns." Chapters are included on survey organization; sample characteristics; sexual behaviors; access to and use of condoms; knowledge of condom brands and effectiveness of Prudence brand, plus advertising and information campaign; perceptions of condom use and AIDS awareness; and condom use in the context of fertility regulation.
Correspondence: Population Services International, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20238 Castilla, J.; Barrio, G.; de la Fuente, L.; Belza, M. J. Sexual behaviour and condom use in the general population of Spain, 1996. AIDS Care, Vol. 10, No. 6, Dec 1998. 667-76 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"A national household survey of a representative sample of 9,984 individuals aged 15 years or over, carried out in 1996 using a combination of face-to-face interviews and self-completion questionnaires, was analyzed in order to describe the frequency of HIV sexual risk behaviours and condom use in Spain. Of a total of 8,101 persons (81%) who completed the questionnaire, 37% reported no sexual partner during the previous 12 months, 57% reported one partner and 6% reported more than one partner.... Among those who had casual sexual partners during the preceding 12 months, 38% had always used condoms. In the multivariate analysis, failure to use a condom systematically with casual partners was associated with a higher age and being married."
Correspondence: J. Castilla, National Center of Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, C/ Sinesio Delgado 6, Madrid 28029, Spain. E-mail: jcastill@isciii.es. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20239 Christopher, Elphis. The relevance of ethnic monitoring in the experience of Haringey Healthcare NHS Trust community family planning clinics. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jan 1999. 123-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Ethnic monitoring of all new and first attenders [at] community family planning clinics [in England] was carried out by means of an anonymous questionnaire during April to June 1997 inclusive to ascertain whether ethnic minority women attend family planning clinics.... The results showed that women came from a wide variety of ethnic groups and from almost every country in the world. Those of UK European origin were underrepresented. For 28 per cent of women, English was not their first language. A total of 66 languages were recorded."
Correspondence: E. Christopher, Saint Ann's Hospital, Haringey Healthcare NHS Trust, Saint Ann's Road, London N15 3TH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20240 de Graaf, A. Birth control 1998. [Geboortenregeling 1998.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 12, Dec 1998. 25-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines family planning in the Netherlands in 1998. Aspects considered include age-specific fertility rates, methods of contraception used by age of woman, marital status, reasons for nonuse of contraception, and sterilization.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20241 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo; Carr, Rhoda. The simple measure and fertility control measurement in Africa. Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1995. 279-83 pp. Pullman, Washington. In Eng.
"A recent article by Anderson and Silver...proposed a Simple Measure for evaluating the intensity of fertility control.... Unfortunately...data from Africa, which is most plagued by data deficiencies, are ignored. A possible explanation is that, for one unspecified reason or another, the model may not be appropriate for the African setting. This paper attempts to examine this proposition by applying the model to African data."
For the article by Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, published in 1992, see 58:30192.
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Vanderbilt University, Department of Sociology, Nashville, TN 37235. E-mail: dodoof@ctrvax.vanderbilt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (AAS).

65:20242 Foreit, James R.; Frejka, Tomas. Family planning operations research: a book of readings. ISBN 0-87834-092-0. LC 98-40823. 1998. xiii, 398 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This book presents an overview of operations research used in family planning programs in a collection of articles published in the past 35 years, with examples from the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The selections cover a wide range of subjects illustrating the major issues and topics that have benefited from operations research, as well as a variety of research designs used in OR. The five sections of the book deal with program impact, access to family planning, resources, quality of care, and the conduct of OR studies." This publication is also available in French and Spanish.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20243 Gordon, Adam F.; Owen, Philip. Emergency contraception: change in knowledge of women attending for termination of pregnancy from 1984 to 1996. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 4, Jan 1999. 121-2 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "compare the knowledge of emergency contraception in women attending hospital for termination of pregnancy in 1984 and 1996 [in Dundee, Scotland].... Over this 12 year period, there has been a significant improvement in the knowledge of emergency contraception.... Although most women in the 1996 cohort recognised a reason for contraceptive failure and had adequate knowledge of emergency contraception, only 17 per cent considered the possibility of pregnancy."
Correspondence: A. F. Gordon, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20244 Gray, Alan; Chowdhury, Jamil H.; Caldwell, Bruce; Al-Sabir, Ahmed. "Traditional" family planning in Bangladesh: summary report. 1997. x, 31 pp. Population Council: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
This is the summary report on five studies on traditional family planning in Bangladesh. The studies examined are titled: Opportunities for integration of RTI/STD services into FP-MCH programs; Strengthening STD services for men in an urban clinic based program; Study of adolescents: dynamics of perceptions, attitudes, knowledge, and use of reproductive health care; Traditional family planning in Bangladesh; and Increasing the financial sustainability of family planning service delivery in Bangladesh.
Correspondence: Population Council, P.O. Box 6016, Gulshan, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh. E-mail: PCDHAKA@POPCOUNCIL.org. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20245 Hagen, Catherine A.; Fikree, Fariyal F.; Sherali, Afroze; Hoodbhoy, Fauzia. Fertility and family planning trends in Karachi, Pakistan. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 38-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A cross-sectional survey of 3,301 households in urban Karachi [Pakistan] collected information on the reproductive history and family planning knowledge and practices of 2,651 ever-married women aged 54 or younger. Birth-cohort analysis was used to identify time trends in fertility and use of modern contraceptives.... Among a relatively well-educated, middle-class population in urban Karachi, there is a strong trend toward declining fertility and increasing utilization of contraceptives. However, considerable unmet need for family planning is still evident."
Correspondence: C. A. Hagan, University of Northern British Columbia, Department of Community Health Sciences, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia V2N 4Z9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20246 Hakim, Abdul; Cleland, John; ul Hassan Bhatti, Mansoor. Pakistan Fertility and Family Planning Survey 1996-97: preliminary report. Jan 1998. xi, 51 pp. National Institute of Population Studies [NIPS]: Islamabad, Pakistan; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"The Pakistan Fertility and Family Planning Survey (PFFPS)...was planned, organized and executed during April, 1996 to June, 1997.... Information has been collected on household, environment, marriage patterns, fertility, family planing awareness, contraception, infant mortality, attitudes towards family planning, service delivery of family planning services and decision making and mobility of women.... This report presents the main findings of the survey.... [A] more in-depth and detailed report will be available by mid-1998."
Correspondence: National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20247 Heichelheim, Judith; Holscher, Michael; Meekers, Dominique; Pirvulescu, Mihaela. Pharmacist survey of contraceptive availability, knowledge and practices, Romania, 1998. 1998. iv, 39 pp. Population Services International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report describes the findings from a survey of pharmacists in three counties (judets) of Romania.... The purpose of this survey was to rapidly assess the situation and needs of pharmacists and pharmacies in both urban and rural areas of the three counties, and, on the basis of the assessment, recommend ways to improve reproductive health activities in these areas."
Correspondence: Population Services International,1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20248 Heilig, Gabriel. Nation building, one family at a time: the story of SOMARC. LC 98-73975. 1998. iv, 58 pp. U.S. Agency for International Development [USAID]: Washington, D.C.; Futures Group International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reports on social marketing for change (SOMARC) projects that have been conducted worldwide concerning population growth, family planning, and development. "This book discusses the family planning choices and reproductive behaviors of tens of millions of men and women throughout the world, and how the choices they make--or fail to make--affect our common future.... [It] summarizes a series of efforts the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has sponsored in the areas of population growth and reproductive health.... This report is presented in two parts. Part One discusses the development and deployment of the SOMARC initiatives and the major lessons learned. Part Two looks at how methods used during SOMARC can strengthen the sustainability of future family planning efforts."
Correspondence: Futures Group International, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: d.levy@tfgi.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20249 Islam, M. Nurul; Rahman, M. Mujibur; Haque, M. Emdadul; Ahmed, Shamsuddin. Users of injectable contraception in Bangladesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jun 1998. 67-74 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The authors "undertake an independent assessment of the current status of injectable contraception in Bangladesh. The general objective was to find out the major determinants of acceptance of injectables; specifically, to study the effective knowledge of and attitudes towards injectables among both acceptors and non-acceptors; the reasons for acceptance, method satisfaction and continuation; and finally, to explore the possibility of increasing its use through domiciliary services provided by Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs)."
Correspondence: M. N. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20250 Jayne, Susan H.; Guilkey, David K. Contraceptive determinants in three leading countries. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 4, Aug 1998. 329-50 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative importance of access to family planning and the motivation to restrict fertility in determining contraceptive use in three countries that have led the fertility transitions in their regions: Colombia, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. A structural equations model is estimated where endogenous fertility intentions are allowed to affect contraceptive method use. Simulation methods are then used to quantify the size of the impact of intentions and access on method choice for the three countries. The results demonstrate that even after controlling for fertility intentions, family planning program variables still have important effects in all three countries."
Correspondence: D. K. Guilkey, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: david_guilkey@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20251 Joseph, Sherry. Emergency contraception: an option for women's empowerment. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jun 1998. 54-8 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The author makes the case for making emergency contraception widely available in India, with a focus on providing women with "accurate information about the methods but also access to them through an effective service delivery system."
Correspondence: S. Joseph, Viswa Bharati, Department of Social Work, P.O. and T. O. Sriniketan 731 236, Birbhum, West Bengal, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20252 Kahn, James G.; Brindis, Claire D.; Glei, Dana A. Pregnancies averted among U.S. teenagers by the use of contraceptives. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 29-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Published estimates of contraceptive effectiveness were applied to 1995 National Survey of Family Growth data on sexual and contraceptive practices in order to estimate the number of pregnancies averted through the use of contraceptives by U.S. teenagers.... We project the number of pregnancies that would occur if adolescents who currently use contraceptives did not have access to contraception. We also analyze the potential impact that various restrictions on contraceptive access might have on these outcomes, taking into account the ways in which teenagers might change their sexual and contraceptive practices in response to such restrictions."
Correspondence: J. G. Kahn, University of California, Institute for Health Policy Studies, San Francisco, CA 94143. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20253 Kekovole, John. Trends and correlates of unmet need for contraception in Kenya. African Population Policy Research Center Working Paper, No. 5, 1998. 37 pp. Population Council, African Population Policy Research Center: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper presents the results emanating from the analysis of data collected in the 1989 and 1993 Kenya Demographic Surveys on unmet need for contraception.... The results indicate that about 38 and 36 percent of the married women interviewed in 1989 and 1993 had unmet need for contraception. The level of unmet need had substantially declined in urban areas, in Central and Rift Valley provinces, and for women who had attained secondary level of education, desired less than 3 children and their husbands approved of family planning...."
Correspondence: Population Council, Multichoice Towers, Upper Hill, P.O. Box 17643, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20254 Kitamura, Kunio. The pill in Japan: will approval ever come? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 44-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews efforts in Japan to legalize use of oral contraceptives.
Correspondence: K. Kitamura, Japan Family Planning Association, Family Planning Clinic, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20255 Leoprapai, Boonlert. Role of private sector in family planning service delivery. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jan 1999. 11-7, 168-9 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1987 Contraceptive Use Patterns Survey and the 1996 National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, the role of [the] private sector in family planning service delivery [in Thailand] was analyzed. It was found that during the last two decades from 1978 to 1996, the role of [the] private sector was more [or] less stable, providing family planning services to slightly over one-fifth of contraceptive acceptors.... It was concluded that...government outlets, especially the sub-district health centers and community hospitals, still play the major role in family planning service delivery in rural areas where about 70 percent of the population reside."
Correspondence: B. Leoprapai, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. E-mail: prblp@mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20256 Meekers, Dominique. Côte d'Ivoire Condom Consumer Profile Survey, 1998. 1998. viii, 59, [12] pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This document summarizes the main findings from the 1998 Côte d'Ivoire Condom Consumer Profile Survey.... The survey contains information on a random sample of 1,661 consumers frequenting pharmacies, kiosks, and boutiques. The sample includes all consumers, including those who never used condoms.... The study contains information on a wide variety of topics, including consumer characteristics, use of condoms from different distribution sectors, brand switching, consistency of condom use, reasons for condom use and barriers to use, consumer media exposure, and opinions regarding Prudence brand condoms."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20257 Mishra, U. S.; Roy, T. K.; Rajan, S. Irudaya. Antenatal care and contraceptive behaviour in India: some evidence from the National Family Health Survey. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jun 1998. 1-14 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The authors discuss possible benefits of integrated programs for maternal-child health and family planning in India, with a focus on whether such integration has resulted in higher rates of contraceptive use. "The information collected in the nationwide National Family Health Survey, 1992-93 (NFHS) have been utilised.... An effort has been made...to examine the possible linkage between the utilisation of antenatal care (ANC) with contraceptive behaviour."
Correspondence: U. S. Mishra, Centre of Development Studies, Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20258 Norell, Staffan E.; Boethius, Göran; Persson, Ingemar. Oral contraceptive use: interview data versus pharmacy records. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 6, Dec 1998. 1,033-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study is to compare the information on lifetime OC [oral contraceptive] use obtained by a structured interview to that obtained from a register of pharmacy records, in a geographically defined population of young Swedish women. In particular, there is an interest in the extent to which women tend to underreport their past OC use by interview, and in the possible bias introduced by such underreporting."
Correspondence: S. E. Norell, Kungsklippan 12, 112 25 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20259 Ojo, Olusola A. Fertility regulation in developing countries. ISBN 978-249-515-8. LC 97-143840. 1995. vi, 82 pp. University Press: Ibadan, Nigeria. In Eng.
This book is designed for providers of family planning services in developing countries. "The book gives reasons for the initial non-acceptance of fertility regulation in developing countries and for the subsequent change in attitude. It attempts to consider the medical constraints militating against the acceptance of family planning, concluding that it may be difficult to convince couples in developing countries to accept and practise family planning until there is a noticeable reduction in perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality rates. The author also adduces strategies for the ready acceptance of family planning, calling for international assistance if family planning programmes are to succeed in developing countries. The author reviews both the traditional and modern methods of fertility regulation in developing countries."
Correspondence: University Press, Three Crowns Building, Jericho, PMB 5095, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20260 Orcutt, Holly K.; Cooper, M. Lynne. The effects of pregnancy experience on contraceptive practice. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 26, No. 6, Dec 1997. 763-78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Retrospective reports of contraceptive use on two occasions of intercourse (separated by 2 years on average) were used to examine change in contraceptive practice as a function of intervening pregnancy experience in a randomly selected biracial (Black, White) sample of 466 female adolescents [in Buffalo, New York]. Although all groups of adolescents regardless of pregnancy experience improved their contraceptive use, adolescents experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or pregnancy scare appeared to improve relatively more. However, differences between groups could be explained by the differential passage of time, and this was true among both Black and White adolescents."
Correspondence: M. L. Cooper, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

65:20261 Peterson, Sara A. Marriage structure and contraception in Niger. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan 1999. 93-104 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Analysis of the 1992 Niger Demographic and Health Survey showed that although roughly two-thirds of both polygamous and monogamous women approve of birth control, polygamous wives are less likely than monogamous wives to discuss family size or birth control with their husband or to plan on using birth control. The study suggests that characteristics of polygamous couples have caused polygamous women to be more resistant to birth control use than monogamous women. The polygamous women tended to be married to older men who had not gone to primary school and who desired more children than monogamous husbands."
Correspondence: S. A. Peterson, University of California, Institute for Health Policy Studies, San Francisco, CA 94143. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20262 Rajaram, S. Timing of sterilization in two low fertility states in India. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 179-91 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The study is focused on the differential experience of women in [the states of Goa and Kerala, India] in respect of the timing of sterilization. The timing of sterilization in this article is studied in terms of age at acceptance.... It has been observed from the analysis that in general the fertility of sterilized couples is higher than the non-sterilized couples irrespective of background characteristics. It has also been seen...that the sterilized couples have experienced a higher fertility during the five year period prior to the last birth."
Correspondence: S. Rajaram, Population Research Centre, Dharwad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20263 Rajaretnam, T. Genuineness of statistics on reversible methods of family planning: a field investigation in rural Karnataka. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 3, Sep 1998. 36-44 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The paper has tried to assess the extent of discrepancies in the reporting of reversible family planning methods from the district to field worker level in a high and a low performance PHC [primary health center] in a district of Karnataka state [India], and to estimate to what extent the reported acceptors are genuine acceptors of the method and therefore, can be attributed to the workers' performance.... The target achievement was 60 to 70 per cent for each method in the high performance PHC and 95-100 per cent for the IUD and pill and about 65 per cent for the condom in the low performance PHC. However...for nearly half of the reported achievement particularly of condoms, neither the PHCs nor the workers could provide a list of acceptors."
Correspondence: T. Rajaretnam, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20264 Smith, Janet M.; Ritzenthaler, Rob; Mumford, Elizabeth. Policy lessons learned in finance and private sector participation. POLICY Working Paper Series, No. 2, Mar 1998. ii, 35 pp. Futures Group International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines lessons learned in USAID's Options for Population Policy (OPTIONS) Project and the POLICY Project, both of which have worked extensively in developing countries to foster private sector involvement in family planning and reproductive health care. Following a general discussion of lessons learned, the paper presents examples from 11 countries that describe efforts to remove impediments to private sector participation and effective health care financing."
Correspondence: Futures Group International, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: policyinfo@tfgi.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20265 Society for Family Health (Lagos, Nigeria). Emergency contraception in Nigeria: report of an exploratory research. Nov 1998. vi, 96 pp. Lagos, Nigeria. In Eng.
This is a report on an exploratory study of awareness and use of emergency contraception (EC) in Nigeria. Chapters provide information on study objectives and literature review; methodology; findings among women, including awareness and perceptions of EC, perceived availability of EC service providers, and information sources; findings among potential providers of EC; and availability of products for emergency contraception.
Correspondence: Society for Family Health, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20266 Strachan, Janet; Hartley, Debra; Owen, Judith; Rowling, Diane; Pikatcha, Junilyn. Family planning in Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 12, No. 1, May 1995. 35-50 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The results presented are from a rural prevalence survey on family planning in Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. Married women aged 15-49 years with at least one living child and married men whose wife met the same criteria provided data on knowledge, attitudes and practices of contraceptive use. Fifty one per cent of the female sample were using some form of contraception, 26 per cent reversible and 25 per cent non-reversible methods. Sixty-five per cent of men claimed that they or their spouse were using a method of family planning. Tubal ligation was the most common currently used method (25 per cent in the female survey)...."
Correspondence: J. Strachan, University of Queensland Medical School, Tropical Health Program, Herston Road, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20267 Streatfield, Kim; Kabir, Sayyied; Jamil, Kanta; Janowitz, Barbara; Faiz, Naushad. Increasing the financial sustainability of family planning service delivery in Bangladesh. Jun 1997. ix, 86 pp. Population Council: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The authors report on a Bangladesh study designed to answer the question "`How can pricing [of contraceptive supplies] be used to encourage couples to go out of their homes to seek family planning services?' Over 2,500 women who were currently using oral pills or injectables were interviewed.... The sample was selected using fieldworker registers from high and low FP [family planning] prevalence areas--rural areas served by the Government system, and other areas, both rural and urban, served by NGOs. These clients were obtaining their supplies from fieldworkers, various types of clinics, or pharmacies."
Correspondence: Population Council, P.O. Box 6016, Gulshan, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh. E-mail: PCDHAKA@POPCOUNCIL.ORG. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20268 Susu, B.; Ransjö-Arvidson, A. B.; Chintu, K.; Sundström, K.; Christensson, K. Family planning practices before and after childbirth in Lusaka, Zambia. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 73, No. 11, Nov 1996. 708-13 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"A total of 408 randomly selected normally delivered women who had given birth to healthy infants were recruited from a postnatal ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Family planning practices before and after pregnancy and delivery were investigated among 376 of these women.... Thirty four percent of the women had used a family planning method before the present childbirth.... Of those who did not use any method, 39% indicated that their husbands did not allow them. Fifty-six percent of the teenagers stated that they had no knowledge of family planning...."
Correspondence: B. Susu, Lusaka School of Nursing, P.O. Box 50366, Lusaka, Zambia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

65:20269 Tydén, T.; Wetterholm, M.; Odlind, V. Emergency contraception: the user profile. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1998. 171-8 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors investigate characteristics and background factors of women requesting emergency contraception (EC) in Sweden. "The user of emergency contraception was typically a nulligravid young woman (83%) but 13% had a previous history of at least one induced abortion and 4% had given birth in the past. One out of four had used EC before, and of these 20% more than once. Condom breakage was the major reason for the current need for EC but as many as 37% had not discussed the need for contraception prior to intercourse."
Correspondence: T. Tydén, Uppsala University, Academic Hospital, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, P.O. Box 513, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20270 Warner, Lee; Clay-Warner, Jody; Boles, Jacqueline; Williamson, John. Assessing condom use practices: implications for evaluating method and user effectiveness. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Vol. 25, No. 6, Jul 1998. 273-7 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The authors "assess how user practices affect exposure to risks of pregnancy and infection during condom use.... A cross-sectional survey on condom behaviors in the past month was conducted among 98 male students attending two Georgia [United States] universities.... Altogether, 35 of 270 total condom uses...resulted in potential exposure to sexually transmitted disease and/or HIV infection or pregnancy. Both consistent and inconsistent users were similarly likely to report potential exposures during condom use."
Correspondence: J. Williamson, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Office of Communications, Mailstop E-06, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20271 Yusuf, Farhat; Siedlecky, Stefania. Contraceptive use in Australia: evidence from the 1995 National Health Survey. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 39, No. 1, Feb 1999. 58-62 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the patterns of contraceptive use among Australian women, using data from the 1995 National Health Survey. More than 44% of all women aged 18-49 years reported using a method of contraception. Among users, the 2 most commonly reported methods were the pill (60%) and condom (27%); IUD and natural methods accounted for less than 5% each. Sterilizing operations of the woman/partner were the most frequently reported reasons for nonuse of contraception in women aged over 35 years, while among the younger women the most reported reasons were pregnancy or trying to get pregnant and not being sexually active."
Correspondence: F. Yusuf, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Demographic Research Group, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20272 Zhang, Weiguo. Implementation of state family planning programmes in a northern Chinese village. China Quarterly, No. 157, Mar 1999. 202-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This article examines how family planning policies and programs in China are affected by local conditions. "This article will focus on the characteristics of fertility control reshaped by the changing context in the reform era, and discuss how state policies are mediated by local governments and families at the village level. It will first discuss the new characteristics as they have been reshaped under the new institutional settings in the reform period, comparing these with the old patterns under collective institutions. This discussion concerns family planning institutions at the village level, policy popularization and family planning education, incentives and disincentives, and the provision of contraceptives and family planning services. It will then show how state policies are mediated by interactions between peasants and cadres, and among cadres in local administrations. Finally, four family planning campaigns in [a northern Chinese] village in 1993 are described, to indicate how state family planning policies are transferred to the village and how family planning programmes are being implemented in the reform era."
Correspondence: W. Zhang, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20273 Zulu, Eliya. The role of men and women in decisionmaking about reproductive issues in Malawi. African Population Policy Research Center Working Paper, No. 2, 1998. 45 pp. Population Council, African Population Policy Research Center: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relative roles of men and women in making decisions regarding childbearing and the use of traditional and modern methods of family planning, using quantitative and qualitative data collected in Malawi. Contrary to what many other studies have suggested, the results show that men have traditionally played a limited role in making decisions relating to initiation of childbearing, and the use of various traditional methods of contraception. When it comes to modern contraceptives, however, men are demanding to be consulted and give consent before their wives use the methods."
Correspondence: Population Council, Multichoice Towers, Upper Hill, P.O. Box 17643, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

65:20274 Beral, Valerie; Hermon, Carol; Kay, Clifford; Hannaford, Philip; Darby, Sarah; Reeves, Gillian. Mortality associated with oral contraceptive use: 25 year follow up of cohort of 46,000 women from Royal College of General Practitioners' oral contraception study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 318, No. 7176, Jan 9, 1999. 96-100 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The long-term effects of oral contraceptive use on mortality are analyzed using data from a cohort study begun in 1968-1969 with a 25-year follow-up undertaken in the United Kingdom. The relative risks of death were adjusted for age, parity, social class, and smoking. "Over the 25 year follow up 1,599 deaths were reported. Over the entire period of follow up the risk of death from all causes was similar in ever users and never users of oral contraceptives (relative risk=1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.1; P=0.7) and the risk of death for most specific causes did not differ significantly in the two groups. However, among current and recent (within 10 years) users the relative risk of death from ovarian cancer was 0.2 (0.1 to 0.8; P=0.01), from cervical cancer 2.5 (1.1 to 6.1; P=0.04), and from cerebrovascular disease 1.9 (1.2 to 3.1, P=0.009). By contrast, for women who had stopped use [10 or more] years previously there were no significant excesses or deficits either overall or for any specific cause of death."
Correspondence: V. Beral, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Radcliffe Infirmary, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Oxford OX2 6HE, England. E-mail: beral@icrf.icnet.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20275 Dominik, Rosalie; Trussell, James; Dorflinger, Laneta. Emergency contraception use and the evaluation of barrier contraceptives: new challenges for study design, implementation, and analysis. Contraception, Vol. 58, No. 6, Dec 1998. 379-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Widespread acceptance, availability, and use of emergency contraception (EC) pose new challenges for the clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of a new barrier contraceptive when used alone.... In this article, the traditional approach for determining how well a barrier contraceptive method prevents pregnancy is reviewed and why the traditional approach may now be less feasible or appropriate is explained. Alternative research objectives and implications for study design, implementation and analysis are discussed."
Correspondence: R. Dominik, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: rdominik@fhi.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20276 Lewis, Michael A. The epidemiology of oral contraceptive use: a critical review of the studies on oral contraceptives and the health of young women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 179, No. 4, Oct 1998. 1,086-97 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"Recent observational studies show a slightly increased risk of venous thromboembolism among users of newer combined oral contraceptives with odds ratios between 0.8 and 2.3 when compared with users of older oral contraceptives. The controversy regarding the newer oral contraceptives is reviewed by analyzing the recent studies with epidemiologic methods.... The studies on stroke showed no difference between newer and older oral contraceptives, and studies on myocardial infarction show that newer oral contraceptives carry no risk of this event. Newer-generation oral contraceptives are unlikely to constitute a significant hazard to the user population with regard to venous thromboembolism."
Correspondence: M. A. Lewis, Epidemiology, Pharmacoepidemiology and Systems Research, Wulffstrasse 8, 12165 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: 101672.2552@compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20277 Pasquale, Samuel A.; Cadoff, Jennifer. The birth control book: a complete guide to your contraceptive options. ISBN 0-345-40037-2. LC 96-10807. Jul 1996. x, 261 pp. Ballantine Books: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors review and evaluate available contraceptive methods in the United States. Chapters are included on choosing a contraceptive, barrier methods, hormone-based methods, IUDs, sterilization, contraception failure, and future contraceptives.
Correspondence: Ballantine Publishing Group, 201 East 50th Street, New York, NY 10022. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20278 Steiner, Markus J.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Schulz, Kenneth F.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Earle, Brenda B.; Trussell, James. Measuring true contraceptive efficacy: a randomized approach--condom vs. spermicide vs. no method. Contraception, Vol. 58, No. 6, Dec 1998. 375-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors test a new approach to evaluating the efficacy of barrier contraceptives, using data from the United States. "In this protocol, we restricted frequency and timing of intercourse to one coital act on the most fertile day of the menstrual cycle, as measured by a luteinizing hormone (LH) detection kit.... Among 54 women who completed the study, we found a 12% pregnancy rate for the group using no method...and an 11% pregnancy rate for the group using spermicidal film.... No pregnancies occurred among the 19 women using condoms...."
Correspondence: M. J. Steiner, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: msteiner@fhi.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20279 Visaria, Leela; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Merrick, Tom. From family planning to reproductive health: challenges facing India. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, Suppl., Jan 1999. 44-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In April 1996, the Indian government decided to abolish method-specific family planning targets throughout the country. In October 1997, India reoriented the national program and radically shifted its approach to more broadly address health and family limitation needs.... The objective of this article is to trace the roots of this change in orientation, document the program's achievements to date and examine the challenges that remain at the policy level, at the implementation level and in the overall socioeconomic environment in establishing a program that truly meets clients' health needs."
Correspondence: L. Visaria, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20280 Winikoff, Beverly; Wymelenberg, Suzanne. The whole truth about contraception: a guide to safe and effective choices. ISBN 0-309-05494-X. LC 97-26488. 1997. vii, 274 pp. Joseph Henry Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book provides "a detailed guide to the methods of birth control currently available, plus an overview of new methods being developed.... [It] describes the birth control methods available today and discusses each method in terms of how well it prevents pregnancy, how it may or may not shield against sexually transmitted diseases, its effects on sexual experience, potential effects on the user's health, and common problems that might occur."
Correspondence: Joseph Henry Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

65:20281 Ali, Mohammad; de Francisco, Andres; Khan, M. Mahmud; Chakraborty, Jyotsnamoy; Myaux, Jacques. Factors affecting the performance of family planning workers: importance of geographical information systems in empirical analysis. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 19-29 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"An intensive family planning intervention based on community health workers (CHWs) has been in place in the Matlab area of rural Bangladesh for over a decade.... The purpose of this paper is to explore the determinants of CHWs performances by introducing geographical factors in addition to the conventional socioeconomic and other related variables.... The catchment areas for all 80 CHWs were defined by using GIS technology and spatially referenced data.... One significant finding of the empirical analysis is that the size of catchment area influences the performance of CHWs significantly. Geographical barriers to movement in the catchment area also affect performance of the CHW."
Correspondence: M. Ali, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Public Health Sciences Division, GIS Unit, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20282 Cohen, Deborah A.; Scribner, Richard; Bedimo, Roger; Farley, Thomas A. Cost as a barrier to condom use: the evidence for condom subsidies in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 4, Apr 1999. 567-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impact of price on condom use is examined using data from a statewide condom social marketing program in Louisiana. The program involved the free distribution of condoms in publicly funded health clinics and small businesses in neighborhoods with high rates of STDs and HIV. Due to financial constraints, a change was made from providing condoms free of charge to charging up to 25 cents for them. "At pretest, 57% of respondents had obtained free condoms, and 77% had used a condom during their most recent sexual encounter. When the price was raised to 25 cents, the respective percentages decreased to 30% and 64%."
Correspondence: D. A. Cohen, 1600 Canal Street, Suite 900, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20283 Gulati, S. C. Cost effectiveness of health and family welfare programs in India. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 167-78 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author assesses the interaction between fertility and infant mortality, with a focus on the impact of the cost-effectiveness of health and family welfare programs in India. Sections are included on simultaneous structural systems, data and structural estimates, and reduced form estimates.
Correspondence: S. C. Gulati, Institute of Economic Growth, University Enclave, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20284 Hardon, Anita; Mutua, Ann N.; Kabir, Sandra M.; Engelkes, Elly. Monitoring family planning and reproductive rights: a manual for empowerment. ISBN 1-85649-455-1. LC 97-28039. 1997. xi, 143 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. Distributed by St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. In Eng.
"This handbook provides a framework for researching family planning provision in different cultural settings. The book shows NGOs and other health research bodies how to design such projects and provides indicators for quality assessment. It is the first methodology handbook of its kind and employs a step-by-step approach, covering all of the elements needed to design, carry out and analyse such a study. Chapters explore the full range of skills required to conduct research, from choosing the size of the sample to processing the final data. Throughout, the book is structured to enable groups to adapt the material here to work with their own particular research questions or to reflect local circumstances."
Correspondence: Zed Books, 7 Cynthia Street, London N1 9JF, England. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20285 Jain, Anrudh. Should eliminating unmet need for contraception continue to be a program priority? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, Suppl., Jan 1999. 39-43, 49 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data on 1,093 women in Nor-Oriental de Marañón and Lima, Peru, who participated in the 1991-1992 Demographic and Health Survey and a 1994 follow-up survey are used to examine the family planning program's effectiveness in satisfying unmet need and averting unintended pregnancies.... Although aggregate-level data suggest little effect of the program between surveys, individual-level data show that 72% of women who had an unmet need in 1991-1992 no longer had an unmet need in 1994. However, between surveys, 12% of the sample went from not having an unmet need to having an unmet need. Moreover, 20% of respondents had an unintended pregnancy between surveys...."
Correspondence: A. Jain, Population Council, International Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20286 Koenig, Michael A.; Foo, Gillian H. C.; Joshi, Ketan. Quality of care within the Indian family welfare program: a review of recent evidence. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 99-01, Mar 1999. 34 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Our objective in this chapter is to review and synthesize recent empirical evidence on access and quality of care within the Indian family planning program. In integrating such a broad and diverse body of evidence, we draw heavily upon the quality of care framework articulated by Judith Bruce.... In the following sections, we first consider evidence on access to and availability of services, before reviewing data on the various quality of care elements identified by Bruce."
Correspondence: M. A. Koenig, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. E-mail: mkoeniq@jhsph.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20287 Lingaraju, M. Utilisation of MCH and family planning services by a scheduled caste community in Mysore District. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jun 1998. 28-36 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The Government of Karnataka [India] has identified and enumerated 101 scheduled castes...in the state.... Predominant among the scheduled castes are the Holeyas...and the Madigas.... The present study was carried out to determine the socio-economic conditions of the Madigas, and the extent to which they had derived benefits from government welfare programmes meant for the poor and utilised family planning and MCH services."
Correspondence: M. Lingaraju, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Population Research Centre, Nagarbhavi P.O., Bangalore 560 092, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20288 Mroz, Thomas A.; Bollen, Kenneth A.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Mancini, Dominic J. Quality, accessibility, and contraceptive use in rural Tanzania. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 1, Feb 1999. 23-40 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We examine how informants' reports on community perceptions of the quality and accessibility of family planning facilities relate to the use of modern contraceptives by individuals in rural Tanzania. Using information on individual-level contraceptive use in conjunction with community-level information on the accessibility and quality of family planning facilities, we employ two distinct statistical procedures to illustrate the impacts of accessibility and quality on contraceptive use.... We find that a community-level, subjective perception of a family planning facility's quality has a significant impact on community members' contraceptive use whereas other community measures such as time, distance, and subjective perception of accessibility have trivial and insignificant direct impacts, net of the control variables."
Correspondence: T. A. Mroz, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: tom_mroz@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20289 Pham, Bich San; Ross, John A.; Nguyen, Lan Phuong; Nguyen, Duc Vinh. Measuring family planning program effort at the provincial level: a Vietnam application. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 4-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Family planning program efforts were assessed in 15 Vietnamese provinces that are part of a nationwide population and family health project.... The mean program effort score across all 15 provinces and all 34 indices was 2.5, compared with a mean of 3.6 in Thai Binh, the comparison province. Standard deviations across the 34 indices ranged from 0.7 to 1.4 for the study provinces...indicating considerable variation within most of the provincial programs. Policy and administrative functioning was strong across provinces.... Contraceptive availability varied according to method.... Private-sector involvement was weak in all provinces."
Correspondence: B. S. Pham, National Center for Social Sciences, Institute of Sociology, 24 Tran Xuan Soan, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20290 Ranjith, N. S. M. P.; Sureender, S. A comparative study of the quality of family welfare services in Sri Lanka, India and the Philippines. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 3, Sep 1998. 45-52 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper aims to examine the quality of [family planning] services in selected countries in the South and Pacific regions of Asia namely India, Sri Lanka and the Philippines.... The quality of services was basically examined in terms of the following aspects: knowledge of family planning methods among the respondents who were currently married women 15-49 years of age and among grassroots level workers, source of supply of modern contraceptive methods, acceptability of media messages on family planning, utilisation of antenatal care services, differentials in contraceptive use, and reasons for discontinuing and for not accepting family planning."
Correspondence: N. S. M. P. Ranjith, Divisional Secretary's Office, Buttala, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20291 Stewart, John F.; Stecklov, Guy; Adewuyi, Alfred. Family planning program structure and performance in West Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, Suppl., Jan 1999. 22-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Case studies from Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria, Benin, Ghana and Guinea, as well as large-scale facility surveys using multiple measures of staff utilization in Côte d'Ivoire and Nigeria, are used to examine the efficiency of different organizational structures for delivering family planning services.... Vertical programs operated by nongovernmental organizations provided close to half (44%) of all couple-years of contraceptive protection in Côte d'Ivoire and about one quarter in Benin and Guinea. When social marketing efforts are considered as well, sectors other than governmental, integrated programs were responsible for a majority of the couple-years of protection. Only in Nigeria did integrated programs provide the bulk of couple-years of protection in 1994."
Correspondence: J. F. Stewart, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20292 Thang, Nguyen Minh; Johnson, Brooke R.; Landry, Evelyn; Columbia, Richard. Client perspectives on quality of reproductive health services in Viet Nam. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1998. 33-54 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study finds that, although Viet Nam's family planning programme is increasingly successful, improvements are needed in the quality of reproductive health services if current progress is to continue. For example, service delivery outlets do not always provide a sufficiently wide choice of methods. Deficiencies exist regarding the distribution of methods and there is a lack of information on how to use particular methods effectively. Also counselling on contraceptive use for abortion clients is virtually absent. The article concludes with a set of in-depth recommendations for overcoming these shortcomings."
Correspondence: N. M. Thang, National Committee for Population and Family Planning, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20293 Thongthai, Varachai. Continuation and failure rates: indicators of family planning services. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jan 1999. 71-92, 171 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
"Using data from [Thailand's] 1996 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey...annual cross-sectional continuation and failure rates were applied as indicators of family planning service.... [The] contraceptive prevalence rate of currently married women aged 15-49 was 72.2 in 1996. The pattern of contraceptive use was a well-balanced mix of varieties of contraceptive methods.... Use-efficiency and satisfaction varied among regions and...suggested differences in services."
Correspondence: Author's E-mail: prvtt@mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20294 Toroitich-Ruto, Cathy. The evolution and role of family planning programs in fertility change in Kenya. African Population Policy Research Center Working Paper, No. 3, 1998. 35 pp. Population Council, African Population Policy Research Center: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper examines the evolution of the Kenya family planning program and its role in the on-going fertility transition.... Policy makers and program implementers will find the information in this paper important in evaluating the efficacy of the current family planning programs and utilize lessons learned to improve the performance of the programs in other areas where fertility decline has not yet started. Researchers will show the source of fertility decline outside the conventional arguments about social and economic development."
Correspondence: Population Council, Multichoice Towers, Upper Hill, P.O. Box 17643, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20295 Van Rossem, Ronan; Meekers, Dominique. An evaluation of the effectiveness of targeted social marketing to promote adolescent and young adult reproductive health in Cameroon. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 19, 1999. 32 pp. Population Services International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines the effectiveness of a youth-targeted social marketing program for improving adolescent reproductive health in urban Cameroon.... The results demonstrate that the intervention had a significant effect on several determinants of preventive behavior, including awareness of sexual risks, knowledge of family planning methods, and discussion of sexuality and contraceptives, although the effect varies for men and women."
Correspondence: Population Services International,1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfor@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20296 Wisensale, Steven K.; Khodair, Amany A. The two-child family: the Egyptian model of family planning. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3, Autumn 1998. 503-16 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors discuss Egypt's national family planning program, which has set a goal of a two-child family by 2015. "To accomplish its goal, the Information, Education and Communication Center of the State Information Service has employed five techniques. These include the mass media, interpersonal communication, the enter-educate method, training of personnel, and research. As a result, between 1985 and 1994 the percentage of families using contraceptives more than doubled and the birth rate dropped from 39.8 per thousand to 27.5 per thousand."
Correspondence: S. K. Wisensale, University of Connecticut, School of Family Studies, U-58, Storrs, CT 06269-2058. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

65:20297 Eggleston, Elizabeth. Determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in Ecuador. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 27-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A multinomial logistic regression analysis of the predictors of unintended pregnancy (unwanted and mistimed) was conducted using a subsample of women who were interviewed for the 1994 Demographic and Maternal-Child Health Survey for Ecuador.... The multivariate analysis indicated that several explanatory variables significantly influenced the likelihood that a woman would classify her most recent pregnancy as unwanted or mistimed. Among variables that independently raised the likelihood of unintended pregnancy were residence in the Sierra (or highlands) region, residence in a major metropolitan area, the number of previous births and use of a contraceptive method before the most recent pregnancy."
Correspondence: E. Eggleston, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20298 Fapohunda, Bolaji M. Levels, trends and correlates of demand for children in Kenya. African Population Policy Research Center Working Paper, No. 6, 1998. 39 pp. Population Council, African Population Policy Research Center: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"Utilizing data from four national surveys conducted between 1978 and 1993, the study examines trends in demand for children and its role in the fertility transition that is underway in Kenya.... The analyses revealed significant declines in demand for children between 1978 and 1993. These declines occurred across all age groups, ethnic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and among all sub-regions in the country. However, women aged 15-24 experienced the most decline in demand for children over the periods studied."
Correspondence: Population Council, Multichoice Towers, Upper Hill, P.O. Box 17643, Nairobi, Kenya. Author's E-mail: bfapohunda@popcouncil.or.ke. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20299 Jayachandran, A. A. A study of women whose reproductive goals were yet to be conceptualized. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 193-203 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author measures women's reproductive goals by means of questions about desired family size, with a focus on respondents who had not yet conceptualized their fertility preferences. Data are from the 1992-1993 Indian National Family Health Survey. The author concludes that "there is a need for [a] `threshold level' of women's education by which women can be able to understand and to realize their personal goals regarding...reproductive behaviour."
Correspondence: A. A. Jayachandran, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20300 Kirkman, Maggie; Smith, Anthony; Rosenthal, Doreen. Safe sex is not contraception: reclaiming "safe sex" for HIV/STD prevention. Venereology, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1998. 25-8 pp. Armidale, Australia. In Eng.
"What is meant by the term `safe sex'? We contend that it is important to retain the meaning of `ways of having sex that reduce or eliminate the chances of being infected with an STD'. In this paper, we present evidence [from Australia] that adolescents and others are using the term `safe sex' to include contraception, and argue that there is a danger of `contraception' supplanting `protection against STDs' in meaning, just as it dominates in practice."
Correspondence: M. Kirkman, La Trobe University, Centre for the Study of Sexually Transmissible Diseases, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20301 Kwon, Tai-hwan; Jun, Kwang Hee; Cho, Sung-nam. Sexuality, contraception and abortion among unmarried adolescents and young adults: the case of Korea. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 346-67 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Sexual, contraceptive and abortion behaviour among unmarried female adolescents and young adults has clearly emerged as a growing and serious health and social problem in [South] Korea. This is a study of the determinants of this behaviour, which requires an exploration of attitudes towards premarital intercourse, marriage and abortion; a better understanding of the circumstances of first sexual experience; and information about contraceptive practice and experience of abortion." The data were obtained from a survey of 571 single female adolescents and young adults living in one of three export industrial zones in Seoul, Kyongbuk, and Kyongnam. The survey participants were selected as a sample population likely to be unmarried, living independently from their families, and sexually active.
Correspondence: T.-h. Kwon, Seoul National University, Centre for Area Studies, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20302 Meekers, Dominique; Stallworthy, Guy; Harris, John. Changing adolescents' beliefs about protective sexual behavior: the Botswana Tsa Banana Program. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 3, 1997. 41 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper has evaluated the impact of [Botswana's] Tsa Banana adolescent reproductive health program on adolescents' beliefs regarding the curability of AIDS, the risk that sexually active persons contract AIDS, the benefits of condom use and less risky sexual behavior, and their beliefs regarding the barriers to condom use and less risky sexual behavior."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20303 Mistríková, L'udmila; Hermanová, Darina; Volná, Anna. Family planning among university students in the context of the second demographic revolution. [Populacné zámery vysokoskolských studentov v kontexte druhej demografickej revolúcie.] Sociológia/Sociology, Vol. 30, No. 5, 1998. 499-520 pp. Bratislava, Slovakia. In Slo. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper presents the findings of [a] sociological survey done in 1997 [in Slovakia] that was focussed on...university students' opinions about marriage, partnership, parenthood, desirable number of children and their life goals. The findings are discussed in the context of [a] theoretical debate about the second demographic revolution...and the decreasing birth rate in Slovakia as its empirical indication.... Many research findings...suggest that young people do not mostly manifest anti procreation attitudes and [the] majority [plan] to live in marriage in [the] future and to have two children (the most frequent choice). At the same time, young people would like to maintain...life space for self-realisation and their personal interests."
Correspondence: L. Mistríková, Univerzity Komenského, Katedra Sociológie FF UK, Gondova 2, P.O. Box 1, 81801 Bratislava 16, Slovakia. E-mail: mistrikova@fphil.uniba.sk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20304 Razzaque, Abdur. Preference for children and subsequent fertility in Matlab: Does wife-husband agreement matter? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan 1999. 17-28 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines wife-husband preference for children and subsequent fertility for a period of 5 years in the treatment and comparison areas of Matlab, Bangladesh.... In the case of wives' preferences for children, subsequent childbearing was 13.8% higher than desired in the treatment area and 44.7% higher than desired in the comparison area.... The likelihood of giving birth was 1.78 times higher for wives who wanted no more children, but whose husbands did want more, compared with couples where neither husband nor wife wanted more children."
Correspondence: A. Razzaque, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Population Studies Centre, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20305 Unger, Jennifer B.; Molina, Gregory B. Educational differences in desired family size and attitudes toward childbearing in Latina women. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 4, Mar 1999. 343-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines attitudes toward childbearing and desired family size among Latina women in Los Angeles. We hypothesized that less educated women (those without a high school education) would desire larger families and express more cultural attitudes consistent with large family size than would more educated (those with a high school education or higher). We also hypothesized that positive attitudes toward large families and childbearing would be associated with large desired family size."
Correspondence: J. B. Unger, University of Southern California, Institute for Prevention Research, 1540 Alcazar Street, CHP 207, Los Angeles, CA 90033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20306 van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude N.; Coggins, Christiana; Dube, Sabada E.; Nyamapfeni, Prisca; Mwale, Magdalene; Padian, Nancy S. Men's attitudes toward vaginal microbicides and microbicide trials in Zimbabwe. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 15-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Vaginal microbicides, if shown to be safe and effective, might be useful for the many Zimbabwean women at risk for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) who fail to negotiate condom use with their sexual partners. Because Zimbabwean men have authority around sexual issues, their attitudes toward microbicides may determine whether such a method will be adopted and used.... Five focus-group discussions were held with urban and rural Zimbabwean men to determine their attitudes toward communication about sex, HIV risk-reduction strategies, traditional vaginal practices, vaginal microbicides and their wives' participation in microbicide trials.... Most men said that they would be supportive of their wives' participation in microbicide trials, if they are asked for permission first and if proper medical care and insurance coverage are provided."
Correspondence: J. H. H. M. van de Wijgert, University of Zimbabwe, Collaborative Research Programme in Women's Health, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20307 Wunderink, Sophia R. Is family planning an economic decision? Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1995. 377-92 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In most Western countries couples can decide for themselves how many children they want to have and when they want to have them. This means that family size is a choice variable. In this paper we argue that this choice variable plays an important role in economic models. A couple may rationally determine the optimal number of children it wishes to have, but this choice can only be based on expectations. Since children are usually born one by one, the optimal number may be adjusted during the process of total family formation, as a result of the experiences that the parents have with their first children."
Correspondence: S. R. Wunderink, Erasmus University, Department C.B.V./Behavioral Economics, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: wunderink@esp.few.eur.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

65:20308 Abdella, A. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic profile and contraceptive behaviour in patients with abortion at Jimma Hospital, Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 73, No. 10, Oct 1996. 660-4 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This is a descriptive prospective study on abortion patients admitted to Jimma Hospital, south west Ethiopia from September 1992 to August 1993.... Fifty three percent (N=151) had induced [abortion] while the remaining had spontaneous abortion. Patients with induced abortion were younger...and had smaller family size...than patients with spontaneous abortion.... Eighty two percent of all interviewed had unwanted pregnancies. The contraceptive methods most commonly used were the pill and abstinence."
Correspondence: A. Abdella, Jimma Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

65:20309 Akin, Ayse. Cultural and psychosocial factors affecting contraceptive use and abortion in two provinces of Turkey. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 191-211 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study is about the cultural and psychosocial determinants of induced abortion in Turkey and the relationship between abortion and other methods of fertility regulation. "The specific objectives were: (a) to find out the knowledge, attitude and practice of fertility regulation, including abortion, among couples; (b) to examine the cultural, psychosocial and environmental factors, particularly husbands' behaviour and attitudes, that influence a woman's decision regarding fertility regulation, including the use of less reliable methods (withdrawal); and (c) to use this knowledge to develop strategies that would better meet the obvious, but unfulfilled desire by couples to regulate fertility, and thus reduce the adverse effects of unwanted pregnancy on women's health and wellbeing." The data are for two samples of about 550 households located in a mainly urban province (Ankara) and a primarily rural province (Van). Interviews were conducted with both men and women from these households in focus-group sessions. The widespread reliance on the relatively ineffective contraceptive method of withdrawal is identified as a major contributor to high rates of induced abortion.
Correspondence: A. Akin, Hacettepe University, Department of Public Health, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20310 Alan Guttmacher Institute (New York, New York). Sharing responsibility: women, society and abortion worldwide. ISBN 0-939253-47-X. 1999. 56 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report brings together available knowledge and research findings on induced abortion around the world. Following the introduction, the first section examines the extent of unplanned pregnancy. The next section is about induced abortion, with chapters on abortion law; levels, trends, and patterns; and safe and unsafe conditions of abortion in practice. The third and final section considers societal responses and responsibilities in the matter of unplanned pregnancy and abortion, mapping out options for the future.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. E-mail: info@agi-usa.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20311 Alvarez, Luisa; Garcia, Caridad T.; Catasus, Sonia; Benitez, Maria E.; Martinez, Maria T. Abortion practice in a municipality of Havana, Cuba. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 117-30 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors explore the reasons why levels of induced abortion remain high in Cuba, even though contraceptive use in the country is relatively widespread. The data for the study are from a survey of 1,965 sexually active women aged 13-34 living in the 10 de Octubre municipality of the capital city, Havana. Information is provided on the characteristics of the women surveyed, abortion and menstrual regulation, contraceptive knowledge and use, and abortion and contraception. The authors conclude that abortion levels remain high in the context of the widespread use of contraception because of high levels of method failure, discontinuation, or inconsistent use of contraception.
Correspondence: L. Alvarez, Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población, Apartado Postal 41-595, Mexico, 11001 DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20312 Baird, Barbara. The self-aborting woman. Australian Feminist Studies, Vol. 13, No. 28, Oct 1998. 323-37 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"My aim in this article is to highlight and question some of the assumptions upon which the pro-choice popular history is based. In particular I wish to focus on the image of the self-aborting woman. I wish to foreground textual images from the past, and the present, which might unsettle the image of the self-aborting woman as she figures in the popular history and point to some of the effects of the popular history as it stands. My conclusion returns to...Western Australian stories and calls for caution and self-reflexivity when we read and know about abortion."
Correspondence: B. Baird, University of Adelaide, Department of Social Inquiry, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20313 Baird, David T.; Grimes, David A.; Van Look, Paul F. A. Modern methods of inducing abortion. ISBN 0-86542-819-0. LC 95-14056. 1995. xiv, 218 pp. Blackwell Science: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This book, based on the papers presented at the World Health Organization Scientific Group Meeting on Medical Methods for Termination of Pregnancy in Geneva, April 1994, examines the medical, social and ethical implications of new abortion techniques on a global scale. The first chapter discusses the demography of abortion and this is followed by an overview of current abortion methods. Subsequent chapters cover abortion at different stages of pregnancy: up to 9 weeks; between 9 and 14 weeks; and after 14 weeks. The book then goes on to review abortion counselling, the introduction of new abortion technologies into service-delivery systems, the acceptability of medical abortion, and the ethical, political and religious controversies surrounding abortion. The book ends with a look at the legislative aspects of abortion."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Blackwell Science, Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 0EL, England. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20314 Bulut, Aysen; Toubia, Nahid. Abortion services in two public sector hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey: How well do they meet women's needs? In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 259-78 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study explores "the experience and subsequent behavior of women who had abortions in two public hospitals in Istanbul [Turkey] with fundamentally different approaches to abortion service delivery. [The authors] wanted a profile of these women in terms of their general attitude towards the procedure and their knowledge and use of contraception [in order] to gain a better understanding of the determinants of abortion practice. The main objective, however, was to compare the quality and efficiency of two different approaches to service delivery. Quality was to be measured by the women's reports of post-abortion complications, particularly bleeding and pain; women's expressed satisfaction with the services; and their pattern of post-abortion contraceptive use. Efficiency was to be measured by financial costs, both to the patient and to the health care system." The data concern about 450 women evenly divided between the two hospitals. Recommendations for improving abortion services are made.
Correspondence: A. Bulut, University of Istanbul, Institute of Child Health, Cocuk Hastanesi, Millet Cad. 34390 Capa, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20315 Cadelina, Fred V. Induced abortion in a province in the Philippines: the opinion, role, and experience of traditional birth attendants and government midwives. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 311-20 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes the opinions on and experiences of induced abortion among birth attendants in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. The Philippines is a country in which abortion is illegal and socially condemned. The data were gathered in a two-stage process. The first stage involved in-depth interviews with 26 midwives and Hilots (traditional birth attendants), and the second was based on a 1991-1992 survey of 458 midwives and Hilots. Complications from unsafe illegal abortion are a major health problem, and the results indicate that birth attendants frequently provide information on abortion and sometimes provide abortion services.
Correspondence: F. V. Cadelina, Silliman University, Department of Sociology-Anthropology, Dumaguete City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20316 Caldwell, Bruce; Barkat-e-Khuda; Ahmed, Shameem; Nessa, Fazilatun; Haque, Indrani. Pregnancy termination in a rural subdistrict of Bangladesh: a microstudy. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 34-7, 43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In the study reported on in this article, we interviewed a sample of rural Bangladeshi women who had had pregnancy terminations to examine the factors influencing their decision to end their pregnancy, how the decision was made, any distinct health-seeking behaviors, the provider chosen and the consequences of undergoing a termination." Results indicate that "four in five respondents...terminated their pregnancy because they wanted no more children or wanted to delay their next birth; these respondents generally cited the economic well-being of their family. Almost six in 10 had used a trained provider; the remainder had relied on an untrained provider or had induced their own abortion."
Correspondence: B. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20317 Cook, Rebecca J.; Dickens, Bernard M.; Bliss, Laura E. International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 4, Apr 1999. 579-86 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a review of changes in the laws affecting induced abortion around the world in the 10-year period from 1988 to 1998. "The objective...was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform.... Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics.... [It is concluded that] progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information."
Correspondence: R. J. Cook, University of Toronto, Faculty of Law, 84 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C5, Canada. E-mail: rebecca.cook@utoronto.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20318 Ehrenfeld, N. Female adolescents at the crossroads: sexuality, contraception and abortion in Mexico. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 368-86 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study sought to identify the determinants of the decision to continue or interrupt an unplanned pregnancy among adolescents aged 12 to 19 [in Mexico], by examining the circumstances and sociocultural conditions underlying such a decision. This included looking at factors such as the girl's sexual and reproductive behaviour, her partner's and mother's response to the pregnancy, the partner relationship, her education and employment characteristics, and so forth." The data concern 72 adolescent girls, who were either pregnant or who had recently had an abortion, seeking services at an obstetric and gynecological clinic at a hospital in Mexico City. The data were collected in focus-group sessions. The author notes that, despite nearly 25 years of providing free family planning services through a national program, there is a lack of effective contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents.
Correspondence: N. Ehrenfeld, Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Calzada de Tlalpan 4800, Mexico 14000, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20319 Elu, Maria del C. Between political debate and women's suffering: abortion in Mexico. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 245-58 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study has attempted to identify factors that contribute to a woman's decision, particularly poor women, to interrupt a pregnancy under unsafe, dangerous conditions [in Mexico]. It was also designed to find out more about the perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of the factors that affect the decision to abort from health care providers, particularly hospital staff. An important aspect of the study was to learn about the quality of care women receive when they arrive at hospitals with abortion complications." The study population "consisted of a purposive sample of 300 women admitted to the Hospital de la Mujer for abortion complications (either spontaneous or induced) between 15 August 1990 and 15 January 1991. Of the 300 women, 134 cases (44.7 per cent) were classified as induced abortion."
Correspondence: M. del C. Elu, Instituto Mexicano de Estudios Sociales, A.C., Apartado Postal 22-179, Mexico 14000, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20320 Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip; Staiger, Douglas. Abortion legalization and child living circumstances: who is the "marginal child"? Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 114, No. 1, Feb 1999. 263-91 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We examine the impact of increased abortion availability [in the United States] on the average living standards of children through a selection effect. Would the marginal child who was not born have grown up in different circumstances than the average child? We use variation in the timing of abortion legalization across states to answer this question. Cohorts born after legalized abortion experienced a significant reduction in a number of adverse outcomes. We find that the marginal child would have been 40-60 percent more likely to live in a single-parent family, to live in poverty, to receive welfare, and to die as an infant."
Correspondence: J. Gruber, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:20321 Gui, Shi-xun. Factors affecting induced abortion behaviour among married women in Shanghai, China. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 78-97 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main purpose of our study was to identify the factors that affect the decision to have an induced abortion among married women in both the urban and surrounding rural areas of Shanghai [China]. We also wanted to identify approaches that could lead to a reduction of the induced abortion rate, especially repeat abortions, to protect women's health. To this effect a survey of social, psychological, and demographic factors affecting unwanted pregnancy among married women was carried out in Shanghai in 1991. This chapter presents a preliminary analysis of the findings of this survey." The survey involved 2,765 women who registered at a hospital for an abortion and 2,760 men, mostly their husbands. Particular attention is given to reasons for not using contraception, most of which were related to the poor quality of family planning services.
Correspondence: S.-x. Gui, East China Normal University, Institute of Population Research, 3663 Zhong Shan Road North, Shanghai 20062, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20322 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Singh, Susheela; Haas, Taylor. Recent trends in abortion rates worldwide. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 44-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Numbers of legal induced abortion were estimated for 54 countries from official statistics or other national data. Abortion rates per 1,000 women aged 15-44 were calculated for the years 1975 through 1996.... The most striking recent trend is a sharp decline in abortion incidence in Eastern and Central Europe and the successor states to the Soviet Union.... Rates have also declined in several other developed countries.... In only a few developed countries (among them Canada, New Zealand and Scotland) have abortion rates shown an increase over time."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20323 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Singh, Susheela; Haas, Taylor. The incidence of abortion worldwide. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, Suppl., Jan 1999. 30-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article presents current estimates of the level of induced abortion, based on a recent effort to assemble all available official statistics from countries that collect such data, as well as existing estimates of the level of induced abortion for countries that have no official statistics." Results indicate that "among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe the lowest rate (11 per 1,000).... Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20324 Hewage, P. Induced abortion in Sri Lanka: opinions of reproductive health care providers. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 321-34 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study is based on data obtained from 502 health care providers, including doctors, nurses, midwives, family health workers, and public health inspectors, concerning the determinants of induced abortion in Sri Lanka, where abortion is illegal. The objectives of the study were: "(1) To examine the attitudes of health personnel towards the practice of both contraception and abortion as a means for fertility regulation; (2) To examine the perceptions that health providers have of the psychosocial and demographic characteristics of the women who seek these services; [and] (3) To suggest strategies, based on the profiles that emerge from the information collected in (1) and (2) above, that could be used to improve the quality and scope of reproductive health services in Sri Lanka."
Correspondence: P. Hewage, University of Ruhuna, Department of Geography, Matara, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20325 Joffe, Carole. Reactions to medical abortion among providers of surgical abortion: an early snapshot. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 35-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"I conducted exploratory interviews in the fall of 1996 with long-term [U.S.] surgical providers of abortion about their responses to medical abortion.... I questioned providers about their initial decision to offer medical abortion; what changes in office routines this new practice entailed; and any emergencies and complications they encountered. Respondents were also asked to speculate on the prospect that medical abortion might attract new providers. What follows...may be seen as a `snapshot' of an early moment in the adoption of medical abortion techniques by U.S. abortion providers."
Correspondence: C. Joffe, University of California, Department of Sociology, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20326 Klerman, Jacob A. Welfare reform and abortion. RAND Labor and Population Program Reprint Series, No. 98-05, Pub. Order No. RAND/RP-717. 1998. 98-133 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This chapter attempts to draw together what we know today about the likely effects of [U.S.] welfare reform on abortion and to outline promising strategies for evaluating the actual effects of the limited reforms to date and the wider reforms that are likely to follow.... The existing literature finds no effect of AFDC payments on abortion.... [It] does find significant effects of Medicaid funding on abortions.... Finally, the evidence is mixed on the extent to which adjustments to fertility occur through contraception or through abortions."
Correspondence: RAND, P.O. Box 2138, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. E-mail: order@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20327 Kligman, Gail. The politics of duplicity: controlling reproduction in Ceausescu's Romania. ISBN 0-520-21074-3. LC 97-49421. 1998. xv, 358 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the politics of reproduction in the antiabortion regime of Romania's dictator Ceausescu. "Her analysis explores the institutionalization of duplicity and complicity as social practices that contributed to the state's perpetuation and ultimate demise. [The study] is based on...interviews with women and physicians as well as on documentary and archival material. Besides discussing the social implications and human costs of restrictive reproductive legislation, Kligman examines how reproductive issues become embedded in national and international agendas. She concludes with lessons the world can learn from Romania's tragic experience."
Correspondence: University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20328 Kulczycki, Andrzej. The abortion debate in the world arena. ISBN 0-333-72193-4. 1999. 264 pp. Routledge: London, England. In Eng.
The author "addresses the development of abortion issues on a global level. Using extensive interviews, including discussions with heads of state and church, and original research in Kenya, Mexico and Poland, [the author] examines how cultural history, women's movements, the Catholic Church and international influences have shaped abortion policies in those nations. Recognizing that many abortion issues are moving beyond Western liberal democracies, this book shows how and why the dynamics of the abortion debate have significantly shifted toward developing nations and to post-communist societies of East Central Europe."
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20329 Kveder, Dunja O. Abortion in Ljubljana, Slovenia: A method of contraception or an emergency procedure? In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 447-65 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Data on the use of effective or less effective methods of contraception in Slovenia are analyzed in order to determine whether women perceive abortion as a method of regulating fertility or as an emergency procedure. An additional objective was to "identify the determinants that explain these two different perceptions, including associated behaviour patterns, and to measure the degree of influence, or correlation, of selected individual and psychosocial factors on them. We also wanted to verify the suitability of the use of either more or less effective contraceptive methods as a criterion for differentiating between these perceptions and associated behaviours." The data concern 473 women seeking abortion at an obstetric and gynecological clinic in Ljubljana in 1988. Of these women, 102 had a previous abortion within the past two years, 147 had a previous abortion more than two years ago, and 224 women had no previous abortion experience.
Correspondence: D. O. Kveder, Institute of Public Health, Trubarjeva 2, 61000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20330 Lee, Sam-Sik. Analysis of induced abortion behavior based on the sex composition of children. Health and Social Welfare Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, Winter 1998. 83-105 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"In 1997, the number of induced abortions [in South Korea] was 230 thousand, of which about 80 per cent were illegally performed.... According to this analysis, the rate of acquired infertility was greater for women who have experienced induced abortions than for those who have not. Specifically, the lower the order of pregnancy in which the women aborted, the higher the rates of pregnancy wastage and acquired infertility.... The major determinants of performing an induced abortion were the number and sex composition of living children...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20331 Luo, Lin; Wu, Shi-zhong; Chen, Xiao-qing; Li, Min-xiang. First-trimester induced abortion: a study of Sichuan Province, China. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 98-116 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present study, conducted in six rural counties of Sichuan Province, China, has had a twofold objective. The first has been to understand the generally most important determinants of induced abortion among a rural population of women, which, in the case of China, has meant focusing on contraceptive behaviour. The second, and more significant objective has been to evaluate the quality of first-trimester abortion services and the physiological and psychological sequelae of the procedure among a rural population of women." The survey involved 4,000 women aged 18-40 who had first-trimester abortions in hospitals or family planning clinics. These women were then interviewed 15, 90, and 180 days after the procedure. The impact of contraceptive failure or nonuse of contraception is stressed.
Correspondence: L. Luo, Family Planning Research Institute of Sichuan, No. 15, Section 4, South People's Road Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20332 Medoff, Marshall H. Estimates of the abortion demand of young and older teenagers. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 6, Dec 1998. 539-49 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study estimates the demand for abortion by younger (ages 15-17) and older (ages 18-19) teenagers [in the United States]. The empirical results show, for both age groups, abortion demand is price inelastic and a normal good with respect to income. Teenage abortion demand is also found to be positively related to labor force participation and state Medicaid funding and negatively related to religiosity and unemployment. State family planning programs, AFDC benefits, and parental involvement laws are found not to be significant determinants of teenage abortion demand."
Correspondence: M. H. Medoff, California State University, Department of Economics, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840-4607. E-mail: mmedoff@csulb.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20333 Misago, Chizuru; Fonseca, Walter. Determinants and medical characteristics of induced abortion among poor urban women in north-east Brazil. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 217-27 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The determinants and characteristics of induced abortion in Fortaleza, Brazil, are analyzed using data on 2,084 women from poor, urban neighborhoods. The women were admitted to one of two public maternity hospitals following an illegal abortion in a one-year period in 1992-1993. Information is included on contraceptive usage and method used to induce abortion. The results suggest that "the use of misoprostol as an abortifacient, either alone or in combination with another method, is widespread among the poor urban women of Brazil.... In fact, to our knowledge, Brazil is the first country where misoprostol is used so extensively as a means to circumvent the tight restriction on legal abortion. This situation continues, even though sales of the drug were suspended in 1991 in Ceará State and restricted in other states by the Brazilian federal regulatory agency."
Correspondence: C. Misago, Institute of Woman and Child Health, Rua Barbosa de Freitas 60, Sala 402, 60170-020 Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20334 Mishra, U. S.; Ramanathan, Mala; Rajan, S. Irudaya. Induced abortion potential among Indian women. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1998. 278-88 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt to assess the induced abortion potential among Indian women by utilizing information on proportion of unwanted and ill-timed pregnancies obtained through National Family Health Survey, India.... The distribution of ill-timed and unwanted births indicates that unwanted births occur mostly for women above 30 years of age, and ill-timed births are concentrated more among younger women...."
Correspondence: U. S. Mishra, Centre for Development Studies, Prasanthnagar Road, Ulloor, Thiruvananthapuram 695 011, Kerala. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20335 Molina, Ramiro; Pereda, Cristian; Cumsille, Francisco; Martinez Oliva, Luis; Miranda, Eduardo; Molina, Temistocles. Prevention of pregnancy in high-risk women: community intervention in Chile. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 57-77 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study is concerned with efforts to reduce levels of illegal induced abortion in low-income urban communities in Chile. "The main objective of this study is based on the hypothesis that by improving family planning services, and by focusing them on women identified as having a high risk of induced abortion, it is possible to achieve a significant reduction in abortion rates in areas known for their high abortion incidence." The study was carried out in three communities in the capital, Santiago, and involved an initial sample of about 5,000 women, of whom 2,256 were subsequently exposed to the risk of pregnancy and abortion and were resurveyed two years later. The results show "that an effective intervention, of improved family planning services with personalized inputs, directed at women with high risk of abortion, can be successful in lowering abortion incidence in populations of low socioeconomic status, especially in contexts where abortion is illegal."
Correspondence: R. Molina, School of Medicine, Jose Joaquin Aquirre Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Casilla 7001, 1-7 Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20336 Mpangile, G. S.; Leshabari, M. T.; Kihwele, D. J. Induced abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: the plight of adolescents. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 387-403 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study was undertaken in four public hospitals in Dar es Salaam [Tanzania], which are used primarily by women of low income. First, the study aimed to describe the socioeconomic and demographic profile of these women as well as their fertility regulation behaviour. Second, it intended to explore the circumstances surrounding the abortion experience; to trace the events leading up to hospital admission, including the informal referral network.... Third, the study wanted to describe the actual experience of clandestine abortion, particularly health complications, costs, and perspectives of the women and providers." The data concern 455 women, who were admitted to one of four public hospitals in the city with a diagnosis of incomplete, threatened, or septic abortion. The results confirm that unsafe abortion is a major health problem in Tanzania, and that adolescent women are particularly vulnerable to this practice.
Correspondence: G. S. Mpangile, Family Planning Association of Tanzania, UMATI, Makao Makuu-Mtaa Samora/Zanaki, S.L.P. 1372, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20337 Mundigo, Axel I.; Indriso, Cynthia. Abortion in the developing world. ISBN 81-7036-743-3. 1999. 498 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The book contains 22 case studies focusing on the experience of women who undergo abortion, often under illegal and unsafe circumstances, in Third World countries. The studies represent the result of a global research initiative sponsored by the Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization. The volume examines--through the lens of women's perspectives and personal situations--the reasons why, when confronted with an unintended pregnancy, [women] decide to recur to an abortion.... Overall, the book's focus is on the first-hand experiences of women who have undergone illegal unsafe abortions, and the underlying reasons for their resolve, including specific motivations, decision processes, as well as the economic and social circumstances that might explain the reasons why women seek an abortion, even when they may be aware that the procedure might endanger their lives or put them at a high risk of infection and pain. Some chapters also present the views and attitudes of providers of abortion services, including those providing health care for women with abortion complications. The book includes four main sections: I. The Relationship between Abortion and Contraception; II. Quality of Abortion Care; III. Adolescent Sexuality and Abortion; and IV. Research and Its Implications for Policy."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Vistaar Publications, A Division of Sage Publications India, M-32 Market, Greater Kailash-I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20338 Nguyen, Thi Nhu Ngoc; Winikoff, Beverly; Clark, Shelley; Ellertson, Charlotte; Khong, Ngoc Am; Do, Trong Hieu; Elul, Batya. Safety, efficacy and acceptability of mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion in Vietnam. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 10-4, 33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article, we describe a study exploring the safety, efficacy and acceptability of mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion among women attending two clinics in Vietnam. We address three important questions: First, is medical abortion as effective as surgical abortion for women who choose the method? Second, how do the safety, risks and side effects of medical abortion compare with those of surgical abortion? Third, do women who choose mifepristone-misoprostol abortion find the method acceptable?" Results indicate that "mifepristone-misoprostol abortion is safe, effective and acceptable for urban Vietnamese women who are given a choice of methods."
Correspondence: T. N. N. Nguyen, Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20339 Oodit, Geeta; Bhowon, Uma. The use of induced abortion in Mauritius: An alternative to fertility regulation or an emergency procedure? In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 151-66 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors present the results of a survey on induced abortion in Mauritius, a country where both abortion and contraceptive sterilization are illegal. The data are from interviews with 475 women admitted to hospitals with postabortion complications, and with clinic staff in the participating hospitals. Also, in-depth interviews with 30 women and 15 doctors and nurses provide data for the article. The data are compared with data from the 1991 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS). The results indicate that the women surveyed were younger, had fewer children, were less educated, and were more likely to be Creole than the women in the CPS. The surveyed women combined a lack of desire for having a child with poor utilization of reliable family planning methods. A discussion is included of the perceived shortcomings of the family planning services that are provided through the Ministry of Health and that focus on the needs of married women only.
Correspondence: G. Oodit, Family Planning Association of Mauritius, 30 SSR Street, Port Louis, Mauritius. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20340 Paiewonsky, Denise. Social determinants of induced abortion in the Dominican Republic. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 131-50 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This analysis of induced abortion in the Dominican Republic, a country where abortion is both widespread and illegal, is based on data gathered in structured interviews with 352 patients seeking services for postabortion complications at one of two maternity hospitals in the capital, Santo Domingo, in 1992. The analysis is supplemented by in-depth interviews with 19 lower-class and 13 middle-class women. Sections are included on employment status and on contraceptive knowledge and practice. A profile of women seeking help for postabortion complications is established. "They are mostly young, married women with children, who have completed childbearing and have at some time worked outside the home. Their occupational status shows no significant association with their reproductive behaviour, and--surprisingly--neither does their educational level."
Correspondence: D. Paiewonsky, Instituto de Estudios de Población y Desarrollo, IEPD-PROFAMILIA, Apartado Postal 1053, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20341 Pick, Susan; Givaudan, Martha; Cohen, Suzanne; Alvarez, Marsela; Collado, Maria E. Pharmacists and market herb vendors: abortifacient providers in Mexico City. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 293-310 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study examines common sources of self-induced abortion methods in Mexico, where legal abortion is restricted and largely unavailable to poorer women. The study had the following goals: "1. To assess the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists and herb vendors regarding abortion and contraceptives; 2. To determine what information and which medications are distributed to clients; [and] 3. To measure these providers' perceptions of and attitudes toward clients who request contraceptives and abortifacients." The study included 181 pharmacy workers and 28 market herb vendors. The inadequacy of both the information and methods provided, particularly by pharmacy workers, is stressed.
Correspondence: S. Pick, Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población, Apartado Postal 41-595, Mexico 11001, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20342 Pizarro, Ana M. Humanized attention to abortion and unsafe abortion: Nicaragua. [Atención humanizada del aborto y del aborto inseguro: Nicaragua.] Jul 1998. vii, 137 pp. Red de Salud de las Mujeres Latinoamericanas y del Caribe [RSMLAC], Servicios Integrales para la Mujer [SI Mujer]: Managua, Nicaragua. In Spa.
The author outlines the status of abortion in Nicaragua. The past and current legal status of the procedure are described. Chapters are included on the existence and effectiveness of policies and programs related to abortion; provision and use of abortion services, including reproductive attitudes and practices, and quality of care; human resources; financing of programs and services; statistical registries and official information systems; and measurement of health and abortion indicators.
Correspondence: Red de Salud de las Mujeres Latinoamericanas y del Caribe, Servicios Integrales para la Mujer, Antiguo Edificio IBM Montoya 1 c. arriba, Apartado Postal 2109 Correo Central, Managua, Nicaragua. E-mail: simujer@tmx.com.ni. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20343 Pojman, Louis P.; Beckwith, Francis J. The abortion controversy. 25 years after Roe v. Wade: a reader. 2nd ed. ISBN 0-534-55764-3. LC 98-10664. 1998. xix, 469 pp. Wadsworth: Belmont, California. In Eng.
This book presents a "collection of readings available on the ethics surrounding abortion. Its 29 articles include two major U.S. Supreme Court decisions (Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey), evaluations of Roe, and arguments from a woman's right to her body, in addition to personhood and feminist arguments. [The book] includes important articles by Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Catharine MacKinnon, Judith Jarvis Thomson, John Noonan, Phillip Devine, Daniel and Sidney Callahan, Michael Tooley, Don Marquis, and others. The readings appear in a pro/con format, pitting argument against argument. In the book's introduction, Pojman and Beckwith explain the nature of the abortion debate and what types of arguments are most important and why. Introductions precede each of the eight parts as well as each individual reading. Study questions follow each reading." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Wadsworth Publishing, 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, CA 94002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20344 Risen, James; Thomas, Judy L. Wrath of angels: the American abortion war. ISBN 0-465-09272-1. LC 97-45936. 1998. x, 402 pp. BasicBooks: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book describes the rise and fall of violent antiabortion activism, including Operation Rescue, that occurred following the legalization of induced abortion in the United States with Roe vs. Wade in 1973.
Correspondence: BasicBooks, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022-5299. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20345 Saul, Rebekah. Abortion reporting in the United States: an examination of the federal-state partnership. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 244-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses the quality of abortion reporting in the United States. "The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...has been criticized by some people for its inability to answer all abortion-related inquiries--particularly, detailed questions relating to late-term abortions. However, such criticism does not consider that...CDC obtains its data through a voluntary federal-state partnership in which states are responsible for collecting and managing data in accordance with their own policies and systems, and submitting the information to the federal government. As a result, states ultimately determine the quality and availability of national, government-generated abortion data."
Correspondence: R. Saul, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1120 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 460, Washington, D.C. 20036-3922. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20346 Tamang, A. K.; Shrestha, Neera; Sharma, Kabita. Determinants of induced abortion and subsequent reproductive behaviour among women in three urban districts of Nepal. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 167-90 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Results are presented from a prospective study on the social, economic, and health service factors affecting a woman's decision to have an induced abortion in Nepal, a country in which abortion is illegal. The data concern 1,241 women residing in urban areas in the Kathmandu valley who attended a hospital or clinic with complications from either induced or spontaneous abortion in 1992. The women were followed up at 4- and 15-month intervals. Additional data were collected in focus groups and through in-depth interviews with 40 women. A primary focus of the study is on the relative lack of effective reproductive health services and services providing effective contraception following an abortion.
Correspondence: A. K. Tamang, Centre for Research on Environment Health and Population Activities, P.O. Box 9626, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20347 Van Look, Paul F. A.; von Hertzen, Helena. Induced abortion: a global perspective. In: Modern methods of inducing abortion, edited by David T. Baird, David A. Grimes, and Paul F. A. Van Look. 1995. 1-24 pp. Blackwell Science: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews the incidence of abortion and some of the factors that contribute to differences in the use of abortion between countries and between different population groups within the same country.... A brief overview of abortion laws and policies currently in force throughout the world has also been included."
Correspondence: P. F. A. Van Look, World Health Organization, Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20348 Yusuf, Farhat; Siedlecky, Stefania. Prevalence of and attitudes to abortion among migrant women in Sydney. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 13, No. 1, May 1996. 33-45 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This study, based on a socio-demographic survey, conducted in [Sydney, Australia, in] 1988, of 980 ever-married women of Lebanese, Turkish or Vietnamese origin, shows that Turkish women had the most liberal attitudes and reported the highest incidence of abortion. More than half of the Turkish women and only 10-15 per cent of Lebanese and Vietnamese women thought that a woman should have the right to make the abortion decision herself. In spite of religious and moral objections there were many women who were prepared to consider having an abortion in a variety of common situations...."
Correspondence: F. Yusuf, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20349 Zamudio, Lucero; Rubiano, Norma; Wartenberg, Lucy. The incidence and social and demographic characteristics of abortion in Colombia. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 407-46 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors report on a research program on induced abortion among the urban population of Colombia, a country in which abortion is illegal. The first objective was to obtain more accurate information on the incidence of abortion, and the second was to analyze the circumstances leading to unwanted pregnancy and the decision to abort. The authors also discuss the practices and sanitary conditions surrounding abortions. Data are from a 1992 survey of 33,275 women aged 15-55. The results suggest that nearly one-third of all sexually active women in the survey have had an abortion, and that repeat abortions are quite common. They also suggest that about one-fifth of abortions could be avoided by improving access to, use effectiveness, and quality of family planning services.
Correspondence: L. Zamudio, Universidad Esternado de Colombia, Centre for Research on Social Dynamics, Apartado Aereo 034141, Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20350 Zhou, Wei-jin; Gao, Er-sheng; Yang, Yao-ying; Qin, Fei; Tang, Wei. Induced abortion and the outcome of subsequent pregnancy in China: client and provider perspectives. In: Abortion in the developing world, edited by Axel I. Mundigo and Cynthia Indriso. 1999. 228-44 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; Vistaar Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this chapter we explore the widely held belief among doctors and women in China that prior induced abortion adversely affects subsequent pregnancy outcome, particularly in the form of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight or premature delivery, and maternal morbidity. We were especially interested to know to what degree, if any, the belief actually influences a woman's decision to continue or to terminate a pregnancy." The data were collected in 20 focus-group sessions involving 200 individuals, including women who had experienced an abortion, women who had not experienced an abortion, and doctors. "Generally, it was agreed that induced abortion is a safe, effective back-up procedure for contraceptive failure and for medical treatment that could not be replaced completely by other methods, even RU 486."
Correspondence: W.-j. Zhou, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu Road, Shanghai 200032, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

65:20351 Mannan, Haider R. Differential patterns and correlates of postpartum amenorrhoea in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 3, Sep 1998. 28-35 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants which may have pronounced effects on the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea [in Bangladesh] and also examine their impact.... This study is based on the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS 1989)...." Factors considered include urban or rural residence, mother's education, maternal age, parity, religion, employment status, and contraceptive use.
Correspondence: H. R. Mannan, Dhanmondi Residential Area, House No. 59, Road No. 3A, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20352 Menken, Jane; Kuhn, Randall. Demographic effects of breastfeeding: fertility, mortality, and population growth. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1996. 349-63 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This article reviews the demographic effects of breastfeeding on fertility and child survival and, ultimately, on population growth. Extended breastfeeding both reduces fertility by prolonging birth intervals and increases child survival through improved nutrition, especially where adequate substitutes are not available. The results presented show, however, that although breastfeeding is a major determinant of fertility in the absence of other means of fertility control, prolonged breastfeeding alone cannot reduce fertility to levels consonant with slow or zero population growth. The benefits, at least for the first year of life, demonstrate the need for policies that promote breastfeeding and encourage compatibility between breastfeeding and other aspects of women's lives." The focus is on developing countries. A discussion on the paper is included (pp. 362-3).
Correspondence: J. Menken, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. E-mail: menken@colorado.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20353 Salway, Sarah. The contraceptive potential of lactation for Bangladeshi women. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1998. 3-32 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Longitudinal data from two surveillance sites, one urban and one rural, are used to explore the contraceptive potential of lactational amenorrhoea in Bangladesh. Full breastfeeding is shown to afford significantly greater contraceptive protection than partial breastfeeding, though partial breastfeeders are also found to enjoy good protection against pregnancy while amenorrhoeic. The results also suggest that lactational amenorrhoea can afford good protection against pregnancy beyond six months postpartum. Also, older women seem to have significantly lower risks of conception during postpartum amenorrhoea than younger women."
Correspondence: S. Salway, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. E-mail: S.Salway@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

65:20354 Driscoll, Anne K.; Hearn, Gesine K.; Evans, V. Jeffery; Moore, Kristin A.; Sugland, Barbara W.; Call, Vaughn. Nonmarital childbearing among adult women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 1, Feb 1999. 178-87 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We look at fertility and economic outcomes of women with three types of nonmarital births and women who have marital births. The sample is from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households. Net of controls, married and unmarried women with a recent birth are equally likely to have another birth. Never-married and previously married mothers are more likely to have another nonmarital birth than are other women. Additional nonmarital births to never-married women are associated with being on welfare, not being employed, and having low household income."
Correspondence: A. K. Driscoll, Child Trends, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 100, Washington, D.C. 20008. E-mail: adriscoll@childtrends.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20355 Elo, Irma T.; King, Rosalind B.; Furstenberg, Frank F. Adolescent females: their sexual partners and the fathers of their children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 1, Feb 1999. 74-84 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines age differences among adolescent females, the fathers of their children, and their first sexual partners, as well as the girl's relationship to her first partner. It uses data from [U.S.] Vital Statistics, the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, and the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. We investigate the potential impact of statutory rape laws on teen fertility and the initiation of sexual activity. We find that age differences between teen mothers and the fathers of their children follow historic norms. We further show that one may draw misleading conclusions about the extent to which teen girls engage in sexual activity with older men if conclusions are based simply on data on births. Finally, our demonstration of the potential effects of statutory rape laws on teen births and the age pattern of first intercourse suggests that even successful enforcement of these laws is unlikely to lead to substantial reductions in teen childbearing."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: I. T. Elo, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. E-mail: popelo@pop.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20356 Frenzen, Paul D.; Butler, Margaret A. Births to unmarried mothers are rising faster in rural areas. Rural Conditions and Trends, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1997. 66-9 pp. Herndon, Virginia. In Eng.
The authors investigate trends in births to unmarried mothers in the United States, with a focus on differences between rural and urban areas. Findings indicate that urban-rural differences in nonmarital childbearing have narrowed; unmarried teenagers account for more births in rural areas; and the nonmarital birth rate is slightly higher in rural areas.
Correspondence: P. D. Frenzen, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20005. E-mail: pfrenzen@econ.ag.gov. Location: Pennsylvania State University Library, University Park, PA.

65:20357 Mrden, Snjezana. Extramarital births in Croatia. [Radanja izvan braka u Hrvatskoj.] Geoadria, Vol. 2, 1997. 63-76 pp. Zadar, Croatia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"This article [analyzes] the evolution of extramarital births in Croatia and some European countries from 1950 to 1994. In order to explain the change and the level of extramarital births in Croatia, the author [analyzes]...nuptiality, fertility and woman's marriageable age. The change of extramarital births [in] communes and counties in Croatia is also analysed, the existing differences between [the] Croatian and non-Croatian population being emphasized."
Correspondence: S. Mrden, Filozofski Fakultet u Zadru, Obala Kralja Petra Kresimira IV. 2, 23000 Zadar, Croatia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.