Volume 65 - Number 1 - Spring 1999

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

65:10367 Brubaker, Rogers. Migrations of ethnic unmixing in the "New Europe" International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1998. 1,047-65 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article addresses a...neglected, link between migration and ethnicity or nationality in Europe. It explores migrations of `ethnic unmixing' or `ethnic affinity'. Ethnic unmixing and ethnic affinity have somewhat different connotations and call attention to two distinct respects in which ethnicity may figure in such migrations: (1) as a push factors at the point of origin, and (2) as a pull factor at the point of destination. "
Correspondence: R. Brubaker, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10368 Faragó, Tamás. Migration in Hungary during the eighteenth century. Hungarian Statistical Review, Vol. 76, 1998. 134-44 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews migration trends in Hungary during the eighteenth century. Aspects considered include dimensions and directions of migration, regional differences, places of origin and destination of migrants, types of migration, motivation, and forced migrations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10369 Kendirbaeva, Gulnar. Migrations in Kazakhstan: past and present. Nationalities Papers, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1997. 741-51 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Kazakhstan has experienced...pressures of migration unlike any other republic of the former Soviet Union. An especially great number of immigrants came to Kazakhstan during the Soviet period. Many peoples of the former Soviet Union, often against their wishes, took up residence in the republic. The recent situation in Kazakhstan is characterized by a further intensification of migratory processes. Their complicated character, both in the past and today, has, in many aspects, influenced the present-day problems of the republic."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10370 König, Jürgen. Maro--migration in a rural Indo-Fijian settlement. [Maro--Migration in einer ländlichen indo-fijianischen Siedlung.] Pazifik-Informationsstelle: Dossier, No. 46, May 1998. 26 pp. Pazifik-Informationsstelle: Neuendettelsau, Germany. In Ger.
This study is based on a socioeconomic and migration survey conducted in 1996 in a rural Indo-Fijian settlement in western Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji. First, the social composition of the population is analyzed, then agricultural (sugar cane) and nonagricultural economic activities are described. The main part of the paper deals with internal and international migration of the inhabitants and their relatives, including migration of women after marriage. Emigration of Indo-Fijians from Fiji is a special concern after the coup of 1987. This paper shows the extent of emigration in a rural settlement and its effect on the remaining population. Finally, the migration pattern of Indo-Fijians and Fijians is compared.
Correspondence: J. König, Kurfürstenstraße 35, 53115 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10371 Malinovska, Olena. Migration and migration policy in Ukraine since 1991. [Migration und Migrationspolitik in der Ukraine nach 1991.] Berichte des Bundesinstituts für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien, No. 42, LC 97-152986. 1996. 34 pp. Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien: Cologne, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
During the Soviet era, migration to the Ukraine resulted in a population increase overall and an increase in the number of non-Ukrainians. Since 1991, the migration balance has remained positive, with outflows to Russia, Belarus, and the West more than counterbalanced by repatriating Ukrainians and Slavic peoples. These migration flows are both ethnically motivated, with people returning to their homeland after the forced migrations of the Soviet era, and economically driven, with people migrating, sometimes only temporarily, to places with more favorable economic situations. Those returning to the Ukraine include Crimean Tartars, ethnic Germans, and refugees. Migration from further abroad is also becoming problematic, with people from Southeast Asia, the Near and Middle East, and Africa coming in through the porous eastern border. A comprehensive migration policy is in the process of being developed.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien, Lindenbornstraße 22, 50823 Cologne, Germany. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10372 Parfit, Michael. Human migration. National Geographic, No. 4, Oct 1998. 6-35 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author characterizes migration patterns worldwide, with a focus on reasons for relocating and consequences of migration flows. The impact of historical world events is discussed. He considers pull factors, such as the lure of a new destination, improved jobs, and better living conditions, as well as push factors, including political unrest or natural disasters.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10373 Pirozhkov, S.; Malinovs'ka, O.; Marchenko, N. International migration in the Ukraine: causes, consequences, and strategies. [Zovnishnya migratsiya v Ukraïni: prichini, naslidki, strategiï.] ISBN 966-95031-2-4. LC 98-127052. 1997. 127 pp. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe: Geneva, Switzerland; Natsional'nii Institut Strategichnikh Doslidzhen': Kiev, Ukraine; International Organization for Migration [IOM]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Ukr.
Various aspects of migration affecting the Ukraine are examined in this study. They include the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of families involved in migration, trends in international migration, a survey of historical trends in migration, current migration trends, emigrant and immigrant characteristics, and the determinants of migration.
Correspondence: International Organization for Migration, vul. Gor'kogo 20, kv. 17-18, 252005 Kiev, Ukraine. E-mail: iomkiev@iom.int. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10374 Poku, Nana; Graham, David T. Redefining security: population movements and national security. ISBN 0-275-96097-8. LC 98-6857. 1998. xv, 245 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This book contains chapters by various authors on how the movement of people affects security at both individual and national levels. A major theme is that as a consequence of people's increased mobility, the notion of security itself is being redefined more broadly than heretofore, and now includes such concepts as cultural, environmental, and health security as well as the traditional notion of territorial security or defense.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10375 Scidà, Giuseppe. Migrations and labor: sociological perspectives. [Migrazioni e lavoro: prospettive sociologiche.] Sociologia del Lavoro, Vol. 64, 1996. 26-49, 189 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
After a brief acknowledgment of the Chicago School's ecological approach and network analysis with respect to migratory processes in general, the author sketches out a sociological approach to the study of labor migration in particular, distinguishing between economic and sociological viewpoints.
Correspondence: G. Scidà, Viale Kennedy 11, 47100 Forlì, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10376 Stevanovic, Radoslav. Migrations of the population. Yugoslav Survey, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1997. 3-18 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
The author outlines trends in Yugoslav migration in the twentieth century. Both internal and international flows are examined, with a focus on political events and labor migrations.
Correspondence: R. Stevanovic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:10377 United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women [INSTRAW] (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic). The migration of women: methodological issues in the measurement and analysis of internal and international migration. 2nd ed. Nov 1996. xvii, 112 pp. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Eng.
"[This] document gives an analysis of the existing concepts and statistical methods relevant to the definition and understanding of the determinants and consequences of female migration. It covers the following areas: (1) review of existing data and what they show regarding the levels of internal and international migration of women; (2) reasons to expect biases in the measurement of women's migration; (3) data needs for assessing the determinants and consequences of internal and international migration of women; and (4) recommendations to improve the data on women's migration."
Correspondence: United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, César Nicolás Penson 102-A, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. E-mail: instraw.hq.sd@codetel.net.do. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10378 Velázquez Flores, Rafael. International migrations: the uncertain future of the world population. [Las migraciones internacionales: futuro incierto de la populación mundial.] Relaciones Internacionales, Vol. 67, Jul-Sep 1995. 87-99 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Migration is a worldwide phenomenon that responds basically to the necessities of the international labor market and to other factors of socio-political and economic nature.... In ancient times...humanity registered considerable migratory flows, whether because of war, hunger, religion, illness or other factors. The demographic projections for underdeveloped countries indicate that their population will increase for the next century due mainly [to] two reasons: the mortality rate has been reduced in those countries thanks to technological development of the medical services; and [increasing birth rates]."
Correspondence: R. Velázquez Flores, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Cornell University Library, NYSSILR Extension, New York, NY.

65:10379 Wegge, Simone A. Chain migration and information networks: evidence from nineteenth-century Hesse-Cassel. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 58, No. 4, Dec 1998. 957-86 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Chain migration was an important factor in European migrants' decisions in the nineteenth century. This article demonstrates that previous migrations have long-run effects and continue to impact the decisions of future migrants for many years. Chain migration produces not only more migration but different migrants. Migrants from over 1,300 different German villages are classified as networked and non-networked. The most definitive results from comparing the two types of migrants are the figures on cash assets because they support the model's prediction that socially networked migrants needed less cash than non-networked migrants to accomplish their migration goals."
Correspondence: S. A. Wegge, Lake Forest University, Department of Economics and Business, Lake Forest, IL 60045. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

65:10380 Agiomirgianakis, George M. Monetary policy games and international migration of labor in interdependent economies. Journal of Macroeconomics, Vol. 20, No. 2, Spring 1998. 243-66 pp. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. In Eng.
"In this paper we incorporate the possibility of international migration into a monetary policy game played by governments in unionized interdependent economies. We show that contrary to usual presumptions, established by earlier studies that ignore the possibility of international migration, inter-government cooperation in the monetary field may well turn out to be advantageous. This has important implications for the European economies, since it suggests that measures taken towards encouraging international migration within EU [the European Union] will not only harmonize the European labor markets but will also make monetary policy cooperation within Europe, as required by the Maastrict Treaty, more advantageous."
Correspondence: G. M. Agiomirgianakis, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10381 Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna C. Illegal immigration: a supply side analysis. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 57, No. 2, Dec 1998. 343-60 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the supply-side determinants of illegal immigration using a three-sector general equilibrium model of the source country. Agricultural liberalization raises illegal immigration while liberalization of the high tech sector reduces it. In contrast, capital mobility in the source country renders trade policy ineffective for controlling illegal immigration. Paradoxically, increased enforcement (by the host country) may raise source country unskilled wages, although illegal immigration falls. Finally, under capital mobility, a rise in the source country restrictions on capital inflow raises the level of illegal immigration and reduces the effectiveness of border enforcement efforts by the host country."
Correspondence: S. Bandyopadhyay, West Virginia University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 6025, Morgantown, WV 26506-6025. E-mail: sbandyo2@wvu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10382 Barrett, Alan. The effect of immigrant admission criteria on immigrant labour-market characteristics. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 5, Oct 1998. 439-56 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The skill levels of immigrants entering the USA has declined in recent decades; however, most immigrants to the USA continue to be admitted on the basis of family contacts, without reference to labour-market characteristics. This situation has given rise to a debate about the criteria on which immigrants are admitted or excluded. I examine how the relative skill levels of immigrants admitted under different criteria vary by country of origin, those criteria being the possession of highly-valued skills and family connections. Using data from the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Borjas' 1987 model is tested. The results show (a) that the relative skill levels of the two groups do indeed differ by country of origin, and (b) the pattern by country of origin is consistent with the Borjas predictions. The policy implication is that the effects of changing admission criteria will differ by country of origin, but in a predictable way."
Correspondence: A. Barrett, Economic and Social Research Institute, 4 Burlington Road, Dublin 4, Ireland. E-mail: alan.barrett@esri.ie. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10383 Beaujot, Roderic. Immigration and Canadian demographics: state of the research. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 98-11, ISBN 0-7714-2156-7. May 1998. 21 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of this brief paper is to review the state of the research regarding the effect of immigration on the evolution of the demographics of Canada.... The present review will focus on the three questions of population: size, age composition, and geographic distribution."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10384 Beer, Andrew. Immigration and slow-growth economies: the experience of South Australia and Tasmania. Australian Geographer, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1998. 223-40 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines national immigration processes and demographic change in South Australia and Tasmania over the last four decades. Particular attention is paid to the inter-censal period 1986-1991.... The paper investigates the impact of the historic make-up of immigrant flows on settlement patterns, and examines the impact on policies intended to increase immigrant settlement in these states. It argues that the policies being pursued by state and federal governments are unlikely to add to the numbers settling in these states, because they pay too little attention to migration processes, and especially the attraction of others from the source country."
Correspondence: A. Beer, Flinders University of South Australia, School of Geography, Population and Environmental Management, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. E-mail: Andrew.Beer@flinders.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10385 Bestene, Jorge O. Two visions of the Arab immigrant: Juan A. Alsina and Santiago M. Peralta. [Dos imagenes del immigrante arabe: Juan A. Alsina y Santiago M. Peralta.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 12, No. 36, Aug 1997. 281-303 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Immigrants from [the] Middle East, mainly Syrian and Lebanese, play a relevant role among immigrants coming to Argentina since [the] mid 19th century.... Was the image of Arab immigrants in the 1940s similar to that at the turn of the century? Did their position in the local society soften the vision of them as `unwanted immigrants' in earlier times? Were there discriminatory behaviours against this ethnic group? We intend to answer [these] questions through the analysis of the discourse and the actions of two directors of the Argentine immigration department, i.e., Juan Alsina (1890-1910) and Santiago Peralta (1945-1947)."
Correspondence: J. O. Bestene, Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Independencia 20, 1099 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10386 Brown, Richard P. C. Do migrants' remittances decline over time? Evidence from Tongans and Western Samoans in Australia. Contemporary Pacific, Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring 1998. 107-51 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"There is concern that Pacific Island economies dependent on remittances of migrants will endure foreign exchange shortages and falling living standards as remittance levels fall because of lower migration rates and the belief that migrants' willingness to remit declines over time. The empirical validity of the remittance-decay hypothesis has never been tested. From survey data on Tongan and Western Samoan migrants in Sydney [Australia], this paper estimates remittance functions using multivariate regression analysis. It is found that the remittance-decay hypothesis has no empirical validity, and migrants are motivated by factors other than altruistic family support, including asset accumulation and investment back home."
Correspondence: R. P. C. Brown, University of Queensland, Department of Economics, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. E-mail: r.brown@economics.uq.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10387 Carchedi, Francesco; Mottura, Giovanni. Immigration from the Maghreb. Notes about the origins and current trends. [L'immigrazione dal Maghreb. Cenni sulle origini e sulle tendenze attuali.] Inchiesta, Vol. 26, No. 113, Jul-Sep 1996. 42-8 pp. Bari, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in international migration between Northern Africa and Europe are reviewed. The authors identify three main phases of this migration, which are the pre-colonial, the colonial, and the period since independence. Particular attention is given to migration trends since the development of policies restricting immigration by most European countries following the economic downturn of the mid-1970s, and in Italy and Spain toward the end of the 1980s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10388 Ceyhan, Ayse. The United States: a secure frontier and identity controls? [Etats-Unis: frontière sécurisée, identité(s) contrôlée(s)?] Cultures et Conflits, No. 26-27, Summer-Autumn 1997. 235-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the concept of "the frontier" in American history, and particularly the process of change over time whereby a generally positive attitude toward immigration to the United States has gradually changed to the current attitude, in which uncontrolled immigration is increasingly viewed as a growing security threat. The difference between the way the U.S. authorities attempt to control migration across the country's northern and southern borders is noted.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:10389 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. The globalization of migration. [La mondialisation des migrations.] In: Rapport annuel mondial sur le système économique et les stratégies. 1998. 247-65 pp. Editions Economica: Paris, France. In Fre.
A review of current migration trends around the world is presented, with the focus on how the demographic transition affects migration. The first part examines current trends, with sections on Europe's change from a region of emigration to one of immigration, the main poles of contemporary immigration and emigration, the turnaround in European migration trends, and the ethnic diversification of the West. The second part looks at the implications of these trends, including the economic implications and the cultural and political challenges that they pose.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

65:10390 Chiswick, Barry R. The economics of immigrant skill and adjustment. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Vol. 37, 1997. 183-397 pp. Bureau of Economic and Business Research: Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. In Eng.
This special issue contains a selection of papers on the economics of immigrant skills and adjustment to the country of destination. The essays are organized in three sections: immigrant skills at arrival in the United States; human capital investments after entry; and the economic progress of selected immigrant groups. "The analyses are not limited to the United States as there are essays on Germany and Israel, two countries that have experienced much immigration in the post-war period."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: JAI Press, 55 Old Post Road No. 2, P.O. Box 1678, Greenwich, CT 06836-1678. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10391 Clark, William A. V. Mass migration and local outcomes: is international migration to the United States creating a new urban underclass? Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3, Mar 1998. 371-83 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This presentation examines the nature of recent concentrated immigration to a sample of major metropolitan entry points in the U.S. The focus is primarily on the education, earnings, poverty and dependency levels of the new migrants, but the analysis is set within the changing economic situation in the U.S. The presentation highlights the actual and potential impacts in a society with only low levels of social support.... The evidence in this paper suggests that mass migration to U.S. cities has the potential to create an ethnic underclass similar to the existing black underclass in the inner cities of large metropolitan areas."
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, University of California, Department of Geography, 1255 Bunche Hall, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1524. E-mail: wclark@geog.ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10392 Cohen, Robin. Diasporas and the nation-state: from victims to challengers. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 51-65 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The definition of diaspora and its historical application to the situation of the Jews is first examined. The author then discusses other examples of diaspora, including positive ones, and suggests that the world today harbors "a chain of cosmopolitan cities and an increasing proliferation of diasporic, subnational, and ethnic identities that cannot easily be contained in the nation-state system.... Nationalists cannot now return the genie of social identity to the bottle of the territorial nation-state.... Seen as a form of social organization, diasporas have predated the nation-state, lived uneasily within it and now may, in significant respects, transcend and succeed it."
Correspondence: R. Cohen, University of Warwick, Faculty of Social Studies, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10393 Condamines, Charles. Migration and international cooperation. [Migrations et coopération internationale.] Migrations Société, Vol. 10, No. 56, Mar-Apr 1998. 55-64 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the idea that greater international cooperation in aiding the economic development of third-world countries will reduce rates of immigration to the developed countries. The cost of preventing would-be immigrants from embarking on their journey is compared to the far higher cost of repatriating them once they have arrived at their destination. The author argues that enticements aimed at convincing illegal migrants to return to their country of origin have been ineffective. He suggests, however, that instead of emphasizing cooperation with other countries of immigration, developed countries should enlist their own communities of immigrants as partners in aiding the development of their country of origin. The geographical focus is worldwide, with particular attention given to France and the countries from which it draws its immigrants, many of which are in Africa.
Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

65:10394 Coutin, Susan B. From refugees to immigrants: the legalization strategies of Salvadoran immigrants and activists. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1998. 901-25 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The legalization strategies pursued by Salvadoran immigrants and activists from the 1980s to the present demonstrate that migrants' and advocates' responses to policy changes reinterpret law in ways that affect future policy. Law is critical to immigrants' strategies in that [U.S.] legal status is increasingly a prerequisite for rights and services and that immigration law is embedded in other institutions and relationships. Immigration law is defined, however, not only when it is first formulated but also as it is implemented, enabling the immigrants who are defined according to legal categories to shape the definitions that categorization produces. Immigrants and activists also take formal legal and political actions, such as lobbying Congress and filing class action suits. Through such formal and informal policy negotiations, immigrants seek to shape their own and their nations' futures."
Correspondence: S. B. Coutin, California State University, 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10395 Croucher, Sheila L. South Africa's illegal aliens: constructing national boundaries in a post-apartheid state. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 21, No. 4, Jul 1998. 639-60 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This analysis examines the contemporary nation-building project [in South Africa] with a specific focus on immigration.... In the absence of a racialized `other', [illegal] immigrants have become scapegoats for the country's current social, economic and political ills. At the same time, immigrants and immigration provide content for the discursive construction of the country's national identity, as politicians, the media, government officials and disgruntled citizens define who is properly `South African', by focusing on, or identifying, who is not."
Correspondence: S. L. Croucher, Miami University, Department of Political Science, 218 Harrison Hall, Oxford, OH 45056. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10396 de Filippo, Elena; Pugliese, Enrico. New international migrations and migratory models in South European countries. [Le nuove migrazioni internazionali e i modelli migratori nei paesi del Sud Europa.] Inchiesta, Vol. 26, No. 113, Jul-Sep 1996. 49-58 pp. Bari, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in international migration in the Mediterranean European countries over the course of the 1980s are reviewed. "Particular attention is paid to the different factors that explain the arrival of these migratory fluxes during a period of economic recession and in areas where there is a co-presence of immigration, emigration and unemployment. The involvement of southern European countries as target countries for immigration is not seen as a simple consequence of the [restrictive policies] practiced in the Seventies by European countries with traditional immigration; the push towards these countries as well as the pull to the same are also considered, particularly the acceleration of the internationalization process of the labor markets, the characteristics of the labor markets, and processes of segmentation and tertiarization."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10397 Dolmas, Jim; Huffman, Gregory W. On the political economy of immigration. Research Department Working Paper, No. 97-06, Jun 1997. 46 pp. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas: Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper explores the interactions between immigration, inequality and redistributive fiscal policy in a dynamic general equilibrium model in which government policies are endogenously determined through voting. A model is constructed in which agents vote on the level of immigration into the economy. It is shown that agents' preferences over the level of immigration are influenced by the effects of immigration on factor prices. Agents' preferences over immigration are shown to depend non-trivially on the characteristics of immigrants and whether they will receive the franchise to vote in the future. It is shown that subtle changes in the distribution of wealth among existing citizens can have a dramatic impact on the equilibrium behavior of the economy."
Correspondence: Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Research Department, P.O. Box 655906, Dallas, TX 75265-5906. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10398 Enchautegui, María E.; Malone, Nolan J. Female immigrants: a socioeconomic portrait. Migration World, Vol. 25, No. 4, 1997. 18-23 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"In this study, we supplement the limited knowledge about immigrant women by documenting their presence in the U.S. immigration flow and their socioeconomic standing. In doing so we review some of the theoretical explanations for female international migration.... We use two measures of inequality. First, the standing of immigrant women relative to native women; second, evaluation of the standing of immigrant women relative to immigrant men."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10399 Fassmann, Heinz; Hintermann, Christiane. Migration potential in East-Central Europe: structure and motivation of potential migrants from Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. [Migrationspotential Ostmitteleuropa: Struktur und Motivation potentieller Migranten aus Polen, der Slowakei, Tschechien und Ungarn.] ISR-Forschungsberichte, No. 15, ISBN 3-7001-2652-2. LC 98-129146. 1997. 70 pp. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften: Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
This research report "gives first results of a wide-ranging empirical survey in...Poland, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The main focus of interest was to record the migration potential. If only asked [about] a general interest in migration, about one-fifth of the population of [these] countries thinks of working abroad for a shorter period of time. When only those are considered who have already taken steps--at least gathered information--to realize the migration, the migration potential decreases from about 10 million [potential migrants] to about 4 million. If the potential is further confined only to those who have already tried to get official entry and work permits, only 700,000 East-Central Europeans or about 1% of the over-14 year old population there remain [as potential migrants].... These figures are still higher than the Austrian and German legislation--as the two main countries of destination--plan as yearly immigration and which are supposed to be politically justifiable."
Correspondence: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Stadt- und Regionalforschung, Postgasse 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10400 Fellat, Fadlallah M. Morocco and emigration. [Le Maroc et son émigration.] Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord, Vol. 34, 1995. 981-92 pp. Aix-en-Provence, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in emigration from Morocco are reviewed. The author introduces the socioeconomic and political context of this emigration from the Moroccan perspective, analyzes the main characteristics of this emigration, describes recent Moroccan policy initiatives concerning emigrants, and examines the prospects for lowering economic trade barriers between Morocco and the European Union as an alternative to emigration.
Location: State University of New York Library, Albany, NY.

65:10401 Fontana, Barbara. The state of migration research in South Africa. FGD Occasional Paper, No. 8, ISBN 1-919697-14-4. LC 97-22475. Mar 1997. 26 pp. Foundation for Global Dialogue: Braamfontein, South Africa. In Eng.
"This report critically assesses the state of migration research in South Africa by examining current research as well as material that has been published over the past three years on the topic of international migration. It focuses on three types of transnational population movements--labour migration, refugee flows and undocumented migration.... It critically unpacks the debate around the definition of refugees and illegal migrants. [It also] examines the relation between illegal immigrants and rising unemployment, crime, xenophobia and `insecurity' and the depletion of the state's resources allocated to social services."
Correspondence: Foundation for Global Dialogue, P.O. Box 32571, Braamfontein 2017, South Africa. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10402 Frejka, Tomas; Okólski, Marek; Sword, Keith. In-depth studies on migration in Central and Eastern Europe: the case of Poland. Economic Studies, No. 11, Pub. Order No. GV.E.98.II.E.24. ISBN 92-1-116700-0. 1998. xxiv, 229 pp. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The current report is the first in a series of three in-depth migration/mobility studies based on household surveys undertaken in Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine during the period 1993-1996 and covering developments over a twenty year span (1975-1994). The report is preceded by an overview of findings for the three countries." This report is concerned with recent trends in international migration in Poland. Recent population and migration trends are first reviewed, and the relevant methods, approaches, and research techniques are described. The remainder of the study analyzes the characteristics of migrants and the causes and consequences of emigration from Poland. The data are from a series of ethnosurveys undertaken in selected communities, in which a major assumption is that a specific role in migration is played by the social milieu of potential migrants, involving family, friends, and the local community.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10403 Frey, William H.; Liaw, Kao-Lee; Hayase, Yasuko. South-North immigrants' settlement and opportunity structures in the U.S. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1998. 93-125 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article makes the case that the new immigration [to the U.S. from developing Latin American and Asian countries], motivated by kinship ties and family reunification provisions of U.S. immigration law, leads to a clustering of new immigrants into areas that are no longer attracting large numbers of native-born Americans. It is argued that the concentration of these groups into `high immigration regions' will limit their access to employment and education opportunities that would facilitate their spatial assimilation and upward mobility."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10404 Gjerde, Jon. Major problems in American immigration and ethnic history: documents and essays. Major Problems in American History Series, ISBN 0-395-81532-0. LC 97-72475. 1998. xvii, 486 pp. Houghton Mifflin: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This book presents the experiences of immigrants and ethnics from a wide variety of cultural contexts that span the centuries of American development. Chapter 1 explores different approaches to the study of immigration and ethnic history. Then beginning with the interaction between native peoples and those moving to the Americas from Europe and Africa in the 1600s and 1700s (Chapters 2-3), this volume considers the nineteenth-century migration prior to American industrialization (Chapters 4-5), the period of massive industrial migration in the decades straddling the turn of the twentieth century (Chapters 6-10), and concludes with the wave of immigration in recent decades that has changed the ethnic profile of the nation (Chapters 11-14)." The book approaches its subject both through primary sources and the interpretations of scholars.
Correspondence: Houghton Mifflin, 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, MA 02116-3764. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10405 Glebe, Günther. Migrants of high social status in Germany. [Statushohe ausländische Migranten in Deutschland.] Geographische Rundschau, Vol. 49, No. 7-8, Jul-Aug 1997. 406-12 pp. Brunswick, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries."
Correspondence: G. Glebe, Universität Düsseldorf, Geographisches Institut, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:10406 Hammar, Tomas; Brochmann, Grete; Tamas, Kristof; Faist, Thomas. International migration, immobility and development: multidisciplinary perspectives. ISBN 1-85973-971-7. LC 97-202469. 1997. x, 316 pp. Berg: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This collection of papers by various authors concerns multidisciplinary perspectives on international migration, immobility, and development. "Throughout the book, South to North migration is used as the main example. The authors...ask provocative new questions such as the counterfactual, `Why do people not migrate?' and address old questions in fresh ways in a language accessible for students in a range of disciplines. Does migration from less developed countries stimulate or obstruct development? Does development reduce or increase the flows of migration? What are the dynamics of a migration process? Geography, economics, political science, social anthropology and sociology all inform this book...."
Correspondence: Berg, 150 Cowley Road, Oxford, OX4 1JJ, England. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10407 Hugo, Graeme. The demographic underpinnings of current and future international migration in Asia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1998. 1-25 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The present paper suggests that one element which needs to be considered in explaining contemporary international migration [in the Asia-Pacific region] but especially in anticipating trends over the next decade are the differential patterns of growth of population within the region. While population growth overall has slowed, the work force age groups will continue to grow rapidly in Asia over the next decade or so and the contrasts between individual countries will increase. The proportion in the peak mobility age groups will thus continue to grow rapidly in particular countries and will be one of the elements contributing to increased levels of international migration within and out of the region."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10408 Hugo, Graeme. The globalization of population movements: legal migrants. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 91-121 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"It is clear that there are clusters of nations that are strongly networked and among which there are very substantial flows of people. While the geographical boundaries of these international migration systems are neither sharply delineated nor stable over time the cores can be readily identified. This chapter identifies and describes the major contemporary international migration systems paying attention to how these systems have evolved to their major distinguishing characteristics and attempts to identify trends that point to likely changes in the systems in the future." The focus is on legal long-term migrants only. The regions discussed are Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union, North America, the Middle East, Latin America, Asia, and Oceania.
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10409 Iglicka, Krystyna. Are they fellow countrymen or not? The migration of ethnic Poles from Kazakhstan to Poland. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1998. 995-1,014 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents the process of migration of Kazakhs of Polish ancestry from Kazakhstan to Poland which has been taking place since the early 1990s. Poles deported in the past to Kazakhstan were mostly inhabitants of territories which did not belong to Poland; neither were they citizens of Poland. Therefore, the process of adaptation and integration was rather painful. The article points to factors that may simplify and those that may impede integration. The other problem...concerns the piecemeal policy towards Kazakhstan Poles, adopted by the Polish government, which seems risky if not dangerous. The author explains why it may cause a huge wave of illegal immigration to Poland."
Correspondence: K. Iglicka, University of London, London WC1E 7HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10410 Joppke, Christian. Challenge to the nation-state: immigration in Western Europe and the United States. ISBN 0-19-829229-5. LC 97-31038. 1998. [xi], 360 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume focuses on two aspects of the nation-state that have been challenged by recent migrations, which are sovereignty over entry and expulsions, and unitary membership as citizenship. All but one of the eight papers included were presented at two workshops on the politics of immigration held in December 1995 and January 1996 at the European University in Florence, Italy. "Regarding sovereignty, contrary positions are presented on the impact of globalization on immigration control, and on the kind of constraints (domestic or external) that states face in this policy domain. Regarding citizenship, some authors in this volume take up the recent debate about post-national membership, presenting opposing positions on the question whether post-national membership is a stable alternative to, or temporary deviation from, national citizenship."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10411 Juka, Slavica. External migration from west Herzegovina. [Vanjske migracije iz zapadne Hercegovine.] Migracijske Teme/Migration Themes, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1995. 187-206 pp. Zagreb, Croatia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper treats external migration from the region of West Herzegovina.... The author examines migration during the Turkish advance, the migrationary and demographic picture of West Herzegovina during the Austro-Hungarian period, and during the first and second Yugoslavia. She likewise treats the connection between external migration and the ethnic situation in West Herzegovina. Finally, she discusses return migration and problems of families in the migration context, and the interrelationship between migration and development."
Correspondence: S. Juka, University of Mostar, Trg Hrvatskih Velikana BB, 88000 Mostar, Bosnia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10412 Knights, Melanie; King, Russell. The geography of Bangladeshi migration to Rome. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec 1998. 299-321 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"With reference to the Bangladeshi community in Rome, this paper provides some answers to three key geographical questions: what is the migrants' regional pattern of origin in their home country; what are the mechanisms and routes of their migration to Italy; how are they spatially distributed in Rome?... Chain migration links specific origins in Bangladesh with spatial clusters and economic activities in Rome; the key here is the role of Bangladeshi community leaders in Rome who act both as migration sponsors and entrepreneurs."
Correspondence: R. King, University of Sussex, School of European Studies, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10413 Kraly, Ellen P. Immigration and environment: a framework for establishing a possible relationship. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 5, Oct 1998. 421-37 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper considers conceptual, analytic and policy issues concerning U.S. population, immigration and environment. The policy question guiding the analysis is whether the environmental impact of immigration is proportional to its numbers, i.e., additions to the population, or does immigration have a disproportionate effect on the environment, i.e., above or below what would be expected on additional numbers alone?... The IPAT [Impact=Population, Affluence, Technology] model is presented as a general framework for establishing the proportionality of the environmental effects of U.S. immigration."
Correspondence: E. P. Kraly, Colgate University, Department of Geography, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346-1398. E-mail: ekraly@center.colgate.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10414 Kupiszewski, Marek. Forecasting international migration in European countries in transition. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 96/3, Apr 1996. 29 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt will be made to suggest a possible approach to the forecasting of international migration in Central and Eastern Europe. In my view, we should first re-examine the underlying theories and causes of international migration and see what they can offer for a forecaster of international migration. The second stage would be to classify the causes according to the degree to which reasonable assumptions of the changes of the processes can be made."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Author's E-mail: m.kupiszewski@leeds.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10415 Lazaar, M'Hamed. Moroccan international migration: recent trends. [La migration internationale marocaine: aspects récents.] Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord, Vol. 34, 1995. 993-1,002 pp. Aix-en-Provence, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in emigration from Morocco are analyzed. The author describes the policies developed by the Moroccan government regarding emigration and the changing characteristics of the emigrants, as emigrants are becoming younger and are increasingly female. The author concludes that the increasing demand for migrant labor in Europe will result in increased emigration despite the development of restrictive migration policies.
Correspondence: M. Lazaar, Université Quaraouyine, Faculté des Lettres, Dhar Mahraz, B.P. 2509, Fès, Morocco. Location: State University of New York Library, Albany, NY.

65:10416 Lazaridis, Gabriella; Romaniszyn, Krystyna. Albanian and Polish undocumented workers in Greece: a comparative analysis. Journal of European Social Policy, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1998. 5-22 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article deals with the migration of undocumented workers from Albania and Poland to Greece. Its underlying assumption is that migration from the former post-communist countries to Greece is not a homogeneous phenomenon, thus allowing for a distinction and comparison between the migration waves from Poland and Albania to Greece. The article shows that economic migration from Albania and Poland to Greece is primarily an economically triggered phenomenon which results from both individual rational choices and social, structural settings, and which verifies a general tendency of mass flows, characteristic of the era of disorganized capitalism."
Correspondence: G. Lazaridis, University of Dundee, Department of Political Science and Social Policy, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. E-mail: g.lazaridis@dundee.ac.uk. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

65:10417 Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Ro'i, Yaacov; Ritterband, Paul. Russian Jews on three continents: migration and resettlement. Cummings Center Series, ISBN 0-7146-4726-8. 1997. ix, 557 pp. Frank Cass: Portland, Oregon/London, England. In Eng.
This collective work is a product of a conference held at Tel Aviv University in December 1993 on the topic of the three-quarter million Jews who have emigrated from Russia over the past 20 years. The topics covered range from the political determinants of changing Soviet policy, the social contingencies associated with moving or staying put, and the resettlement of immigrants and their impact on receiving societies. The 25 papers are organized under six headings: The historical setting; From emigration to absorption: policy formulation and implementation; The social context of emigration; Social and economic absorption in Israel and the U.S.; Cultural change and identity dilemmas; and Impact on the receiving society.
Correspondence: Frank Cass Publishers, Newbury House, 900 Eastern Avenue, London IG2 7HH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10418 Lucassen, Jan; Penninx, Rinus. Newcomers: immigrants and their descendants in the Netherlands 1550-1995. ISBN 90-5589-093-6. LC 98-121755. 1997. 247 pp. Spinhuis: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a detailed history of immigration to the Netherlands from the sixteenth century to the present. The authors briefly discuss social, legal, and statistical approaches to the issue of newcomers. They then sketch the history and reasons for migration to the Netherlands, analyze the selection of migrants and the role of government, and examine the inequalities between various sectors of Dutch society. In the last three chapters, they discuss the situation of immigrants and their descendants in the Netherlands, and the formation of ethnic identities.
Correspondence: Spinhuis, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10419 Machado, Fernando L. From Guinea-Bissau to Portugal: Luso-Guineans and immigrants. [Da Guiné-Bissau a Portugal: Luso-Guineenses e imigrantes.] Sociologia--Problemas e Práticas, No. 26, Jul 1998. 9-56, 189-91 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Taking as our point of reference the migratory framework of the society of departure, we first of all anlayse time and volume factors in the patterns of migration from Guinea-Bissau to Portugal, in two distinct segments: immigrants as such and Guineans of Portuguese nationality or `Luso-Guineans'. For each of these we have subsequently outlined the paths and strategies of migration, describing their origins and class status before departure as well as how they see and identify themselves in ethnic terms. This analysis brings out the socially selective nature of that migration."
Correspondence: F. L. Machado, Instituto Superior de Ciencias Trabalho e Empresa, Departamento de Sociologia, Avenida das Forças Armadas, 1600 Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10420 Marcelli, Enrico A.; Heer, David M. The unauthorized Mexican immigrant population and welfare in Los Angeles County: a comparative statistical analysis. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1998. 279-302 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Using a unique 1994 Los Angeles County Household Survey of foreign-born Mexicans and the March 1994 and 1995 Current Population Surveys, we estimate the number of unauthorized Mexican immigrants (UMIs) residing in Los Angeles County, and compare their use of seven welfare programs with that of other non-U.S. citizens and U.S. citizens. Non-U.S. citizens were found to be no more likely than U.S. citizens to have used welfare, and UMIs were 11% (14%) less likely than other non-citizens (U.S.-born citizens).... We demonstrate how results differ depending on the unit of analysis employed, and on which programs constitute `welfare'."
Correspondence: E. A. Marcelli, University of California, Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, 9500 Gilman Drive 0510, La Jolla, CA 92093-0510. E-mail: emarcell@weber.ucsd.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10421 Mármora, Lelio. International migration. World order or disorder? Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 130, Jun 1998. 199-214 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
This is a general review of global trends in international migration. Topics covered include the internationalization of the global economy, the new international political order, the globalization of culture, the increase in the migration of the more highly qualified, the growth of bias against foreigners, and the lack of social and political response to migration. Although the author maintains "that in comparative terms, current international movements are considerably less than movements in the early stages of the century and that migratory impacts are overrated", he suggests that there is a need to develop strategies and policies to manage migration in a more humane and ethical manner.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10422 Martiniello, Marco; Hily, Marie-Antoinette. Migrants and ethnic minorities in the European political space. [Immigrés et minorités ethniques dans l'espace politique européen.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 14, No. 2, ISBN 2-911627-10-5. 1998. 224 pp. Association pour l'Etude des Migrations Internationales [AEMI]: Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa; Ger.
This is a collection of articles on political aspects of international migration and ethnic minorities in Europe. Papers are as follows: Migrants and ethnic minorities within political institutions, by Marco Martiniello; Maghrebian identity in the French political system, by Vincent Geisser and Schérazade Kelfaoui; Race related political participation and representation in the UK, by Andrew Geddes; British South Asian elites and political participation, by Shamit Saggar; Explaining migrant voting behaviour in the Netherlands, by Jean Tillie; Migrant politicians in Amsterdam: self image and image of others, by Brieuc-Yves Cadat and Meindert Fennema; Foreign origin elected politicians in Brussels, by Marco Martiniello; The Antwerp paradox: between political racism and multicultural perspective, by Hassan Bousetta; Changing patterns of immigration to Germany: 1945-1996, by Rainer Münz and Ralf Ulrich.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, MSHS, 99 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. E-mail: remi@mshs.univ-poitiers.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10423 Miller, Mark J. International migration and global security. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 15-27 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author explores the impact of various types of migrants, from guest workers to asylum seekers, on security concerns. He discusses inequalities between nations, political factors leading to the threat of terrorism, and worldwide responses to the realities of migration.
Correspondence: M. J. Miller, University of Delaware, Department of Political Science, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10424 Münz, Rainer; Ulrich, Ralf. Migration in Germany: 1945-1996. [Les migrations en Allemagne: 1945-1996.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1998. 173-210 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa; Ger.
"The authors examine how the immigrant population of Germany has risen despite the fact that the German government has sought to restrict it. They analyze six major streams of migration: refugees and expellees who came immediately after World War II, German resettlers from Eastern Europe (`Aussiedler'), emigration of (West) Germans, migration between East- and West Germany, foreign labor migrants and asylum seekers. The dynamics of immigration, the chances on the labor market, and the opportunities for social integration were remarkably different for each of these groups. As far as absorption and integration are concerned the authors argue that different groups of immigrants should be treated more equally."
Correspondence: R. Münz, Humboldt-Universität, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, Unter den Linden, 10099 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: Rainer.Muenz@sowi.hu-berlin.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10425 Nayyar, Deepak. Emigration pressures and structural change: case study of Indonesia. International Migration Papers, No. 20, ISBN 92-2-110768-X. 1997. v, 30 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This report examines the relationship between international migration and economic development in Indonesia during a period of substantial economic growth in the national economy. "Notwithstanding very large improvements in poverty alleviation and the very rapid expansion of manufacturing employment during the 1980s, emigration pressures in Indonesia however appear to have increased rather than declined. Average emigration flows, in [the author's] estimation, rose from 1,000 to 130,000 persons per annum during the 25 year period from 1969 to 1994. What is surprising is [the] finding that the rapid expansion of employment in the urban sector may not have reduced, but indeed contributed to increasing propensities of Indonesians to emigrate."
Correspondence: International Labour Office Publications, 4 Route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10426 Okólski, Marek. Regional dimension of international migration in Central and Eastern Europe. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1998. 11-36 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This article seeks to systematise a body of empirical evidence concerning international migration in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) after 1989. In particular, it focuses on similarities and dissimilarities of new migration trends among [the] region's countries, and discusses regional specificity of these trends.... The analysis...[suggests] that in the 1990s, CEE has significantly contributed to the magnitude and diversity of global movements of the population. It has become a distinct and relatively self-contained regional migration entity...."
Correspondence: M. Okólski, University of Warsaw, Institute of Applied Social Studies, Faculty of Economics, Stwaki 5/7, 00-183, Warsaw, Poland. E-mail: moko@samba.iss.uw.edu.pl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10427 Otero, Hernán. People eager for well-being.... Spaces, cities, and migrants in the statistics of Argentine censuses, 1869-1914. [Hombres ávidos de bienestar.... Espacios, ciudades y migrantes en la estadística censal argentina, 1869-1914.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 130, Jun 1998. 251-76 pp. Rome, Italy. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The essay deals with statistics of the Argentine mid XIX century Censuses, the way in which they conceived the national space (administrative and urban-rural segmentation) and how they interpreted modern migrations. The following results are among the main conclusions of the study: a basic and uniform pattern is applied to migration; urban population is always over-estimated; the pull factors are almost exclusively responsible for the way in which mobility is interpreted...."
Correspondence: H. Otero, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, General Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10428 Papademetriou, Demetrios G. Migration: think again. Foreign Policy, No. 109, Winter 1997-1998. 15-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines some basic misconceptions concerning contemporary international migration. In particular, he presents arguments against the widely held assumptions that immigration to the western industrialized countries is out of control, that legal immigrants now impose costs on their rich hosts, that illegal immigration is a major economic and social problem, that only drastic measures can stop illegal immigration, that open borders and free markets are the best way to take care of migration, and that immigration is largely an internal problem that governments can handle unilaterally.
Correspondence: D. G. Papademetriou, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, International Migration Policy Program, 11 Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036-1207. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10429 Phillips, Deborah. Black minority ethnic concentration, segregation and dispersal in Britain. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,681-702 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the post-war migration and settlement in Britain of black minority ethnic groups originating from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and the West Indies. The processes underlying the pattern of minority ethnic concentration and segregation over the past four decades are reviewed and provide a framework for interpreting the uneven pattern of deconcentration and dispersal evident over the past 10-15 years. The paper [argues]...that there are forces for both minority ethnic inclusion and exclusion from competition for economic rewards and social status in Britain. These forces, it is argued, produce different outcomes for different groups and a variable experience within minority ethnic groups according to generation, gender and class."
Correspondence: D. Phillips, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. E-mail: DEBBIE@geography.leeds.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10430 Powers, Mary G.; Seltzer, William; Shi, Jing. Gender differences in the occupational status of undocumented immigrants in the United States: experience before and after legalization. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1998. 1,015-46 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the incorporation of a national sample of undocumented immigrants both before and after they applied to legalize their status under the provisions of the [U.S.] Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). Data from the 1989 and 1992 Legalized Population Surveys (LPS-1 and LPS-2) are used. These surveys provide labor force and occupational data for three critical reference periods: as newly arrived undocumented immigrants, as experienced undocumented immigrants, and as documented immigrants.... The overall upward mobility of both men and women between first job and the occupation held at time of application for legalization continued after legalization. On average, men also continued to report higher status jobs than women, although women did somewhat better after their status was legalized."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. G. Powers, Fordham University, Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10431 Prakash, B. A. Gulf migration and its economic impact: the Kerala experience. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 50, Dec 12-18, 1998. 3,209-13 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The economic impact of large-scale labor migration from the Indian state of Kerala to the oil-producing states of the Middle East on the region of origin is analyzed. "Inflow of large amount of Gulf remittances and its spending has resulted in unprecedented economic changes since mid-1970s in poor and industrially backward economy of Kerala. The Gulf migration has helped the migrant households to attain higher levels of income, consumption and acquisition of assets, resulting in overall reduction of poverty in Kerala. But, on the other hand, the Gulf remittances have also pushed up prices of land, construction material, consumer foods and charges on health, education and transport, adversely affecting non-migrant households belonging to poor, middle class and fixed income groups."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10432 Preuß, Ulrich K. Migration--a challenge to modern citizenship. Constellations, Vol. 4, No. 3, Jan 1998. 307-19 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"I will treat the question of whether there is an inherent difficulty hindering the nation-state and its concept of citizenship from coping with the problem of migration.... I interpret democracy as a political form which bridges the gap between the premodern concept of republicanism, which inspires the idea of citizenship, and statehood (which tends to be hostile to the idea of citizenship).... I claim also that democracy is necessarily harmonious with citizenship...which then leads me to the consequences of this judgment for the problem of migration...."
Correspondence: U. K. Preuß, Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Innenpolitik und Systemvergleich (WE3), Ihnestraße 22, 14195 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: ukpreuss@zedat.fu-berlin.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:10433 Reichlin, Pietro; Rustichini, Aldo. Diverging patterns with endogenous labor migration. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Vol. 22, No. 5, May 5, 1998. 703-28 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The standard neoclassical model cannot explain persistent migration flows and lack of cross-country convergence when capital and labor are mobile. Here we present a model where both phenomena may take place.... Our model is based on the Arrow-Romer approach to endogenous growth theory. We single out the importance of a (however weak) scale effect from the size of the workforce.... The main conclusion of this simple model is that lack of convergence, or even divergence, among countries is possible, even with perfect capital mobility and labor mobility."
Correspondence: P. Reichlin, Università di Chieti, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, via Cesalpino 14, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10434 Rotolone, Daniela. Mobility in European Union countries after Maastricht: a commentary. [La mobilità tra i paesi dell'Unione Europea dopo Maastricht: alcuni spunti di riflessione.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 130, Jun 1998. 215-28 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"After the Maastricht treaty, obstacles to workers' free movement have almost completely been removed and the new European citizenship has been established. This means that citizens are free to stay, work, study and reside in any country of the European Union. This also means that migration flows are likely to increase among the member States. However, the analysis of those flows, which different systems of data collecting make...very difficult, reveals that only a few categories of people are involved in mobility, in connection with a global decreasing of mass movements."
Correspondence: D. Rotolone, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10435 Saith, Ashwani. Emigration pressures and structural change: case study of the Philippines. International Migration Papers, No. 19, ISBN 92-2-110696-9. 1997. vi, 50 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This report examines the emigration pressures that have built up in the Philippines since the 1980s, leading to substantial levels of labor migration overseas. It "attempts to unravel some of the complexities of the Filipino experience of international migration. It addresses the question of whether `emigration pressures' are becoming stronger and, if so, for what reasons. It focuses specially on a vital, but unexplored, question regarding the relationship between international migration and poverty. The articulation of domestic and international migration circuits is analysed. The final section then identifies and evaluates various policy alternatives."
Correspondence: International Labour Office Publications, 4 Route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10436 Serra Yoldi, Immaculada. Foreign immigration in Spain. [L'immigrazione straniera in Spagna.] Critica Sociologica, No. 122-123, Summer-Autumn 1997. 53-68 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.
Correspondence: I. Serra Yoldi, Universitat de València, Departament de Sociologia i Antropologia Social, Fac. CC. Econòmiques i Empresarials, Apartat Oficial 22.006, Avenida Tarongers, s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10437 Svob, Melita. Migration and changes in the Jewish population. [Migracije i promjene u zidovskoj populaciji.] Migracijske Teme/Migration Themes, Vol. 11, No. 3-4, Dec 1995. 231-89 pp. Zagreb, Croatia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents an overview of the distribution, number and position of Jewish communities in the world, in the light of historical and political conditions which formerly [influenced], and even today continue to influence Jewish migration. The Jewish community in Croatia and Zagreb is analysed. Nevertheless, attention is focused primarily on East Europe and Israel as areas of large changes."
Correspondence: M. Svob, Institut za Migracije i Narodnosti, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10438 Tehranian, Majid. Pancapitalism and migration in historical perspective. International Political Science Review, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jul 1998. 289-303 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) to problematize the growing income gaps among and within nations, (2) to view that problem in the light of a long history of migration in world system development; and (3) to identify the major sites of insecurity and resistance in the emerging world system."
Correspondence: M. Tehranian, University of Hawaii, Department of Communication, Honolulu, HI 96822. E-mail: majid@hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:10439 van Amersfoort, Hans; Doomernik, Jeroen. International migration: processes and interventions. ISBN 90-5589-111-8. 1998. 138 pp. Spinhuis: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a collection of seven studies by various authors on aspects of current international migration. In particular, the question is asked why it is so difficult for democratic governments in developed societies to intervene effectively and control the migration process. Both theoretical issues and case studies are considered. The monograph consists of the following studies: An analytical framework for migration processes and interventions, by Hans van Amersfoort; Controlling immigration in Europe. Nation-state dilemmas in an international context, by Grete Brochmann; Western Europe as an immigration area, by Hans van Amersfoort and Rinus Penninx; Top-end and bottom-end labour import in the United States and Europe. Historical evolution and sustainability, by Roger Böhning; Germany, Europe's biggest magnet. Principal categories of international migrants and policies concerning them, by Jürgen Fijalkowski; French immigration policy, by Catherine Wihtol de Wenden; and Towards migration regulation in globalized societies, by Rinus Penninx and Jeroen Doomernik.
Correspondence: Het Spinhuis Publishers, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: spinhuis@pscw.uva.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10440 Vitturi, Lisa. Italy, a country of emigration and recent immigration. [Italie, pays d'émigration et pays d'immigration récente.] Migrations Société, Vol. 10, No. 55, Jan-Feb 1998. 25-36 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in international migration affecting Italy are described. The author first considers Italy's history as a country of emigration. Next, recent trends in immigration are sketched out and the laws pertaining to immigrants, refugees, and people who wish to obtain citizenship are discussed. Italy has been criticized as the open door through which illegal migrants can gain access to the rest of Europe; the author suggests that Italy must find more effective ways to control the migrant flow, while allowing the effective integration of those migrants of economic and demographic benefit to Italy.
Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

65:10441 Vivier, Géraldine. The migration of Comorians to France: a history of customary migration. [Les migrations comoriennes en France: histoire de migrations coutumières.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 35, ISBN 2-87762-081-6. Jan 1996. 38 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Recent Comorian migration to France must be seen as a [continuation] of the older traditional pattern which was essentially directed to the neighbouring countries of the Indian Ocean. [Established] characteristics still prevail; in particular, Grande Comore remains the origin of most migration flows.... Nevertheless...the profile of this population has changed [along] with the nature of their move: from temporary migration concerning single men to more permanent migration [increasingly] involving...women and families."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10442 Warnasuriya, Narada. Middle East migration and health. Sri Lanka Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 1998. 57-63, 124 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
"Labour migration to the Middle East from Sri Lanka has been increasing in recent times. Such a situation has not only demographic, but economic and social implications.... [The author investigates the] impact on the health situation of the migrant workers as well as on the families that they have left behind...by reviewing [the literature] and by making use of the author's own personal experiences as a physician in the Middle East."
Correspondence: N. Warnasuriya, University of Sri Jayawardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10443 Wayland, Sarah V. Immigration, multiculturalism and national identity in Canada. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1997. 33-58 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article describes historical circumstances and developments that contributed to the formation of Canadian national identity. Specifically, if focuses on the historical importance of immigration to population growth, the evolution of Canadian immigration policy from exclusionist to universalist, relations between anglophones and francophones, the advent of the multiculturalism policy, and how that policy has been both expanded and strengthened in response to the changing ethnic and racial composition of Canada's population. Despite pride in the country's support for tolerance and diversity, Canadians continue to be concerned about immigration and national identity. The challenge of promoting national unity in the context of remarkable diversity is faced by many countries, but it is especially daunting for the young, bilingual, and multicultural Canadian State."
Correspondence: S. V. Wayland, University of Toronto, Department of Political Science, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

65:10444 Wegge, Simone A. To part or not to part: emigration and inheritance institutions in nineteenth-century Hesse-Cassel. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 36, No. 1, Jan 1999. 30-55 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"Inheritance institutions in mid-19th-century Germany influenced overseas emigration patterns by affecting the amount of emigration and the type of emigrant. This study of emigration from the principality of Hesse-Cassel suggests that such traditions influence the village economic structure. They also affect individuals' occupational choice and personal wealth, and ultimately the incentive to migrate. Individuals found important reasons to leave under both systems, but the impartible institution encouraged more emigration. Institutional variations manifest themselves in diverse patterns of individual emigrant characteristics: in comparison, emigrants from impartible villages took less cash, were slightly younger, and more likely to travel alone."
Correspondence: S. A. Wegge, Lake Forest College, Department of Economics and Business, Lake Forest, IL 60045. E-mail: Wegge@LFC.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10445 Wellisch, Dietmar; Walz, Uwe. Why do rich countries prefer free trade over free migration? The role of the modern welfare state. European Economic Review, Vol. 42, No. 8, 1998. 1,595-612 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"According to traditional trade theory (Heckscher-Ohlin), free trade and free migration are equivalent measures of economic integration leading both to an equalization of factor prices. This prediction is in sharp opposition to the observed preference of rich countries for free trade over free migration. We provide an explanation for this inconsistency: the redistribution policies in the countries. Social welfare in countries with a relatively small number of low-skilled native workers is higher with free trade than with free migration due to redistribution of income towards immigrating workers."
Correspondence: U. Walz, University of Tübingen, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Mohlstraße 36, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. E-mail: uwe.walz@unituebingen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10446 Wickham, James. The golden geese fly the Internet: some research issues in the migration of Irish professionals. Economic and Social Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan 1998. 33-54 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"A new research agenda is needed for the study of Irish `middle class' emigrants.... The paper begins by claiming that any analysis of Irish middle class migration must take account of the new debate on globalisation, information technology and the nation state.... [I] consider two particular aspects of the Irish situation that shape the migration of Irish professionals: the weakness of the national system of innovation and the slash and burn policies of Irish human resource management, particularly within high technology employment."
Correspondence: J. Wickham, Trinity College, Employment Research Centre, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10447 Widgren, Jonas. Trends in current East-West migration and the need for new policies. Innovation, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1994. 111-5 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
"This article highlights the evolution of East-West movements of people since the revolutionary changes in the late 1980s. It then suggests an eight-point pan-European cooperation programme with a view to avoiding a situation in which a surge in East-West movements becomes a destabilizing political factor in Europe."
Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

65:10448 Willoughby, Randy. Immigration, race, and security at the Mexico-California border. [Immigration, race et sécurité à la frontière mexicano-californienne.] Cultures et Conflits, No. 26-27, Summer-Autumn 1997. 203-34 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author analyzes the conflict inherent in current American attitudes toward immigration, in which a general desire to control and limit immigration, particularly from Mexico, contrasts with a general willingness to profit from such immigration as a source of cheap and available labor. Particular attention is given to the situation in California and to the debate surrounding Proposition 187. The author suggests that the main concerns of Americans about immigration are with issues of race and security, and the conflict between the ideals of working toward a more democratic society and building more controls to create a more secure society.
Correspondence: R. Willoughby, University of San Diego, Department of Political Science, Alcala Park, San Diego, CA 92110-2492. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

65:10449 Amacher, Gregory S.; Cruz, Wilfrido; Grebner, Donald; Hyde, William F. Environmental motivations for migration: population pressure, poverty, and deforestation in the Philippines. Land Economics, Vol. 74, No. 1, Feb 1998. 92-101 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper uses a multinomial discrete choice model and data from the Philippines to examine migrant choice between alternative destinations. Travel costs and perceived opportunities at the upland frontier are more important than general (upland plus lowland) destination attributes that indicate more developed social infrastructure or greater expected welfare. For example, migration streams are larger to destinations where the public share of forestland and the road system are larger. These features also characterize regions of more rapid deforestation. Therefore, emigration policies must recognize their effects on deforestation at the frontier--and their anticipated indirect effects on downstream environments."
Correspondence: G. S. Amacher, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Forestry Department, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10450 Baccaïni, Brigitte; Pumain, Denise. Migrations in the French urban system from 1982 to 1990. [Les migrations dans le système des villes françaises de 1982 à 1990.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 947-77 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Analysis of inter-urban migration flows [in France] has identified remarkable stabilities in both geographical pattern and social composition. More than 2 million migrants moved between the 110 main French towns and cities in the period 1982-1990, but only a very small proportion of these movements had any direct effect on the quantitative changes in the population of these urban centres.... It [also] emerges that the cities of the west and the south are simultaneously more attractive and more propulsive than predicted by a gravity model. By contrast, the northern cities and metropolises, are less attractive and less propulsive."
Correspondence: B. Baccaïni, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: baccaini@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10451 Beenstock, Michael. The internal migration of immigrants: Israel 1969-1972. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Vol. 37, 1997. 263-84 pp. Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. In Eng.
"Econometric investigation of [Israel's] Immigration Absorption Survey for the years 1969-1972 suggest that internal migration of immigrants during their first year in Israel is related only to job-seeking. Thereafter, internal migration is interwoven with the process of housing. Finally, the periphery loses ground to the center in its ability to attract immigrants, the longer the immigrants are in Israel."
Correspondence: M. Beenstock, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Economics Department, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10452 Boyle, P. Migration and housing tenure in South East England. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 30, No. 5, May 1998. 855-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A substantial literature has developed regarding the relationship between migration and housing tenure in Britain.... It is important to control for individual characteristics before the independent effect of tenure on mobility can be determined. This paper is a report of an investigation of this relationship in the South East of England, in which the Sample of Anonymised Records, a unique individual-level British data source for this type of study, were used. The study continues with a consideration of the influence of housing on migration into the South East from the North of Britain for those in manual and nonmanual occupations."
Correspondence: P. Boyle, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. E-mail: P.Boyle@geog.leeds.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10453 Courgeau, Daniel; Lelièvre, Eva; Wolber, Odile. Reconstructing residential mobility paths. Elements of a biographical analysis of CDS data. [Reconstruire des trajectoires de mobilité résidentielle. Eléments d'une analyse biographique des données de l'EDP.] Economie et Statistique, No. 316-317, 1998. 163-73, 178-84 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
"In a country without a population register, the continuous demographic sample (CDS) provides a unique way of geographically tracking individuals even though it only gives the place of residence on certain dates (census, marriage and birth of children).... Analysis of these paths paints a broad outline of French geographic mobility. The main findings show how firmly rooted the self-employed are, especially when they are the sons of self-employed individuals."
Correspondence: D. Courgeau, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10454 Curry, George; Koczberski, Gina. Migration and circulation as a way of life for the Wosera Abelam of Papua New Guinea. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, Vol. 39, No. 1, Apr 1998. 29-52 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Migration and circulation are now an integral part of the socio-economy of the Wosera Abelam of Papua New Guinea. Since the 1950s large numbers of Wosera Abelam have settled in West New Britain (WNB) towns and government sponsored resettlement schemes.... This paper explores the linkages between temporary and long-term migrants in WNB, and between migrants and their relatives remaining in the village. We argue that migration is now a `way of life' for the Wosera Abelam, and is, to a large extent, underpinned by indigenous (precapitalist) social and economic relations."
Correspondence: G. Curry, Curtin University, School of Social Sciences and Asian Languages, G.P.O. Box U1987, Perth, WA 6001, Australia. E-mail: gcurry@spectrum.curtin.edu.au. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:10455 Galeano, Luis A. Internal migration in Paraguay: changes and impacts. [Migración interna en Paraguay: cambios e impactos.] LC 98-10303. 1997. 203 pp. Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos: Asunción, Paraguay. In Spa.
This is an analysis of internal migration in Paraguay based primarily on data from the 1992 census. There are chapters on patterns of internal migration in general, the characteristics of migrants, and the insertion of migrants in the labor force of the places to which they migrate.
Correspondence: Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos, Naciones Unidas y Zenteno, Zona Norte, Fernando de la Mora, Asunción, Paraguay. E-mail: dgec@sce.cnc.una.py. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10456 Glaser, Karen; Grundy, Emily. Migration and household change in the population aged 65 and over, 1971-1991. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec 1998. 323-39 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This analysis uses the ONS [Office for National Statistics] Longitudinal Study, a record linkage study including individual-level data from three national Censuses (1971, 1981 and 1991) and linked vital registration data, to examine migration patterns among older people [in Great Britain]. The aims of this study are to examine regional differences in household composition, to look at changes in the relationship between household change and migration over time, and finally, to analyse the interrelationships between changes in household composition, health and migration in the 1981-91 period.... Despite...dramatic changes in the living arrangements of older people, results show that mobility among the elderly remained relatively stable between the 1971-81 and 1981-91 decades."
Correspondence: E. Grundy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10457 Gordon, Ian R.; Molho, Ian. A multi-stream analysis of the changing pattern of interregional migration in Great Britain, 1960-1991. Regional Studies, Vol. 32, No. 4, Jun 1998. 309-23 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper uses a combination of spatial and econometric modelling techniques to investigate longer term patterns and processes of change in British interregional migration.... The two major influences on the longer distance flows are found to be relative rates of employment growth and perceived environmental quality, but while the former induces marked fluctuations within the observation period, the influence of the latter factors shows little variation, with no sign of a clean break. There is, however, evidence of a sharply reduced responsiveness of migration to unemployment differentials since the mid-1970s."
Correspondence: I. R. Gordon, University of Reading, Department of Geography, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10458 Jürges, Hendrik. Vocationally motivated migration behavior in double-income households. An empirical analysis using GSOEP data. [Beruflich bedingte Umzüge von Doppelverdienern. Eine empirische Analyse mit Daten des SOEP.] Zeitschrift für Soziologie, Vol. 27, No. 5, Oct 1998. 358-77 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Rational-choice or microeconomic approaches to migration behavior are often restricted to analysing the rational action of the (often male) head of household. These explanations do not allow for the fact that migration decisions are frequently made by whole families. In this context, the increasing labor force participation of married women is assumed to be one important reason for declining migration rates in Germany. In this paper, the relative effect of different job characteristics of men and women on the labor migration of double income households is examined using German household panel data (GSOEP). We find a sex related bias in family decision-making, which cannot be accounted for by classical microeconomic models of family migration. Sociological approaches to household decision-making emphasizing the importance of sex role ideologies held by family members can therefore be considered useful complements to purely economic models."
Correspondence: H. Jürges, Universität Dortmund, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Lehrstuhl Volkswitschaftslehre (Finanzwissenschaft), 44221 Dortmund, Germany. E-mail: hendrik.juerges@wiso.uni-dortmund.de. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10459 Katus, Kalev; Kupiszewski, Marek; Rees, Philip; Sakkeus, Luule; Herm, Anne; Powell, David. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Estonia case study. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 98/14, Dec 1998. vi, 57 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"During the 1980s the pattern of population growth and internal migration has changed in Estonia. Reflecting the turnaround in long-term population processes, migration development reached the advanced stage with more or less regionally balanced in- and out-migration flows and decreasing importance of net migration.... In the 1980s two developments have occurred in parallel: migratory increase of rural population led by a deurbanizing native-born population, and continued urban population growth as a result of the population momentum of pre-transition immigrants.... Each life-course stage was found to have its specific migration pattern, more stable than the pattern for the total population. In many cases the changes of internal migration are determined by the change in the proportion of population in different life-course stages." The date extend from the 1980s to 1995.
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10460 Lin, Ge; Xie, Yu. The loglinear modeling of interstate migration: some additional considerations. American Sociological Review, Vol. 63, No. 6, Dec 1998. 900-13 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors comment on an article by Jerald R. Herting, David B. Grusky, and Stephen E. Van Rompaey on interstate migration streams in the United States. In particular, they put forward suggestions for expanding the model introduced in the original article and present some alternative interpretations. A reply by the authors of the original article is included (pp. 907-13).
For the study by Herting et al., published in 1997, see 64:10508.
Correspondence: Y. Xie, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. E-mail: yuxie@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10461 McHugh, Kevin E.; Miyares, Ines M.; Skop, Emily H. The magnetism of Miami: segmented paths in Cuban migration. Geographical Review, Vol. 87, No. 4, Oct 1997. 504-19 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Miami is the primate city in a system of urban settlements that make up a Cuban ethnic archipelago in the United States. The city is also a national magnet, attracting Cuban migrants from metropolitan regions across the archipelago. Four large secondary cores of Cubans outside Florida serve as major `feeders' to the Miami enclave: northern New Jersey, New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Currents of migration to Miami are especially strong among older, foreign-born, and disadvantaged Cubans, an indication of segmented paths in Cuban assimilation. Although concentration in Metropolitan Miami has been the Cuban story over the past three decades, processes of deconcentration now may well be under way."
Correspondence: K. E. McHugh, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287-0104. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10462 Melber, Henning. Urbanisation and internal migration: regional dimensions in post-colonial Namibia. NEPRU Working Papers, No. 48, May 1996. 29 pp. Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit: Windhoek, Namibia. In Eng.
The author identifies "some of the more striking aspects of internal migration and urbanisation [in Namibia]. As such, the paper merely aims at compiling the available data and figures to pave the way for more analytical follow-up studies." Sections are included on features and patterns of urbanization, aspects of internal migration, regional policy, toward a public sector reform, and the challenge of decentralization.
Correspondence: Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit, P.O. Box 40219, Ausspannplatz, Windhoek, Namibia. E-mail: nepru1@lianam.lia.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10463 Mullan, Brendan P.; Li, Chun-Hao; Gallin, Rita S.; Gallin, Bernard. Family and internal migration in Taiwan. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1998. 43-66 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine internal migration in Taiwan in the 1960s when rural economic conditions were volatile, the shift from agriculture to non-farm employment was gaining momentum, and the government's policy of industrialization through export was adopted. Migration is seen as one component of households' survival/adaptation strategy.... Our empirical analyses are consistent with our a priori theoretical expectations that household access to land, participation in the local wage labor force, and access to migrants' social networks directly influenced how families in Taiwan deployed migration as a household survival strategy."
Correspondence: B. P. Mullan, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10464 Nord, Mark. Poor people on the move: county-to-county migration and the spatial concentration of poverty. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 38, No. 2, May 1998. 329-51 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Poverty rates in high-poverty and low-poverty rural [U.S.] counties, and, thus, the spatial concentration of poverty, are affected by poverty-specific differences in in-migration and out-migration patterns. These patterns are investigated using 1985-90 county-to-county migration data from the decennial census. Effects on poverty rates of four migration flows (in- and out-migration of poor, in- and out-migration of nonpoor) are quantified, and their impacts on spatial concentration of poverty are assessed. The effect of selected county characteristics on the migration of the poor and nonpoor in nonmetro counties [is] estimated."
Correspondence: M. Nord, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Resources and Technology Division, Economic Research Service, Washington, D.C. 20005. E-mail: marknord@econ.ag.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10465 Population Council (Hanoi, Viet Nam). International seminar on internal migration: implications for migration policy in Vietnam. 1998. 283 pp. Hanoi, Viet Nam. In Eng.
These are the papers presented at a seminar on internal migration and processes of globalization in Southeast Asia, with particular emphasis on the current situation in Viet Nam. "Throughout these studies, there is a sophisticated sense that migration is neither good nor bad but has accelerated in response to forces of globalization.... They also observe that migration may have a negative absolute effect on ethnic diversity with a resulting increase in ethnic tensions. Migration effects are also tied up with land use patterns and title claims.... A question implicitly posed in these papers is whether patterns of planned migration generate new relationships and community ties, which generate more spontaneous migrations and returns...."
Correspondence: Population Council, 37A Van Mieu Street, Hanoi, Viet Nam. E-mail: PCHANOI@netnam.org.vn. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10466 Price-Spratlen, Townsand. Between depression and prosperity? Changes in the community context of historical African American migration. Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 2, Dec 1998. 515-39 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This article analyzes changes in the significance of African American ethnogenesis on the contrasting flows of young migrants and total migrants to urban areas throughout the United States. I test a destination migration model during the two decades 1930-40 and 1950-60. Because of the temporal and spatial dependency among the urban counties, I use seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) to estimate simultaneously the coefficients across the two periods.... The results support the significance of ethnogenesis, or the establishment of `social networks and communication patterns as the bases of...institutional and communal life'...in shaping the historical migration of African Americans."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: T. Price-Spratlen, Ohio State University, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: TPS+@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10467 Rabo, Annika. To move or to stay: arguments about migration in Raqqa Province, North Syria. [Att röra på sig och att rota sig: migrationsdebatter i Raqqaprovinsen i norra Syrien.] Ymer, Vol. 116, 1997. 68-81 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
The author renders a description of opinions and debates among the local population about migration to and from provincial towns and villages in Raqqa Province, North Syria. Developments and changes in these debates are described and seen in relation to the political and economic trends in Syria as a whole. The author focuses on the influence on the region of a major irrigation project on the upper Euphrates, which has led to much in- and out-migration since the mid 1970s. The article is based on interviews since the late 1970s with the local population. An overview of population movements in the province from the thirteenth century until today is also provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10468 Rees, Philip; Todisco, Enrico; Abrami, Valerio T.; Durham, Helen; Kupiszewski, Marek. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Italy case study. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 97/5, Sep 1997. iv, 67, 2 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on the Italian migration and population change as part of a project on Internal Migration and Regional Population Dynamics in Europe sponsored by the Council of Europe and the European Commission. This project aims to build up a comparable picture of internal migration across the countries of Europe.... The report is divided into the following sections. Section 2 reviews knowledge about regional population change and internal migration in Italy, drawing on published work. Section 3 describes the data available for analysing regional population dynamics in Italy and the methods used. Section 4 discusses patterns of population change at commune scale, while section 5 analyses internal migration at province scale, which reveals the way migration varies by life course stage. Section 6 examines the relationship between population change and migration and a variety of settlement classifications. Section 7 looks at the relationship between migration and unemployment. Section 8 provides a summary of findings."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10469 Rees, Philip; Carrilho, Maria-José; Peixoto, João; Durham, Helen; Kupiszewski, Marek. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Portugal case study. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 98/13, Dec 1998. vi, 51 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on internal migration and regional population dynamics in Portugal. It examines internal migration patterns and trends in two years, 1981 and 1991, and compares them.... When population changes for the 1981-91 period are examined, the picture is broadly of gains in the major urban-centred regions of Norte and Lisboa Vale Tejo, and in the resort industry region of the Algarve. In the more peripheral regions, population decreases occurred.... Natural increase was strong in the Norte and island regions and compensated for net out-migration, while elsewhere it was weak.... However, the strong influence of internal migration is apparent when the components of population change at concelhos scale are analysed. The largest cities, Lisboa and Porto, lose population in the 1981-91 period, particularly the capital, and part of the population losses represent migration to surrounding concelhos in the outer parts of the city regions."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10470 Rees, Philip; Durham, Helen; Kupiszewski, Marek. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: United Kingdom case study. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 96/20, Dec 1996. vi, 81 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"This case study examines recent population change patterns and internal migration activity in the United Kingdom." Sections are included on spatial patterns; a classification of the urban system based on journey to work flows; an alternative socioeconomic classification of districts; population change and net internal migration related to density; and relationships between population dynamics and unemployment levels.
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10471 Smith, James P.; Thomas, Duncan. On the road: marriage and mobility in Malaysia. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 33, No. 4, Fall 1998. 805-32 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Migration choices of husbands and wives in Malaysia are analyzed in the context of an economic model of the household using data from the NEW sample in the second wave of the Malaysian Family Life Survey carried out in 1988-1989. "Exploiting the retrospective histories, we compare moves that take place before marriage with those made during the marriage; among the latter, moves that are made with the spouse are distinguished from those made alone. The evidence indicates that male mobility is primarily economic in motivation and related to labor market factors. Moves by women, however, seem to be more closely related to fertility or family considerations. Migration is apparently not simply an individual decision; the attributes of the spouse are an important influence on mobility, albeit in an asymmetric manner. Moving toward a broader definition of the household, we find the characteristics of the parents, parents-in-law, and also the (relative) age and gender of siblings all influence mobility in a rich, if complex, way."
Correspondence: J. P. Smith, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10472 Taylor, John. Measuring short-term population mobility among indigenous Australians: options and implications. Australian Geographer, Vol. 29, No. 1, Mar 1998. 125-37 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Despite the fact that indigenous Australians are known to be frequently mobile over the short term, statistical information regarding this population movement is grossly deficient.... This paper examines various means by which short-term population movement can be quantified to yield aggregate indicators of demographic impact. First, census data are used to establish the rate and pattern of inter-regional, short-term displacement. This reveals regional urban centres as net recipients of temporary residents while most rural areas experience temporary absenteeism. Secondly, results from household surveys are reported stressing the importance of including visitors to households in the estimation of service populations. Thirdly, administrative data on occupancy in urban hostels are used to derive indicators of the duration of movement."
Correspondence: J. Taylor, Australian National University, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10473 Tolnay, Stewart E. Educational selection in the migration of southern blacks, 1880-1990. Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 2, Dec 1998. 487-514 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"During the twentieth century millions of African Americans have migrated from the South to northern cities. Contrasting descriptions of this migration stream have been presented in the literature--some emphasizing the rural origins and lack of schooling of migrants, others claiming that migrants were positively selected from the southern black population. This study uses the newly available Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to compare the educational characteristics of southern migrants with (1) the southern population they left behind and (2) the northern population they joined. Consistent with the expectations of migration theory, and previous evidence for specific time periods, the findings show that between 1880 and 1990 black migrants had significantly higher levels of education than the sedentary southern population and significantly lower levels of education than the northern-born population. Both differentials grew smaller as the century progressed."
Correspondence: S. E. Tolnay, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. E-mail: st716@csc.albany.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10474 Yavari-D'Hellencourt, Nouchine. Immigration and identity construction in Eslâm-Shahr, a suburb of Teheran. [Immigration et construction identitaire en milieu péri-urbain à Téhéran: Eslâm-Shahr.] Cahiers d'Etudes sur la Méditerranée Orientale et le Monde Turco-Iranien, No. 24, Jul-Dec 1997. 183-206 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the social realities of the population in Eslâm-Shahr, a suburb of Teheran. The people who live there are predominantly working class and young, and have moved to Eslâm-Shahr either from a rural area or from Teheran proper; they belong to several distinct cultures, and about half of them are turcophone. The author describes them as an "overflow" population that would rather be living in Teheran itself, and she discusses social, religious, and ideological similarities and differences among the various groups.
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

65:10475 Kirisci, Kemal. Forced migration into, inside and out of Turkey. [Erzwungene Migration in der Türkei.] Südosteuropa Mitteilungen, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1997. 165-84 pp. Munich, Germany. In Ger.
After a brief review of forced migrations to and from Turkey during the Ottoman Empire, this paper focuses on more recent developments. The author first examines forced migration into Turkey during the 1980s and 1990s, mainly of Iranians, Bulgarian Turks, Kurds, Bosnian Muslims, and other asylum seekers or refugees. The second part of the paper looks at forced resettlement within Turkey and forced migration out of Turkey, both of which involve mainly Kurds.
Correspondence: K. Kirisci, University of the Bosphorus, Institute for Political Sciences and International Relations, 80815 Babek, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:10476 Luis, P. K.; Liu, Qiming. Urban residentship and return migration to Shanghai in the aftermath of the cultural revolution. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1998. 27-42 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Young people were sent to the countryside during the Cultural Revolution and were later allowed to return home in the 1970s. This paper examines the return migration of Chinese youth from the countryside based on officially sanctioned reasons and grounds. The most often used reasons or grounds were in fact claims to urban residentship arising from connections to the city by previous residence, by birth and by family. Claimants negotiated with the state in a cultural language which rationalizes the claimed needs in terms of traditional social codes. The study reveals that the passive and submissive image the Chinese civil society outwardly present is deceptive. Their claims, however, still fall short of modern social citizenship."
Correspondence: P. K. Luis, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Yuk Choi Road, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10477 Mbonile, Milline J. Refugees and environmental security in Africa. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 149-62 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
After a brief introduction defining the concept of "refugee", the author examines the refugee situation in Sub-Saharan Africa, discussing the scale of the problem, its determinants, the spatial distribution of refugees in the various regions of Africa, the countries of asylum, and security problems associated with refugees. Environmental degradation due to refugees is then discussed, as are some of the human consequences. Finally, some possible solutions to the refugee problem are put forward.
Correspondence: M. J. Mbonile, University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Geography, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10478 Potts, Deborah; Mutambirwa, Chris. "The government must not dictate": rural-urban migrants' perceptions of Zimbabwe's land resettlement programme. Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 24, No. 74, Dec 1997. 549-66 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
"In the 1990s analyses of [Zimbabwe's land resettlement program] by both supporters and critics of land reform have generally been negative. Yet there is evidence that resettled people themselves have made real welfare and income gains. Strong support for the programme was also expressed by a large sample of rural-urban migrants in Harare in 1994. Their views, reported in this article, showed an appreciation of most aspects of the academic and policy debates, but clearly also tended towards the perception that redistribution of land in Zimbabwe is a moral issue."
Correspondence: D. Potts, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, Department of Geography, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10479 Robinson, Vaughan. Security, migration, and refugees. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 67-90 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter argues that both analytically and in the real world the two issues of migration and security are inextricably intertwined and that the linkage has become stronger and more apparent over time. It also argues that the linkage between security and one particular form of migration--forced migration--is unusually strong and direct. In order to demonstrate the triadic relationship between security, migration, and refugees, and how this has changed over time, the chapter is organized chronologically into five temporal phases beginning prior to World War II and ending in the late 1990s. For each phase there is a discussion of how security was defined during that period, a descriptive account of contemporary migration trends, a more focused analysis of trends in forced migration, and a final commentary on refugee policy."
Correspondence: V. Robinson, University of Wales, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

65:10480 Parnwell, Michael J. G. Tourism and critical security, with particular reference to Burma. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 123-47 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter explores the interrelationship of international tourism and security, looking in particular at some of its effects on host societies in Southeast Asia.... The empirical section of this chapter focuses on a case study of just one important aspect of tourism and security--human rights--drawing on the recent experience of Burma [Myanmar]."
Correspondence: M. J. G. Parnwell, University of Hull, Department of South-East Asian Studies, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10481 Richard, Jean-Luc. Living in France, becoming French, and voting: three steps to the integration of children of immigrants. [Rester en France, devenir français, voter: trois étapes de l'intégration des enfants d'immigrés.] Economie et Statistique, No. 316-317, 1998. 151-62, 178-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa; Ger.
"The decision by immigrants to return to their country of origin is sometimes prompted by the problems they and their children experience in becoming integrated into French society. The continuous demographic sample can be used to observe departures from France and the number of young people of immigrant descent granted French nationality.... Young immigrants born outside France tend to leave France more than the other children of immigrants.... Using the right to vote is a significant indicator of the extent of the integration of these young people."
Correspondence: J.-L. Richard, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10482 van der Laan, L.; Vogelzang, J.; Schalke, R. Commuting in multi-nodal urban systems: an empirical comparison of three alternative models. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 89, No. 4, 1998. 384-400 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses whether the basic monocentric model of urban structure and commuting explains actual commuting in Europe, i.e. The Netherlands. As in the USA much wasteful commuting is established. The basic model has a low degree of explanatory power. In order to get more in line with actual commuting, the paper elaborates two alternatives to the basic model. Besides a deconcentrated model, a cross-traffic model is developed. Particularly the latter is quite successful in explaining actual commuting. The paper pleads for endogenising employment and stresses heterogeneity in labour demand and supply."
Correspondence: L. van der Laan, Erasmus University, Erasmus Centre for Labour Market Analysis, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: vanderlaan@few.eur.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

65:10483 K. C., Bal Kumar. Trends, patterns and implications of rural-to-urban migration in Nepal. Sep 1998. x, 105 pp. Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Population Studies [CDPS]: Katmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
"The objectives of the present study are to analyze the trends, patterns, and implications of rural-to-urban migration [in Nepal]." Sections are included on data sources and methodology; population growth, distribution, and density; urbanization; volume and pattern of internal migration, 1952/54-1991; migrants to urban areas; analysis of migration statistics from the 1986-1987 Demographic Sample Survey; projections of the urban population; the labor force situation; international migration; policy analysis; and recommendations.
This study was originally published in 1995 as part of a wider study of migration in India, Nepal, and Thailand. See 63:40547.
Correspondence: Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Population Studies, Kirtipur, P.O. Box 12161, Katmandu, Nepal. E-mail: cdps@npl.healthnet.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10484 Wong, Linda; Wai-Po, Huen. Reforming the household registration system: a preliminary glimpse of the blue chop household registration system in Shanghai and Shenzhen. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1998. 974-94 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"For decades, the household registration system has functioned as a powerful device in halting rural influxes into Chinese cities. The exigencies of the reform call for reform of the hukou system [China's household registration]. One of the many attempts is the blue chop household registration system. Both Shanghai and Shenzhen have introduced this practice. In addition to promotion of real estate and investment, it creams off those more desirable migrants into the permanent population of the two cities. In view of the present situation of linking welfare provision with household registration status, this selective migration policy seems to be a sensible step forward."
Correspondence: L. Wong, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Ave, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.