Volume 65 - Number 2 - Summer 1999

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration. Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects.

65:20033 Bonasewicz, Andrzej. Changes in the distribution of the population in Chile. [Zmiany w rozmieszczeniu ludnosci w Chile.] Prace i Studia Geograficzne, Vol. 19, 1997. 55-62 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"Chile is populated very irregularly, which is caused to a big degree by the diversity of the natural environment. These irregularities are becoming more intense in consequence of...increasing internal migrations.... The majority of migrants proceed to the big cities, whereas the rural areas are becoming depopulated. Recently [a] policy of settlement of the sparsely populated areas, specially in the south of the country, has been [instituted]."
Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

65:20034 Frey, William H. The diversity myth. American Demographics, Vol. 20, No. 6, Jun 1998. 39-43 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Large numbers of international migrants to the U.S. in the early 1990s foster the perception that the nation is becoming truly diverse. Yet analysis of the latest population estimates from the Census Bureau...show continued geographic concentration of minority groups into specific regions and a handful of metro areas.... While some of these ethnic minorities are sprinkling out from gateway metros, the pace is relatively slow."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20035 Rogerson, Peter A. The geography of elderly minority populations in the United States. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 12, No. 3, Oct-Nov 1998. 687-98 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Because minority populations often have greater needs for health care and fewer resources to pay for it, it is important to assess the demand for services. This paper takes an initial step in that direction by focusing upon the geographic distribution of elderly minority populations in the United States. The study is carried out at several spatial scales, and it is concluded that elderly minority populations tend to be even more segregated than their non-elderly counterparts."
Correspondence: P. A. Rogerson, University of Buffalo, Department of Geography, Wilkeson Hall, Buffalo, NY 14261. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration.

65:20036 Baccaïni, Brigitte. Recent periurban growth in the Ile-de-France: forms and causes. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1998. 349-84 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The population of France's `old' urban centres has stopped increasing and urban growth is now concentrated in communes which until very recently were rural.... [The author] presents a detailed analysis of the process of growth of the economically active periurban population of the Ile-de-France. It is based on recent census data, and divides the periurban into two concentric zones and four geographical sectors. The examination of the individual characteristics of the economically active population, and the geographical origin of the newcomers, reveals the existence of an important phenomenon: the increasing social segregation of the urban and periurban populations."
Translated from the French by Godfrey I. Rogers.
For the original French version, see 63:30521.
Correspondence: B. Baccaïni, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: baccaini@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20037 Cuervo, Javier C.; Kim Hin, David H. O. Todaro migration and primacy models: relevance to the urbanization of the Philippines. Cities, Vol. 15, No. 4, Aug 1998. 245-56 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper looks into the set of factors that [influence] the urbanization of the Philippines, a fast-growing developing economy in South East Asia. The paper demonstrates that the `migration primacy urbanization model' is an appropriate one that is able to explain the urbanization case in the Philippines. The model draws supporting evidence from rank-size distribution analysis of major cities in the Philippines, a detailed examination of historical, geopolitical and economic forces which have evolved in the development of the Philippines as a sovereign state, and the applicability of the Todaro model on rural-urban migration to the Philippines."
Correspondence: J. C. Cuervo, National University of Singapore, School of Building and Real Estate, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:20038 Diniz, Alexandre. Occupation and urbanization of Roraima State, Brazil. Yearbook--Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, Vol. 23, 1997. 51-62 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng. with sum. in Por.
The author examines settlement patterns and urbanization of the remote area of Roraima State, Brazil. "A survey conducted in the capital city, Boa Vista, provides information on migration histories and migrants' characteristics.... Current views of urbanization of the Amazon [region] are focused on the displacement factor that development and state geopolitics have upon rural settlements...." The author also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to the characteristics of migrants in the urban areas.
Correspondence: A. Diniz, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287-0104. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:20039 Forbes, Dean. Asian metropolis: urbanisation and the Southeast Asian city. Meridian: Australian Geographical Perspectives, ISBN 0-19-553438-7. 1996. xxii, 120 pp. Oxford University Press: South Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This book is about urbanization in Southeast Asia, including descriptions of the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial city. It "describes the divergence of the urbanisation process and urban development under capitalist and socialist regimes, and the gradual convergence in the 1990s. It looks at the problems in the fast growing metropolis, from the exploitation of women in the labour force, to the over-stretched infrastructure and urban environmental crises." The author concludes that "Southeast Asia's metropolises have played a key role in the region's growth. Unless greater attention is given to the sustainability of these large, complex settlements, they threaten to undermine the societies that created and continue to depend upon them."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 253 Normanby Road, South Melbourne, Australia. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20040 Garza, Gustavo. The metropolitan area of Monterrey in the year 2020. [El área metropolitana de Monterrey en el año 2020.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1998. 667-73 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author discusses possible future trends in economic development and urbanization in the city of Monterrey, Mexico. Information is provided on metropolitan growth from 1940 to 1995; population size and growth rate; extension of the urban area; deconcentration; and projections according to land use.
Correspondence: G. Garza, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20041 Gavrilova, Irina N. The demographic history of Moscow. [Demograficheskaya istoriya Moskvy.] LC 98-154034. 1997. 300 pp. Fast-Print: Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
This is a demographic history of the Russian capital, Moscow, over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:20042 Guldin, Gregory E. Farewell to peasant China: rural urbanization and social change in the late twentieth century. Studies on Contemporary China, ISBN 0-7656-0183-4. LC 97-16297. 1997. xxiii, 287 pp. M. E. Sharpe: Armonk, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"Chinese urbanization, including the daily life, migration strategies, and life choices of villagers and townspeople, is the focus of this study by Chinese and North American scholars. From Tianjin in the north to Tibet in the west, and to Guangdong and Fujian on the southeast coast, a tale is told of transforming countrysides, regional disparities, and the prospects of a fully urbanized China as the twenty-first century dawns. This first broad-scale anthropological investigation of Chinese urbanization captures both the dynamic essence of the urbanization process and the remarkable vitality of post-reform Chinese society."
Correspondence: M. E. Sharpe, 80 Business Park Drive, Armonk, NY 10504. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:20043 Guldmann, Jean-Michel; Wang, Fahui. Population and employment density functions revisited: a spatial interaction approach. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 77, No. 2, Apr 1998. 189-211 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article proposes a generalized urban spatial structure and transportation network, and adapts the Garin-Lowry model to simulate both population and service employment densities in this hypothetical, yet realistic, city. The model is solved numerically while varying exogenous factors such as the distance friction coefficients and the spatial distribution of basic employment.... The results are generalized by estimating, via regression analysis, density functions over a large sample of simulated density patterns, pointing to the critical importance of transportation costs and basic employment distribution, and providing a basis for further empirical studies."
Correspondence: J.-M. Guldmann, Ohio State University, Department of City and Regional Planning, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:20044 Hsung, Ray-May. Transition and restructuration of German cities. Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, Oct 1998. 93-141 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"The aim of this paper is to analyze the patterns of demographic and economic transition by types of settlement and region [in Germany] between the period of 1980-1989 and that of 1989-1992.... In the second part of this study, I will explore the roles of state and civic forces (nonprofit) in the restructuring process of urban development in Germany since 1980. This part of the analyses [is] mainly based on literature, government documentation, and in-depth interviews."
Correspondence: R.-M. Hsung, Tunghai University, Department of Sociology, 181 Taichung Harbour Road, Sec. 3, Taichung, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20045 Hu, Ying. A prediction of the trend of population development in urban and rural areas in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 75-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author outlines recent trends in urban and rural population development in China. Aspects considered include population size and growth, urbanization, age distribution, and working-age and school-age populations. The information is used to project some future demographic trends.
Correspondence: Y. Hu, State Statistical Bureau, Department of Demographic and Employment Statistics, Survey Division, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20046 Jordan, Stacy; Ross, John P.; Usowski, Kurt G. U.S. suburbanization in the 1980s. Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 28, No. 5, Sep 1998. 611-27 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper measures and analyzes differences in rates of suburbanization during the 1980s among U.S. metropolitan areas which fit a monocentric urban model. Three findings are of interest: (1) the average rate of suburbanization for U.S. metropolitan areas was the same in the 1980s and the 1970s; (2) the monocentric urban model provides a good description of population distribution for a diminishing number of urban areas; and (3) variables that characterize the entire metropolitan area as well as those that measure disparities between the central city and its suburban ring are important in explaining differences in rates of decentralization."
Correspondence: S. Jordan, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Division of Economic Development and Public Finance, Office of Policy Development and Research, 451 7th Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20410. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:20047 Nugent, Shane. Why Sydney keeps growing--trends in population distribution in New South Wales, 1991 to 1996. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1998. 24-32 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The release of population estimates based on the 1996 [Australian] Census showed a surprising result for New South Wales--Sydney's share of the State's population increased, reversing the trend of the late 1980s.... This paper uses unpublished internal migration data from the 1996 Census to explore the factors underlying this increased concentration of population in Sydney."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20048 Wang, Fahui; Zhou, Yixing. Modelling urban population densities in Beijing 1982-90: suburbanisation and its causes. Urban Studies, Vol. 36, No. 2, Feb 1999. 271-87 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The authors model urban population densities in Beijing, China, using data from the censuses of 1982 and 1990. "The research shows that the negative exponential function also fits the density distributions in Beijing, the density gradient becomes flatter, and the city-centre intercept drops over time. The results are consistent with the findings on Western cities, implying that even a socialist city cannot escape the universal forces shaping urban structure. In addition, GIS surface modelling is used to analyse the spatial patterns. While central-city sub-districts have experienced significant loss of population, suburban sub-districts have gained growth at various scales. This signals the beginning of suburbanisation in Beijing. However, some of the causes are different from those in Western countries."
Correspondence: F. Wang, Northern Illinois University, Department of Geography, DeKalb, IL 60115-2854. E-mail: wang@geog.niu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:20049 Yusuf, Shahid; Wu, Weiping. The dynamics of urban growth in three Chinese cities. ISBN 0-19-521113-8. LC 97-2013. Aug 1997. xi, 229 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C.; Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This publication is concerned with urbanization in Chinese cities. Chapters are included on the dynamics of urban growth--location, size, structure, and reforms; China's changing urban geography--the rise of three cities; Shanghai--renaissance city; Tianjin--a port, its neighborhood, and its ambition; Guangzhou--the pearl in the delta; similarities, contrasts, and lessons--three cities and others; and a map of the future.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

65:20050 Fuguitt, Glenn V.; Beale, Calvin L.; Fulton, John A.; Gibson, Richard M. Recent population trends in nonmetropolitan cities and villages: from the turnaround, through reversal, to the rebound. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 1-21 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to track and contrast the patterns of local concentration and deconcentration in nonmetropolitan America between 1950 and 1996. We consider the growth of places by initial size as well as the growth of population living in the countryside or in unincorporated hamlets.... To determine how widespread and consistent the trends are, we compare patterns of growth by nearness to metropolitan areas, and by region of the country. We also examine differences among a subset of nonmetropolitan places distinguished by the primary socioeconomic character of their county. Using a detailed data file from the 1990 census, we are able to give some consideration to commuting."
Correspondence: G. V. Fuguitt, University of Wisconsin, Department of Rural Sociology, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20051 García, Benjamín; Paricio, Jesús M. Rural population in Europe and in Spain: future perspectives. [Población rural en Europa y en España: perspectivas de futuro.] Política y Sociedad, No. 26, Sep-Dec 1997. 95-111, 188 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Rural society constitutes an important segment of Spanish society, not only because of cultural elements of this society, but also as a consequence of the implications for the maintenance of a sustainable development. Moreover, Spain has got an important rural society with capacity to play a basic role in the balance of the habitats in the future."
Correspondence: B. García, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Sociología II, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:20052 Johnson, Kenneth M. Renewed population growth in rural America. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 23-45 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter documents the fact that "nonmetropolitan America has experienced widespread population gain and net in-migration since 1990. This contrasts with the trend evident through most of this century.... However, this deconcentration has been selective and tempered by economic period effects. Future nonmetropolitan demographic change is likely to be even more dependent on migration because recent rural fertility patterns, together with age structure shifts, have diminished the contribution natural increase can make to rural growth. This increasing dependence on migration, coupled with the greater integration of nonmetropolitan areas into the national and international system, makes rural America increasingly sensitive to national and global economic, political, and social forces."
Correspondence: K. M. Johnson, Loyola University, Department of Sociology, Chicago, IL 60611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20053 Rathge, Richard; Highman, Paula. Population change in the Great Plains since 1950 and the consequences of selective migration. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 71-89 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This "study was initiated to explore the causes and consequences of persistent population loss in the Great Plains region [of the United States]. After classifying all counties by their growth patterns over the past five decades, we developed a typology that categorized counties based on the direction and magnitude of their population change.... We use this typology to explore the correlates of residential population change, and to examine the explanatory power of the variables found to be statistically significant."
Correspondence: R. Rathge, North Dakota State University, Department of Sociology, Fargo, ND 58105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:20054 Shumway, J. Matthew; Lethbridge, Jason. The economic and demographic restructuring of nonmetropolitan counties in the Mountain West. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Vol. 7, 1998. 91-111 pp. Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the fluctuating economic and demographic landscapes within nonmetro Mountain West counties [of the United States], describe relationships between the economic restructuring and shifting demographic patterns, and to discuss the potential significance of these transformations for the Mountain West nonmetro region. We begin by articulating a conceptual framework linking economic restructuring (development) and population change due to migration. The remainder of the paper empirically examines these linkages. A concluding section summarizes our findings and provides suggestions for future research."
Correspondence: J. M. Shumway, Brigham Young University, Department of Geography, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.