Volume 65 - Number 1 - Spring 1999

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications. Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations, as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

65:10490 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L.; Wilson, P. Emerging population issues among adolescents and youth. Sri Lanka Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 1998. 25-34, 124 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The authors "examine the emerging population issues of adolescents and youth [in Sri Lanka]. The demographic pressures have resulted in the expansion of the numbers in this age category which in turn has caused problems of employment creation. The educational expansion has brought about changes in the age at marriage and life styles, which in turn has created the need for greater attention on reproductive health issues among adolescents and youth."
Correspondence: A. T. P. L. Abeykoon, Ministry of Health, Highways and Social Services, Population Division, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10491 Andersson, Roland; Bergström, Staffan. Is maternal malnutrition associated with a low sex ratio at birth? Human Biology, Vol. 70, No. 6, Dec 1998. 1,101-6 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this study we analyzed the relation between maternal nutritional status and sex ratio at birth in 3,282 children born to 684 women from a rural [area of the Central African Republic]. Short maternal stature and obesity were independently related to a low sex ratio at birth. These results are consistent with animal experiments that indicate an adverse effect of maternal malnutrition on male fetuses."
Correspondence: R. Andersson, County Hospital Ryhov, Department of Surgery, 55185 Jönköping, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10492 Astolfi, P.; Zonta, L. A. Sex ratio and parental age gap. Human Biology, Vol. 71, No. 1, Feb 1999. 135-41 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We tested the hypothesis that a large age difference between parents can shift the sex ratio at birth in favor of males, as [J. T. Manning et al., published in Nature, Vol. 389, p. 344, 1997] suggested in their analysis of English and Welsh data. Among children born in Lombardy (northern Italy) in 1990 and 1991, we observed an anomalous excess of males born to a particular subsample of parents with a wide age gap [more than 15 years] between them; in the overall sample the father-mother age gap does not significantly contribute to the determination of the child's sex."
Correspondence: P. Astolfi, University of Pavia, Department of Genetics and Microbiology A. Buzzati-Traverso, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10493 Bosworth, Barry; Burtless, Gary. Aging societies: the global dimension. ISBN 0-8157-1026-7. LC 98-8944. 1998. viii, 323 pp. Brookings Institution Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This book examines population aging and its implications for public retirement programs in the five largest industrial economies--Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States. The authors report on national demographic trends, examine the current living conditions of the aged population, explain the structure of the retirement system, and estimate future budgetary costs of the public programs. They also discuss national debates over the potential reform of public retirement systems. While all five countries share the prospect of an older population, variations in the size and timing of demographic change, as well as important differences in the structure of public programs for the elderly, suggest that population aging will have widely different implications from country to country. In Germany and Japan, for example, the population will not only grow older but may actually decrease because of low birthrates. The United States will experience less aging, but its debate over reform treats seriously the possibility of privatizing public retirement commitments. The United Kingdom has already shifted large portions of its retirement programs to the private sector."
Correspondence: Brookings Institution Press, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: BIBOOKS@brook.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10494 Gist, Yvonne J.; Velkoff, Victoria A. Gender and aging: demographic dimensions. International Brief, No. 97-3, Dec 1997. 8 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the first of four planned reports covering various aspects of demographic aging worldwide, with an emphasis on gender differences. The authors here focus on the statistical aspects of global aging and the situation of older women. Topics addressed include the world distribution of older women, the percentage of the aged that are female, the proportion of older women in the population as a whole, female life expectancy, urbanization, widowhood, and childlessness.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Room 109, WP II, Washington, D.C. 20233-8860. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10495 Glamuzina, Martin; Glamuzina, Nikola. Changes in the biological and economic structure of the population in South Croatia (Dalmatia) from 1948 to 1991. [Promjene u bioloskoj i ekonomskoj strukturi stanovnistva Juzne Hrvatske (Dalmacije) od 1948. do 1991. godine.] Geoadria, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1996. 17-34 pp. Zadar, Croatia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper offers the results of the analysis of changes in biological and economic structure of the population in South Croatia (Dalmatia) from 1948 to 1991. Special attention has been paid to the development of the secondary and tertiary activity sectors and the influence of general economic progress on the population." Changes in age and sex distribution are analyzed.
Correspondence: M. Glamuzina, Filozofski Fakultet u Zadru, Obala kralja Petra Kresimira IV. 2, 23000 Zadar, Croatia. Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

65:10496 Gunawardena, R. S. Demographic and socio-economic situation in a new settlement in Sri Lanka: a study of System C of the Mahaweli Development Programme. Sri Lanka Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 1998. 65-84, 125 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
"The accelerated Mahaweli Development Programme is one of the most recent and largest multi-purpose development programmes in Sri Lanka, and System C is a major agricultural settlement that has been developed under this programme.... This paper presents the findings of a study that was carried out in System C, with a view to collecting certain important baseline demographic and socioeconomic characteristics." Information is provided on spatial distribution, number and size of families, sex ratio, age distribution, family characteristics, and seasonal variations in population.
Correspondence: R. S. Gunawardena, University of Peradeniya, Department of Geography, University Park, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10497 Kinsella, Kevin; Gist, Yvonne J. Gender and aging: mortality and health. International Brief, No. 98-2, Oct 1998. 7 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the second of four planned reports covering various aspects of demographic aging worldwide, with an emphasis on gender differences. This brief addresses the health issues springing from the fact that most of the elderly worldwide are female. Topics covered include gender differences in life expectancy at birth and the increasing female survival advantage throughout life, leading causes of mortality for males and females, years without disability, the impact of widowhood on health, and gender differences in morbidity.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Room 109, WP II, Washington, D.C. 20233-8860. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10498 Légaré, Jacques; Martel, Laurent; Stone, Leroy O.; Denis, Hubert. Living arrangements of older persons in Canada: effects on their socio-economic conditions. Pub. Order No. GV.E.98.0.19. ISBN 92-1-100779-8. 1998. xii, 102 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of this monograph is to provide a general picture of the economic and social conditions of seniors in Canada today, taking their living arrangements into account.... The first [chapter] relates to the demographic, economic and social trends, the second to the living arrangements of older persons, the third to work and retirement, the fourth to their sources of income and the fifth to their housing conditions. Finally, [we have included a] technical annex and detailed tables...."
Correspondence: UN Sales Section, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10499 Lévy, Michel L. Talking about aging. [Raisonner sur le vieillissement.] Population et Sociétés, No. 341, Dec 1998. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Some aspects of the contemporary demographic aging process that is occurring in France are reviewed. The author examines changes in life expectancy, the relative stability in mortality, the changes that have occurred since 1946, and the differences between male and female mortality.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10500 Lummaa, Virpi; Merilä, Juha; Kause, Antti. Adaptive sex ratio variation in pre-industrial human (Homo sapiens) populations? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 265, No. 1396, Apr 7, 1998. 563-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We studied the influence of OSR [operational sex ratio] on the sex ratio of newborns and on the population birth rate using an extensive data set (n=14,420 births) from preindustrial (1775-1850) Finland. The overall effect of current OSR on sex ratio at birth was significant.... This suggests that humans adjusted the sex ratio of their offspring in response to the local OSR to maximize the reproductive success of their progeny.... However, the strength of these patterns varied across the parishes, suggesting that factors other than OSR...may also have influenced the sex ratio at birth and the birth rate."
Correspondence: V. Lummaa, Uppsala University, Department of Zoology, Villavägen 9, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. E-mail: virpi.lummaa@utu.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10501 Moore, Eric G.; Rosenberg, Mark W.; McGuinness, Donald. Growing old in Canada: demographic and geographic perspectives. ISBN 0-17-605633-5. LC 98-170959. 1997. xxvi, 207 pp. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada; ITP Nelson: Scarborough, Canada. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned series of monographs based on data from the 1991 census of Canada. This study examines the process of demographic aging. "Collectively, the nation is entering an unprecedented period in its demographic history. The children born between the end of the Second World War and the early 1960s, who form the largest age group in Canadian history, will reach their golden years in the early part of the 21st century. Taking a demographic perspective, [this book] explores older Canadians' lives today and tomorrow and the implications for the rest of the nation. The book examines both individual and population aging and focuses on geographical variations as well as the health status of the elderly."
Correspondence: ITP Nelson, International Thomson Publishing, 1120 Birchmount Road, Scarborough, Ontario M1K 5G4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10502 Oskolkova, O. B. The elderly population in contemporary Russia: the current situation and future prospects. A scientific and analytical approach. [Pozhiloe naselenie sovremennoi Rossii: situatsiya i perspektivy. Nauchno-analiticheskii obzor.] ISBN 5-248-00082-3. LC 98-182464. 1997. 53 pp. Rossiiskaya Akademiya Nauk, Institut Nauchnoi Informatsii po Obshchestvennym Naukam: Moscow, Russia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The characteristics of the elderly population in Russia are described. Topics covered include retirement, old age security, the socioeconomic status of the retired population, and social and health services designed to serve the needs of the elderly.
Correspondence: Rossiiskaya Akademiya Nauk, Institut Nauchnoi Informatsii po Obschestvennym Naukam, Nakhimovskii Prospeckt d.51/21, Moscow, Russia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10503 Roberts, J. Timmons; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo. Population growth, sex ratios, and women's work on the contemporary Amazon frontier. Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers Yearbook, Vol. 21, 1995. 91-105 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper uses 1991 census and 1990 survey data from Brazil to test hypotheses regarding the relationship between population growth (most of which stems from immigration), sex ratios, and women's labor force participation on the Amazon frontier. Strong evidence supports the link between population growth and sex ratios, though significant local variation exists. The relationship between sex ratios and gender roles, especially female labor force participation and occupational mobility, is less clear and appears variable."
Correspondence: J. T. Roberts, Tulane University, Department of Sociology, 220 Newcomb Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118-5698. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10504 Serow, William J.; Cowart, Marie E. Demographic transition and population aging within Caribbean nation states. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 98-142, [1998]. 14, [4] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper examines the demographic transition and analyzes historic and projected data for the development patterns of the anglophone nation states of the Caribbean. Trends in fertility, mortality, and migration are contrasted among the larger (Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad/Tobago), mid-sized (Bahamas, Barbados, Belize) and smaller (Antigua/Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts/Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent/Grenadines) states. The paper then goes on to consider shifts in the structure of population at older ages due to the decline in fertility and mortality and points to some of the policy considerations that these relatively small and newly independent states will need to deal with during the next several decades."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2240. E-mail: wserow@coss.fsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10505 Siddhisena, K. A. P.; Ratnayake, Kanthi. Aging of population and elderly care in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 1998. 35-55, 124 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this paper is...to examine the trends [and] characteristics of the elderly population [in Sri Lanka] and to inquire into the status of elderly support and care.... There is considerable evidence to show that [the] mechanisms of family support and care of the elderly have weakened. There is an increasing demand for institutional support by the elderly. This paper attempts to identify some of the underlying reasons that have prompted the elderly to make the decision to move out of the family kinship network and seek institutional support."
Correspondence: K. A. P. Siddhisena, University of Colombo, Department of Demography, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10506 Wang, Zhenglian; Zeng, Yi; Jeune, Bernard; Vaupel, James W. Age validation of Han Chinese centenarians. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1998. 123-41 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Based on a set of solid measures computed from the 1990 census data and the age validation procedures conducted in our Hangzhou, Beijing and Chengdu surveys, this paper shows that the Han Chinese centenarians' age reporting [is generally] good, because Han Chinese people [are] used to remember their birth dates. Age-reporting of the super centenarians is very rare so that a small number of them who exaggerate their ages can result in a substantial distortion of data quality at these highest ages."
Correspondence: Z. Wang, Max Planck Institute for Demograpic Research, Doberaner Straße 114, 18057 Rostock, Germany. E-mail:wang@demogr.mpg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10507 Xenos, Peter; Kabamalan, Midea. The changing demographic and social profile of youth in Asia. Asia-Pacific Population Research Reports, No. 12, Oct 1998. 24 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This report assembles data on demographic and social changes affecting youth--defined as the 15-24 age group--in 17 Asian countries over the period from 1950 to 1990.... Social elements of the youth transition examined here are the transition from early to late marriage and, particularly for the 15-19 age group, rising school enrollment. Although not considered a true transition, changes in young people's labor force participation rates are also explored. These demographic and social indicators are projected to the year 2025 for the region as a whole, its three subregions, and the 17 countries."
Correspondence: P. Xenos, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601. E-mail: xenosp@hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10508 Xenos, Peter; Kabamalan, Midea. The social demography of Asian youth: a reconstruction over 1950-1990 and projections to 2025. East-West Center Working Papers, Population Series, No. 102, May 1998. 84 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"The empirical approach of this research is to assemble a data set on youth changes that spans 17 Asian countries over the 1950-1990 period, combined with projections of several important time series from 1990 to 2025. The diverse historical experiences of this array of countries fall into a distinct pattern [that] in this analysis is called the youth transition. The relevant changes among youth during the Asian youth transition include: (a) common changes of a transitional nature (the demographic youth transition, including the youth bulge, the nuptiality transition, the education transition, [and] other transitions [that] are not measured with reliable comparative and historical data); (b) important and measurable changes of a more complex nature (e.g., labor force participation changes); (c) other important changes that are not measured in this work, and perhaps cannot be except sporadically (e.g., age at menses, indicators of the sexual system, etc.). The demographic core of the youth transition is driven by [the] fertility transition, and results in a one-time youth bulge."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Publication Sales Office, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

65:10509 Do, Kim-Anh; Treloar, Susan A.; Pandeya, Nirmala; Purdie, David; Green, Adèle C.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G. Predictive factors of age at menopause in a large Australian twin study. Human Biology, Vol. 70, No. 6, Dec 1998. 1,073-91 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The relationship between age at natural menopause and socioeconomic, reproductive, and health behavioral factors was evaluated using longitudinal data from 5,961 Australian female twins, aged 17 to 88 years at the time of study.... Median age at menopause was earlier for women with earlier birth year, women with late age of menarche, women who had no children, or women who were smokers. Differences in age a menopause between social, occupational, and educational groups were statistically significant...for education, major occupational classification, combined income, and self-rated social class, with higher age at menopause for higher levels of each variable."
Correspondence: K.-A. Do, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, P.O. Royal Brisbane Hospital, Queensland 4029, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10510 Floud, Roderick. Height, weight and body mass of the British population since 1820. NBER Working Paper Series on Historical Factors in Long Run Growth, No. 108, 1998. 44 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper extends the use of anthropometric data in the study of history by exploring published evidence on the weight, as well as the height, of British populations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and by computing the Body Mass Index of those populations. The results confirm a fall in mean height in the middle of the nineteenth century and show that this was paralleled by a fall in weight. Subsequent increases in weight and BMI lagged behind those in height. The data show no evidence of inequalities in nutritional status within families."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: floud@lgu.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10511 Haybittle, John L. The use of the Gompertz function to relate changes in life expectancy to the standardized mortality ratio. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, Oct 1998. 885-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The linear increase in the logarithm of the age-specific mortality rates with age (the Gompertz function) is used to deduce formulae connecting SMR [standardized mortality ratio] with change in life expectancy. Their validity is checked by a comparison between the 1992 and 1952 mortality data for England and Wales, and between smokers and non-smokers in the American Cancer Society's second Cancer Prevention Study.... It is shown that the Gompertz function is a good fit to mortality data for England and Wales from age 30 years upwards."
Correspondence: J. L. Haybittle, MRC Cancer Trials Office, 5 Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2BW, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10512 Kranczer, Stanley. Banner year for U.S. longevity. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 79, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1998. 8-14 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author discusses U.S. life expectancy increases between 1996 and 1997. Aspects considered include sex differences, infant mortality declines, and racial differentials.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10513 Kranczer, Stanley. Changes in longevity by state. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 79, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1998. 29-36 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author reviews trends in U.S. life expectancy by state for the period 1989-1991. Aspects considered include a regional analysis, geographic differences by sex, decennial longevity gains, survival variations, and factors affecting longevity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10514 Mirza'i, Mohammad. The application of joint survivorship in the computation of joint life expectancy. Journal of Social Sciences/Nameye Olum-e-Ejtema'i, No. 9-10, Autumn-Winter 1997-1998. Tehran, Iran. In Per. with sum. in Eng.
"After a brief discussion on the joint survivorship and the joint expectation of life, the computational formula for the case in which the abridged life tables [for Iran] are used is presented.... The joint life expectancy in marriage by the age of the bride and the bridegroom is computed."
Correspondence: M. Mirza'i, Tehran University, P.O. Box 14475, Tehran, Iran. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10515 Roszak, Theodore. America the wise: the longevity revolution and the true wealth of nations. ISBN 0-395-85699-X. LC 98-21645. 1998. 272 pp. Houghton Mifflin: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author investigates the aging of the baby boom generation in the United States. "Beginning with a spirited defense of senior entitlements, Roszak says that the maturing of America offers an unprecedented opportunity to remake our society.... He includes an incisive account of the dramatic role that biotechnology will play in treating disease and slowing and reversing the aging process. Above all, he envisions the ability to prolong productive and fulfilling lives as a paramount historical achievement rather than a recipe for fiscal disaster. The longevity revolution will force Americans to rethink their attitudes toward death and life, competition and cooperation, wealth and well-being."
Correspondence: Houghton Mifflin, 215 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10003. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population, and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation.

65:10516 Abul Naga, Ramses H. Family background, intergenerational mobility, and earnings distribution: evidence from the United States. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 134, No. 4.1, Dec 1998. 527-43 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
The persistence of inequalities in income distribution over time is examined using U.S. data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). "U.S. father and son income data extracted from the PSID support the hypothesis that the distribution of earnings of children raised in privileged environments [consistently exceeds] that of children of disadvantaged backgrounds. We provide the following explanations for this finding: (i) children raised in privileged backgrounds tend to have higher average earnings and more equally distributed incomes than children originated from disadvantaged environments, (ii) class inheritance is substantial for the less privileged group. On the whole though, the probability matrix of intergenerational earnings mobility exhibits a pattern of symmetry with transitions from class i to class j equally likely as movements from class j to class i."
Correspondence: R. H. Abul Naga, Université de Lausanne, Ecole des HEC, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10517 Anand, Sudhir; Morduch, Jonathan. Poverty and the population problem: evidence from Bangladesh. Development Discussion Paper, No. 559, Nov 1996. 28 pp. Harvard Institute for International Development: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Using data from a recent household-level survey from Bangladesh, the authors investigate the links between poverty and the population problem. They "find that allowing for even modest returns to scale in household consumption reverses the oft-cited positive association between low income and large household size. Thus, adding children to a household in our sample is likely to be much less costly than often thought, and the deleterious consequences for poverty may be considerably overstated. The most pressing issues instead appear at the level of communities and of individuals within households. At the level of communities, available evidence suggests that pollution, congestion, and environmental degradation form a coherent basis for relating population growth to poverty.... At the level of individuals, there is considerable evidence that poverty is associated with the relatively poor treatment of women and girls in Bangladesh.... First, levels of maternal mortality are high.... Second, son-preference in fertility patterns is pronounced.... This suggests that in many families, fertility rates are being pushed upward by son-preference. Third, rates of excess female mortality are high..., and the rates appear to be positively associated with high overall fertility rates. Thus, high fertility is both a product and a source of gender inequality." This paper is available on the Web at http://www.hiid.harvard.edu.
Correspondence: Harvard University, Harvard Institute for International Development, One Eliot Street, Cambridge, MA 02138.

65:10518 Bollinger, Christopher R. Measurement error in the Current Population Survey: a nonparametric look. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 16, No. 3, Jul 1998. 576-94 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article utilizes an exact match file between the 1978 March [U.S.] Current Population Survey and administrative records from the Social Security Administration to analyze errors in the reporting of annual income using nonparametric methodology.... Three new findings are of interest: there is higher measurement error in cross-sectional samples than in panels. The negative relationship between measurement error and earnings is driven largely by overreporting among low earners. Median response errors are not related to earnings."
Correspondence: C. R. Bollinger, University of Kentucky, Department of Economics, 335 Carol Martin Gatton College of Business and Economics Building, Lexington, KY 40506-0034. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

65:10519 Boyd, Monica; Grieco, Elizabeth M. Triumphant transitions: socioeconomic achievements of the second generation in Canada. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1998. 853-76 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Articulated within the last decade, the revisionary perspective on second generation integration argues that the model of equal or above average success of the second generation in North America is historically specific, based on the postwar entry of a white second generation in boom economic times. One implication is that the past patterns of second generation success may not hold now and in the future for immigrant offspring. Using data from the 1994 Canadian General Social Survey for women and men, age 25-64, this article assesses the proposition of triumphant transitions in which the second generation experiences high levels of educational and labor market achievements. Multivariate analyses confirm second generation success with respect to educational levels and occupational status, thus contradicting verdicts of a new chapter to be written for the second generation in Canada."
Correspondence: M. Boyd, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10520 Deolalikar, Anil; Rose, Eliana. Gender and savings in rural India. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1998. 453-70 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this study we use data from rural India to examine the impact of the birth of a boy relative to the birth of a girl (i.e., the `gender shock') on the savings, consumption and income of rural Indian households. We find that the gender shock reduces savings for medium and large farm households, although there is no evidence that the shock affects savings for the landless and the small farm households. We also estimate the effect of the shock on income and consumption for the former group in order to determine the source of the drop in savings."
Correspondence: A. Deolalikar, University of Washington, Department of Economics, MC 353330, Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail: anil@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10521 Docquier, Frederic; Rapoport, Hillel. Are migrant minorities strategically self-selected? Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1998. 579-88 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper we focus on the possibility of migrants' self-selection through strategic remittances. We argue that migrants of a specific community might be pooled with migrants from other ethnic minorities on the labor market of the foreign host country and that this could reduce the occurrence of strategic remittances. In a simple model with two types of workers, skilled and unskilled, facing two possible actions, to migrate or not to migrate, we derive the theoretical conditions under which strategic transfers are still operating when pooling among communities is introduced."
Correspondence: H. Rapoport, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics, 52900 Ramat Gan, Israel. E-mail: hillel@mail.biu.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10522 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo. Assimilation differences among Africans in America. Social Forces, Vol. 76, No. 2, Dec 1997. 527-46 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Data from the 1990 [U.S.] Census of Population are used to assess the earnings attainment of male African immigrants, their Caribbean-born counterparts, and native-born African Americans. Although Africans earn more than both Caribbean immigrants and native-born blacks, controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage, and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other two groups. The findings also trace a substantial African (but not Caribbean) disadvantage, wherein university degree holders, particularly those with degrees earned abroad, receive little, if any, reward for their degrees. Implications of the findings are discussed."
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Vanderbilt University, Department of Sociology, Nashville, TN 37235. E-mail: dodoof@ctrvax.vanderbilt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10523 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo; Pinon, Gonzalo. Earnings differences among the Mexican-origin population in the United States: nativity and citizenship explanations. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1994. 293-305 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
The authors "use data from the June 1986 Current Population Survey to investigate nativity and citizenship differences in earnings within the Mexican-origin population in the United States. There is no evidence of any `costs' of nativity or citizenship status. Rather, the existing variation appears to be more than explained by the distribution of earnings-related endowments. In fact, there is evidence that immigrants are better rewarded for their lower endowments. A possible explanation is that the Mexican-origin population is seen as homogeneous by employers, who therefore compensate individuals similarly, regardless of their respective endowments."
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Vanderbilt University, Department of Sociology, Nashville, TN 37235. E-mail: dodoof@ctrvax.vanderbilt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10524 Flippen, Chenoa; Tienda, Marta. Family structure and economic well-being of black, Hispanic, and white pre-retirement adults. OPR Working Paper, No. 98-2, Sep 1998. 22, [6] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper examines whether family structure enhances the economic well being of black, non-Hispanic white (hereafter `white'), and Hispanic pre-retirement [U.S.] men and women. Our main goal is to ascertain whether extended living arrangements ameliorate economic hardship at older ages, and if so, whether such economic benefits vary by race, Hispanic origin, and sex.... The empirical analysis is based on the first wave of the Health and Retirement Survey...."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Author's E-mail: chenoa@opr.princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10525 Gray, Jeffrey S. The fall in men's return to marriage: declining productivity effects or changing selection? Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 32, No. 3, Summer 1997. 481-504 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Historically, one of the most robust findings from human capital wage equations has been that married men earn more than men who never marry.... This paper empirically tests the relative merits of the specialization and selection arguments in explaining both the existence of the marriage wage premium and its recent decline. Samples are drawn from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Young Men and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)...." Results indicate that "the drop in the marriage wage premium was due largely to a decline in the productivity effects associated with marriage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. S. Gray, University of Illinois, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 1301 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

65:10526 Horton, Hayward D.; Allen, Beverlyn L. Race, family structure and rural poverty: an assessment of population and structural change. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1998. 397-406 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this article is to determine the extent to which poverty among rural Black families [in the United States] has changed over the 1980-1990 decade. Specifically, the following questions are addressed: (1) What are the relative effects of place and family structure on levels of poverty for rural Black families? And (2) What are the theoretical implications of rural-urban differentials in Black family poverty? The logit analysis of U.S. Census data for 1980 and 1990 revealed that family structure increased in its importance in determining poverty differentials between rural and urban Black families. Moreover, despite controls for demographic and social factors, Black families continue to experience levels of poverty that exceed that of White families in both rural and urban environments."
Correspondence: H. D. Horton, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10527 Kalwij, Adriaan; Alessie, Rob; Fontein, Peter. Household commodity demand and demographics in the Netherlands: a microeconometric analysis. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1998. 551-77 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"We investigate the effects of demographics, household expenditure and female employment on the allocation of household expenditure to consumer goods. For this purpose we estimate an Almost Ideal Demand System based on Dutch micro data. We find that interactions between household expenditure and demographics are of significant importance in explaining the allocation to consumer goods. As a consequence, consumer goods such as housing and clothing change with demographic characteristics from luxuries to necessities."
Correspondence: A. Kalwij, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research and Economics Institute, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. E-mail: kalwij@kub.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10528 Lanzona, Leonardo A. Migration, self-selection and earnings in Philippine rural communities. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 56, No. 1, Jun 1998. 27-50 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Estimated returns to schooling investments can be misleading if migration causes significant shifts in population distribution across time. Data gathered in rural Philippine communities show that the more educated and experienced individuals are more likely to outmigrate, causing a sample selection bias in the estimation of wage equations. The observed wages were then lower than the conditional population mean of an entire cohort residing originally in the area. Controlling for self-selection, the wage returns to schooling and experience were higher, Finally, the sample selectivity variable accounts substantially for the difference in the wages of men and women."
Correspondence: L. A. Lanzona, Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 154, Manila 1099, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10529 Macunovich, Diane J. Relative cohort size and inequality in the United States. American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 2, May 1998. 259-64 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"The work presented here has attempted to test the hypothesis that changing [U.S.] demographic structure has been a major factor in the changes in relative wages that have occurred over the last 30 years, leading to the observed sharp decline in the wages of young adults and those approaching retirement, relative to prime-age workers, as well as to the decline and then steep increase in the wages of the college-educated relative to high-school graduates.... The analysis has identified pronounced effects of changing age structure on wages...."
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, Syracuse University, Maxwell Center for Policy Research, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10530 Radner, Daniel B. The retirement prospects of the baby boom generation. Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 61, No. 1, 1998. 3-19 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this article, the financial prospects of [U.S.] baby boomers in their elderly years are examined.... The article attempts to draw together and summarize results from several different sources, primarily from analyses that focus on the baby boom generation itself.... Two important general points are made in this article. First, there is a great deal of diversity within the baby boom generation now and it is expected that there will continue to be substantial diversity when retirement age is reached.... Second, all projections of the economic status of baby boomers in retirement are subject to a great deal of uncertainty."
Correspondence: D. B. Radner, U.S. Social Security Administration, Division of Economic Research, Office of Evaluation and Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20201. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

65:10531 Reimers, Cordelia W. The progress of Mexican and white non-Hispanic immigrants in California and Texas, 1980 to 1990. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Vol. 37, 1997. 315-43 pp. Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article compares assimilation rates of Mexican and white non-Hispanic immigrants in California and Texas in the 1980s, within and across entry cohorts. Using wage functions estimated with 1980 and 1990 Census data, wages are predicted for each immigrant entry cohort and for natives in each year, at a given experience and education level. Mexican immigrants who arrived in the 1970s experienced wage growth relative to comparable natives ranging from 7% to 21%, depending on state and gender; that of non-Hispanic white immigrants ranged from -1% to +6%. Both groups' relative wages grew faster in California than in Texas, and men's grew faster than women's. Across-cohort deterioration between the 1970s and 1980s entrants relative to natives averaged 10% for Mexicans and 4% for non-Hispanic whites."
Correspondence: C. W. Reimers, City University of New York, Hunter College, Department of Economics, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021. E-mail: creimers@shiva.hunter.cuny.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10532 Schmidt, Christoph M. Immigrant performance in Germany: labor earnings of ethnic German migrants and foreign guest-workers. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Vol. 37, 1997. 379-97 pp. Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. In Eng.
"Of all countries in Western Europe, Germany has experienced the most intense influx of immigrant labor after World War II. An important characteristic of this immigrant flow has been its heterogeneity both with respect to the motivation to migrate and to skill endowments. The skills, and, thus, the average earnings of post-war ethnic German migrants exceed those of foreign guest-workers substantially. However, when these different immigrant groups are compared to the appropriate control groups of native workers, in particular accounting for educational endowments and labor market segment, remaining differences are minor. Most importantly, in contrast to classical immigration countries, no stable pattern of earnings growth is associated with the migrants' duration of residence in their host country."
Correspondence: C. M. Schmidt, Heidelberg University, Grabengasse 14, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. E-mail: Christoph. Schmidt@urz.uni-heidelberg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10533 Shaw, Wendy. The spatial concentration of affluence in the United States. Geographical Review, Vol. 87, No. 4, Oct 1997. 546-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this note I provide an overview of the geography of affluence in the United States. After a brief discussion of the literature, I address specific questions: What is the spatial distribution of affluent counties, and can any distinct affluent regions be identified? What concentration of affluence do any identified regions of affluence represent?" Data are from the 1990 census.
Correspondence: W. Shaw, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026-1459. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10534 Stevans, Lonnie K. Immigration and occupational crowding in the United States. Labour, Vol. 10, No. 2, Summer 1996. 357-74 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The 1990 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is utilized to explore the effects that the occupational crowding of immigrants has on the real wages of indigenous and non-U.S. citizen workers already in the United States. Findings include adverse wage effects as a result of the crowding of immigrants on the following worker categories: (1) indigenous, unskilled, white or black workers and (2) non-U.S. citizen, skilled or unskilled black workers. Foreign-born, skilled, and white workers already in the U.S. realize a positive effect on their real wages as a result of having a large relative number of non-U.S. citizens in their occupations."
Correspondence: L. K. Stevans, Hofstra University, School of Business, Department of BCIS/QM, Building 134, Hempstead, NY 11550. Location: New York University Law Library, New York, NY.

65:10535 Telles, Edward E.; Lim, Nelson. Does it matter who answers the race question? Racial classification and income inequality in Brazil. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 465-74 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using novel data from a 1995 national survey in Brazil, we find that the estimates of racial income inequality based on self-classification are lower than those based on interviewer classification. After human capital and labor market controls, whites earn 26% more than browns with interviewer classification but earn only 17% more than browns with self-classification. Black-brown differences hardly change: Blacks earn 13% and 12% less than browns with interviewer classification and self-classification, respectively."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: E. E. Telles, Ford Foundation, Rio de Janeiro Office, 320 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: e.telles@fordfound.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10536 Wilder, Esther I.; Walters, William H. Ethnic and religious components of the Jewish income advantage, 1969 and 1989. Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 68, No. 3, Aug 1998. 426-36 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"We estimate the impact of Jewish ethnicity and religion on [U.S.] household income in 1969 and 1989. In both years, ethnically Jewish households had a considerable income advantage over other non-Hispanic White households. This advantage appears to have persisted even among households without full-time workers. Mixed-ethnicity households (those with both Jewish-born and non-Jewish workers) had a conspicuous advantage in 1969 but not in 1989. While religion brought an additional income advantage to Reform, Conservative, and nondenominational Jews, Orthodoxy was associated with a relative disadvantage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: W. H. Walters, Cornell University, Albert R. Mann Library, Ithaca, NY 14853-4301. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10537 Zohoori, Namvar; Mroz, Thomas A.; Popkin, Barry; Glinskaya, Elena; Lokshin, Michael; Mancini, Dominic; Kozyreva, Polina; Kosolapov, Mikhail; Swafford, Michael. Monitoring the economic transition in the Russian Federation and its implications for the demographic crisis--the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1998. 1,977-93 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, we provide information regarding changes in individual and household economic indicators, as well as alcohol consumption and nutritional status in Russia during 1992-96. During this period, there have been declines in income and expenditure, and substantial increases in the prevalence of poverty. At the same time, per capita alcohol consumption has risen significantly, as has the prevalence of obesity. We discuss the significance of these findings within the context of the current mortality crisis in Russia."
Correspondence: N. Zohoori, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

65:10538 Bonvalet, Catherine. Family-housing: a statistical concept or a political football? [Famille-logement: identité statistique ou enjeu politique?] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 72, Nov 1998. 262 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study concerns the relationship between the family and housing in France since the 1970s. The author first looks at the demographic factors associated with access to the ownership of property. Next, she analyzes recent socio-demographic changes and their influence on the housing market. The residential history of the most recent generation is then described. A final chapter examines housing from the family perspective.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10539 Carter, William H.; Schill, Michael H.; Wachter, Susan M. Polarisation, public housing and racial minorities in U.S. cities. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,889-911 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"In the U.S., poor and minority populations are overrepresented in public housing, mostly located in central cities.... After a description of this concentration of poor and minority populations in public housing, we examine the effect of public housing on neighbourhood poverty rates in central cities. We construct a longitudinal database (1950-90) for four large cities--Boston, Cleveland, Detroit and Philadelphia--and examine the relationship between the location of public housing and changes in neighbourhood poverty rates. We find that in each city, one or more of the variables relating to the existence of public housing is significantly related to increases in neighbourhood poverty rates in succeeding decades."
Correspondence: W. H. Carter, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton Real Estate Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6330. E-mail: carter@ssc.sas.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10540 Chiswick, Barry R. Language skill definition: a study of legalized aliens. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1998. 877-900 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The robustness of the model for the acquisition of destination language skills is studied using the Legalized Population Survey (LPS) of aliens who received amnesty under the 1986 [U.S.] Immigration Reform and Control Act. The English language proficiency variables include self-assessed overall speaking skills (the census question), speaking and reading skills in specific situations, perceptions as to whether language skills limit job opportunities, and measures of speaking and reading proficiency at work. The model is found to be robust across definitions of proficiency. Proficiency increases with exposure, efficiency and economic incentives for English language acquisition. The panel feature of the data is used to analyze changes in proficiency over time."
Correspondence: B. R. Chiswick, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, Box 4348 University Hall, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10541 Doherty, Paul; Poole, Michael A. Ethnic residential segregation in Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1971-1991. Geographical Review, Vol. 87, No. 4, Oct 1997. 520-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The segregation of Catholics and Protestants varies spatially and temporally in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Using small-area statistics from the censuses of 1971, 1981, and 1991, taken during the recent `Troubles', a strongly rising level of ethnic segregation is noted for the 1970s, followed by a more gentle rise in the 1980s. Segregation is shown to vary among subunits of the urban area. The basic cause of this segregation is ethnic violence, and the spatial variation in segregation can be attributed to spatial variation in this violence."
Correspondence: P. Doherty, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10542 Fuller, Bruce; Liang, Xiaoyan. Which girls stay in school? The influence of family economy, social demands, and ethnicity in South Africa. In: Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world, edited by Caroline H. Bledsoe et. al. 1999. 181-215 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to advance theoretical understanding of the role of the family's character and practices, especially variability in the work and social demands parents place on daughters, in determining when girls leave school. First, we review how sociologists and economists have represented the school attainment process within developing-country settings. Second, we report on our household-level study of female school attainment among young black South Africans. After reviewing the economic and social factors that explain local variation in girls' school attainment, we examine how those factors help explain whether and when girls leave school."
Correspondence: B. Fuller, University of California, School of Education, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10543 Galland, Olivier; Rouault, Dominique. Becoming an executive by age 30: a longitudinal approach to social mobility. [Devenir cadre dès trente ans: une approche longitudinale de la mobilité sociale.] Economie et Statistique, No. 316-317, 1998. 97-107, 178-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
Data from the French Continuous Demographic Sample are used to examine the factors that affect the attainment of an executive position by age 30. "They depend to a large extent on the social standing of the father, with the exception that children of primary school teachers stand a very good chance of securing a senior position. The cultural level of the family of origin and the qualifications of the given individual are also decisive factors. Yet women are far from holding management positions in keeping with their qualifications despite an apparent improvement in their situation in recent generations. Living with an executive as part of a couple is still a way for them to offset this downgrading."
Correspondence: O. Galland, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Observatoire Sociologique du Changement, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10544 Grusky, David B.; Charles, Maria. The past, present, and future of sex segregation methodology. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 497-504 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We review the logic underlying margin-free analyses of sex segregation arrays. In the course of our review, we show that the Karmel-MacLahlan decomposition does not live up to its margin-free billing.... We demonstrate that our preferred models pass the test of organizational equivalence, that the `problem' of zero cells can be solved by applying well-developed methods for ransacking incomplete or sparse tables, and that simple log-multiplicative models can be readily devised to analyze disaggregate arrays."
Correspondence: D. B. Grusky, Stanford University, Department of Sociology, McClatchy Hall, Building 120, Stanford, CA 94305. E-mail: grusky@leland.stanford.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10545 Hauser, Robert M.; Kuo, Hsiang-Hui Daphne. Does the gender composition of sibships affect women's educational attainment? Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 33, No. 3, Summer 1998. 644-57 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Data from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the November 1989 Current Population Survey, and the National Longitudinal Study of Women suggest that women with sisters may have completed less schooling than women without sisters.... There is relatively weak evidence for this hypothesis in the analysis on which the findings are based. Analyses of the effects of sibling gender composition on educational attainment among cohorts of women...offer no support for this hypothesis or for other related hypotheses about the effects of the gender composition of sibships."
Correspondence: R. M. Hauser, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. E-mail: hauser@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

65:10546 Hwang, Sean-Shong; Murdock, Steve H. Racial attraction or racial avoidance in American suburbs? Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 2, Dec 1998. 541-65 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The principle of homophily is central to several social-science theories. When applied to the study of population change in geographic areas, these theories predict racial homogeneity in residential settlement patterns. The concentration of one group in an area is expected to attract same-group members while deterring others. We examine this prediction using data on 1980-90 population change for four ethnic groups in 1,672 U.S. suburban cities. The findings from our analysis contradict the principle of homophily. For example, during the 1980s, black populations grew faster in those suburbs that had smaller, rather than larger percentages of blacks. We explain these findings by spatial-assimilation and place-stratification models. Minority suburbanization is viewed as a process driven primarily by status rather than by ethnic considerations."
Correspondence: S.-S. Hwang, University of Alabama, Department of Sociology, Birmingham, AL 35294. E-mail: shwang@uab.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10547 Levitt, Peggy. Social remittances: migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1998. 926-48 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Many studies highlight the macro-level dissemination of global culture and institutions. This article focuses on social remittances--a local-level, migration-driven form of cultural diffusion. Social remittances are the ideas, behaviors, identities, and social capital that flow from receiving- to sending-country communities. The role that these resources play in promoting immigrant entrepreneurship, community and family formation, and political integration is widely acknowledged. This article specifies how these same ideas and practices are remolded in receiving countries, the mechanisms by which they are sent back to sending communities, and the role they play in transforming sending-country social and political life." The data concern migrants from the Dominican Republic to the Boston area of the United States.
Correspondence: P. Levitt, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10548 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Mensch, Barbara. Implications of formal schooling for girls' transitions to adulthood in developing countries. In: Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world, edited by Caroline H. Bledsoe et. al. 1999. 80-104 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter draws on insights from two literatures on education in developing countries in order to place the traditional demographic literature on education and fertility into a larger conceptual framework that focuses on successful transitions to adulthood.... [The authors review] the literature on school effectiveness and that on schooling and socialization. Key points are illustrated with recent data on the primary schooling experience of adolescents collected in 3 of Kenya's 50 districts--Kilifi, Nakuru, and Nyeri--expressly to bring some empirical content to the many hypotheses that emerge from these literatures."
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10549 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Mensch, Barbara S.; Clark, Wesley H. The effects primary school quality on the educational participation and attainment of Kenyan girls and boys. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 116, 1998. 49 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In Kenya, adolescent girls fare poorly relative to boys in an educational system characterized by enormous growth, deteriorating quality, and rising costs.... Using data from nearly 600 adolescents aged 12-19 in combination with data collected from 36 primary schools in which those adolescents are enrolled, this paper investigates the effect of school quality on the likelihood of dropping out from primary school in three districts of Kenya.... The results document both the power of existing gender systems at the level of the family and the potential power of gender systems within the school environment."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10550 Montgomery, Mark R.; Lloyd, Cynthia B. Excess fertility, unintended births, and children's schooling. In: Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world, edited by Caroline H. Bledsoe et. al. 1999. 216-66 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we consider two demographic determinants of children's schooling: unintended and excess fertility within the family. Our analysis is empirical in nature and relies on Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for four developing countries.... The [second] section provides a conceptual overview of the linkages among family size, excess fertility and unintended births, and human capital investments in children.... The third section presents a descriptive overview of the fertility and schooling environments in the four countries studied. The fourth section outlines the statistical model that motivates our empirical work; the results derived from that model are then given."
Correspondence: M. R. Montgomery, State University of New York, Department of Economics, Stony Brook, NY 11790. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10551 Murdie, Robert A.; Borgegård, Lars-Erik. Immigration, spatial segregation and housing segmentation of immigrants in metropolitan Stockholm, 1960-95. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,869-88 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Immigration policy and the origins of immigrants coming to Sweden have changed dramatically during the post-World War Two period. During the same period, changes in housing policy have affected the type of accommodation available to immigrants and refugees. It is within the context of these and other changes that we develop a model of the driving forces behind spatial segregation and housing segmentation in Sweden and document and evaluate shifts in the spatial segregation and housing segmentation of immigrants in the Stockholm region between 1960 and 1995."
Correspondence: R. A. Murdie, York University, Department of Geography, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. E-mail: murdie@yorku.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10552 Novikova, L. G. Basic characteristics of the dynamics of people's religion. [Osnovnye kharakteristiki dinamiki religioznosti naseleniya.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 9, 1998. 93-8 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Religious trends for the population of Belarus are analyzed by age and denomination. The period covered is the 1990s.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10553 Poterba, James M. Demographic change, intergenerational linkages, and public education. American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 2, May 1998. 315-20 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"In this brief paper, I explore several issues related to [U.S.] demographic change and the political economy of public education.... I describe the existing empirical evidence that suggests that older and childless voters are less likely to support public-school spending than younger voters with children. I then note several unresolved issues about the degree to which rational self-interest should lead older voters to vote for low levels of public-school spending."
Correspondence: J. M. Poterba, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Economics, 50 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, MA 02142-1347. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10554 Quillian, Lincoln. Migration and the maintenance of racial segregation. CDE Working Paper, No. 98-29, 1998. 56 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper examines the patterns of mobility by whites and African-Americans [in segregated U.S. urban neighborhoods]. The main conclusions are: (1) an important and understudied process that contributes to segregation is the migration of African-Americans in white neighborhoods back into black neighborhoods; (2) high income African-Americans are substantially more likely to stay in a white neighborhood after moving in than lower income African-Americans, but only marginally more likely to move into a white neighborhood in the first place; and (3) whites move out of neighborhoods with substantial shares of their population black at a very rapid rate, suggesting that white avoidance of neighborhoods with more than a few blacks is a key contributing factor to residential segregation."
This paper is available on the Web at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393.

65:10555 Schwarz, John C. Global population from a Catholic perspective. ISBN 0-89622-932-7. LC 98-60484. 1998. vi, 256 pp. Twenty-Third Publications: Mystic, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Despite its rich contributions to human spiritual and physical well-being, and its strong call for economic and political justice, the Catholic Church's stand on population issues has often been largely negative--absolute prohibitions on artificial contraception, sterilization, and abortion. [The author] looks at the positive and negative aspects of the church's stand and argues respectfully and carefully, from within the church's own tradition, for reassessment and change.... [He] surveys the complex issues involved in shaping population policies in light of official church statements, the church's role in the United Nations, basic principles and new emphases in moral theology, and the role of the church in the modern world."
Correspondence: Twenty-Third Publications, 185 Willow Street, P.O. Box 180, Mystic, CT 06355. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10556 Watts, Martin. Occupational gender segregation: index measurement and econometric modeling. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 489-96 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Empirical studies of gender segregation by occupation must be founded on rigorous measurement procedures.... In this paper, I contrast the construction and interpretation of the index of dissimilarity and the Karmel-MacLachlan index with the multiplicative modeling of gender segregation and the associated log index."
Correspondence: M. Watts, University of Newcastle, Department of Economics, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. E-mail: ecmjw@cc.newcastle.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10557 Watts, Martin. The analysis of sex segregation: when is index measurement not index measurement? Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 505-8 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by David B. Grusky and Maria Charles that concerns the measurement and interpretation of sex segregation. "Their statistical approach claims to differentiate statistically between different degrees of occupational aggregation within a narrow class of log-linear models, but the general form of their index measurement is influenced by their choice of a log-odds ratio, despite its undesirable properties."
For the article by Grusky and Charles, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. Watts, University of Newcastle, Department of Economics, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. E-mail: ecmjw@cc.newcastle.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

65:10558 Aspinall, Peter J. Describing the "white" ethnic group and its composition in medical research. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 11, Dec 1998. 1,797-808 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
Some problems concerning the use of the ethnic group classification "white" in medical research in the United Kingdom are considered. The author notes that the assumption of homogeneity in this group has meant that some white minorities, such as the Irish, Turks, and Cypriots, have remained hidden, even though they may suffer the same discrimination and disadvantages as other minority groups. The case is made for developing and using more specific ethnic classifications in order to identify such white minorities in the future, and some specific recommendations are made for the 2001 census.
Correspondence: P. J. Aspinall, Guy's and Saint Thomas's Hospitals United Medical and Dental Schools, South East Institute of Public Health, Broomhill House, David Salomons Estate, Broomhill Road, Turnbridge Wells, Kent TN2 3QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10559 Daley, Patricia O. Black Africans in Great Britain: spatial concentration and segregation. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,703-24 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The 1991 [UK] Census gave official recognition to the increasing permanency of the African population through the introduction of the ethnic category Black African, which...resulted in a vast amount of illuminating demographic and socioeconomic data. This paper draws heavily on this database. It is clear that the Black-African group tends to have similar spatial patterns to the Black-Caribbean, but a high degree of segregation from whites and other ethnic groups. This can be explained through discrimination, economic marginalisation and poor social housing, although cultural factors do contribute to the pattern."
Correspondence: P. O. Daley, University of Oxford, School of Geography, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB, England. E-mail: patricia.daley@geography.oxford.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10560 Friedrichs, Jürgen. Ethnic segregation in Cologne, Germany, 1984-94. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,745-63 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The city of Cologne is, like Frankfurt/Main, Munich and Stuttgart, one of the German cities with high shares of ethnic minorities. In this paper, ethnic segregation in Cologne is analysed for three points in time: 1984, 1989 and 1994. One of the main conclusions is that segregation is declining for many groups, indicating a process of spatial dispersion across the city. `New' immigrants, however, tend to be more segregated than `older' groups. Economic conditions seem to be one of the crucial explaining elements. They influence the extent and development of segregation patterns directly, as well as indirectly."
Correspondence: J. Friedrichs, University of Cologne, Forschungsinstitut für Soziologie, Grienstrasse 2, 50939 Cologne, Germany. E-mail: friedrichs@wiso.uni-koeln.de. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10561 Le Bras, Hervé. The devil in the roots: demography and the extreme right. [Le démon des origines: démographie et extrême droite.] ISBN 2-87678-418-1. LC 98-201846. 1998. 261 pp. Editions de l'Aube: La Tour d'Aigues, France. In Fre.
The author makes the case that demography in France has allowed itself to become associated with racist ideas. He suggests this is because French demographers tend to analyze the population with a false emphasis on ethnicity, distinguishing between a population of "French stock" and other ethnic groups, particularly more recent immigrants, and that this provides fuel for the arguments of the extreme political right. He argues that incomplete data, the extent of intermarriage among different population groups, and the political benefits of treating all French nationals equally make the study of different ethnic groups in the population impractical as well as undesirable.
Correspondence: Editions de l'Aube, Le Moulin du Château, 84240 La Tour d'Aigues, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10562 Piñeros-Petersen, Marion; Ruiz-Salguero, Magda. Demographic features of indigenous communities in three regions of Colombia. [Aspectos demográficos en comunidades indígenas de tres regiones de Colombia.] Salud Pública de México, Vol. 40, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 324-9 pp. Morelos, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors "obtain demographic indicators for some indigenous communities in Colombia situated in three different regions of the country.... The indicators differ substantially from the national ciphers. Although the indigenous population seems to be undergoing a process of demographic transition, there are marked differences between regions, with significantly higher fertility and infant mortality rates for the Caribbean region."
Correspondence: M. Piñeros-Petersen, Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas, Dirección Técnica de Censos, Avenida El Dorado, Santa Fé de Bogotá, Colombia. E-mail: avilla@multi.net.co. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10563 Zelinsky, Wilbur; Lee, Barrett A. Heterolocalism: an alternative model of the sociospatial behaviour of immigrant ethnic communities. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec 1998. 281-98 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates critically the applicability of the well-known assimilation and pluralist models to the contemporary ethnic landscape of the U.S.... We then consider an alternative model, labelled heterolocalism, which suggests that members of certain newly arrived groups may be able to sustain their identity as an ethnic community despite immediate or rapid spatial dispersion. The applicability of the heterolocal perspective to non-metropolitan and transnational phenomena is evaluated in subsequent sections of the paper."
Correspondence: W. Zelinsky, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Geography, 317 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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