Volume 65 - Number 2 - Summer 1999

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications.

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

65:20074 Andersen, Lars B.; Vestbo, Jørgen; Juel, Knud; Bjerg, Anders M.; Keiding, Niels; Jensen, Gorm; Hein, Hans-Ole; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A. A comparison of mortality rates in three prospective studies from Copenhagen with mortality rates in the central part of the city, and the entire country. European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 14, No. 6, Sep 1998. 579-85 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was to describe...three large population studies from Copenhagen [Denmark] and to examine the mortality in these studies by comparing observed and expected number of deaths. Furthermore, we wanted to examine differences in SMR [standardized mortality ratio] values arising from the use of both local geographic reference rates and national rates. Finally, we have analysed whether the gender, the age of the participants at entry and the time of follow-up influenced SMR values."
Correspondence: L. B. Andersen, Institute for Physical Education, Nørre Allé 51, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20075 Avdeev, Alexandre; Blum, Alain; Zakharov, Sergei; Andreev, Evgeny. The reactions of a heterogeneous population to perturbation. An interpretative model of mortality trends in Russia. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1998. 267-302 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The rapid increase in mortality in Russia during the past ten years is perplexing.... In this paper, the authors offer a new interpretation of these dynamics.... They suggest that recent developments are the cumulative result of a compensation mechanism which followed the rapid decrease in mortality which occurred around 1985, and of the continuation of a deterioration movement which began in the early 1960s.... To prove this and to explain these rapid fluctuations, the authors have developed a model based on hypotheses which involve heterogeneous populations. In addition to analysing mortality in Russia, they provide new models which relate to the consequences of heterogeneity on the dynamics of mortality."
For the original French version, see 63:20069.
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: blum@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20076 Bhat, P. N. Mari. Demographic estimates for post-Independence India: a new integration. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 23-57 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this paper is to put forth an integrated set of estimates of fertility and mortality for [India] as a whole, that are based upon careful weighing of evidence from diverse sources, and employing methods that are least susceptible to typical forms of data errors. The period under consideration is from 1941 to 1991.... Mortality estimates are first taken up for review as they form inputs in estimating fertility measures from age-sex distributions of the population."
Correspondence: P. N. M. Bhat, Institute of Economic Growth, University Enclave, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20077 Dobson, Mary J. Contours of death and disease in early modern England. Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, No. 29, ISBN 0-521-40464-9. LC 95-43276. 1997. xix, 647 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This book provides [an]...account of death and disease in England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Using a broad interdisciplinary perspective, and a wide range of sources for the south-east of England, [the author] highlights the tremendous variations in levels of mortality across geographical contours and two centuries of time. A wide array of demographic data for over five hundred parishes is presented to show that places, separated by an elevation of little more than four or five hundred feet and at a distance of less than ten miles apart, had dramatically different life expectancies and patterns of mortality.... The author explores the epidemiological causes and consequences of these striking mortality variations.... One of the most exciting findings of the book is the significance of malaria in explaining the exceptionally high death rates found within the low-lying contours of marshland areas, and the book provides a unique account of the history of this once endemic disease."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20078 Gómez Redondo, Rosa. Current mortality in Spain. [La mortalidad de la España actual.] Política y Sociedad, No. 26, Sep-Dec 1997. 41-61, 186-7 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Spain has reached the last known step of its Health Transition.... The delay in the moment of death towards older ages [has] lead the elder population to become the life spring of our age pyramid.... The obvious consequence is that mortality becomes the [most] important component of Spanish population ageing, both when it is considered in a short or a medium term. On the other hand, in the origin of differential mortality we found diseases that are linked to behavioural factors, which could be considered as a consequence of diverse life styles. This is reflected in the observed rise of [sex] differences in human mortality, that [leads] to a feminization of the population."
Correspondence: R. Gómez Redondo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Sociología II, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20079 Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Knudsen, L. B.; Petersson, B. Women in Denmark--why do they die so young? Risk factors for premature death. Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, Vol. 7, No. 4, Oct 1998. 266-76 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In Denmark the life expectancy of women has been declining since 1980, and is now the lowest of all OECD countries. Based upon analyses of the different trends in mortality of 35-64-year-old women in Denmark compared to women in Norway and Sweden, national differentials in external determinants of morbidity and premature mortality are described. The excess mortality of women in Denmark is linked to lifestyle factors: tobacco smoking, alcohol and drug consumption. We discuss the possible impact of other external factors...."
Correspondence: K. Helweg-Larsen, Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology, Svanemøllevej 25, 2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. E-mail: dike@dike.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20080 Herring, D. Ann; Hoppa, Robert D. Changing patterns of mortality seasonality among the western James Bay Cree. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, No. 56, 1997. 121-33 pp. Oulu, Finland. In Eng.
"Anglican Church of Canada burial records from 1851-1964 for the Moose Factory First Nation are analysed for mortality seasonality.... The results show a clear and statistically significant pattern of seasonal mortality in the 19th century cohort for all three age groups.... By the early 20th century, the seasonal pattern disappears and the risks of death are consistent throughout the annual cycle.... It is argued that changes in the social and economic fabric of life, associated with the decline of the fur-trade, stimulated an epidemiologic transition among the Moose Factory Cree by the early 20th century...."
Correspondence: D. A. Herring, McMaster University, Department of Anthropology, 120 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20081 Heuveline, Patrick. The unbearable uncertainty of numbers: estimating the deaths in the Khmer Rouge period. [L'insoutenable incertitude du nombre: estimations de décès de la période Khmer rouge.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 1,103-17 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article presents the different methods used to estimate mortality [in Cambodia] during the Khmer Rouge period. They are of two main types: the sampling methods and the `residual' method.... Estimates of the excess mortality in this period are usually higher with the former method (between 1.5 and 2 million) than with the second (1 million or less), except for the author's reconstruction. This article assesses the respective advantages of the two approaches, and attempts to explain the apparent incompatibility of the existing estimates while considering the uncertainty that is inherent to any measurement procedure."
Correspondence: P. Heuveline, University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. E-mail: p-heuveline@uchicago.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20082 Hoppa, Robert D. Mortality in a northern Ontario fur-trade community: Moose Factory, 1851-1964. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1998. 175-98 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper summarizes the results of a historical demographic study of a Northern Ontario Aboriginal community. Data on 19th and 20th century mortality for the community of Moose Factory are examined from Anglican parish records.... Changing patterns of mortality over time and differential mortality are assessed.... The implications of [the] results are discussed in relation to changes in the frequency and intensity of European contact and the changing socio-economic factors related to the decline of the fur trade from the late 19th to early 20th centuries."
Correspondence: R. D. Hoppa, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Doberaner Strasse 114, 18057 Rostock, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20083 Kateb, Kamel. Life expectancy at birth and excess female mortality in Algeria in 1954. [L'espérance de vie à la naissance et la surmortalité féminine en Algérie en 1954.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 1,209-26 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An attempt is made to estimate levels of mortality in colonial Algeria using methods of indirect estimation to solve the problems posed by lack of complete and accurate vital statistics data on mortality. The focus is on the extent of excess female mortality.
Correspondence: K. Kateb, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20084 Lee, Wen-Chung. The meaning and use of the cumulative rate of potential life lost. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 6, Dec 1998. 1,053-6 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author proposes a new index to determine years of potential life lost, "namely the `cumulative rate of potential life lost' (CRPLL).... It serves the purpose of between-group comparison. It can also be considered a projection of future impact under the assumption that the age-specific mortality rates in the current year prevail. The author uses vital statistics in Taiwan for demonstration and compares the new index with existing health-status measures."
Correspondence: W.-C. Lee, National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, No. 1 Jen-Ai Road, 1st Sec., Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20085 Royer, Heather; Smith, Gary. Can the famous really postpone death? Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1998. 302-5 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"David P. Phillips has reported evidence that famous people are often able to postpone their deaths until after a birthday. A reexamination of Phillips' data shows some aspects of his analysis to be questionable, including the lumping together of deaths that occur during the birthmonth, which does not distinguish deaths that occurred before the birthday from those that occurred afterward. A reanalysis of his data shows that there were actually a relatively large number of deaths in the month preceding and the months following the birthday."
Correspondence: H. Royer, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20086 Thatcher, A. R. The long-term pattern of adult mortality and the highest attained age. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: Statistics in Society, Vol. 162, No. Pt. 1, 1999. 5-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Recent new data on old age mortality point to a particular model for the way in which the probability of dying increases with age. The model is found to fit not only modern data but also some widely spaced historical data for the 19th and 17th centuries, and even some estimates for the early mediaeval period. The results show a pattern which calls for explanation. The model can also be used to predict a probability distribution for the highest age which will be attained in given circumstances. The results are relevant to the current debate about whether there is a fixed upper limit to the length of human life." A discussion of the paper by several researchers and a reply by the author are included.
Correspondence: A. R. Thatcher, 129 Thetford Road, New Malden, Surrey KT3 5DS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:20087 Weiss, Judy E.; Mushinski, Margaret. International mortality rates and life expectancy: selected countries. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 80, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1999. 13-21 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors present "a comparison of all-cause mortality for selected industrialized countries. These countries represent those with historically low death rates and comparable vital statistics databases." Information is included on U.S. mortality trends, international comparisons, variations by age, and expectation of life. "Although life expectancy values are improving in all 15 countries, U.S. longevity continues to fare poorly in comparison to other developed countries."
Correspondence: J. E. Weiss, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology, and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion. Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

65:20088 Carlson, Elwood; Hoem, Jan M. Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 5, Mar 1, 1999. 447-53 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births...revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogeneous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival."
Correspondence: E. Carlson, University of South Carolina, Department of Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20089 Green, Elna C. Infanticide and infant abandonment in the New South: Richmond, Virginia, 1865-1915. Journal of Family History, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1999. 187-211 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This case study of Richmond, Virginia, examines patterns of abandonment and neonaticide [from 1865 to 1915] as documented in records of the city almshouse and the city coroner. It demonstrates that race shaped the options available to women with problem pregnancies in that African American women had access to fewer social welfare institutions such as maternity homes. As a result, unmarried black women kept their out-of-wedlock babies more often than did whites, but they also committed infanticide at higher rates than did whites."
Correspondence: E. C. Green, Florida State University, Department of History, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20090 Menezes, Ana M. B.; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.; Tomasi, Elaine; Halpern, Ricardo; Oliveira, André L. B. Risk factors for perinatal mortality in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, 1993. [Fatores de risco para mortalidade perinatal em Pelotas, RS, 1993.] Revista de Saúde Pública/Journal of Public Health, Vol. 32, No. 3, Jun 1998. 209-16 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"Although there was a considerable reduction in infant mortality in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul [Brazil] in the last decade, its perinatal causes were reduced only by 28%. The associated factors of these causes were analysed.... Main risk factors for perinatal mortality [were] low socioeconomic level, maternal age above 35 years and male sex [of child]. For early neonatal mortality the risk was significantly increased by a smaller number of antenatal visits than 5 and low birthweight."
Correspondence: A. M. B. Menezes, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Clínica Medíca, Caixa Postal 464, 96001-970 Pelotas, RS, Brazil. E-mail: anamen@nutnet.com.br. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20091 Wen, Shi Wu; Kramer, Michael S. A comparison of perinatal mortality between ethnic Chinese and ethnic whites: why the Chinese rate was lower. Ethnicity and Health, Vol. 2, No. 3, Aug 1997. 177-82 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
Based on a review of the published literature, the authors aim "to confirm the observation that has been occasionally reported in the literature that perinatal mortality rate is lower in ethnic Chinese than in ethnic whites, and to assess the reasons for this lower perinatal mortality rate.... Perinatal mortality rate is lower in ethnic Chinese than in ethnic whites, and...[this] is probably caused by their favourable birth weight distribution and lower exposure to risk factors of perinatal death by their mothers." The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: S. W. Wen, Bureau of Reproductive and Child Health, Laboratory Centre of Disease Control, Building #6, First Floor P-L, 0601E2, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20092 Xu, Baizhuang; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Rantakallio, Paula. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and sex differences in perinatal death between boys and girls. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1998. 273-7 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The current study evaluated the differences in the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the risk of perinatal death between males and females. The analysis involved 11,469 and 9,404 newborns derived from two population-based birth cohorts in Northern Finland, for 1966 and 1985-86, respectively. The perinatal mortality rate was 23 per thousand in the 1966 cohort and 9 per thousand in the 1985-86 cohort.... Maternal smoking during pregnancy could be an important determinant accounting for the excess perinatal death for males over females."
Correspondence: B. Xu, National Public Health Institute, Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Neulaniementie 4, 70210 Kuopio, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

65:20093 Alam, M. Fasihul; Islam, S. M. Shafiqul. Infant and child mortality differentials in Bangladesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 3, Sep 1998. 18-27 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper...seeks to examine infant and child mortality differentials in Bangladesh caused by selected socio-economic, environmental and demographic factors.... The data used for this study were derived from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS)...." Factors considered include parents' educational status, husband's occupation, religion, contraceptive use, sanitary facilities, region of residence, and age at first marriage.
Correspondence: M. F. Alam, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20094 Bird, Sheryl T.; Bauman, Karl E. State-level infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality: the contribution of selected structural socioeconomic variables. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1998. 13-27 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
"The authors examine the importance of several structural (social, economic, and political) variables for state-level [U.S.] infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality.... States with proportionately larger black population had higher infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates. States with greater percentages of high school graduates had lower neonatal mortality rates but higher postneonatal mortality rates. The findings suggest that a better understanding of the relationship between states' social structure and infant health outcomes is needed if state-level infant mortality is to be reduced."
Correspondence: S. T. Bird, University of Oregon, Center for the Study of Women in Society, 1201 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1201. E-mail: stbird@oregon.uoregon.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20095 Bolivia. Ministerio de Desarrollo Humano (La Paz, Bolivia). Estimates of infant and child mortality in Bolivia using indirect techniques: 1990-1995. [Estimación de la mortalidad infantil y de la niñez en Bolivia mediante técnicas indirectas: 1990-1995.] Dec 1995. 127 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This volume contains geographic information on infant and child mortality in Bolivia. Tabular data and maps are provided on trends for the country as a whole, for individual departments, and for rural and urban areas.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Desarrollo Humano, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20096 Carmichael, Suzan L.; Iyasu, Solomon; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra. Cause-specific trends in neonatal mortality among black and white infants, United States, 1980-1995. Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jun 1998. 67-76 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report uses U.S. vital statistics data to describe national trends in the major causes of neonatal mortality among black and white infants from 1980 to 1995.... During the study period, neonatal mortality declined 4.0% per year for white infants and 2.2% per year for black infants, and the black-white gap increased from 2.0 to 2.4. By 1995, disorders relating to short gestation and low birth weight were the number one cause of neonatal death for black infants and the number two cause for white infants, had the highest black-white disparity..., and accounted for almost 40% of excess deaths to black infants...."
Correspondence: S. L. Carmichael, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, 1900 Powell Street, Suite 1050, Emeryville, CA 94608. E-mail: slc@a.crl.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20097 Deshpande, R. V. Determinants of child mortality: a district level analysis of major Indian states. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jun 1998. 43-53 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to study the factors determining child mortality in the major states of India using 1981 data. Specifically, the intention is to study district level variations in child mortality, as also sex differentials therein, and factors determining child mortality in the major states of India."
Correspondence: R. V. Deshpande, J. S. S. Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20098 Fildes, Valerie. Infant feeding practices and infant mortality in England, 1900-1919. Continuity and Change, Vol. 13, No. 2, Aug 1998. 251-80 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Studies of infant mortality in both historical and modern populations from around the world have shown that the most important single factor affecting the infant mortality rate (IMR) is the way in which babies are fed.... This article examines infant feeding practices in England during the first two decades of the twentieth century, arguably the most important 20 years in the fall in that nation's IMR between 1870 and 1920. The 1900s and 1910s saw many major changes in the ways in which infants were fed in all sections of society. Instigated by government, local Medical Officers of Health and their staff and voluntary organizations, the effect of the infant welfare movement in England in this period was that infants and their mothers were significantly better fed, cared for and able to resist disease in 1919 than in 1900."
Correspondence: V. Fildes, Holt View, Lye Hill, Breachwood Green, Hitchen, Hertfordshire SG4 8PP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20099 Gao, Minwen; He, Yongna; Li, Yan; Liu, Xiulan; Li, Yizhu. An analysis of the result of life observation of children under the age of five in Dongcheng District, Beijing, between 1991 and 1994. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 101-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A Development Program for Chinese Children in the 1990s requires that, by year 2000, infant mortality and mortality among children under the age of five be reduced by one third of the levels in the 1990s. In order to achieve this goal and obtain accurate statistics of mortality among children in Dongcheng District in Beijing, the District Maternal and Child Health Center began life observation in 1991 among children under the age of five. The result of the observation is discussed below."
Correspondence: M. Gao, Dongcheng District Maternal and Child Health Center, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20100 Hummer, Robert A.; Biegler, Monique; De Turk, Peter B.; Forbes, Douglas; Frisbie, W. Parker; Ying, Hong; Pullum, Starling G. Race/ethnicity, nativity, and infant mortality in the United States. Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 3, Mar 1999. 1,083-117 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The overall purpose of this article is to examine population differences in the risk of infant mortality by race/ethnicity, with special attention given to the influence of nativity. Data are taken from the [U.S.] National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) linked birth/infant death files for 1989-91.... Results show that there is wide variation in the risk of infant death across racial/ethnic groups, with infants born to black women suffering the highest risks and infants of Japanese women experiencing the lowest risks. It is also clear that nativity has a crucial impact on racial/ethnic differentials in infant mortality. In fact, the favorable infant survival rates of many racial/ethnic groups are largely attributable to a high percentage of births to immigrant women, who are characterized by overall lower infant mortality than native-born women."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. A. Hummer, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78712. E-mail: rhummer@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20101 Koupilová, Ilona; McKee, Martin; Holcík, Jan. Neonatal mortality in the Czech Republic during the transition. Health Policy, Vol. 46, No. 1, Oct 1998. 43-52 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"This paper examines how neonatal mortality has changed in the Czech Republic during the [1990s], examining trends in the distribution of birth weights and in birth weight specific neonatal mortality. It examines how these have varied in different parts of the country and, to ascertain the scope for further improvement, it compares them with corresponding values from Sweden, a country with one of the lowest neonatal mortality rates in Europe."
Correspondence: I. Koupilová, University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. E-mail: i.koupilova@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20102 Morrison, Anita; Stone, David H.; Redpath, Adam; Campbell, Harry; Norrie, John. Trend analysis of socioeconomic differentials in deaths from injury in childhood in Scotland, 1981-95. British Medical Journal, Vol. 318, No. 7183, Feb 27, 1999. 567-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in child mortality from injury in Scotland are followed over the period 1981-1995 using official data. The results indicate that, in contrast to the situation in England and Wales, there does not seem to be a growing mortality difference from this cause by socioeconomic status in Scotland.
Correspondence: A. Morrison, University of Glasgow, Paediatric Epidemiology and Community Health Unit, Department of Child Health, Glasgow G3 8SJ, Scotland. E-mail: Anita.Morrison@gla.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20103 Pandey, Arvind; Choe, Minja Kim; Luther, Norman Y.; Sahu, Damodar; Chand, Jagdish. Infant and child mortality in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 11, Dec 1998. 99 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This Subject Report examines infant and child mortality and their determinants for India as a whole and for individual states, using data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey. Neonatal (first month), postneonatal (age 1-11 months), infant (first year), and child (age 1-4 years) mortality are estimated, as well as the effects of socioeconomic background characteristics, demographic characteristics, and mother's health-care behaviour, using information from women's birth histories pertaining to children born during the 12-year period before the survey. Infant mortality declined 23 percent in India between 1981 and 1990, and child mortality declined 34 percent during the same period." The study found substantial variation among states; evidence for strong son preference in northern states; and substantial effects of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20104 Reyes, Hortensia; Tomé, Patricia; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Rodríguez, Leticia; Orozco, Maribel; Guiscafré, Héctor. Mortality due to diarrhea in Mexico: a problem of accessibility or quality of care? [La mortalidad por enfermedad diarreica en México: ¿problema de acceso o de calidad de atención?] Salud Pública de México, Vol. 40, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 316-23 pp. Morelos, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors "evaluate the access to health services and the process of care provided to children [in Mexico] under five years old who died from acute diarrhea.... The problem of access to health services in rural communities was confirmed. However, low quality of care provided by primary level physicians was found in both rural and urban areas."
Correspondence: H. Reyes, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores 06725, Mexico, D.F., Mexico. E-mail: reymor@servidor.unam.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20105 Ríos, Ana M.; de la Hoz, Fernando; Leal, Aura L.; Castillo, Orlando; Castañeda, Elizabeth. The impact of antimicrobial resistance and capsular type distribution on the mortality of children under five years of age with invasive disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. [Impacto de la resistencia a antimicrobianos y de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae en la mortalidad de niños menores de 5 años con enfermedad invasora.] Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 149, No. 6, Mar 15, 1999. 69-76 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with mortality in children [in Colombia] with invasive pneumococcal disease.... Of the 245 patients whose charts were examined, 29 (11%) died. No significant differences in age, gender, underlying disease, nor antimicrobial treatment concordance were found...."
Correspondence: A. M. Ríos, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Grupo de Microbiología, Avenida El Dorado, carrera 50, Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20106 Rose, Elaina. Consumption smoothing and excess female mortality in rural India. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 81, No. 1, Feb 1999. 41-9 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between consumption smoothing and excess female mortality [in India], by asking if favorable rainfall shocks in childhood increase the survival probabilities of girls to a greater extent than they increase boys' survival probabilities for a sample of rural Indian children. In order to avert the issue of selection bias due to underreporting of births of girls, a methodology is employed that does not require data on births by gender. The results indicate that favorable rainfall shocks increase the ratio of the probability that a girl survives to the probability that a boy survives."
Correspondence: E. Rose, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:20107 Sanz Gimeno, Alberto; Ramiro Fariñas, Diego. Internal structures of childhood mortality (0-4 years) in twentieth-century Spain. [Estructuras internas de la mortalidad de la infancia (0-4 años) en la España del siglo XX.] Política y Sociedad, No. 26, Sep-Dec 1997. 125-42, 188-9 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This work displays the role of childhood mortality (ages 1 to 4) as an essential variable, in addition to infant mortality, to explain the general mortality decline [in Spain]. The work stresses the need to study the structure of mortality in [the] earliest ages, because of differences found in several countries and contexts and its relation with the demographic transition process."
Correspondence: A. Sanz Gimeno, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Sociología II, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20108 Sellen, Daniel W.; Mace, Ruth. A phylogenetic analysis of the relationship between sub-adult mortality and mode of subsistence. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan 1999. 1-16 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The hypothesis that measures of sub-adult mortality rates in natural fertility populations are associated with subsistence practices in a selected cross-cultural sample (n=39) was tested.... It was found that dependence on extractive modes of subsistence (hunting, gathering and fishing) was a significant positive correlate of total child mortality.... Both increases in dependence on foraging and permanent settlement were associated with increases in child mortality between pairs of historically related cultures. The results indicated little association between infant mortality...and either dependence on foraging or settlement."
Correspondence: D. W. Sellen, Emory University, Department of Anthropology, Atlanta, GA 30324. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20109 Sharma, Ravi K. Causal pathways to infant mortality: linking social variables to infant mortality through intermediate variables. Journal of Health and Social Policy, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1998. 15-28 pp. Binghampton, New York. In Eng.
"Using a conceptual model that integrates social and biomedical models of causation, this paper delineates the pathways through which social factors ultimately influence infant mortality in the African-American community [in the United States]. Two social factors, maternal education and marital status, are shown to influence the risk of infant death through the following intermediate variables: bio-demographic (maternal age, birth order, birth interval and outcome of last pregnancy), health care (prenatal care utilization) and proximate infant health status at birth (preterm delivery and low birth weight)."
Correspondence: R. K. Sharma, University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, Division of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20110 Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per; Skrondal, Anders; Terje Lie, Rolv. Consanguinity and recurrent risk of stillbirth and infant death. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 4, Apr 1999. 517-23 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The risk of stillbirth and infant death in marriages between first cousins is explored using data on all single births in Norway between 1967 and 1994, including 3,466 births to parents who were first cousins. "For unrelated parents, the risk of early death (stillbirth plus infant death) for the subsequent sibling was 17 of 1,000 if the previous child survived and 67 of 1,000 if the previous child died before 1 year of age. For parents who were first cousins, the risk of early death for the subsequent sibling was 29 of 1,000 if the previous child survived and 116 of 1,000 if the previous child died."
Correspondence: C. Stoltenberg, National Institute of Public Health, Department of Population Health Sciences, Section of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 4404, Torshov, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20111 Whitehead, Margaret; Drever, Frances. Narrowing social inequalities in health? Analysis of trends in mortality among babies of lone mothers. British Medical Journal, Vol. 318, No. 7188, Apr 3, 1999. 908-14 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Two short versions of a paper are provided on trends in mortality among babies of single mothers in England and Wales compared with mortality among babies registered by couples and couple registrations subdivided by social class. Data are from the national linked infant mortality file for all infant births and deaths for the period 1975-1996. The results indicate that, although infant mortality for children of single mothers has declined significantly over time, the differential in infant mortality among social classes persists. However, the differential in infant mortality between sole and couple registrations has also decreased. "As the reduction in the differential was confined to the neonatal period these improvements may be more a reflection of healthcare factors than of factors associated with lone mothers' social and economic circumstances." The full version of this paper is available on the Internet at www.bmj.com.
Correspondence: M. Whitehead, The Old School, Ash Magna, Whitchurch, Shropshire SY13 4DR, England. E-mail: margaret@ashmagna.demon.co.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20112 Woldemicael, Gebremariam. The effects of water supply and sanitation on childhood mortality in urban Eritrea. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 127, ISBN 91-7820-123-3. Oct 1998. 23 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The central question in this study is whether access to piped water and a flush toilet affects the survival chance of children under five in urban areas of Eritrea. The study uses data collected by the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) project in Eritrea in 1995. The results show that while the unadjusted effect of household environment (water supply and toilet facility) is large and statistically significant during the post-neonatal and childhood periods, it is relatively small and statistically insignificant during the neonatal period."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20113 Wong, Tze-Wai; Wong, Siu-Lan; Yu, Tak-Sun; Liu, Joseph L. Y.; Lloyd, Owen L. Socioeconomic correlates of infant mortality in Hong Kong, 1979-93. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1998. 281-8 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"We conducted a...study on the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and infant mortality in Hong Kong by using government data from three periods: 1979-83, 1984-88 and 1989-93.... In 1979-83, socioeconomic deprivation was found to be significantly associated with high IMRs [infant mortality rates] and high NMRs [neonatal mortality rates] in both sexes, while in 1984-88 this association was observed only in baby girls. Non of the observed associations were significant in 1989-93. Overall, the territory's infant mortality rates fell from 10.2 per thousand live births in 1979-83 to 5.6 per thousand live births in 1989-93."
Correspondence: T.-W. Wong, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Lek Yuen Health Centre 4/F, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

65:20114 Gan, Jianping; Zheng, Zhongmei; Li, Guoguang. Age-specific mortality among advanced-age Chinese citizens and its difference between the two genders. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 89-100 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Due to the limited amount of data concerning the mortality of advanced-age people, this study is based on the relatively reliable age-specific and gender-specific raw data obtained from the censuses conducted in China. The study is a preliminary analysis of the mortality and gender difference of each age cohort of the advanced-age group during the intervals between censuses, and of the change in the age-specific sex ratio of advanced-age groups...."
Correspondence: J. Gan, Huanggang Teachers' College, Hubei Province, Wuhan, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20115 Helmer, Catherine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Letenneur, Luc; Dartigues, Jean-François. Subjective health and mortality in French elderly women and men. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, Vol. 54, No. 2, Mar 1999. 84-92 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Data from the PAQUID (Personnes Agées QUID) cohort, a representative sample of 3,660 community residents aged 65 or older living in France, are used to examine the relationship between subjective health and mortality. The results indicate that "in men, subjective health was a predictor of mortality, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, physical health status, depressive symptomatology, cognitive function, and disability, particularly in the middle-range categories of subjective health. In women, the relationship between subjective health and mortality was explained by physical health status and disability."
Correspondence: C. Helmer, Université de Bordeaux II, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 330, Bordeaux, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

65:20116 Leveille, Suzanne G.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Langlois, Jean A. Aging successfully until death in old age: opportunities for increasing active life expectancy. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 7, Apr 1, 1999. 654-64 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly are used to estimate the factors associated with having no disability in the year prior to death in very old age. The data concern 1,097 men and women aged 65 or over from three communities in Connecticut, Iowa, and Massachusetts who were followed over the period 1981-1991 and who had no known disability in the 15 months prior to death. The results show that physical activity was a key factor in predicting nondisability before death. "There was nearly a twofold increased likelihood of dying without disability among the most physically active group compared with sedentary adults (adjusted odds ratio=1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.24-2.79). These findings provide encouraging evidence that disability prior to death is not an inevitable part of a long life but may be prevented by moderate physical activity."
Correspondence: S. G. Leveille, National Institute on Aging, Gateway Building, Suite 3C-309, 7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20117 Welon, Zygmunt; Bielicki, Tadeusz; Rogucka, Elzbieta; Malina, Robert M. Effect of education and marital status on premature mortality among urban adults in Poland, 1988-1989. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1999. 397-403 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Mortality rates among adults 25-64 years of age (premature mortality) in 1988 and 1989 were compared by educational status (a four-level scale) and marital status (married vs. nonmarried) in three Polish cities situated in ecologically different regions of Poland. Each of the two social factors has a significant influence on mortality after the effect of the other is controlled statistically. The risk of premature death increases regularly with an individual's decreasing position on the educational scale; also, the risk is higher among nonmarried than among married persons. This is true in all three urban populations, at all age levels considered, and in both genders. However, the effects of education and of marital status on premature mortality are more dramatic in males than in females. At middle age, the condition of having no spouse and of being poorly educated each expose males to a greater risk of premature mortality than females."
Correspondence: E. Rogucka, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Anthropology, Kuznicza 35, 50-951 Wroclaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

65:20118 India. Office of the Registrar General (New Delhi, India). SRS based abridged life tables 1989-93. SRS Analytical Studies Report, No. 1 of 1996, Apr 1996. 33 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Based on SRS data, life tables have been prepared for the periods 1970-75, 1976-80, 1981-85, 1986-90, 1987-91 and 1988-92. The present report contains abridged life tables [for India] for the 5-year period 1989-93 by sex and residence for India and major States. It is proposed to bring out such life tables for subsequent 5-year periods regularly and also for the decades 1971-80 and 1981-90 using the age specific mortality rates obtained from the SRS."
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, V. S. Division, West Block, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 066, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20119 Shavelle, Robert; Strauss, David. A long period multistate life table using micro data. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1999. 161-77 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The multistate life table (MLT) has been widely used by demographers for the past twenty years. However, the pivotal Markov condition upon which the entire methodology rests is rarely satisfied in practice. We lessen reliance upon the assumption by computing transition probabilities for longer periods of time than was previously practical. An extended Kaplan-Meier estimator accomplishes this task, simultaneously addressing the issue of censoring.... We provide an illustrative example of a 10-year period MLT, with comparison to a 1-year period MLT." The data for California are used as an illustration.
Correspondence: R. Shavelle, University of California, Department of Statistics, Riverside, CA 92521. E-mail: shavelle@citrus.ucr.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

65:20120 Bah, Sulaiman M. Assessing the contribution of age-sex differentials in causes of death due to infectious and parasitic diseases to the trends in age-sex differentials in life expectancy in Mauritius. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1998. 260-72 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study applies two methodologies to Mauritian life tables and cause-of-death data.... The findings in this paper support earlier findings about the importance of the period 1969-1976 in the mortality transition in Mauritius, a period in which sex differentials in life expectancies reached a peak level. The results suggest that the driving force behind those sex differentials in life expectancy was the sex differential in mortality in infectious and parasitic diseases, first among the young (ages below 10 years) and second among the older population (ages above 50 years)."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. M. Bah, Central Statistical Service, Private Bag X44, 0001 Pretoria, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20121 Barrow, Susan M.; Herman, Daniel B.; Córdova, Pilar; Struening, Elmer L. Mortality among homeless shelter residents in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 4, Apr 1999. 529-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Mortality among the homeless in New York City is analyzed using data from a representative sample of shelter residents surveyed in 1987 and matched against national mortality records for the period 1987-1994 and logistic regression analysis. "Age adjusted death rates of homeless men and women were 4 times those of the general U.S. population and 2 to 3 times those of the general population of New York City. Among homeless men, prior use of injectable drugs, incarceration, and chronic homelessness increased the likelihood of death."
Correspondence: S. M. Barrow, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Epidemiology of Mental Disorders Research Department, 100 Haven Avenue, #31F, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: barrows@pi.cpmc.columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20122 Blane, D.; Harding, S.; Rosato, M. Does social mobility affect the size of the socioeconomic mortality differential?: evidence from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: Statistics in Society, Vol. 162, No. Pt. 1, 1999. 59-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The effect of social mobility on the socioeconomic differential in mortality is examined with data from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study. The analyses involve 46,980 men aged 45-64 years in 1981. The mortality risk of the socially mobile is compared with the mortality risk of the socially stable after adjustment for their class of origin (their social class in 1971) and class of destination (their social class in 1981) separately. Among those in employment there is some evidence that movement out of their class of origin is in the direction predicted by the idea of health-related social mobility. This evidence, however, seems strongest for causes of death which are least likely to have been preceded by prolonged incapacity. Movement into the class of destination, however, shows the opposite relationship with mortality."
Correspondence: D. Blane, University of London, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, Department of Behavioral and Cognitive Science, Charing Cross Hospital, St. Dunstan's Road, London W6 8RP, England. E-mail: d.blane@cxwms.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:20123 Blane, David; Bartley, Mel; Davey Smith, George. Disease aetiology and materialist explanations of socioeconomic mortality differentials. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1997. 385-91 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The social structure can affect health by distributing exposure to environmental hazards and by conditioning behaviours which damage or promote health. The present paper concentrates on the former route, which the Black Report described as the structural or materialist type of explanation of health inequalities. The contribution of materialist factors is assessed by examining socioeconomic mortality differentials as a form of relative deprivation and by presenting evidence of the sensitivity of these differentials to multiple indicators of social position.... An apparent discrepancy is identified between the lesser importance attributed to materialist factors in the aetiological literature and that suggested by the evidence initially presented." The geographical focus is on England and Wales.
Correspondence: D. Blane, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, Academic Department of Psychiatry, London W6 8RP, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

65:20124 Borrell, Carme; Regidor, Enrique; Arias, Luís-Carlos; Navarro, Pedro; Puigpinós, Rosa; Domínguez, Vicente; Plasència, Antoni. Inequalities in mortality according to educational level in two large southern European cities. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1999. 58-63 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study looks at the differences in mortality [in Spain] according to educational level.... The study populations were residents of Madrid and Barcelona aged [greater than] 24 years, who died in 1993 and 1994.... The mortality rate was lower among individuals with higher educational levels, while life expectancy at 25 years was higher. In both cities men and women with no education showed the highest mortality in all age groups, with very high [relative risk] in the youngest age group.... In Barcelona the greater part of the overall mortality difference for the group aged 25-34 years was due to AIDS...."
Correspondence: C. Borrell, Municipal Institute of Health, Pl. Lesseps 1, 08023 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20125 Corti, Maria-Chiara; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Izmirlian, Grant; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Pahor, Marco; Cohen, Harvey J.; Pieper, Carl; Havlik, Richard J. Evidence for a black-white crossover in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in an older population: the North Carolina EPESE. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 3, Mar 1999. 308-14 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Differences in mortality between blacks and whites aged 65 years and older are analyzed using data on 4,136 men and women living in North Carolina in 1986 and followed until 1994. The results show that blacks had higher mortality than whites at ages 65-80, but significantly lower mortality after age 80. "Racial differences in mortality are modified by age. This mortality crossover could be attributed to selective survival of the healthiest oldest Blacks or to other biomedical factors affecting longevity after age 80. Because the crossover was observed for CHD deaths only, age overreporting by Black older persons seems an unlikely explanation of the mortality differences."
Correspondence: J. M. Guralnik, National Institute on Aging, Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry Program, 7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Room 3C-309, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205. E-mail: guralnij@gw.nia.nih.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20126 Erikssen, Gunnar; Liestøl, Knut; Bjørnholt, Jørgen; Thaulow, Erik; Sandvik, Leiv; Erikssen, Jan. Changes in physical fitness and changes in mortality. Lancet, Vol. 352, No. 9130, Sep 5, 1998. 759-62 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between changes in physical fitness and mortality is analyzed using data on 2,014 healthy men in Norway who were followed over 22 years starting in the period 1972-1975. The results indicate that "change in physical fitness in healthy middle-aged men is a strong predictor of mortality. Even small improvements in physical fitness are associated with a significantly lowered risk of death."
Correspondence: G. Erikssen, Central Hospital of Akershus, Medical Department, 1474 Nordbyhagen, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20127 Ferrucci, Luigi; Izmirlian, Grant; Leveille, Suzanne; Phillips, Caroline L.; Corti, Maria-Chiara; Brock, Dwight B.; Guralnik, Jack M. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 7, Apr 1, 1999. 645-53 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy is examined using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. The data concern 8,604 individuals aged 65 or over living in New England or Iowa who were originally assessed between 1981 and 1983 and then followed over a six-year period. "Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers...and nonsmokers.... Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life."
Correspondence: L. Ferrucci, National Institute on Aging, Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry Program, 7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Gateway Building, Suite 3C-309, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20128 French, Simone A.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Williamson, David F. Prospective study of intentionality of weight loss and mortality in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 6, Mar 15, 1999. 504-16, 519-20 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The extent to which the association between weight loss and mortality is associated with whether the weight loss was voluntary or involuntary is examined using data from the Iowa Women's Health Study. This study involved 41,836 women aged 55-69 who completed a mailed survey in 1992 and were followed through 1995. The results suggest that the association between weight loss and increased mortality risk observed in epidemiologic studies may be due to unintentional weight loss that reflects existing disease and not to intentional weight loss. A comment is included by Lewis H. Kuller (pp. 515-6), as is a response from the authors (pp. 519-20).
Correspondence: S. A. French, University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, 130 South 2nd Street, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454-1015. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20129 Gubéran, Etienne; Usel, Massimo. Permanent work incapacity, mortality and survival without work incapacity among occupations and social classes: a cohort study of ageing men in Geneva. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 6, Dec 1998. 1,026-32 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the burden of disability and death in men, from middle age to age of retirement, among occupational groups and classes in Geneva [Switzerland].... There was a steep upward trend in incidence of permanent work incapacity with lower social class for all causes as well as for the seven causes of disability studied.... The social class gradient in mortality was in the same direction as that in work incapacity although much less steep...."
Correspondence: E. Gubéran, Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, IST, rue du Bugnon 19, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20130 Hayward, Mark D.; Heron, Melonie. Racial inequality in active life among adult Americans. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 1, Feb 1999. 77-91 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Based on the 1990 5% Public Use Microdata Survey, we develop life table models of healthy (or active) life for the major racial groups, by sex, in the United States. The analysis underscores the complexity of the relationship between morbidity and mortality in the population. For Asians, longer life is associated with fewer years lived in poor health. In contrast, Native Americans' relatively longer lives are accompanied by extended periods of chronic health problems. Of all racial groups, blacks live the fewest years, and they live a high proportion of those years with a chronic health problem. Hispanics also live substantially fewer years, yet the period of life they spend with a health problem is relatively compressed."
Correspondence: M. D. Hayward, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: hayward@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20131 Hummer, Robert A.; Rogers, Richard G.; Nam, Charles B.; LeClere, Felicia B. Race/ethnicity, nativity, and U.S. adult mortality. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 80, No. 1, Mar 1999. 136-53 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The impact of race and/or ethnicity on mortality among U.S. adults is analyzed using data from the National Health Interview Survey/National Death Index linked data set, and taking into account whether the individual concerned was born in the United States or abroad. "Native-born blacks exhibit the highest odds of death among all age groups of adults, while foreign-born blacks and Asian Americans display especially low odds of death, particularly among older adults. Mexican Americans and other Hispanics display intermediate risks of mortality similar to non-Hispanic white. Race/ethnic differences in mortality are influenced by nativity, with the groups having the highest percentages of foreign-born individuals experiencing lower mortality risks than might otherwise be the case. Foreign-born persons also exhibit lower mortality than native-born persons across nearly all age groups, with the magnitude of the advantage varying by race/ethnicity."
Correspondence: R. A. Hummer, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. E-mail: rhummer@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20132 Hummer, Robert A.; Rogers, Richard G.; Nam, Charles B.; Ellison, Christopher G. Religious involvement and U.S. adult mortality. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 2, May 1999. 273-85 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We use recently released, nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey-Multiple Cause of Death linked file to model the association of religious attendance and sociodemographic, health, and behavioral correlates with overall and cause-specific mortality. Religious attendance is associated with U.S. adult mortality in a graded fashion: People who never attend exhibit 1.87 times the risk of death in the follow-up period compared with people who attend more than once a week. This translates into a seven-year difference in life expectancy at age 20 between those who never attend and those who attend more than once a week.... People who do not attend church or religious services are also more likely to be unhealthy and, consequently, to die. However, religious attendance also works through increased social ties and behavioral factors to decrease the risks of death. And although the magnitude of the association between religious attendance and mortality varies by cause of death, the direction of the association is consistent across causes."
Correspondence: R. A. Hummer, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78712-1088. E-mail: rhummer@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20133 Jacobs, David R.; Meyer, Katie A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Folsom, Aaron R. Is whole grain intake associated with reduced total and cause-specific death rates in older women? The Iowa Women's Health Study. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 3, Mar 1999. 322-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study analyzes whether nutrient-rich whole grains reduce mortality risk, using data on 38,740 women aged 55 to 69 from the 1986 Iowa Women's Health Study. The results indicate that "total mortality risk was inversely associated with whole grain intake and positively associated with refined grain intake. Refined grains contributed more than 20% of energy intake, and whole grains contributed 1%. Substitution of whole for refined grain may reduce chronic disease risk in the United States."
Correspondence: D. R. Jacobs, University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, 1300 South 2nd Street, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454. E-mail: jacobs@epivax.epi.umn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20134 Józan, P.; Forster, D. P. Social inequalities and health: ecological study of mortality in Budapest, 1980-3 and 1990-3. British Medical Journal, Vol. 318, No. 7188, Apr 3, 1999. 914-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Comparisons in mortality in Hungary are made for the periods 1980-1983, when the health system was based on the Soviet principle of providing equal treatment to all, and 1990-1993, when the health system was based on a health insurance approach adopted in 1990. The results indicate a significant increase in inequality in mortality over time between the disadvantaged population living in Budapest and the affluent population.
Correspondence: D. P. Forster, 11 Ashdale, Ponteland, Northumberland NE30 9DR, England. E-mail: donforster@the-forsters.demon.co.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20135 Kunst, Anton E.; del Rios, Marina; Groenhof, Feikje; Mackenbach, Johan P. Socioeconomic inequalities in stroke mortality among middle-aged men: an international overview. Stroke, Vol. 29, No. 11, Nov 1998. 2,285-91 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"This report...presents an international overview of socioeconomic differences in stroke mortality.... In all countries, manual classes had higher stroke mortality rates than nonmanual classes.... In most countries, inequalities were much larger for stroke mortality than for ischemic heart disease mortality.... There are probably large variations...in the contribution that different risk factors, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, make to the stroke mortality excess of lower socioeconomic groups."
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: kunst@mgz.fgg.eur.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20136 LeClere, Felicia B.; Rogers, Richard G.; Peters, Kimberley. Neighborhood social context and racial differences in women's heart disease mortality. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 39, No. 2, Jun 1998. 91-107 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this analysis, we examine the effect of...neighborhood characteristics on the risk of death from heart disease for women using data from five years (1986-1990) of the [U.S.] National Health Interview Survey linked to death certificate information from the National Death Index.... The main objective of the study is to describe the structural mechanisms that create race differentials in mortality. In the conclusion, we discuss, in depth, the possible etiologic pathways between female-headship rates in neighborhoods and heart disease mortality."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: F. B. LeClere, University of Notre Dame, Laboratory for Social Research, G126 Hesburgh Library, Notre Dame, IN 46556. E-mail: leclere.1@nd.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

65:20137 Meslé, France; Vallin, Jacques. Evolution and geographical variations in excess male mortality: from the French paradox to the Russian logic. [Evolution et variations géographiques de la surmortalité masculine: du paradoxe français à la logique russe.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 1,079-101 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The last century...has seen a considerable rise in excess male mortality in western countries at the same time as an increase in life expectancy.... Throughout this period, however, an apparently contradictory phenomenon has been observed in the geographical variations--namely, the higher the life expectancy, the smaller the gender difference in mortality. This paradox--especially strong in France--is due to the fact that the causes of death which dominate the geography of mortality are not the same as those responsible for most of the increase in life expectancy.... By contrast, in the Eastern European countries, and especially Russia, where mortality has risen during the last thirty years, the geography of mortality is entirely consistent with the evolution in life expectancy."
Correspondence: F. Meslé, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: mesle@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20138 Nelissen, Jan H. M. Differential mortality and the reshuffling effect of the social security system. [Differentiële sterfte en de herverdelende werking van het sociale zekerheidsstelsel.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1998. 1-16 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Research on the progressivity of social security generally does not take into account the existence of differences in mortality rates between socioeconomic groups. These differences result for the Netherlands in a difference in life expectancy between low and high educated men of about 4.5 years. On a lifetime basis this results in a loss of about Dfl. 90,000 [about $45,000 U.S.] for the [less] educated group in comparison with the high educated group. As a consequence the return from various social security schemes does not appear to be anymore the highest for [less] educated persons. The middle group now gains in particular from the system."
Correspondence: J. H. M. Nelissen, Katholieke Universiteit Brabant, WORC, Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20139 Rosengren, Annika; Orth-Gomér, Kristina; Wilhemsen, Lars. Socioeconomic differences in health indices, social networks and mortality among Swedish men. A study of men born in 1933. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 1, Dec 1998. 1-19 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"In a previous survey we found large socioeconomic differences in mortality among urban Swedish men.... In the present study we investigate in more detail socioeconomic differences with regard to health, psychosocial factors and cardiovascular risk factors in another, younger sample of Göteborg men. One aim was to investigate whether our previous findings with regard to mortality could be reproduced in the present cohort of men. In addition, if class differences in health are to be diminished, we must know more about what causes them. Accordingly, a second aim was to investigate possible explanatory factors with regard to health-related factors, lifestyle, and social network factors."
Correspondence: A. Rosengren, University of Göteburg, Östra Hospital, Department of Medicine, Section of Preventive Cardiology, 416 85 Göteburg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20140 Schrijvers, Carola T. M.; Stronks, Karien; van de Mheen, H. Dike; Mackenbach, Johan P. Explaining educational differences in mortality: the role of behavioral and material factors. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 4, Apr 1999. 535-40 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The role of behavioral factors (such as alcohol drinking, smoking, body weight, physical activity, and diet) and material factors (financial problems, neighborhood conditions, housing, crowding, employment status, and income) in explaining differential mortality by educational status is explored. The data concern 15,451 participants in the Longitudinal Study on Socioeconomic Health Differences carried out in the Netherlands between 1991 and 1996. "Mortality was higher in lower educational groups. Four behavioral factors (alcohol, smoking, body mass index, physical activity) and 3 material factors (financial problems, employment status, income proxy) explained part of the educational differences in mortality. With the overlap between both types of factors accounted for, material factors were more important than behavioral factors in explaining mortality differences by educational level."
Correspondence: C. T. M. Schrijvers, Erasmus University Medical School, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: schrijvers@mgz.fgg.eur.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20141 Smith, Ken R.; Waitzman, Norman J. Effects of marital status on the risk of mortality in poor and non-poor neighborhoods. Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 7, No. 5, Jul 1997. 343-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to consider whether the mortality risks associated with marital status are conditioned by the socioeconomic quality of [U.S.] neighborhoods.... The interaction between neighborhood poverty and marital status is suggested for non-elderly men, particularly for cancer mortality and for men in urban areas. Interaction effects are evident among older women residing in urban areas."
Correspondence: K. R. Smith, University of Utah, Department of Family Consumer Studies, 228 AEB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

65:20142 Tietze, Marek. Differential mortality by sex in the Baltic Basin. [Diferencní úmrtnost podle pohlaví v Pobaltí.] Demografie, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1999. 38-49 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"The article describes [the] demographic situation from the point of view of mortality and its differences by sex in Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Finland and Sweden. These countries were chosen...as the representatives of two mortality models, which occur in contemporary Europe: `western' and `eastern' models. Countries of [Eastern] Europe reach higher values of mortality probabilities in all age groups with corresponding attained lower medium life span at birth." The author also considers life expectancy at older ages, male excess mortality, and causes of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

65:20143 Bleyen, L.; De Bacquer, D.; Myny, K.; Brochez, L.; Naeyaert, J. M.; De Backer, G. Trends in mortality from cutaneous malignant melanoma in Belgium. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1999. 40-5 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Changes over time of mortality rates from cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Belgium were analysed, based on people (n=3,695) aged 25-84 years, who died of CMM from 1954 to 1992.... The risk of dying from CMM increased in men and women continuously over the whole period, irrespective of birth cohort. In both men and women, there was approximately a 20% increase in CMM mortality per 5-year period."
Correspondence: L. Bleyen, University Hospital, Department of Public Health, De Pintelaan 185, Block A, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20144 Burr, Jeffrey A.; Hartman, John T.; Matteson, Donald W. Black suicide in U.S. metropolitan areas: an examination of the racial inequality and social integration-regulation hypotheses. Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 3, Mar 1999. 1,049-80 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"In addition to examining the social integration-regulation suicide thesis, we develop and test a racial inequality suicide thesis to explain how socioeconomic status inequities between blacks and whites influence suicide risk among black males. Negative binomial regression techniques are employed to model black male suicide counts for U.S. metropolitan areas in 1980. Our findings demonstrate that the risk of black male suicide is higher in areas where occupational and income inequalities between blacks and whites are greater. We also find detrimental effects associated with marital disruption and certain types of family living arrangements. In light of our findings, we revisit our theory and make suggestions for additional research."
Correspondence: J. A. Burr, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 430 Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260. E-mail: jburr@acsu.buffalo.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20145 Clapp, Richard W. The decline in U.S. cancer mortality from 1991 to 1995: what's behind the numbers? International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1998. 747-55 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
"In 1996, a series of articles and news stories about cancer mortality in the United States proclaimed a `turning point in the 25-year war on cancer'. While these articles and stories pointed to a recent decline in overall cancer mortality, they missed some important points about increases in specific types. They also ignored the politics behind the emphasis on smoking and diet as the main contributors to the cancer rates and the racial disparities in the U.S. data. In addition, recent articles on the decline in cancer mortality fail to note the much sharper decline in heart disease mortality."
Correspondence: R. W. Clapp, Boston University, School of Public Health, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20146 Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Churchill, Robert R. Scale, context, and causes of suicide in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 80, No. 1, Mar 1999. 97-114 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The role of geographical scale and context on the ecology of suicide is examined. The three scales examined are the United States as a whole, counties in New England, and townships in Vermont. "After computing bivariate correlations with suicide rates, we consolidated the socioeconomic variables from each scale into orthogonal principal components. Subsequently, we used components from each scale in a stepwise regression to estimate explanatory models of suicide rates.... Bivariate correlations show little consistency across scales. Principal components analysis generated unique sets of components at each scale, and distinct models were derived at each geographic level. Explanatory power decreased with scale." The authors conclude that it is important to take scale and context into account when studying variations in suicide rates.
Correspondence: M. P. Cutchin, Middlebury College, Department of Geography, Middlebury, VT 05753. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20147 De Angelis, R.; Capocaccia, R.; Hakulinen, T.; Soderman, B.; Verdecchia, A. Mixture models for cancer survival analysis: application to population-based data with covariates. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 4, Feb 28, 1999. 441-54 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we propose an application of a parametric mixture model to relative survival rates of colon cancer patients from the Finnish population-based cancer registry, and including major survival determinants as explicative covariates. Disentangling survival into two different components greatly facilitates the analysis and the interpretation of the role of prognostic factors on survival patterns. For example, age plays a different role in determining, from one side, the probability of cure, and, from the other side, the life expectancy of fatal cases. The results support the hypothesis that observed survival trends are really due to a real prognostic gain for more recently diagnosed patients."
Correspondence: R. Capocaccia, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20148 Ganatra, B. R.; Coyaji, K. J.; Rao, V. N. Too far, too little, too late: a community-based case-control study of maternal mortality in rural west Maharashtra, India. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Vol. 76, No. 6, 1998. 591-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"A total of 121 maternal deaths, identified through multiple-source surveillance in 400 villages in Maharashtra, [India], were prospectively enrolled during 1993-95 in a population-based case-control study, which compared deaths with the survivors of similar pregnancy complications. The cases took significantly longer to seek care and to make the first health contact after the decision to seek care was taken. They also travelled significantly greater distances through a greater number of health facilities before appropriate treatment was started....This study points to the need for information-education-communication (IEC) efforts to increase family (especially male) preparedness for emergencies, decentralized obstetric management with effective triage, and a restructuring of the referral system."
Correspondence: B. R. Ganatra, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Sardar Moodliar Road, Rasta Peth, Pune 411 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20149 Høj, Lars; Stensballe, Jakob; Aaby, Peter. Maternal mortality in Guinea-Bissau: the use of verbal autopsy in a multi-ethnic population. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1999. 70-6 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We have attempted to develop standard criteria which, after being tested and adapted to conditions in multi-ethnic, rural populations, could be applied by medical assistants (nurse, midwife) with a basic training to ascertain the cause of [maternal] death as a necessary element in the national programme for reproductive health." Using data collected in Guinea-Bissau, the authors find that "the [verbal autopsy] described in the present paper left 30% of the maternal deaths unclassified without a specific diagnosis. Had all interviews been with husbands, only 14% would have remained unclassified."
Correspondence: L. Høj, Statens Serum Institut, Department of Epidemiology Research, Artillerivej 5, 2000 Copenhagen S, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20150 Le Coeur, Sophie; Pictet, Gabriel; M'Pele, Pierre; Lallemant, Marc. Direct estimation of maternal mortality in Africa. Lancet, Vol. 352, No. 9139, Nov 7, 1998. 1,525-6 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"We investigated maternal mortality in Brazaville, Congo, where law requires the delivery of all bodies to a mortuary before burial.... We estimated the rate of maternal mortality to be 645 per 100,000 and the lifetime risk of maternal death to be one in 25 women.... Maternal mortality is...unlikely to decrease in African cities until obstetric care and promotion of safe reproductive choices are improved."
Correspondence: S. Le Coeur, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20151 Lozada Dávalos, Patricio. Variations in causes of death in Ecuador. [Variaciones de las causas de mortalidad en el Ecuador.] Correo Poblacional y de la Salud, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1998. 37-41 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The author examines trends in causes of death in Ecuador. Principal causes are provided for 1980, 1990, 1993, and 1996.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20152 Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Lautenbach, H.; Oei, Y. B.; Bijlsma, F. Competing causes of death: a death certificate study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 50, No. 10, Oct 1997. 1,069-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We have used death certificate information to estimate the prevalence of competing causes of death at the moment of dying from specific underlying causes of death. [Data used are for] a stratified sample of 5,975 deaths occurring in The Netherlands in 1990.... Although it cannot be excluded that some of the variation in prevalence of competing causes by underlying cause is due to selective underregistration of coexisting diseases on death certificates, the results of this study suggest that conventional estimates of gains in life expectancy after elimination of neoplasms are much less biased by the effect of competing causes than the corresponding estimates for cardiovascular diseases and particularly respiratory diseases."
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

65:20153 Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Lautenbach, H.; Oei, Y. B.; Bijlsma, F. Gains in life expectancy after elimination of major causes of death: revised estimates taking into account the effect of competing causes. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 1, Jan 1999. 32-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In the study reported in this paper we have coded a sample of death certificates from the Netherlands for the presence of competing causes of death, and used this information to adjust conventional estimates of gains in life expectancy for the presence of these competing causes. The main purpose was to assess the extent to which conventional estimates of differences in life years to be gained between four main groups of underlying causes of death (neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and all other diseases) are biased by differences between these underlying causes in prevalence at death of competing causes." Data are from "a sample of 5,975 death certificates from the Netherlands, 1990...."
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20154 Makimoto, Kiyoko; Higuchi, Susumu. Alcohol consumption as a major risk factor for the rise in liver cancer mortality rates in Japanese men. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1999. 30-4 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is (1) to examine the pattern of liver cancer mortality [in Japan] by gender and birth year to compare those with the pattern of other alcohol-related mortality and (2) to estimate the attributable risk per cent of heavy alcohol consumption for liver cancer deaths in Japanese men.... Male-to-female liver cancer mortality rate ratios by birth cohort correspond well with those rate ratios for liver cirrhosis and oesophageal cancer mortality. The attributable risk per cent of alcohol consumption for liver cancer deaths in Japanese men was 70%."
Correspondence: K. Makimoto, Kanazawa University, Division of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, Kodatsuno 5-11-80, Kanazawa 920-0942, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20155 Marcopito, Luis F.; Berlin, Jesse A. A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 6, Dec 1998. 1,044-52 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes...using secondary data from the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994).... Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population."
Correspondence: L. F. Marcopito, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Division of Epidemiology, UNIFESP, Rua Pedro de Toledo 675, 04039-032 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20156 Neeleman, Jan; Lewis, Glyn. Suicide, religion, and socioeconomic conditions. An ecological study in 26 countries, 1990. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 4, Apr 1999. 204-10 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Relative risks are frequently assumed to be stable across populations but this may not apply in psychiatric epidemiology where sociocultural context may modify them. Such ecological effect modification will give curved associations between aggregated risk factor and outcome. This was examined in connection with the ecological association between suicide rates and an aggregate index of religiosity...[using data for] 26 European and American countries.... The bent ecological association was apparent only after adjustment for socioeconomic variation suggesting that, rather than confounding, ecological modification of individual level links between religion and male (but not female) suicide risk is the responsible mechanism."
Correspondence: J. Neeleman, University of Groningen, Department of Social Psychiatry, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20157 Pick, James B.; Butler, Edgar W. Demographic, social, and economic effects on Mexican causes of death in 1990. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1998. 151-71 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Demographic, social, and economic influences on cause of death are analyzed for Mexico in 1990. The paper draws on epidemiologic transition theory and empirical studies as a framework to examine effects of 28 independent variables in four groups--demographic, socio-cultural, economic, and housing/health/crime--on standardized mortality by cause.... The principal causes of death reveal distinctive geographical patterns.... Overall, the most important predictors are crowding, housing characteristics, marriage and divorce, and manufacturing workforce. By variable group, there are effects for specific causes of death."
Correspondence: J. B. Pick, University of Redlands, Department of Management and Business, Redlands, CA 92373. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20158 Pönkä, Antti; Savela, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko. Mortality and air pollution in Helsinki. Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 53, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 281-6 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"In Helsinki, Finland, from 1987 to 1993, the authors studied the associations between daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, and [other] particulates...and the daily number of deaths from all causes and from cardiovascular causes.... Findings suggest that (a) even low levels of particulates are related to an increase in cardiovascular mortality; (b) ozone--even in low concentrations--is associated, independently, with cardiovascular mortality; and (c) [particulates], ozone, and nitrogen dioxide...have harmful interactions at high concentrations."
Correspondence: A. Pönkä, Helsinki City Centre of the Environment, Helsinginkatu 24, 00530 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20159 Poole, Carol A.; Byers, Tim; Calle, Eugenia E.; Bondy, Jessica; Fain, Pam; Rodriguez, Carmen. Influence of a family history of cancer within and across multiple sites on patterns of cancer mortality risk for women. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 5, Mar 1, 1999. 454-62 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A case-control study nested within a large cohort, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-1, was conducted to test associations between a family history of cancer and cancer mortality in women. By using logistic regression, the authors analyzed family history, as reported by 429,483 women enrolled in 1959, relative to subsequent mortality through 1972 from cancer within and across multiple sites. The associations between family history and cancer mortality were generally stronger within cancer sites than across cancer sites [but some across-site associations were also observed].... These findings support the growing body of evidence from cancer genetics suggesting that inherited cancer-susceptibility genes increase the risk for cancer at many sites and are not specific to cancer risk within a single site."
Correspondence: C. A. Poole, University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80217-3364. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20160 Ranjan, Alok. Components of mortality change by cause in developing countries during 1980s. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1998. 229-43 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, we present and analyze information on mortality by cause in selected developing countries of the world for which detailed statistics of death by cause [have] been made available by the World Health Organization.... The analysis...reveals that in all but one of the countries included in this analysis, mortality has declined during the 1980s although the rate of decline has varied from country to country.... [It] also reveals that in a number of countries of the sample, sex difference in mortality has widened over time...."
Correspondence: A. Ranjan, Shyam Institute, Mudian Ka Kuan, Datia, Madhya Pradesh 475 661, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20161 Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Banegas Banegas, José R.; de Andrés Manzano, Belén; del Rey Calero, Juan. Consumption of fruit and wine and the decline in cerebrovascular disease mortality in Spain (1975-1993). Stroke, Vol. 29, No. 8, Aug 1998. 1,556-61 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"This study examines the changes in provincial distribution of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) mortality and its socioeconomic and lifestyle risk factors to identify those factors that have most greatly contributed to the decline in CVD mortality in Spain during the period 1975-1993.... Changes in fruit, wine, and fish intake accounted for 22% of the variation in the decline in CVD mortality. The increase in fruit consumption and decrease in wine consumption showed a statistically significant relationship...with the decline in CVD mortality."
Correspondence: F. Rodríguez Artalejo, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Avenida Arzobispo Morcillo s/n, 28029 Madrid, Spain. E-mail: osproarf@vc.ehu.es. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20162 Rosengren, Annika; Wilhelmsen, L. Respiratory symptoms and long-term risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes in Swedish men. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 6, Dec 1998. 962-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between respiratory symptoms and mortality from cardiovascular causes, cancer and all causes in a large population of middle-aged men [in Sweden. Data are from a] prospective population study of 6,442 men aged 51-59 at baseline.... Men with effort-related breathlessness had increased risk of dying from all of the examined diseases.... An independent effect of breathlessness...was found in life-time non-smokers, and also if men with chest pain not considered to be angina were excluded."
Correspondence: A. Rosengren, Östra University Hospital, Department of Medicine, 416 85 Göteborg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20163 Ruzicka, Lado T. Suicide in countries and areas of the ESCAP region. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1998. 55-74 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In the ESCAP [Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific] region each year more than half a million people die by suicide and over 5 million attempt to kill themselves. This article collates available evidence about the incidence, age and sex patterns of suicide mortality in selected countries and areas of the region. It discusses cultural and legal attitudes towards suicide, as well as the social and health implications of the problem. It concludes by outlining some of the attempts that could be made at prevention both by governments and civil society."
Correspondence: L. T. Ruzicka, Major's Creek, Braidwood, NSW 2622, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20164 Salanave, Benoît; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Varnoux, Noelle; Alexander, Sophie; Macfarlane, Alison. Classification differences and maternal mortality: a European study. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1999. 64-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates [using] data on pregnancy-associated deaths...in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes.... Compared with the statistical offices, the European panel attributed more deaths to obstetric causes.... According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per 100,000 live births, but it increased to 8.7 after classification by the European panel...."
Correspondence: B. Salanave, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U149, 123 Boulevard de Port-Royal, 75014 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20165 Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.; McKee, Martin; Vallin, Jacques; Aksel, Eugenia; Leon, David; Chenet, Laurent; Meslé, France. Cancer mortality in Russia and Ukraine: validity, competing risks and cohort effects. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1999. 19-29 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents an analysis of trends and patterns in cancer mortality [in Russia and Ukraine] and examines four possible explanations for its recent fall: changes in data collection; cohort effects; competing mortality from other causes of death; and improvements in health care.... All contribute to some extent to the observed changes, with each affecting predominantly different age groups.... Competing mortality from cardiovascular diseases and accidents can explain some reduction in male deaths from cancer in middle age. Birth cohort effects can explain some reduction among males after early middle age and among females at all ages."
Correspondence: V. M. Shkolnikov, Institute for Economic Forecasting, Center of Demographic and Human Ecology, 32 Krasikova, 117418 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20166 Single, Eric; Robson, Lynda; Rehm, Jürgen; Xi, Xiaodi. Morbidity and mortality attributable to alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use in Canada. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 3, Mar 1999. 385-90 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study estimated morbidity and mortality attributable to substance abuse in Canada. Pooled estimates of relative risk were used to calculate etiologic fractions by age, gender, and province for 91 causes of disease or death attributable to alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs. There were 33,498 deaths and 208,095 hospitalizations attributed to tobacco, 6,701 deaths and 86,076 hospitalizations due to alcohol, and 732 deaths and 7,095 hospitalizations due to illicit drugs in 1992. Substance abuse exacts a considerable toll on Canadian society in terms of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 21% of deaths, 23% of years of potential life lost, and 8% of hospitalizations."
Correspondence: E. Single, University of Toronto, Department of Public Health Sciences, 6 Mervyn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M9B 1M6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:20167 Smith, Catherine L.; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K. Breast cancer mortality trends in Australia: 1921 to 1994. Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 168, No. 1, Jan 5, 1998. 11-4 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
The authors "analyse breast cancer mortality trends in Australia...to see if mammographic screening has yet led to a reduction in mortality.... Changes in breast cancer mortality in Australian women could not be explained by chance variation alone.... Trends in breast cancer mortality have probably been influenced by changing fertility, nutrition and body-size increases among Australian women. Improvements in stage at diagnosis and treatment have probably moderated the upwards pressure on mortality caused by an increasing incidence."
Correspondence: A. Kricker, National Health and Medical Research Council National Breast Cancer Centre, P.O. Box 572, Kings Cross, NSW 2011, Australia. No reprints available. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20168 Urassa, Ernest; Massawe, Siriel; Lindmark, Gunilla; Nyström, Lennarth. Operational factors affecting maternal mortality in Tanzania. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1997. 50-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this study, a follow-up was done of all 117 cases of maternal deaths in llala district, Dar es Salaam [Tanzania], 1991-1993, at all levels of care.... For each case the major operational factors and all health care interventions were defined through interviews with family members and health care staff and from hospital records, and the avoidability of each case was determined. In the health institutions where the women had consulted, the available resources were assessed.... It is concluded that although community education on danger signs in pregnancy and labour is important, provision of the core resources and supplies for emergency obstetric interventions, as well as clear protocols for management and referral, are absolutely necessary for improvement of maternal survival."
Correspondence: L. Nyström, Umeå University, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

65:20169 Williamson, David F.; Pamuk, Elsie; Thun, Michael; Flanders, Dana; Byers, Tim; Heath, Clark. Prospective study of intentional weight loss and mortality in overweight white men aged 40-64 years. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 6, Mar 15, 1999. 491-503, 515-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The association between intentional weight loss and mortality is examined using data on 49,337 overweight white men aged 40-64 from the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study I. These data were originally collected in 1959-1960, and vital status was reassessed in 1972. The results, along with an earlier study on women, suggest that intentional weight loss may reduce the risk of dying from diabetes, but not from cardiovascular effects. The difficulty of distinguishing between intentional and unintentional weight loss in such studies is stressed. Comments on the paper by Lewis H. Kuller are included (pp. 515-6), as is a response from the principal author (pp. 517-8).
Correspondence: D. F. Williamson, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Diabetes Translation (K-68), 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.