Volume 65 - Number 1 - Spring 1999

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

65:10564 Boyd, Rosalind. Workers and borders in the context of regional blocs. [Travailleurs(euses) et frontières dans la constitution de blocs régionaux.] Labour, Capital and Society/Travail, Capital et Société, Vol. 31, No. 1-2, Apr-Nov 1998. 214 pp. McGill University, Centre for Developing-Area Studies: Montreal, Canada. In Eng; Fre; Spa.
This thematic special double issue contains papers examining how three regional blocs--the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the European Union (EU)--affect low-income workers worldwide. The papers, which are in English, French, or Spanish, were presented at a workshop given at McGill University's Centre for Developing-Area Studies in April 1997. Their titles are as follows. NAFTA, international migration and labour rights, by Alan B. Simmons; APEC and labour migration, by Wardlow Friesen; The debate on the opening of the external borders of the European Union: the example of the immigrants without papers movement in France, by Alain Morice; The post-NAFTA impact of Mexican export-processing industries on migration, by Kathryn Kopinak; Fortress Europe: what place for migrants?, by Claire Rodier; Globalization: myths and realities from a Cuban perspective, by Antonio F. Romero Gómez; Free trade in the Americas: the perspective of Québec labour and popular-sector organizations, by Peter Bakvis; Planet-wide citizen's income: antidote to global apartheid, by Myron J. Frankman; and NAFTA and hemispheric integration: reality and uncertainties, by Nancy Madrigal Muñoz.
Correspondence: Labour, Capital and Society/Travail, Capital et Société, Centre for Developing-Area Studies, 3715 rue Peel, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1X1, Canada. E-mail: ed10@musica.mcgill.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10565 De Santis, Gustavo. Demography and economics. [Demografia ed economia.] Studi e Ricerche, No. 394, ISBN 88-15-06053-7. LC 98-105356. 1997. 354 pp. Società Editrice il Mulino: Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
The author examines the relations between demography and economics under several broad headings. He first introduces the elements of the "demographic system": population size, structure, dynamics, and behavior. He then discusses theories of demography and economic development, beginning with Malthus. The third chapter examines the theory of family production and the rationality of demographic behaviors, including nuptiality, fertility, and migration. The fourth chapter looks at equivalence scales and their application to demography, including calculations of child cost. The fifth chapter deals with the intergenerational transfer of resources, focusing on Italy's social security system.
Correspondence: Società Editrice il Mulino, Strada Maggiore 37, C.P. 119, 40100 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10566 Demeny, Paul. Population and development. IUSSP Distinguished Lecture Series, 1994. 26 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This is the text of a lecture presented at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt. The author first briefly reviews population and development issues considered at the 1974 and 1984 conferences. He then assesses the Program of Action presented at the 1994 meeting, with a focus on the economic consequences of population change.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10567 Djajic, Slobodan. Emigration and welfare in an economy with foreign capital. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 56, No. 2, Aug 1998. 433-45 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of emigration on welfare of the remaining residents (R) in an economy producing traded (T) and non-traded (N) goods with the aid of foreign and domestic capital.... The paper also compares the welfare implications of remittance flows back to the source country when they are used to finance consumption and when they are used to finance capital accumulation."
Correspondence: S. Djajic, Graduate Institute of International Studies, 132 Rue de Lausanne, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10568 Lambert, Thomas. Defusing the "population bomb" with free markets. CSAB Policy Study, No. 129, Feb 1996. 35 pp. Washington University, Center for the Study of American Business: St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
The author discusses "the assumption that current population trends promise catastrophe and signal a need for extensive government involvement.... Policymakers should ask, `Is there a population bomb?' before they undertake costly and controversial measures to defuse it.... In actuality, there is no population bomb that free markets cannot defuse. Economic freedom enables individuals to make production changes that allow the earth to meet the needs of growing populations."
Correspondence: Washington University, Center for the Study of American Business, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1208, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Economic Development and Population in Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

65:10569 Bhattacharya, Basabi. Urbanisation and human development in West Bengal: a district level study and comparison with inter-state variation. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 47-48, Nov 21, 1998. 3,027-32 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the design of West Bengal economy in terms of human development. The human development levels across West Bengal districts vary sharply and are more in favour of the urbanised regions. This pattern persists over time. The overall Indian situation also reveals this pattern but the extent of variation is less."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10570 Messkoub, Mahmood. Crisis of ageing in less developed countries. A crisis for whom? Some conceptual and policy issues. Institute of Social Studies Working Paper, No. 254, Aug 1997. 31 pp. Institute of Social Studies: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author argues that focusing the debate concerning demographic aging on the economic burden that providing for the aged causes for the population of working age is inappropriate for the situation in developing countries. "Firstly, empirical evidence shows that the aged to not consume (relative to their income) more than the rest of the population. Second, the issue of `dependency' of the aged should be put in the broader context of the dependency of the unemployed and under-employed in a market economy. Third, focus of the debate should move away from consumption and towards production. Finally, since the old make claims on the national output on the basis of their accumulated assets, savings and pensions the distributional issues (in relation to assets as well as incomes) have [to] be an integral part of any pension system in order to alleviate poverty among the elderly."
Correspondence: Institute of Social Studies, Publications Office, P.O. Box 29776, 2502 LT The Hague, Netherlands. Location: University of Illinois Library, Urbana, IL.

65:10571 Morocco. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Population and development in Morocco. [Population et développement au Maroc.] Etudes Démographiques, ISBN 9981-1949-2-1. 1998. 459 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This is a general report on the relationship between population and socioeconomic development in Morocco. The first section is concerned with population growth and characteristics, including fertility, mortality, projections of the total population and the number of households, the characteristics of the child and youth populations, the aged, and the handicapped. The next section focuses on the family, including family characteristics and marriage strategies, socioeconomic factors, and intergenerational solidarity. There are also sections on gender issues and women's status; spatial distribution, urbanization, and migration; health, morbidity, and mortality; reproductive rights and reproductive health; education; and national population policy and international cooperation.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, B.P. 178, avenue Maâ El Ainine, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10572 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Senior Officials Meeting on Targets and Goals of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development: implementation strategy. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 127, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1375. 1994. v, 108 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is a report on the "Senior Officials Meeting on Targets and Goals of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development [which was held in Bangkok in 1994]." Following the report and recommendations for action, papers are included on an overview of population targets and goals; implementation strategy for achieving the goals of mortality reduction; and strategy for achieving replacement-level fertility.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10573 Wils, Anna. PDE-Cape Verde: a systems study of population, development, and environment. IIASA Working Paper, No. 96-9, Jan 1996. ix, 143 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This study is an holistic analysis of population, socio-economic development and the environment (PDE) in a case study of an arid island state, Cape Verde.... The study rests on two tiers of research. The first is an historical analysis of the case country with qualitative and statistical detail, contained in five chapters: history; population; social factors; economy; and environment. It includes a demographic method to analyze effects of mortality increase; and to estimate migration and fertility. The second tier is simulation modeling, contained in three chapters: on other models; the PDE model; and the scenarios. The PDE simulation model combines multi-state population projection; a semi-equilibrium input-output model; and a water and agriculture model. The model is used to make an historical scenario and future scenarios of the case country." Throughout, comparisons are made to Mauritius.
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: info@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Economic Development and Population in Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

65:10574 Green, Alan G.; Sparks, Gordon R. Population growth and the dynamics of Canadian development: a multivariate time series approach. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 36, No. 1, Jan 1999. 56-71 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"New long-run GNP estimates for Canada are used to apply time-series methods to the issue of the impact of the rapid settlement of western Canada and the wheat boom from 1896 to 1913 on Canadian development. Using annual data for 1870 to 1939, a vector autoregression is estimated and used to analyze the contributions of innovations to the GNP growth over the wheat boom period. The most striking result is the substantial impact of innovations in population. Exports also played an important role and the investment boom that occurred is seen as arising endogenously from the dynamics of the model."
Correspondence: A. G. Green, Queen's University, Department of Economics, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10575 Kuddo, Arvo. Determinants of demographic change in transition Estonia. Nationalities Papers, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1997. 625-42 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the transformation of Estonia to a market economy, with a focus on trends in demographic development. "The transition of society in Estonia has been accompanied by significant changes in the demographic behaviour of the population, including nuptiality, fertility, mortality and population migration.... However, this period has been relatively short, and it is premature to conclude which of the current trends are long-term in nature, and which will have only a short-term effect."
Correspondence: A. Kuddo, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10576 Vatter, Harold G.; Walker, John F. Support for baby-boom retirees--not to worry. Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 32, No. 1, Mar 1998. 79-86 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"The thrust of this analysis is recognition of the vital importance of reasonable estimates of a labor productivity rise for appraising the ability of taxed [U.S.] workers to transfer consumer products to the retired baby boomers of 2030.... The essence of support capability is production, and there is every reason to estimate that production will be adequate to substantially increase the per capita consumption of both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries in the peak retirement period."
Correspondence: H. G. Vatter, Portland State University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10577 Wise, David A. Frontiers in the economics of aging. NBER Project Report, ISBN 0-226-90304-4. LC 98-11612. 1998. ix, 497 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This volume presents papers given at a conference held at Carefree, Arizona, in April 1997 on aspects of the economics of aging. "The papers in this volume discuss the implications of the rapid spread of personal retirement saving, discuss several aspects of health care, investigate important methodological advances in studying aging issues, and consider new aspects of inequality." The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10578 Yashiro, Naohiro. Aging of the population in Japan and its implications to the other Asian countries. Journal of Asian Economics, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 1997. 245-61 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The speed at which Japan's population is aging is mainly a result of its rapid economic development, which is common to many other East Asian countries. Two aspects of the aging of the population are an increasing share of the elderly and a declining labor force. The larger the number of elderly, the more the transfer of income between generations, and the fiscal burden rises. The shrinking workforce will lower the economic growth directly, and indirectly through the falling saving ratio. However, the negative impacts from aging can largely be offset by stimulating participation of older persons in the labor force."
Correspondence: N. Yashiro, Sophia University, Institute of International Relations, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 102, Japan. E-mail: yashiro@sophia.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

65:10579 Banister, Judith. Population, public health and the environment in China. China Quarterly, No. 156, Dec 1998. 986-1,015 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The environmental impact of current population trends in China is examined. The author notes that significant environmental damage associated with population size and growth has already occurred, particularly over the past 50 years. Two main environmental threats will dominate the near future. The first is due to the fact that the government is likely to choose jobs over environmental concerns to meet the needs of the fast-growing population of working age. The second is that rising living standards will contribute to further environmental degradation. The bulk of the paper is concerned with the impact of deteriorating environmental conditions on the nation's health.
Correspondence: J. Banister, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Department of Demography, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10580 Cairns, John. The zen of sustainable use of the planet: steps on the path to enlightenment. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 2, Nov 1998. 109-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Although science guided by reason is essential to reaching informed decisions on sustainability, it must be accompanied by a new ethos, or set of guiding beliefs.... Some consensus must be reached on the broad, general conditions governing human society's relationship to the environment. A shared ethos would promote sustainable use and reduce the possibility of harsh penalties exacted upon species that do not respond adequately to alteration in their environment."
Correspondence: J. Cairns, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10581 Collomb, Philippe; Guérin-Pace, France. The French and the environment: survey on "Population, Living Space, and Environment" [Les Français et l'environnement: L'Enquête "Population--Espaces de vie--Environnements"] INED Travaux et Documents, No. 141, ISBN 2-7332-0141-7. 1998. x, 255 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This book presents the results of 6,000 interviews with individuals in France concerning the environment and the dangers of pollution. The interviews were carried out by INED (Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques) among a representative sample of the French population. The goal was to measure the levels of environmental awareness and understanding of such concepts as "nature" and "environment" according to age, gender, nationality, religion, socioeconomic status, residential status, and educational status. The information gathered through the interviews reveals that a widespread ecological and environmental awareness does not yet exist in France.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10582 de Sherbinin, Alex; Dompka, Victoria; Bromley, Lars. Water and population dynamics: case studies and policy implications. LC 98-6617. 1998. iv, 322 pp. American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a World Conservation Union workshop on water and population dynamics, held in Canada in October 1996. "In order to adequately address water and population issues in light of fast-paced global changes, we need to better understand the relationship between the two in scientific and policy terms. This book...helps to increase our comprehension of the issues as they manifest themselves in various sites, on the ground, and particularly in the developing world." Chapters are included on overviews of water management and resources; aquatic ecosystems--the challenge of conservation; international river basins--balancing rising demand and finite supply; and local participation in water management--empowering communities to take the lead.
Correspondence: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1200 New York Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. E-mail: lbromley@aaas.org. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10583 Dorfman, Robert; Rogers, Peter P. Science with a human face: in honor of Roger Randall Revelle. ISBN 0-674-79483-4. LC 97-20687. Jul 1997. x, 272 pp. Harvard University, School of Public Health: Boston, Massachusetts. Distributed by Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. In Eng.
This book has a selection of the papers presented at the Roger Revelle Memorial Symposium on Population and Environment held at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies in October 1992. "The range of research of the papers contained in this volume reflects the breadth and depth of Roger Revelle's work. The subjects covered include research in the earth sciences, work in biology and physiology, demography, research on developments in environmental science, and studies of social, economic, and environmental interactions. A memoir of how Revelle's exposure to poverty in Pakistan ignited his interest in the contribution that science could make to improving the lives of people in developing countries introduces the volume."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10584 Engelman, Robert. Profiles in carbon: an update on population, consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. 1998. 42 pp. Population Action International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This publication, an update to the 1994 Population Action International (PAI) report Stabilizing the Atmosphere: Population, Consumption and Greenhouse Gases, profiles per capita emissions of [carbon dioxide] derived from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in 179 countries. It also includes a graphical ranking of countries with populations greater than one million by their 1995 per capita emissions, as well as information and charts on related population and emissions trends. The data highlight the significant global disparities in individual human use of the atmosphere for the disposal of [carbon dioxide], the single most important driver of human-induced global warming." The role of population growth in climate changes is considered.
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: re@popact.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10585 Hinrichsen, Don; Robey, Bryant; Upadhyay, Ushma D. Solutions for a water-short world. Population Reports, Series M: Special Topics, No. 14, Sep 1998. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Caught between growing demand for freshwater on one hand and limited and increasingly polluted water supplies on the other, many developing countries face difficult choices.... To avoid catastrophe over the long term, it...is important to act now to slow the growth in demand for freshwater by slowing population growth." Sections are included on the coming water crisis; water availability and use; consequences of overuse and pollution; the health dimension and impacts on mortality, particularly infant and child deaths; and the need for improved policies.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. E-mail: PopRepts@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10586 Keyfitz, Nathan. A renewable resource considered as capital. In: Science with a human face: in honor of Roger Randall Revelle, edited by Robert Dorfman and Peter P. Rogers. Jul 1997. 167-86 pp. Harvard University, School of Public Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The following discourse is my contribution to this memorial to Roger Revelle. The positions expressed have been inspired by Revelle's approach to population study--views which contrast strongly with the bulk of today's professional work in the field.... For Roger, the big questions were: `Will there be enough food to go around'? and `What does increasing consumption of fossil fuel do to the planet's habitability'?"
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, Harvard University, Department of Sociology, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10587 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Malthusian scenarios and demographic catastrophism. In: Science with a human face: in honor of Roger Randall Revelle, edited by Robert Dorfman and Peter P. Rogers. Jul 1997. 187-208 pp. Harvard University, School of Public Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author discusses the debate about the long-term impact of population growth and the accuracy of predictions of future population stability. "[Roger] Revelle stuck to matter-of-fact accounts of population-resource relationships, generally finding reason for a measured optimism about the future. In this essay I shall comment on such accounts and examine why they do not seem to settle the arguments."
Correspondence: G. McNicoll, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10588 Pebley, Anne R. Demography and the environment. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 377-89 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Empirical research by demographers on environmental issues other than natural-resource constraints is limited. In this paper, I briefly review past demographic thinking about population and the environment and suggest reasons for the limited scope of demographic research in this area. Next, I describe more recent demographic research on the environment and suggest several newer areas for demographic research. Finally, I consider the future of research on the environment in the field of demography."
Correspondence: A. R. Pebley, RAND Population Research Center, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407. E-mail: pebley@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10589 Pimentel, David; Giampietro, Mario; Bukkens, Sandra G. F. An optimum population for North and Latin America. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 2, Nov 1998. 125-48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The natural resources required to sustain human life include ample supplies of fertile land, water, energy, forests, and diversity of natural biota. The interdependencies of these resources and their current and projected future status in North and Latin America, as well as the limited substitutability of these natural resources by technology and international trade, are analyzed in this paper. The population size that will insure the possibility of individual prosperity for everyone while maintaining a high quality environment both in North and Latin America is assessed in the final section."
Correspondence: D. Pimentel, Cornell University, 5126 Comstock Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-0901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10590 Reid, T. R. Feeding the planet. National Geographic, No. 4, Oct 1998. 56-75 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses food production and distribution worldwide, with a focus on two questions. "Can the planet produce enough food to feed the 5.9 billion human beings alive today and the billions more who will be born over the next few decades? And if we do manage to produce enough, do we have the wit and the will to distribute the Earth's bounty to all those who need it?"
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10591 Rosegrant, Mark W.; Sombilla, Mercedita A. Critical issues suggested by trends in food, population, and the environment to the year 2020. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 79, No. 5, 1997. 1,467-70 pp. University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper briefly summarizes the emerging trends in global food supply and demand up to 2020, and highlights policy challenges and possible environmental constraints to meeting the projected future food demand.... Environmental and resource constraints are not intrinsically limiting to the necessary growth in crop production to meet global food demand in the coming decades. However, resources may become limiting when agricultural and environmental problems are combined with bad policy."
Correspondence: M. W. Rosegrant, International Food Policy Research Institute, Division of Environment and Product Technology, Washington, D.C. 20002. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10592 Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Palloni, Alberto. Population and deforestation in Costa Rica. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 2, Nov 1998. 149-85 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper addresses a central debate in research and policy on population and environment, namely the extent to which rapid population growth is associated with the massive deforestation currently underway in the tropics. We utilize the experience of Costa Rica during the last forty years to illustrate what the main issues are, discuss the history of deforestation in that country, and present results from conventional regression methods and from the application of spatial analyses. These analyses enable us to estimate the magnitude of the relation between population and deforestation and to identify the factors that are responsible for the linkage between them."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Palloni, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4426 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10593 Shah, Anup. Ecology and the crisis of overpopulation: future prospects for global sustainability. ISBN 1-85898-463-7. LC 98-21064. 1998. ix, 174 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Northampton, Massachusetts/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
Trends in global population growth and their ecological consequences are examined using an approach that combines analytical economics and behavioral ecology. "The book begins by looking at population from a long-term perspective and considers the ecological influences before going on to examine the economics of population growth. Reproduction decisions of the family are then analysed, and the welfare effect of these decisions on society as a whole are considered. [The author] pays particular attention to policies which could try to prevent or cure overpopulation. He asks whether there is a case for intervening in order to prevent overpopulation, and suggests that one way of reducing the effects of population growth is through technological advances which can help compensate for the adverse external effects. Finally, he examines the future of urban centres in the light of population growth."
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, Glensanda House, Montpellier Parade, Cheltenham GL50 1UA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10594 Zhirmunskii, A. V.; Kuz'min, V. I. Critical levels in the world human population growth. [Kriticheskie urovni rosta chislennosti naseleniya mira.] Izvestiya Rossiyskoy Akademii Nauk, Seria Biol., No. 5, 1994. 839-42 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"A critical level of the world human population growth, at which there will be a change in the growth tendency, was estimated on the basis of the available data on the world human population growth and the theory of critical levels in development.... The critical value...estimated from the world population [of] 7,400,000,000 will be reached in 2003. However, when estimated on the basis of total biomass of human population...it will be reached in 2008, when the total numbers attain 9,100,000,000."
Correspondence: A. V. Zhirmunskii, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, 690041 Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: aisa@VLD.global-one.ru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

65:10595 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L. Population and manpower resources of Sri Lanka. Natural Resources Series, No. 3, ISBN 955-590-006-X. 1998. vi, 62 pp. Natural Resources, Energy and Science Authority: Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
"In this monograph an attempt is made to review and analyse the historical, current and likely changes in the future with regard to population and manpower resources of Sri Lanka with a view to bringing into focus some of the challenges and emerging issues in the field of human resource development." Sections are included on population growth and its components; population density and distribution; population projections; labor supply, demand, and projected supply; manpower projections; implications for the social welfare sectors; and family health and family planning services.
Correspondence: Natural Resources, Energy and Science Authority, 47/5 Maitland Place, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. E-mail: postmast@naresa.ac.lk. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10596 Borjas, George J.; Freeman, Richard B.; Katz, Lawrence F. How much do immigration and trade affect labor market outcomes? Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, No. 1, 1997. 1-90 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper provides new estimates of the impact of immigration and trade on the U.S. labor market.... We examine the relation between economic outcomes for native workers and immigrant flows to regional labor markets.... We...use the factor proportions approach to examine the contributions of immigration and trade to recent changes in U.S. educational wage differentials and attempt to provide a broader assessment of the impact of immigration on the incomes of U.S. natives." Comments and discussion by John DiNardo, John M. Abowd, and others are included (pp. 68-85).
Correspondence: G. J. Borjas, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10597 Chenu, Alain. From census to census: the occupational outlook for manual and nonmanual workers. [De recensement en recensement, le devenir professionel des ouvriers et employés.] Economie et Statistique, No. 316-317, 1998. 127-49, 178-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
Data from various official sources are used to analyze changes in the prospects for promotion or redundancy in France over the period from 1968 to 1990. "From 1982 to 1990, one in seven manual and non-manual employees secured a wage-earning job as a manager or middle manager as opposed to one in ten from 1968 to 1975. Over these two periods, the rate of those who set up in business for themselves as craftspeople, traders or company heads remained the same (one in thirty). This greater upward occupational mobility was directly linked to rising levels of education. Yet at the same time, the risk of unemployment increased threefold. The percentage of manual and non-manual employees promoted or made redundant rose from 15% over the 1968-1975 period to 25% in 1982-1990. Unskilled and semi-skilled jobs seem increasingly unstable. Women are employed in senior positions only half as much as men and their risk of unemployment is virtually twice as high. This handicap lessens slightly with regard to promotions, but persists in terms of unemployment."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10598 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. The demographic situation of French retirement schemes. [La situation démographique des régimes de retraite en France.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 1,027-32 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This note updates a comparative analysis of the demographic history of the main retirement schemes that exist in France. Particular attention is given to the different effects of the two main economic periods that have occurred since the end of World War II: the period of strong economic growth and full employment that lasted from 1950 to 1973, and the period of slow economic growth and high unemployment that lasted from 1973 to 1996. The author notes that the second of these two periods is characterized by stagnation in the employment sector and an increasing tendency toward early retirement, and that this in turn has increased the burden on those remaining in the labor force.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10599 Fieldhouse, E. A.; Gould, M. I. Ethnic minority unemployment and local labour market conditions in Great Britain. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 30, No. 5, May 1998. 833-53 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The authors use the 2% Individual Sample of Anonymised Records (SAR) in conjunction with area-based census data for pseudo travel-to-work areas, to explore the relative importance of individual characteristics and area characteristics on ethnic minority unemployment rates [in Great Britain].... The most important differences in the propensity to unemployment are shown to be between individuals, and, compared with whites, ethnic minority groups are shown to be disadvantaged wherever they live.... In all, it is argued that at the spatial scale which is identifiable in the Individual SAR, ethnic minority unemployment cannot be attributed to geographical distribution, though data at a finer geographical scale are needed to test this hypothesis more fully."
Correspondence: E. A. Fieldhouse, University of Manchester, Cathie Marsh Centre for Census and Survey Research, Manchester M13 9PL, England. E-mail: e.fieldhouse@man.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10600 Fry, Richard. The increase in idleness of immigrant arrivals: the role of age at arrival, refugees, and country of origin. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Vol. 37, 1997. 209-28 pp. Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. In Eng.
"Census data reveal that post World War II immigration flows are contributing to the rising idleness of the U.S. resident male population. At the same length of U.S. residence, immigrants that arrived after 1970 display greater idleness (relative to natives) than immigrants that arrived in the 1950s and 60s. The analysis shows that the postwar rise in the relative idleness of immigrant arrivals is widespread, characterizing arrivals from non-refugee source countries, as well as arrivals from refugee-sending nations. Unlike other measures of the quality of immigrant cohorts, the postwar shift in the source country composition of new immigrants can not explain the bulk of the increase in immigrant idleness."
Correspondence: R. Fry, Educational Testing Service, Office of Public Leadership, Suite 900, 1800 K Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20006. E-mail: rfry@ets.org. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10601 Garrett, Eilidh M. Was women's work bad for babies? A view from the 1911 census of England and Wales. Continuity and Change, Vol. 13, No. 2, Aug 1998. 281-316 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Comments penned in the late-Victorian and Edwardian eras leave few doubts that many contemporaries believed that women's work (in the sense of paid employment), particularly that of married women, was bad for babies.... With these...issues in mind the opportunity was taken to include in the 1911 census [of England and Wales] a set of questions above and beyond those previously asked...." Re-examining individual level responses to the 1911 "Fertility" census, the author concludes that "`women's work' in itself does not emerge as bad for babies, but having a mother who was employed in industry increased a child's likelihood of being born into an area which would hold increased perils for infant life."
Correspondence: E. M. Garrett, ESRC Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB1 1QA, England. E-mail: campop@lists.cam.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10602 Groenewold, Nicolaas. Does migration equalize regional unemployment rates? Evidence from Australia. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 76, No. 1, Jan 1997. 1-20 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"The question of whether inter-regional migration serves to equilibrate regional economic performance is one which has received considerable attention in recent literature. This paper addresses this question, focussing on regional unemployment rates and real wages within the context of a 24-equation econometric model of the interaction between regional wages, regional unemployment and inter-regional migration in Australia. The main findings are that inter-regional equilibrating forces are slow and do not serve to equalize regional unemployment rates or wages."
Correspondence: N. Groenewald, University of Tasmania, Department of Economics, G.P.O. Box 252C, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10603 Grossbard-Shechtman, Shoshana; Granger, Clive W. J. Women's jobs and marriage: baby-boom to baby-bust. [Travail des femmes et mariage: du baby-boom au baby-bust.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 731-52 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"It [has been] hypothesized that changes in cohort size influence the value of time of women in marriage. Given that most women are married or plan to marry, this analysis implies that women born at times of increases in the number of births will be more likely to participate in the labor force. This hypothesis was tested using U.S. time series data on women's labor force participation and a number of other variables known to have an impact on labor supply. It is found that rapid increases in women's labor force participation coincided with rapid growth of the population entering marriage markets and therefore the creation of marriage market imbalances favoring men."
Correspondence: S. Grossbard-Shechtman, San Diego State University, College of Arts and Letters, Department of Economics, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-4485. E-mail: shosh@mail.sdsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10604 Hart, John M. Border crossings: Mexican and Mexican-American workers. ISBN 0-8420-2716-5. LC 98-22834. 1998. xii, 246 pp. Scholarly Resources: Wilmington, Delaware. In Eng.
This is a selection of essays by various authors that examine the experience of Mexican and Mexican-American working classes in both the United States and Mexico from their cultural beginnings and the rise of industrialism in Mexico to the late twentieth century in the United States. The authors "identify the problems that they confronted and explain the survival strategies and adaptations made by communities in Mexico to internal migration and industrial change as they coalesced into new groups and established working and living arrangements that met the challenges presented by seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Mexican-American workers have applied many of these strategies, such as mutual aid and the emphasis on local problem solving, to the resolution of the challenges that they faced in the United States."
Correspondence: Scholarly Resources, 104 Greenhill Avenue, Wilmington, DE 19805-1897. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10605 Molinié, Anne-Françoise. The decline and renewal of the industrial labor force: a study of age distributions. [Déclin et renouvellement de la main-d'oeuvre industrielle: une lecture des structures d'âge.] Economie et Statistique, No. 316-317, 1998. 109-26, 178-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
Data from a number of official sources are used to analyze changes in the French labor force from 1975 to 1990. "From 1975 to the 1990s, the decrease in worker numbers concerned first the youngest in the form of reduced recruitment and then the oldest in the form of younger and younger retirement and early retirement. This decrease has also modelled the work force's age distribution, centring it on the intermediate ages. The age distributions found in the different sectors ten to fifteen years ago served to handle certain work constraints by distributing tasks by age. Such forms of age-based selection are now being challenged." The importance of reorganizing the design and management of labor resources, working conditions, and job engineering in order to resolve the problems of the aging of the workforce is stressed.
Correspondence: A.-F. Molinié, Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes sur l'Age et les Populations au Travail, 41 rue Gay-Lussac, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10606 Morris, Martina; Bernhardt, Annette; Handcock, Mark; Scott, Marc. The transition to work in the post-industrial labor market. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 98-12, Oct 1998. 19, [10] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a subset of findings from a larger study of the changes in [U.S.] job and wage mobility over the past 30 years. In this study, we compare two cohorts of young white men, from the National Longitudinal Surveys.... The key finding reported in this paper is that the transition to the labor market has become longer and more volatile. Young workers who do not go on to college are more likely to be intermittently unemployed and to rely on part-time jobs for a greater number of years.... Those who do go on to college are more likely to work while enrolled and to significantly draw out the period of enrollment."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10607 Pencavel, John. The market work behavior and wages of women: 1975-94. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 33, No. 4, Fall 1998. 771-804 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Changes in the labor market participation and wages of women in the United States are analyzed over the period 1975-1994 using data from the Current Population Survey. "Women are organized into nine birth cohorts, five schooling groups, and each year of age from 25 to 60 years and their weekly and annual work hours, their annual work weeks, their employment-population ratio, and their real average hourly earnings tabulated. Schooling differences in work behavior have become wider in recent cohorts as have their wages. The relationship between work and wages is estimated for women of different ages, cohorts, and marital status. The gap between the work of unmarried and married women has narrowed and the role of wages (both the wages of women and those of husbands) is examined to determine the extent to which changes in wages account for these movements."
Correspondence: J. Pencavel, Stanford University, Department of Economics, Stanford, CA 94305-6072. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10608 Stambøl, Lasse S.; Stølen, Nils M.; Åvitsland, Turid. Regional analyses of labor markets and demography: a model based Norwegian example. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 77, No. 1, Jan 1998. 37-62 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors discuss the regional REGARD model, developed by Statistics Norway to analyze the regional implications of macroeconomic development of employment, labor force, and unemployment. "In building the model, empirical analyses of regional producer behavior in manufacturing industries have been performed, and the relation between labor market development and regional migration has been investigated. Apart from providing a short description of the REGARD model, this article demonstrates the functioning of the model, and presents some results of an application."
Correspondence: L. S. Stambøl, Statistisk Sentralbyrå, Forskningsavdelingen, Kongens gt. 6, P.B. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10609 Vidal, Jean-Pierre. The effect of emigration on human capital formation. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1998. 589-600 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on a possible effect of emigration on human capital formation. Emigration to a higher returns to skill country provides an incentive to invest in human capital. The level of human capital formation in the source country can therefore be positively correlated with the probability of emigration. Incidentally a surge in emigration can lead the source country out of an under-development trap. The implications of the model for the convergence controversy are also discussed."
Correspondence: J.-P. Vidal, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, GREQAM, 2 rue de la Charité, 13002 Marseille, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10610 Waldinger, Roger. Black/immigrant competition re-assessed: new evidence from Los Angeles. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1997. 365-86 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a survey of employers to assess the impact of immigration and employer practices on black employment chances in Los Angeles. We observe a process of cumulative causation in which a set of mutually reinforcing changes raise barriers to the hiring of blacks. Network hiring seems to have a dual function, bringing immigrant communities into the workplace, while at the same time detaching vacancies from the open market, thus diminishing opportunities for blacks. Employers also perceive immigrants as far more desirable employees than blacks, in part, because they expect that immigrants will be the more productive workers, in part, because they also see immigrants as more tractable labor."
Correspondence: R. Waldinger, University of California, Department of Sociology, Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10611 Weeden, Kim A. Revisiting occupational sex segregation in the United States, 1910-1990: results from a log-linear approach. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 475-87 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I reexamine trends in the strength and structure of occupational sex segregation in the United States from 1910 to 1990. Log-multiplicative models show significant change in the association between gender and occupation. Contrary to conventional characterizations, a substantial proportion of this change occurred before 1970. Likewise, a margin-free index shows more integration over the century than do conventional indices. These discrepancies arise from occupation-specific variations in the trajectory of sex segregation: highly segregated occupations were especially likely to integrate between 1930 and 1940."
Correspondence: K. A. Weeden, Stanford University, Department of Sociology, Stanford, CA 94305-2047. E-mail: weeden@leland.stanford.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10612 Weiss, Thomas. Estimates of white and nonwhite gainful workers in the United States by age group, race, and sex: decennial census years, 1800-1900. Historical Methods, Vol. 32, No. 1, Winter 1999. 21-35 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"I present here estimates of the number of white and non-white workers by sex and for selected age categories in the United States at census dates in the nineteenth century.... By providing the same age and sex categorizations for the white workforce as for the free and slave components of the nonwhite workforce, the figures can be combined to produce a time series for the non-white workforce, including free and slave, or the free workforce, including white and nonwhite workers, or both...."
Correspondence: T. Weiss, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, Lawrence, KS 66045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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