Volume 65 - Number 1 - Spring 1999

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

65:10613 Artus, Patrick; Legros, Florence. Aging populations, political power, retirement programs, and growth. [Vieillissement de la population, pouvoir électoral, système de retraites et croissance.] Revue Economique, Vol. 48, No. 4, Jul 1997. 899-921 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent demographic trends in France are first reviewed, and the various claims that the retired population has made on the current pension system are described. A theoretical model is developed to illustrate how the present system differs from an optimal system seen from the point of view of different age groups, such as the young and the retired.
Correspondence: P. Artus, Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations, Service FMR, 56 rue de Lille, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10614 Becker, Charles M.; Urzhumova, Dina S. Pension burdens and labor force participation in Kazakstan. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1998. 2,087-103 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the pressures imposed by the vast pension system in the former Soviet republic of Kazakstan. Today, some 17% of the country receives pension payments, one of the highest rates in the world--despite the fact that Kazakstan is only now completing its demographic transition. Using a pooled regional-time series data set from pre- and post-Soviet eras, the paper also examines determinants of pension populations and the labor force participation rate. It finds that Kazakstanis in the post-Soviet era respond to price incentives both with respect to real pensions and real wage rates--in stark contrast to dramatically backward-bending labor supply curves of the Soviet era."
Correspondence: C. M. Becker, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10615 Buckley, Cynthia. Obligations and expectations: renegotiating pensions in the Russian Federation. Continuity and Change, Vol. 13, No. 3, Aug 1998. 317-38 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"While aging trends throughout the former Soviet bloc have been the subject of research, less attention is typically paid to the institutional and social legacies of the previous regimes concerning pensions. Unlike developing countries, struggling to initiate a system of pensions, Russia is attempting to maintain a comprehensive system in the face of extreme resource constraints and a large retirement-aged population. The difficulties associated with the provision of old age pensions in Russia highlight the challenges of curtailing social programmes for transitional economies and the problems associated with adjusting pension systems to evolving economic and demographic realities."
Correspondence: C. Buckley, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:10616 Davis, E. Philip. Can pension systems cope? Population ageing and retirement income provision in the European Union. ISBN 1-86203-036-7. 1997. viii, 68 pp. Royal Institute of International Affairs: London, England. In Eng.
This study "examines the effect of ageing in the EU [European Union] on economic performance in general and on pension systems in particular. Significant reform of many such systems is imperative, and delay could be dangerous; vested interests supporting the status quo will only strengthen as the proportion of the population approaching retirement age increases. [The author] argues that the opportunity should now be seized to introduce decisive but phased reforms, allowing individuals sufficient time to adapt. Current `pay-as-you-go' schemes should continue to play a role, especially in view of the important contribution they make to poverty alleviation. The development of private and public funded schemes should nonetheless be considered a priority: not only would they help to avert a looming financing crisis, but they should also contribute to the generation of increased private investment and economic growth."
Correspondence: Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, 10 St. James's Square, London SW1Y 4LE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10617 Diniz, Simone G.; de Mello e Souza, Cecília; Portella, Ana P. Not like our mothers: reproductive choice and the emergence of citizenship among Brazilian rural workers, domestic workers and housewives. In: Negotiating reproductive rights: women's perspectives across countries and cultures, edited by Rosalind P. Petchesky and Karen Judd. 1998. 31-68 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
This is the report on Brazil from the team sent out by the International Reproductive Rights Research Action Group [IRRRAG] to study women's views of reproductive rights at the grassroots level. Interviewing 158 women and 24 men the team "carried out [its] study among three groups representing Brazilian women's most frequent activities: rural workers in the Northeast, domestic servants in Rio de Janeiro, and low-income housewives active in the popular health movement in Sao Paulo's outskirts." After an overview of Brazil's political and socioeconomic context and the women's movement there, the authors discuss women's views of the public and private spheres, their experiences of sexuality, marriage, and the family, and their perceptions of their reproductive life and health, including contraception and abortion.
Translated from the Portuguese by Jones de Freitas and Cecília de Mello e Souza.
Correspondence: S. G. Diniz, Coletivo Femenista Sexualidade Saúde, São Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10618 Fabros, Mercedes L.; Paguntalan, Aileen M. C.; Arches, Lourdes L.; Guia-Padilla, Maria T. From sanas to dapat: negotiating entitlement in reproductive decision-making in the Philippines. In: Negotiating reproductive rights: women's perspectives across countries and cultures, edited by Rosalind P. Petchesky and Karen Judd. 1998. 217-55 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
This is a report on the situation with regard to reproductive rights in the Philippines. The report was prepared by a research team from the International Reproductive Rights Research Action Group [IRRRAG]. "A total of fourteen mother-daughter pairs were selected from three communities, chosen in part because of the presence of local women's organizations.... Life stories were completed in at least two `formal sessions'...as well as a number of informal chats, following at least two months' residence in each community; follow-up survey interviews were [also] done.... Additional validation was done through focus groups.... This three-pronged methodology enabled us to look at women's perceptions and behaviour over the life cycle as well as in different locations." Topics addressed included education and girlhood, marriage, motherhood, employment, marital relations, sexuality, and fertility regulation, including abortion.
Correspondence: M. L. Fabros, WomanHealth Philippines, 16 Cabanatuan Road, Philam Homes, 1104 Quezon City, Philippines. E-mail: womanhealth@phil.gn.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10619 Forte, Dianne J.; Judd, Karen. The South within the North: reproductive choice in three U.S. communities. In: Negotiating reproductive rights: women's perspectives across countries and cultures, edited by Rosalind P. Petchesky and Karen Judd. 1998. 256-94 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter is part of the seven-country research project carried out by the International Reproductive Rights Research Action Group [IRRRAG]. It contrasts women's perceptions of reproductive rights in three U.S. communities: Soperton, Georgia, a rural Southern town; an immigrant neighborhood in New York City; and a New York City municipal workers' union. The authors first present some background information about the three communities, discussing race, religion, and culture; employment, poverty, and welfare; union membership and job security; and reproductive rights, including teenage pregnancy, abortion, contraception, STDs, and AIDS. The experiences of women, gathered from interviews and focus group discussions, are presented in sections on education, employment, marriage and relationships, motherhood, reproductive health, and sexuality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10620 Husain, M. G. Changing Indian society and status of aged. ISBN 81-86562-29-X. LC 97-905423. 1997. 217 pp. Manak Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles on social change and the status of the elderly in India. Articles are included on psychological and psychosocial aspects of aging; self-perception of the elderly; attitudes of retired elderly; value orientation of the aged; religion and mortality; health-related problems; and incidence of depression among the aged.
Correspondence: Manak Publications, G-19, Vijay Chowk, Laxmi Nagar, New Delhi 110 092, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10621 International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP] (Liège, Belgium); University of Lund (Lund, Sweden). Seminar on female empowerment and demographic processes: moving beyond Cairo. Papers. [1997?]. Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This volume includes the papers presented at a conference organized by the IUSSP Committee on Gender and Population, in cooperation with the University of Lund's Programme on Population and Development, on the subject of female empowerment and demographic processes following the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. The IUSSP conference was held in Lund, Sweden, April 21-24, 1997. The 24 papers are organized into five sections: What is "female empowerment"? conceptual and measurement issues; Intersections between female empowerment and demographic processes; Case studies: developing countries; Sources of change to empower women; and Moving beyond Cairo: public policy.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. E-mail: fdevpop1@vm1.ulg.ac.be. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10622 International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP] (Liège, Belgium); Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM] (Paris, France). Seminar on women and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Papers. Volume 1. [Séminaire sur les femmes et les changements démographiques en Afrique au sud du Sahara. Volume 1.] [1997?]. Liège, Belgium. In Eng; Fre.
This volume includes the papers presented at a conference organized by the IUSSP Committee on Gender and Population, in cooperation with ORSTOM, on the subject of women and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, held in Dakar, Senegal, March 3-6, 1993. The papers, which are in English or French, are organized into eight sections: The status of women in Sub-Saharan Africa: overview; Nuptiality and family structure; Fertility; Health and mortality; Sexually transmitted diseases; Economic activity; Migration; and Natural resources and the environment.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. E-mail: fdevpop1@vm1.ulg.ac.be. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10623 Krishnaraj, Maithreyi; Sudarshan, Ratna M.; Shariff, Abusaleh. Gender, population and development. ISBN 0-19-564234-1. 1998. xv, 363 pp. Oxford University Press: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference held in Delhi, India, on gender issues in population, health, and development. The papers are grouped into four sections: Perspectives on gender, population, and development; Evidence of discrimination; Changing economy and women's employment; and Improving the quality of population through health programs for women.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110 001, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10624 Medina, Sergio. Implementing a new indicator of social development in Mexico: literate life expectancy (LLE). IIASA Working Paper, No. 96-103, Aug 1996. vii, 56 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This paper uses an innovative indicator of social development, Literate Life Expectancy (LLE).... LLE is the aggregate average number of years that a person lives in a literate state. To demonstrate LLE's usefulness, we assessed the levels of social development in Mexico at the national, regional, and state levels. The obtained results at the national level were rather meaningful: between urban and rural women, we found a difference of almost 20 years of LLE at birth. At the regional level, there are great disparities among the regions from the North and the South. At the state level, the LLE reflected both the supremacy of the most urbanized centers, such as the Federal District and Nuevo Leon, and the impoverished social conditions of the states of Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Guerrero from the South."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: info@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10625 Morrison, Peter A. Applying demographic analysis in affirmative action disputes: an instructional case. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 5, Oct 1998. 457-78 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This instructional case study illustrates applications of demographic concepts, data, and techniques in evaluating affirmative action goals for equalizing employment opportunity. Courts of law addressing employment discrimination disputes need an accurate picture of each minority group's proportion in a pool of prospective employees. The demographic and socioeconomic factors conditioning those proportions vary from place to place. In the situation examined here, the court originally used an imperfect population standard to set hiring goals. The case traces the multiple failures to account for those conditioning influences and describes the resulting distortions of legal purpose. In analyzing this failure, students gain experience in clarifying issues in dispute, devising measures to fit legal standards, and delineating qualified labor pools." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: P. A. Morrison, Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. E-mail: morrison@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10626 Ortiz Ortega, Adriana; Amuchástegui, Ana; Rivas, Marta. "Because they were born from me": negotiating women's rights in Mexico. In: Negotiating reproductive rights: women's perspectives across countries and cultures, edited by Rosalind P. Petchesky and Karen Judd. 1998. 145-79 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
141 Mexican women active in grassroots community groups were interviewed about their perceptions of reproductive rights by a research team from the International Reproductive Rights Research Action Group [IRRRAG]. The goal was to "examine the process by which grassroots women in three communities in Mexico are carving out a sense of entitlement as increasingly vocal participants in the current period of growing political activism.... [The chapter] presents their voices in an effort to capture the possibilities and limits of their daily negotiations around reproductive rights and concludes with a discussion of the structural and personal changes necessary to allow [their] reproductive rights to become a reality."
Correspondence: A. Ortiz Ortega, Rio Elba 59-1, Col. Cuauhtemoc, Mexico 06500, D.F., Mexico. E-mail: adriortiz@laneta.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10627 Osakue, Grace; Martin-Hilber, Adriane. Women's sexuality and fertility in Nigeria: breaking the culture of silence. In: Negotiating reproductive rights: women's perspectives across countries and cultures, edited by Rosalind P. Petchesky and Karen Judd. 1998. 180-216 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
An International Reproductive Rights Research Action Group [IRRRAG] team "sought to learn how Nigerian women negotiate, accommodate or occasionally reject male control over their fertility and sexuality, and how these patterns change over the course of their life cycle. In so doing, [the researchers] found that the women [they] interviewed straddle the gap between patriarchal tradition and economic necessity when it comes to reproductive and sexual decision-making." 354 ethnically diverse women participated in group discussions; some were also interviewed. The political and economic situation in Nigeria is first sketched out. Then there are sections discussing the status of women; reproductive health and health policies, including contraception, abortion, HIV, female circumcision, and public health care; the women's movement; gender socialization, education, and work; sexuality; aging; marriage, including polygamy; divorce; and childbearing and fertility regulation, including abortion.
Correspondence: G. Osakue, 2 Hudson Lane off Akpakpava Street, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10628 Petchesky, Rosalind P. Cross-country comparisons and political visions. In: Negotiating reproductive rights: women's perspectives across countries and cultures, edited by Rosalind P. Petchesky and Karen Judd. 1998. 295-323 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
The coordinator of the International Reproductive Rights Research Action Group [IRRRAG], which conducted a seven-country research project on women's views of reproductive rights, presents some conclusions and policy recommendations in this chapter. Some common patterns were found among the low-income women that were interviewed in Brazil, Egypt, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, the Philippines, and the United States. Women in all the countries wished to control their own fertility, childbearing, and contraceptive use, although many barriers prevented this. Religion influenced, but did not govern women's behavior with regard to fertility control. Women's earnings significantly increased their sense of reproductive entitlement, as did participation in community groups. Women consistently complained about the poor quality of reproductive health care available to them. The policy recommendations made include targeting older women as influential factors, improving the quality of health care, providing safe abortions, and improving the general conditions of women, which are inextricably intertwined with their reproductive rights and health.
Correspondence: R. P. Petchesky, City University of New York, Hunter College, Room 1713 West, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021. E-mail: rpetches@shiva.hunter.cuny.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10629 Petchesky, Rosalind P.; Judd, Karen. Negotiating reproductive rights: women's perspectives across countries and cultures. ISBN 1-85649-535-3. 1998. viii, 358 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
This book contains a collection of seven reports by teams sent out to various countries by IRRRAG, the International Reproductive Rights Research Action Group, to study the local realities underlying the situation of women with regard to reproductive rights. The teams surveyed, interviewed, and held group discussions with low-income women in Brazil, Egypt, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, the Philippines, and the United States. Many of the women were active in grassroots organizations. The goal was to capture the perspectives and cultural context of women, around whom discussions of reproductive rights revolve, but who are not generally participants in such discussions due to barriers of education, poverty, culture, or prejudice. The study found that the significance of reproductive rights to these women varied widely, and that their views on particular issues were inextricably intertwined with their social and cultural matrix. The book includes an introduction and a concluding chapter containing policy recommendations.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Zed Books, 7 Cynthia Street, London N1 9JF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10630 Raj, Rita; Chee, Heng Leng; Shuib, Rashidah. Between modernization and patriarchal revivalism: reproductive negotiations among women in Peninsular Malaysia. In: Negotiating reproductive rights: women's perspectives across countries and cultures, edited by Rosalind P. Petchesky and Karen Judd. 1998. 108-44 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
The report of the International Reproductive Rights Research Action Group [IRRRAG] on reproductive rights among low-income women in Malaysia is presented in this chapter. 71 women were interviewed at five sites, including Malay, Chinese, and Indian communities. "The issues included education, work, premarital sexuality, marriage, divorce, polygamy, domestic violence, childbearing and fertility regulation, including contraceptive methods and abortion."
Correspondence: R. Raj, Asian Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women, Block F, Anjung FELDA, Jalan Maktab, 54000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10631 Seif El Dawla, Aida; Abdel Hadi, Amal; Abdel Wahab, Nadia. Women's wit over men's: trade-offs and strategic accommodations in Egyptian women's reproductive lives. In: Negotiating reproductive rights: women's perspectives across countries and cultures, edited by Rosalind P. Petchesky and Karen Judd. 1998. 69-107 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter presents the findings of the International Reproductive Rights Research Action Group [IRRRAG] team that set out to explore the issues surrounding reproductive rights from the perspective of low-income Egyptian women. Group discussions and private interviews were carried out in seven locations in Cairo, the Delta region, and Upper Egypt, and included a group of Islamic fundamentalists. Some men were also interviewed. Topics covered include gender and sexuality, female circumcision (FGM), marriage, employment, motherhood and reproductive choices, and abortion.
Correspondence: A. Seif El Dawla, Ain Shams University, Kasr El-Zaafaran Abbasiya, Cairo, Egypt. Author's E-mail: hosams@intouch.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

65:10632 Newman, David. Population as security: the Arab-Israeli struggle for demographic hegemony. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 163-85 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the various notions of security within the Arab-Israel context. It briefly summarizes the changing security discourse taking place.... It then focuses on three components of the relationship between population policies and security: (1) the differential processes of Jewish immigration and Arab-Palestinian refugee outmigration from the country; (2) the differential Arab-Jewish demographic ratios within different regions of Israel and between Israel and the occupied territories; and (3) the nature of state intervention in the planning and settlement process as a means of ensuring demographic and territorial control. The chapter discusses the alternative notions of security held by Jewish and Arab-Palestinian inhabitants of Israel and the West Bank, noting the importance of citizenship and equality as an alternative definition of security, particularly for minority groups, and highlighting the asymmetrical nature of a debate in which Israelis and Palestinians focus on different dimensions of the meaning of security for their own national entities."
Correspondence: D. Newman, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 653, 84105 Beersheba, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10633 Poku, Nana; Graham, David T. Redefining security for a new millennium. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 1-13 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter explores the concept of security in the context of a world no longer defined by the Cold War, and replete with complex migration flows. "Specifically, the chapter is in three sections. The first section deals with the traditional conception of security in international relations. The second section outlines the contours of the emerging security debate. Finally, the relevance of this debate for the issue of global population movements is outlined."
Correspondence: N. Poku, University of Southampton, Department of Politics, Highfield, Southampton SO9 4XY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10634 Schmertmann, Carl P.; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Long, Robert D. Three strikes and you're out: demographic analysis of mandatory prison sentencing. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 445-63 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the costs and benefits of mandatory sentencing laws in the United States. "We construct a multistate life-table model of population flows to and from prisons, incorporating age-specific transition rates estimated from administrative data from Florida. We use the multistate life-table model to investigate patterns of prison population growth and aging under many variants of three-strikes laws. Our analysis allows us to quantify these demographic changes and suggests that the aging of prison populations under three-strikes policies will significantly undermine their long-run effectiveness."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: C. P. Schmertmann, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2240. E-mail: schmertmann@fsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

65:10635 Ampofo, Akosua A. Framing knowledge, forming behaviour; Ghanaian women's AIDS-protection strategies. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 151-74 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper relies on data from face-to-face interviews among Ghanaian (female) sex workers, and unmarried women (who are not sex workers) to examine how the promotion of sexual health behaviour, or lack thereof, is related to beliefs about AIDS causation and prevention, and a sense of personal risk. Specifically, the paper focuses on why some women have adopted the use of condoms and others have not. Important in this particular analysis is the economic basis of women's sexual relations, and how this affects their ability to negotiate for `safer sex' practices. The findings indicate that `knowledge' has more potency for some women than others, and that this `potency' is socially defined through asymmetrical relations."
Correspondence: A. A. Ampofo, University of Ghana, Institute of African Studies, Development and Women's Studies Programme, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10636 Appleyard, Reginald; Wilson, Andrew. Migration and HIV/AIDS. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1998. 445-645 pp. International Organization for Migration [IOM]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This special issue on HIV/AIDS and migration contains papers that were originally commissioned for a workshop held in Geneva, March 2-3, 1998, organized jointly by the UN Joint Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM). "In order to address gaps in policy and research, and better identify the priorities for further work, UNAIDS and the IOM undertook a joint project to review the current state of knowledge about migration and HIV/AIDS, and to identify priority areas and issues for research and intervention. The long term objective of this work is to strengthen the joint action of IOM, UNAIDS and its cosponsors and other key players at the global, regional and country levels in order to advance the issues of AIDS and migration to a level of operational response to the epidemic." There are papers on migration and AIDS in general and regional papers on West and Central Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States, and Mexico and Central America.
Correspondence: International Organization for Migration, 17 route des Morillons, Case Postale 71, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10637 Becker, Charles M.; Bibosunova, Damira I.; Holmes, Grace E.; Ibragimova, Margarita M. Maternal care vs. economic wealth and the health of newborns: Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic and Kansas City, USA. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1998. 2,057-72 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on a narrow aspect of the demographic and health crisis in the former Soviet Union, examining the extent to which maternal behavior can compensate for poverty and poor medical conditions. Using sister hospital data from Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan and Kansas City, USA covering nearly 1,500 live births, the paper finds that Kyrgyzstani women are partially successful in compensating by taking better care of themselves and their newborn children. Moreover, ethnicity within Kyrgyzstan has no apparent impact on maternal behavior."
Correspondence: C. M. Becker, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10638 Bell, Frances; Millward, Robert. Public health expenditures and mortality in England and Wales, 1870-1914. Continuity and Change, Vol. 13, No. 2, Aug 1998. 221-49 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the trends which emerge from a quantification of local government expenditures on sanitary infrastructure and from attention to its phasing over time. We are concerned with two main issues: to what extent do public health expenditure data describe the public health effort, and how do trends in public health expenditure relate to the decline of mortality? Our subject is local authority sanitary reform as a factor in mortality decline and our focus is on the impact of the timing of public health expenditure rather than the reasons for that timing. We do not examine inter-relationships between sanitary reform and other factors contributing to mortality decline such as income levels and density factors."
Correspondence: F. Bell, University of Manchester, History Department, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10639 Berer, Marge; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari. Sexuality. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 6, No. 12, Nov 1998. 189 pp. Reproductive Health Matters: London, England. In Eng.
This special issue is concerned with aspects of sexuality relevant to those working in the area of reproductive health. The contents are as follows: Sex, sexuality and sexual health, by Marge Berer; Sexuality: not just a reproductive health matter, by Nandini Oomman; Sexuality today: research and practice, by Juliet Richters; Bewitched, betwixt, between, by Michael Lim Tan; Protecting school girls against sexual exploitation: a guardian programme in Mwanza, Tanzania, by Zaida Mgalla, Dick Schapink, and J. Ties Boerma; HIV positive women, reproduction and sexuality in São Paulo, Brazil, by Naila Santos, Elvira Ventura-Filipe, and Vera Paiva; Couple communication and sexual satisfaction among withdrawal users in Pakistan, by Megan Douthwaite, Peter Miller, Munawar Sultana, and Minhaj Haque; Like a video: the sexualisation of childbirth in Bolivia, by Barbara Bradby; Withholding of sex and forced sex: dimensions of violence against Zimbabwean women, by Charlotte Watts, Mavis Ndlovu, Erica Keogh, and Rudo Kwaramba; Exploring the context of women's sexuality in eastern Turkey, by Pinar Ilkkaracan; Talking about sex, by Radhika Chandiramani; Differential perspectives of men and women in Mumbai, India on sexual relations and negotiation within marriage, by Annie George; Masculine identity and the meanings of sexuality: a review of research in Mexico, by Ivonne Szasz; and Virginity in Mexico: the role of competing discourses of sexuality in personal experience, by Ana Amachástegui Herrera.
Correspondence: Reproductive Health Matters, 29-35 Farringdon Road, London EC1M 3JB, England. E-mail: RHMjournal@compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10640 Bianco, Mabel. Fertility, health, and poverty in Latin America: the Argentinean case. [Fecundidad, salud y pobreza en América Latina: el caso argentino.] ISBN 987-99072-1-3. 1996. 130 pp. Fundación para Estudio e Investigación de la Mujer [FEIM]: Buenos Aires, Argentina; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Spa.
This is one in a series of studies examining the impact of structural adjustment programs on various Latin American countries. Particular attention is given to how the decline in the resources available for social and health services is affecting the sexual and reproductive health of women. This study concerns the situation in Argentina. Attention is given to general mortality, maternal mortality, services at delivery, abortion, adolescent childbearing, cesarean births, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, and infant health.
Correspondence: Fundación para Estudio e Investigación de la Mujer, Paraná 135, 3o 13, 1017 Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: feim@feim.wamani.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10641 Bos, Eduard; Hon, Vivian; Maeda, Akiko; Chellaraj, Gnanaraj; Preker, Alexander. Health, nutrition, and population indicators: a statistical handbook. Health, Nutrition, and Population Series, ISBN 0-8213-4184-7. LC 98-30586. 1999. viii, 75 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This statistical handbook is an up-to-date compilation of indicators of levels and trends in health status, health determinants, health systems, and health finance. The first sections highlight trends in health indicators and then analyze and explain the trends. The last section contains statistical tables, with data presented by country, region, and income group. A summary of data sources and a list of definitions follow the tables." Data of demographic interest are included by country on child mortality, life expectancy at birth, adult mortality, total fertility rate, demographic aging, and deaths by age and sex.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10642 Desgrées du Loû, Annabel. Reproductive health and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: problems and prospects. [Santé de la reproduction et SIDA en Afrique subsaharienne: enjeux et défis.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 701-30 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The AIDS epidemic and the associated prevention campaigns have profoundly modified the relationships between sexuality, contraception and procreation in the developing countries. Based on a survey of the literature on the subject, this article gives a synthesis of the state of knowledge and research about the impact of the epidemic on reproductive health in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, and the lessons to be drawn for the elaboration of health programmes.... The epidemic has the potential to modify sexual and matrimonial behaviour, but can also, by its indirect effect on the structure of the population and its direct effect on the reproductive physiology, influence individual and group fertility."
Correspondence: A. Desgrées du Loû, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 04 B.P. 293, Abidjan 04, Côte d'Ivoire. E-mail: annabel@abidjan.orstom.ci. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10643 Drennan, Megan. Reproductive health: new perspectives on men's participation. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 46, Oct 1998. 35 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Reproductive health programs are seeking better ways to understand men, to communicate with them, to engage them, and to help them take better care of themselves and their partners." Information is included on the need for men to help stop the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, prevent unintended pregnancies, and practice responsible fatherhood; male knowledge and use of contraception; gender and reproductive behavior; couple communication; and providing men with information, education, and communication about reproductive health.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. E-mail: PopRepts@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu. Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, MD.

65:10644 Garg, Ashish; Morduch, Jonathan. Sibling rivalry and the gender gap: evidence from child health outcomes in Ghana. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1998. 471-93 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana [the 1988-1989 Ghana Living Standards Survey], we find that on average if children had all sisters (and no brothers) they would do roughly 25-40% better on measured health indicators than if they had all brothers (and no sisters)."
Correspondence: J. Morduch, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: jmorduch@princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10645 Graham, David T.; Poku, Nana. Population movements, health, and security. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 203-34 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The movement of people has long been recognized as a major component in the transmission of disease as well as other adverse health effects.... This chapter looks at the issues relating to population movements and health, then relates them to issues of personal, national, regional, and global security." The authors review the history of epidemics in modern times, and discuss the current status of the most common infectious diseases, including AIDS. They also look at policy responses to these global threats.
Correspondence: D. T. Graham, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10646 Graham, Wendy J. Outcomes and effectiveness in reproductive health. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 12, Dec 1998. 1,925-36 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
Some issues concerning the measurement of reproductive health are examined. "This paper discusses two major measurement questions--one related to ascertainment and the other to attribution. The first question is to what extent the observed levels and patterns of reproductive health outcomes in women are valid as opposed to artifacts of the data sources and the data collection methods? The second question is can lack of evidence of effectiveness for any reproductive health intervention ever confidently be separated into no effects vs. an inability to measure effects? Determining the effectiveness of health interventions is notoriously difficult. Reproductive health may not be a case for special pleading in the competition for scarce resources, but equally it should not be a case for special standards of proof of the effectiveness of interventions--standards which have not indeed been met by many other, and yet unquestioned, health care priorities."
Correspondence: W. J. Graham, Aberdeen University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dugald Baird Centre for Research on Women's Health, Cornhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland. E-mail: w.graham@aberdeen.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10647 Higgins, Paul A.; Alderman, Harold. Labor and women's nutrition: the impact of work effort and fertility on nutritional status in Ghana. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 32, No. 3, Summer 1997. 577-95 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"An instrumental variables technique was employed to obtain consistent estimates of the structural parameters of the nutrition production function for adult women in Ghana. Energy expenditure, as embodied in individual time allocations over the previous seven days, was found to be an important determinant of female nutritional status, with time devoted to agricultural tasks, in particular, having a strong negative effect. Perhaps most importantly, evidence was found of a substantial downward bias of the calorie elasticity estimate when the energy expenditure proxies were excluded." The analysis supplies little support for the existence of a "maternal depletion syndrome" or other negative effects of fertility on nutritional status. Data are from the 1987-1988 Ghana Living Standards Survey.
Correspondence: P. A. Higgins, 3335 Legation Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20015. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

65:10648 Horrell, Sara; Humphries, Jane; Voth, Hans-Joachim. Stature and relative deprivation: fatherless children in early industrial Britain. Continuity and Change, Vol. 13, No. 1, May 1998. 73-115 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"In recent literature links between nutrition, health status and stature have been used to supplement conventional economic indices of well-being, but the accuracy of stature as an indicator of welfare remains in dispute. Here we use qualitative and quantitative evidence on work, income, nutrition, living conditions and heights for a relatively deprived subsample of the population in early industrial Britain: children in female-headed households. We find the impoverished condition of fatherless children can be identified and smaller stature is also evident."
Correspondence: S. Horrell, University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics, Austin Robinson Building, Sidgwick Avenue, Cambridge CB3 9DD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10649 Hunt, Kate; Annandale, Ellen. Gender and health. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 1, Jan 1999. 138 pp. Pergamon Press: Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains 10 papers on aspects of gender and health, based on recent data from the United Kingdom, the United States, and Finland. The focus is on the extent of gender differences in health status.
Correspondence: Pergamon, Elsevier Science, Bampfylde Street, Exeter EX1 2AH, England. E-mail: nlinfo-f@elsevier.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10650 International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF] (London, England). Vision 2000. Sexual and reproductive health: a new approach with communities. ISBN 0-86089-116-X. 1997. 160 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This report "offers the following: an introductory resource for people who want to develop and implement sexual and reproductive health programmes in communities; an approach for forming partnerships with communities to improve sexual and reproductive health; an outline training methodology for training health care providers to become facilitators; a simple framework for health care providers to adopt and adapt when facilitating the work of community groups; an approach for facilitating community groups to develop, implement and evaluate realistic strategies to address their communities' concerns; [and] a collection of resource activities to stimulate group discussions about how sexual and reproductive health problems affect community life."
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10651 International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP] (Liège, Belgium); University of Natal (Durban, South Africa). Conference on the socio-demographic impact of AIDS in Africa. [1997]. Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This volume includes the papers presented at a conference organized by the IUSSP Committee on AIDS and the University of Natal on the socio-demographic impact of AIDS in Africa, held in Durban, South Africa, February 3-6, 1997. The 23 papers are organized into six sections: Fertility; Household and family structure; Mortality; Measurement issues; Orphanhood; and The implications of the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa: from theory to policy and practice.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. E-mail: fdevpop1@vm1.ulg.ac.be. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10652 International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP] (Liège, Belgium); University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Community Health (Johannesburg, South Africa). Seminar on Cultural Perspectives on Reproductive Health: papers. 1997. [420] pp. Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This volume contains the papers presented at a seminar held in Rustenburg, South Africa, June 16-19, 1997. The 22 papers, 20 of which are in English and 2 in French, are organized into four sections: Culture and the formulation of reproductive illness: biomedical models and local realities; Giving birth, planning families; New problems, technologies and therapies; and The political context of reproductive strategies.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10653 Kalipeni, Ezekiel; Thiuri, Philip. Issues and perspectives on health care in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa. Studies in African Health and Medicine, Vol. 8, ISBN 0-7734-8433-7. LC 97-42276. 1997. xi, 419 pp. Edwin Mellen Press: Lewiston, New York. In Eng.
"The works contained in this volume recognize the superficial nature of health care improvement [in Sub-Saharan Africa]. Using an interdisciplinary perspective the contributions examine varied aspects of Africa's poor status as far as health care facilities and accessibility are concerned. The works are grouped into four main subtopics and themes, namely, an examination of selected basic health care problems such [as] AIDS and infant mortality, the precarious position of women in relation to culture and access to health care facilities, policy issues in the provision of health care facilities, and an examination of spatial inequalities in the distribution, accessibility and utilization of health care facilities."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Edwin Mellen Press, P.O. Box 450, Lewiston, NY 14092-0450. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10654 Klevens, R. Monina; Fleming, Patricia L.; Neal, Joyce J.; Li, Jianmin. Is there really a heterosexual AIDS epidemic in the United States? Findings from a multisite validation study, 1992-1995. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 1, Jan 1, 1999. 75-84 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to verify the mode of exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among cases who obtained acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) through heterosexual contact and to determine the proportion of cases initially reported with no risk but whose exposure may have been heterosexual." The data concern adults aged 13 or over who were diagnosed with AIDS between 1992 and 1995 at six study sites in the United States. "From the review of medical records, we found that 82 percent of the cases initially reported as acquired heterosexually were valid and that AIDS in one fifth of the men and more than half of the women initially reported as having no risk was probably acquired heterosexually. These findings support the reports of an emerging heterosexual AIDS epidemic in the United States."
Correspondence: Marie Morgan, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS E-49, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10655 Kost, Kathryn; Landry, David J.; Darroch, Jacqueline E. The effects of pregnancy planning status on birth outcomes and infant care. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 223-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data were obtained on 9,122 births reported in the 1988 [U.S.] National Maternal and Infant Health Survey and 2,548 births reported in the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the effects of planning status on the odds of a negative birth outcome (premature delivery, low-birth-weight infant or infant who is small for gestational age), early well-baby care and breastfeeding.... The proportion of infants born with a health disadvantage is significantly lower if the pregnancy was intended than if it was mistimed or not wanted; the proportions who receive well-baby care by age three months and who are ever breastfed are highest if the pregnancy was intended."
Correspondence: K. Kost, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10656 Martin, Linda G.; Soldo, Beth J. Racial and ethnic differences in the health of older Americans. ISBN 0-309-05489-3. LC 97-33731. 1997. x, 300 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report contains revised versions of papers presented at a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in December 1994, organized by the National Research Council's Committee on Population, on racial and ethnic differences in health at older ages. "The nine papers in this volume range from overviews of racial and ethnic differences in the measures of health outcomes to in-depth looks at particular causal factors to investigations of specific diseases or specific ethnic groups. The result of our pragmatic approach has been a primary focus on black-white differentials, given that the bulk of available data and analysis have highlighted these. Nevertheless, several of the papers provide insight into the health of the growing proportion of the elderly who are Hispanic or Asian/Pacific Islanders."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10657 Ramasubban, Radhika. HIV/AIDS in India. Gulf between rhetoric and reality. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 45, Nov 7-13, 1998. 2,865-72 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
An analysis of the AIDS epidemic in India is presented. The author makes the case that, although the epidemic is well advanced and threatening to get out of hand, resistant socio-cultural norms, organizational inefficiencies, and the lack of political will are the main factors that are hindering efforts to develop policies and programs to deal with it. Other factors that complicate the situation are constraints on the discussion of sex and sexuality, patriarchal structures, and gender relations.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10658 Rao, K. V.; Mishra, Vinod K.; Retherford, Robert D. Knowledge and use of oral rehydration therapy for childhood diarrhoea in India: effects of exposure to mass media. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 10, Nov 1998. 55 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This Subject Report evaluates the effects of mother's exposure to the mass media on knowledge and use of oral rehydration therapy [for childhood diarrhea], using data from India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey. Results indicate that, despite a vigorous Oral Rehydration Therapy Programme for more than a decade, knowledge and use of oral rehydration therapy remain quite limited...[and] that mother's exposure to electronic mass media increases awareness and use of oral rehydration therapy."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10659 Rockett, Ian R. H. Injury and violence: a public health perspective. Population Bulletin, Vol. 53, No. 4, Dec 1998. 40 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "examines the overlapping phenomena of injury and violence from a public health perspective.... The bulletin focuses on the United States...." Sections are included on injury prevention, public health approaches, injury mortality and morbidity data, risk factors and interventions, medical care, and future directions. The section on injury mortality data provides information on sources of U.S. mortality data.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10660 Sacco, Ralph L.; Elkind, Mitchell; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Lin, I-Feng; Kargman, Douglas E.; Hauser, W. Allen; Shea, Steven; Paik, Myunghee C. The protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on ischemic stroke. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 281, No. 1, Jan 6, 1999. 53-60 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and ischemic stroke is examined using data from the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study (NOMASS) collected between 1993 and 1997 concerning 677 ischemic stroke patients in New York City. The results indicate that "moderate alcohol consumption was independently associated with a decreased risk of ischemic stroke in our elderly, multiethnic, urban subjects, while heavy alcohol consumption had deleterious effects. Our data support the National Stroke Association Stroke Prevention Guidelines regarding the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption."
Correspondence: R. L. Sacco, Neurological Institute, 710 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: rls1@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10661 Scott, Susan; Duncan, Christopher J. Human demography and disease. ISBN 0-521-62052-X. LC 97-41912. 1998. xvi, 354 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This book "offers an interdisciplinary and integrated perspective on the relationship between historical populations and the dynamics of epidemiological processes [in England]. It brings the techniques of time-series analysis and computer matrix modelling to historical demography and geography to extract detailed information concerning the oscillations in births, deaths, migrations and epidemics from parish register and other data series and to build mathematical models of the population cycles. [It] presents a new way of studying pre-industrial communities and explores the subtle, and hitherto undetected effects of fluctuating nutritional levels on mortality patterns and the dynamics of infectious diseases."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10662 Shah, Iqbal H. Sexual and reproductive health in Sub-Saharan Africa: an overview. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 98-107 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"By reviewing available data, this paper presents the reproductive health context in Sub-Saharan Africa and highlights levels and trends in critical dimensions of sexual and reproductive health, including (a) fertility, contraceptive use and unmet need; (b) maternal mortality; (c) HIV/AIDS; and (d) the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents."
Correspondence: I. H. Shah, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10663 Shah, Iqbal H. The 29th Congress of the South African Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (SASOG), 8-12 March 1998, Stellenbosch (South Africa). African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 96-215 pp. Women's Health and Action Research Centre: Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Five of the papers presented at the 29th SASOG conference held in South Africa in March 1998 are presented in this special section. The focus of the papers is on ways to improve reproductive health in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Women's Health and Action Research Center, 4 Alofoje Street, off Uwasota Street, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10664 Skoufias, Emmanuel. Determinants of child health during the economic transition in Romania. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1998. 2,045-56 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this study, I use cross-sectional household data from the 1994 Integrated Household Survey of Romania, to analyze the correlation of socioeconomic, demographic or environmental factors with growth attainment of pre-school (0-5 year old) boys and girls.... [The analysis] reveals that there are substantial differences across gender and rural and urban areas in the patterns of correlation of socioeconomic, demographic or environmental factors with growth attainment of pre-school children."
Correspondence: E. Skoufias, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20006-1002. E-mail: IFPRI-info@cgiar.org. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10665 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). World population monitoring 1996: selected aspects of reproductive rights and reproductive health. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/156, Pub. Order No. E.97.XIII.5. ISBN 92-1-151319-7. LC 97-30867. 1998. xii, 282 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report examines global progress toward implementation of the Programme of Action drawn up at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development in the area of reproductive rights and reproductive health. "In addition to an overview and introduction, this report consists of eight chapters covering the following topics: entry into reproductive life; reproductive behaviour; contraception; abortion; maternal mortality and morbidity; sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS); reproductive rights; and population information, education and communication with respect to reproductive rights and reproductive health.... This report contains an extensive set of annex tables providing indicators of the current demographic situation in major areas and regions, as well as data on population size and growth, population distribution, and fertility and mortality levels in countries, major areas and regions. These annex tables also provide data specific to reproductive rights and reproductive health."
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

No citations in this issue.


Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.