Volume 65 - Number 1 - Spring 1999

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

65:10165 Attané, Isabelle; Sun, Minglei. Birth rate and fertility in China: how credible are recent data? [Natalité et fécondité en Chine: quel crédit accorder aux données récentes?] Population, Vol. 53, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 847-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
After a brief review of official demographic sources in China, the authors examine fertility data available for the 1980s and 1990s. They point out significant contradictions between different data sources and conclude that recent demographic trends cannot be pinpointed with precision; so far, data for the 1990s (1992 and 1995 censuses) has been of mediocre quality, in contrast to the 1980s, for which relatively trustworthy data exist.
Correspondence: I. Attané, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10166 Basu, Alaka M. Women's education, marriage, and fertility in South Asia: do men really not matter? In: Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world, edited by Caroline H. Bledsoe et. al. 1999. 267-86 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter attempts to isolate only one strand of the female education-marriage-fertility relationship. It argues that aspects of marriage other than its timing are relevant to fertility. Quite apart from whether educated women marry early or late is the question of the kind of men educated women marry. Are these the kind of men whose reproductive goals need to be changed or overruled by their educated wives? That is, is reproductive autonomy an essential ingredient of the education-fertility relation? The chapter suggests that it is not." Most of the examples given are based on data from the National Family Health Survey of India.
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10167 Bhattacharya, Prabir C. Determinants of fertility in three north Indian states: caste, female autonomy and economic development. Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1998. 37-53 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines some of the determinants of fertility in three fairly homogenous states in northern India. The results show that scheduled tribe status--though not the scheduled caste status--has a substantial negative effect on fertility. The results also provide strong support for the view that improving the position of women through more equitable social and economic development will have a far greater impact on fertility reduction than will the provision of family planning services. Finally, the results provide indirect support for the view that increased income leads to increased fertility and that children are not `inferior goods'."
Correspondence: P. C. Bhattacharya, Heriot-Watt University, Department of Economics, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Midlothian, Scotland. E-mail: p.g.hare@hw.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10168 Bledsoe, Caroline H.; Casterline, John B.; Johnson-Kuhn, Jennifer A.; Haaga, John G. Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world. ISBN 0-309-06191-1. LC 98-40216. 1999. x, 320 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This volume [brings] together analyses from several research perspectives to reexamine the education-fertility relationship and to rethink conventional lines of logic in the education-fertility paradigm. Although the geographical focus of most of the case studies is Africa, the papers, as well as this introduction, draw from a wider world literature."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10169 Bongaarts, John. Demographic consequences of declining fertility. Science, Vol. 282, No. 5388, Oct 16, 1998. 419-20 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses the potential adverse consequences of prolonged fertility decline. Aspects considered include the reliability of UN population projections, actual versus desired fertility, delayed childbearing, regional differences, and policy options.
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: jbongaarts@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

65:10170 Bongaarts, John. Fertility and reproductive preferences in post-transitional societies. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 114, 1998. 38 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the causes of discrepancies between reproductive preferences and observed fertility. Examples of such deviations are found in many contemporary developed countries, where desired family size is typically two children while fertility is well below replacement. Six factors are identified as the causes of these discrepancies. Of these factors, the fertility-depressing impact of the rising age at childbearing is one of the most important. This factor reduces fertility only as long as the age at childbearing keeps rising. Once the mean age stops rising--as it eventually must--fertility will rise closer to the desired level of two children, because the depressing effect is then removed. The current low levels of fertility in many developed countries may therefore not be permanent."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10171 Brizuela, Fulvia R. Fertility in Paraguay: geography and social diversity. 1960-1990. [La fecundidad en Paraguay: geografía y diversidad social. Período 1960-1990.] 1996. 143 pp. Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos: Asunción, Paraguay. In Spa.
This is an analysis of fertility trends in Paraguay during the period 1960-1990. There are chapters on the demographic transition, theoretical and methodological aspects of the study of fertility, fertility levels and trends, social and spatial aspects of fertility changes between 1960 and 1990, and the study of fertility using regression analysis. Data are primarily taken from the census.
Correspondence: Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos, Naciones Unidas y Zenteno, Zona Norte, Fernando de la Mora, Asunción, Paraguay. E-mail: dgec@sce.cnc.una.py. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10172 Carter, Anthony T. What is meant, and measured, by "education"? In: Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world, edited by Caroline H. Bledsoe et. al. 1999. 49-79 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter is a critical discussion of selected literature in demography, anthropology, and cognate disciplines on the nature and [fertility] consequences of education. It begins by outlining two sharply contrasting views of education.... I [then] argue, first, that the autonomous concept of education pervades the literature on education and fertility change and, second, that it is unsatisfactory.... I sketch some of the implications of the alternative concept of education as socially situated practices for further research on fertility change. The final section presents some final reflections on the relationship between education and fertility from the anthropological point of view." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: A. T. Carter, University of Rochester, Department of Anthropology, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10173 Chaturvedi, H. K.; Phukan, R. K.; Mahanta, J. Socio-economic factors and fertility of rural women: a study in upper Assam. Journal of Human Ecology, Vol. 9, No. 2, Mar 1998. 177-80 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"To study the effect of some socioeconomic factors on the number of living children, a random sample from rural areas of upper Assam were collected from eight villages of two Primary Health Centres. 150 mothers between 20 to 50 years [of] age were interviewed to collect socioeconomic and demographic information. [A] total [of] seven variables were included for analysis to determine its effect on number of living children of mothers.... Step wise regression analysis of data indicates that mother's age, her education and father's and mother's occupation are significantly affecting the number of living children. It is interesting to note that mother's education makes the largest contribution to...fertility followed by her age where as father's education plays [a] lesser role than his occupation."
Correspondence: H. K. Chaturvedi, Regional Medical Research Centre, Northeast Region, P.O. Box 105, Dibrugarh 786 001, Assam, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10174 Clarke, Adele E. Disciplining reproduction: modernity, American life sciences, and "the problems of sex" ISBN 0-520-20720-3. LC 97-1114. 1998. xvii, 421 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the history of the search for reproductive knowledge in the United States. She "traces the complicated paths through which physiological approaches to reproduction led to endocrinological approaches, creating along the way new technoscientific products from contraceptives to hormone therapies to new modes of assisted conception.... Elucidating the deep cultural tensions that have permeated reproductive topics historically and in the present, [the book] is at heart about the twentieth century's drive to rationalize reproduction, human and nonhuman, in order to control life itself."
Correspondence: University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10175 de Beer, J.; de Graaf, A. More women will have only one child. [Meer vrouwen krijgen maar één kind.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 11, Nov 1998. 8-11 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"After a decline which started in 1992 and ended in 1997, the number of births [in the Netherlands] has been increasing in 1998.... The increase in the number of births is mainly due to a rise in the number of first births. As the rate of increase in the number of first births exceeds that expected in recent population forecasts, it is likely that the number of childless women will increase less strongly than expected. In contrast, the percentage of women having only one child is likely to increase more strongly than expected."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10176 Di Giulia, P.; Lesthaeghe, R.; Moors, G.; Pinnelli, A. Fertility tempo and quantum: an empirical test of major theories with data from four FFS-countries. IPD Working Paper, No. 1999-2, [1999]. 15 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"The aim of the study is to confront predictions derived from a set of fertility theories with empirical outcomes stemming from the `Fertility and Family Survey' (FFS) conducted in...Belgium, Germany (former FRG), Italy and Hungary.... We shall refer to these theories as follows: (i) the theory of female economic autonomy; (ii) the theory of relative economic deprivation; (iii) the theory of ideational change; [and] (iv) the extra effect of (intergenerational) union instability."
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: esvbalck@vub.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10177 Diamond, Ian; Newby, Margaret; Varle, Sarah. Female education and fertility: examining the links. In: Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world, edited by Caroline H. Bledsoe et. al. 1999. 23-48 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The authors review a broad array of studies [on the education-fertility relationship], positing that while primary education may affect fertility indirectly, by mediating the effect of various factors, secondary and higher education may influence fertility more directly.... They also ask, however, how the same measure of schooling can lead to very different fertility outcomes depending on the social, economic, and political circumstances. They identify multiple possible pathways to explain the influence of education on fertility: employment/opportunity costs, the nature of marriage, familiarity with bureaucratic institutions, and reference communities." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: I. Diamond, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10178 Dickert-Conlin, Stacy; Chandra, Amitabh. Taxes and the timing of births. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 107, No. 1, Feb 1999. 161-77 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Because the [U.S.] tax savings of having a child are realized only if the birth takes place before midnight, January 1, the incentives for the `marginal' birth are substantial. Using a sample of children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that the probability that a child is born in the last week of December, rather than the first week of January, is positively correlated with tax benefits. We estimate that increasing the tax benefit of having a child by $500 raises the probability of having the child in the last week of December by 26.9 percent."
Correspondence: S. Dickert-Conlin, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10179 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo. Insights into spousal differences in reproductive disagreement. Sociological Focus, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1993. 257-70 pp. Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"Although considerable disagreement about fertility goals exists among spouses, there is little evidence that these result from differences in the relative status of spouses. Data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey are used here to show that a higher relative occupational status of women inclines couples away from agreement on having more children. The research and policy implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Vanderbilt University, Department of Sociology, Nashville, TN 37235. E-mail: dodoof@ctrvax.vanderbilt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10180 Dorbritz, Jürgen. Fertility trends in low-fertility countries and fertility scenarios in Germany. [Trends der Geburtenhäufigkeit in Niedrig-Fertilitäts-Ländern und Szenarien der Familienbildung in Deutschland.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1998. 179-210 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"An experts conference which had been initiated by the UN Population Division with the objective to discuss the future fertility trends in countries with a low birth-rate...gave rise to the debate on this topic.... The present article serves as a revision of the `Expert group meeting on below-replacement fertility'. Based on the description of the trends in low-fertility countries, the strategy in respect of the formation of scenarios for the revision in 1998 are initially described, first results are presented and the scenarios developed [for] Germany are critically discussed."
Correspondence: J. Dorbritz, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 4, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10181 Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M. Fertility and education: what do we now know? In: Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world, edited by Caroline H. Bledsoe et. al. 1999. 287-305 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter addresses the persistent difficulty of deriving general conclusions from existing studies on education and fertility. Because most of these difficulties...are well known, the emphasis is not on their enumeration, but on their integration within a systematic analysis of historical changes in the education-fertility discourse. The main argument developed throughout is that the persistence of interpretive difficulties--and the resulting ambiguity in the education-fertility discourse--arises largely from an uneven growth in the four pillars that sustain this discourse: policy agenda, theory, methodology, and empirical evidence." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: P. M. Eloundou-Enyegue, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10182 Estrella Valenzuela, Gabriel. Fertility and migration to Mexico's northern frontier: the case of Baja California. [Fécondité et migration à la frontière nord du Mexique: le cas de la Basse-Californie.] Cahiers des Amériques Latines, No. 22, 1997. 115-44 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The impact on fertility of internal migration to the Mexican state of Baja California is analyzed using the Bongaarts proximate determinants fertility model and data from surveys carried out in the state in 1986 and 1990. "The results of that analysis show, on one hand, that the reproductive patterns of the migrant and non-migrant populations are clearly differentiated (both in terms of illegitimate fertility, and of union formation, contraception prevalence, and postpartum infecundability due to lactation), and that from those patterns emerges a differential that turns out to be of 17.5% higher fertility for the migrant population. The results, on the other hand, also allow for an estimate that shows that, for each 3 new migrants that arrive to the state each year, the cumulated migration generates 2 new residents of the state through the births from migrant women."
Correspondence: G. Estrella Valenzuela, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Apartado Postal 459, Avenida Alvaro Obregón y Julian Carrillo s/n, 21100 Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

65:10183 Gaisie, Samuel K. Fertility transition in Botswana. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul 1998. 277-96 pp. Grahamstown, South Africa. In Eng.
"Botswana exhibits a medium total fertility rate...and is one of three countries in Sub-Saharan Africa...reported to be experiencing incipient fertility decline.... This paper examines some...issues in relation to the fertility trend in Botswana." Sections are included on evidence of fertility decline; impact of labor migration on family structure; proximate determinants; nuptiality patterns and fertility; and development and fertility change.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10184 Gbényon, Kuakuvi. Effects of age reporting errors on application of the Brass method for estimating fertility in Africa. [Effets des erreurs d'âge sur l'application de la méthode de Brass à l'estimation de la fécondité en Afrique.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 979-94 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"William Brass in the 1970s sought to overcome the defects of African fertility data by developing the method of fertility estimation which is named after him.... However, the persistence of many kinds of errors, particularly those concerning the ages of individuals, even in recent data, raises questions about the value of the method when dealing with errors on age reporting. The simulations we have performed suggest that such errors introduce bias into the results obtained with the method. More specifically, the Brass P/F ratio method is found to result almost always in an overestimation of the total fertility rate."
Correspondence: K. Gbényon, Université du Bénin, Faculté des Sciences Economiques et Sciences de Gestion, B.P. 1515, Lomé, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10185 Glewwe, Paul. School quality, student achievement, and fertility in developing countries. In: Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world, edited by Caroline H. Bledsoe et. al. 1999. 105-37 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the relationship between school quality and fertility in developing countries.... The chapter first provides a critical assessment of the literature on the determinants of school quality in developing countries. It then examines the likely impact of improved school quality on fertility. Particular attention is given to the role played by cognitive skills, such as literacy and numeracy, and on the need to address a host of statistical estimation problems and data inadequacies that, regrettably, often receive insufficient attention in the literature."
Correspondence: P. Glewwe, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10186 India. Office of the Registrar General (New Delhi, India). District level estimates of fertility and child mortality for 1991 and their inter-relations with other variables. Census of India Occasional Paper, No. 1 of 1997, Oct 1997. v, 205 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This report "provides district level estimates of fertility and child mortality indicators [for India] based on the 1991 census data. These estimates of fertility and child mortality at district level have also been compared with those available from the 1981 census wherever possible. An attempt has also been made in this report to identify socio-economic indicators which significantly affect the level of fertility." The results indicate that levels of fertility and infant mortality both declined between 1981 and 1991.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Controller of Publications, Delhi 110 054, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10187 International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP] (Liège, Belgium); Population Council (Islamabad, Pakistan); Rockefeller Foundation (New York, New York); United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Seminar on comparative perspectives on fertility transition in South Asia. Papers. Volume I. [1997?]. Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This volume includes the papers presented at a conference organized by the IUSSP Committee on Fertility and Family Planning, in cooperation with the Population Council, the Rockefeller Foundation, and UNFPA, on comparative perspectives on the fertility transition in South Asia. The conference was held in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, December 17-19, 1996. In this volume, there are 32 papers, organized into seven sections: Fertility levels and trends; Challenging conventional explanations for fertility transition in South Asia; Gender roles as explanations for fertility transition; Role of son preference in South Asia's fertility transition; Family planning and contraceptive use; Policy issues in South Asia's fertility transition; and Prospects for further fertility decline.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. E-mail: fdevpop1@vm1.ulg.ac.be. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10188 Islam, M. Mazharul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Bairagi, Radeshayam. Fertility and its proximate determinants in Bangladesh: evidence from the 1993/94 Demographic and Health Survey. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1998. 3-22 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study examines the recent level, trends and proximate determinants of fertility in Bangladesh, utilizing data from the 1993/94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The study shows...a dramatic fall in the level of fertility.... It also shows that the contraceptive prevalence rate reached a current CPR of 45 per cent in 1993/94, a dramatic increase over the 7.7 per cent level in 1975. The analysis shows that there is an appreciable rise in the proportion never married and a fall in the proportion currently married at early ages among females, indicating a rising trend in age at marriage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: duregstr@bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10189 Islam, M. Mazharul; Yadava, R. C. On the estimation of parity progression ratio. Sankhya: Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 59, No. 2, Aug 1997. 200-8 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
"Parity Progression Ratio (PPR) is an important measure of fertility dynamics and family building process. In this paper a method has been developed for estimating the [PPR] from...birth interval data.... The application of the method to an observed data set [for India] indicates that the method may give [a] more precise estimate of the [PPR]."
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: duregstr@bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10190 Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica [ISTAT] (Rome, Italy). Fertility in the regions of Italy: analysis by cohorts, 1952-1993. [La fecondità nelle regioni italiane: analisi per coorti, anni 1952-1993.] Informazioni, No. 35, ISBN 88-458-0021-0. 1997. 449 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This volume presents regional fertility rates for Italy for the period 1952-1993 according to age and birth order; it also provides statistics on the fertility decline of women born between 1920 and 1963.
Correspondence: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 16, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10191 Kamuzora, C. Lwechungura. A framework for understanding the relationship between women's status and high fertility in peasant economies in Africa. Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1994. 59-72 pp. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In Eng.
"A basis for the development of a realistic conceptual framework for understanding fertility behaviour [is] needed not only for Africa but for the whole world.... It is...important to focus on `women's life circumstances' rather than just approach the issue in the parochial mainstream of the `status of women'. In this paper it will be seen that a proper understanding and identification of the relevant factors of African childbearing is rooted in the mode of acquisition of material means of livelihood, and also in its history and evolution, where change in the status of women is a part of the process."
Correspondence: C. L. Kamuzora, University of Dar es Salaam, Statistics Department, Demographic Training Unit, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Michigan State University Library, East Lansing, MI.

65:10192 Krause, Martina. Mexico: heterogeneity and population trends. [Mexiko, Heterogenität und Bevölkerungsentwicklung.] Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe 22, Soziologie, Vol. 290, ISBN 3-631-30627-X. 1996. 316 pp. Peter Lang: Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Ger.
This study explores the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic development in Mexico, focusing especially on social and regional fertility differences. After an introductory section presenting and critiquing the theory of demographic transition, the author undertakes a historical analysis of the socioeconomic development of Mexico from the end of the nineteenth century to the present; she emphasizes the structural heterogeneity in the economic and social spheres. Demographic developments are then charted from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. A case study of Oaxaca and Sonora is included, demonstrating starkly contrasting fertility trends.
Correspondence: Peter Lang, Eschborner Landstraße 42-50, Postfach 940225, 60460 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10193 Lam, David; Duryea, Suzanne. Effects of schooling on fertility, labor supply, and investments in children, with evidence from Brazil. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 34, No. 1, Winter 1999. 160-92 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"We explore the mechanisms driving the negative relationship between parents' schooling and fertility. Brazilian data demonstrate strong negative effects of women's schooling on fertility over the first eight years of schooling. We observe no increase in women's labor supply, however, in spite of rapidly rising wages, suggesting that reservation wages rise as fast as market wages over this range. We find strong effects of parental schooling on children's schooling and survival. We conclude that the effects of early years of schooling on fertility work primarily through increased investments in child quality, with only a minor role played by rising women's wages." Data are from the 1984 version of the Pesquisa Nacional de Amostra de Domicilios and concern more than 100,000 women aged 15-55.
Correspondence: D. Lam, University of Michigan, Department of Economics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10194 Lesthaeghe, R. Is low fertility only a temporary phenomenon in the EU? IPD Working Paper, No. 1999-1, [1999]. 14 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper we shall explore to what...extent recent and future childbearing postponement [in the European Union] would result in depressing total period rates.... Furthermore, we shall explore various explanatory fertility theories to look for further clues about the possibility of trend reversals in fertility."
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: esvbalck@vub.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10195 Locoh, Thérèse. Fertility trends in Africa. [L'évolution de la fécondité en Afrique.] Afrique Contemporaine, No. 185, Jan-Mar 1998. 79-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general summary of current African fertility trends. The author notes that, even though Africa lags behind in the demographic transition, there are signs that fertility is now starting to fall, particularly in northern and southern Africa. The difference between fertility in rural and urban areas is noted. The impact of changes in marriage patterns and of family planning on fertility is discussed.
Correspondence: T. Locoh, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10196 Mace, Ruth. The coevolution of human fertility and wealth inheritance strategies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, Vol. 353, No. 1367, Mar 29, 1998. 389-97 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I use a stochastic dynamic model to analyse which combinations of fertility and wealth inheritance strategies maximize the expected number of grandchildren." The model, which is "based on a traditional African pastoralist system...is used to show that, in the unpredictable environment of a traditional pastoralist society, high fertility and a biasing of wealth inheritance to a small number of children are frequently optimal.... The effects on fertility and wealth inheritance strategies of reducing mortality risks, reducing the unpredictability of the environment and increasing the costs of raising children are explored."
Correspondence: R. Mace, University College London, Department of Anthropology, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. E-mail: r.mace@ucl.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10197 Manna, Mausumi. Factors affecting fertility decline and fertility variation in 1990s: an inter-state analysis. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 51, Dec 19-25, 1998. 3,280-4 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the factors affecting fertility decline in India using data from the National Family Health Survey for 1992-1993 and other sources. The aim is to identify the causes of differences in the rate of fertility decline among the states by performing an inter-state comparison of the major variables affecting fertility. The results show a high degree of correlation between wanted fertility and actual fertility, as well as a high degree of association between fertility and female education and maternal and child health.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10198 Namboodiri, Krishnan; Wei, Luying. Fertility theories and their implications regarding how low can low fertility be. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1998. 37-55 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper examines a number of fertility theories and conceptual frameworks focusing on what they have to say implicitly or explicitly about how low can low fertility be. The theories examined fall into two categories, according to the light they shed on the question whether there is a floor for aggregate fertility level below which societies are unlikely to remain for any appreciable length of time.... Micro-level theories are examined first followed by macro-level theories."
Correspondence: K, Namboodiri, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: kkn@ohstsoca.sbs.ohio-state.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10199 Narasimhan, R. L.; Retherford, Robert D.; Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Roy, T. K. Measuring the speed of India's fertility decline. National Family Health Survey Bulletin, No. 6, Jul 1997. 4 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This issue...compares fertility trends [in India] for the 15-year period 1978 to 1992, as estimated from the SRS [Sample Registration System] and the NFHS [National Family Health Survey]. The analysis indicates that fertility since the late 1970s has fallen faster than indicated by the SRS but more slowly than indicated by the NFHS. Current fertility is probably somewhat higher than indicated by either source."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10200 National Research Council. Committee on Population (Washington, D.C.). Workshop on Social Processes Underlying Fertility Change in Developing Countries. [1998]. xi, [500] pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Social Processes Underlying Fertility Change in Developing Countries, which was held in Washington, D.C., in January 1998. Papers are as follows: Potatoes and pills: an overview of innovation-diffusion contributions to explanations of fertility decline, by John Cleland; Diffusion in sociological analysis: how useful is it for the study of fertility and mortality?, by Alberto Palloni; Culture and communication: anthropological perspectives on diffusion and social processes, by Anthony T. Carter; Social interactions and fertility transitions, by Steven N. Durlauf and James R. Walker; Learning and using new ideas: a socio-cognitive perspective, by Kathleen M. Carley; Diffusion through social networks, by Peter V. Marsden; Mass media and fertility change, by Robert Hornik and Emile McAnany; Village networks and patterns of contraceptive choice, by Barbara Entwisle and Jenny Godley; The spread of television and fertility decline in Brazil: a spatial-temporal analysis, by Joseph E. Potter, Renato M. Assuncao, Suzana M. Cavenaghi, and Andre J. Caetano; Diffusion of ideas about personal hygiene and contamination in poor countries: evidence from Guatemala, by Noreen Goldman, Anne R. Pebley, and Megan Beckett; Empirical research on diffusion of innovations: recent developments and new directions, by Thomas W. Valente; From mercantilists to neo-Malthusians: the international population movement and the transformation of population ideology in Kenya, by Susan C. Watkins and Dennis Hodgson; Ready, willing, and able: a conceptualization of transitions to new behavioral forms, by Ron Lesthaeghe and Camille Vanderhoeft; and Diffusion theories and population policy, by Karen O. Mason and Steven W. Sinding.
Correspondence: National Research Council, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10201 Nirmala, V.; Bhat, K. Sham. A macro analysis of the proximate determinants of fertility in India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1998. 9-19 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to understand the important proximate determinants of fertility in India using the NFHS [National Family Health Survey] data collected from 25 states.... Age wise data showed the fertility rate to be the highest during the most fertile period of the female life span (the 20s).... By residence, rural fertility rate was higher than urban, owing to lower literacy and higher poverty. An inverse relationship was found between fertility and the educational level of the women.... Religion wise, it was highest among Muslim, followed by Hindu, and the lowest among Sikh women."
Correspondence: V. Nirmala, Pondicherry University, Department of Economics, Pondicherry 605 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10202 Omari, C. K. Women on fertility: a development issue. Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1994. 42-58 pp. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In Eng.
"The thrust of this paper is that, although fertility is a result of biological process and interaction among men and women, high fertility rates among women found in Tanzania [are] a result of socio-cultural process.... The paper requires us to critically look at the contributing factors (proximate) to high fertility rates in Tanzania, before we make some concluding remarks on how this is a developmental issue, especially as related to women's development. The paper, therefore, is a gender centred analysis."
Correspondence: C. K. Omari, University of Dar es Salaam, Sociology Department, Demographic Training Unit, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Michigan State University Library, East Lansing, MI.

65:10203 Parr, Nicholas J. Changes in the factors affecting fertility in Ghana during the early stages of the fertility decline. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1998. 77-86 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This study uses data from the 1988 and the 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys to analyse the changing importance both of the proximate determinants of fertility and of demographic, socio-economic, cultural, and local factors affecting fertility in [Ghana]. The rising level of contraceptive use is found to be the main proximate cause of the decline in fertility. A woman's age, education, religion, place of residence and child mortality experience are found to be important factors affecting fertility indirectly."
Correspondence: N. J. Parr, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Demographic Research Group, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. E-mail:nparr@efs.mq.ed.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10204 Radzikowska, Barbara. Fertility in Poland in the context of demographic transition theory. Modeling and forecasting. [Plodnosc w Polsce w kontekscie teorii przejscia demograficznego. Modelowanie i prognozowanie.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 114, ISBN 83-7011-203-X. 1995. 141 pp. Akademia Ekonomiczna imienia Oskara Langego: Wroclaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis of changes in fertility and in age-specific fertility in Poland in the context of the demographic transition. In the first chapter the author examines the concept of demographic transition and compares the Polish experience with events in selected European countries. In the second chapter, age-specific fertility trends in Poland are analyzed using various standard fertility models, including those developed by Coale and Trussell, and Brass. Chapter 3 focuses on the biological, social, and economic determinants of fertility. The fourth and final chapter makes some forecasts of future trends in age-specific fertility.
Correspondence: Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej imienia Oskara Langego, ul. Komandorska 118/120, 53-345 Wroclaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10205 Rajan, S. Irudaya; Zachariah, K. C. Long-term implications of low fertility in Kerala, India. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1998. 41-66 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The State of Kerala is about two decades ahead of India as a whole in achieving the replacement level of fertility.... Its demographic trends in the first half of the twenty-first century will [therefore] be dramatically different from those of the second half of the twentieth century. This article provides a basis for policy makers to use in preparing for those changes, which include population ageing in the face of inadequate social security systems, impacts on young people, education and employment, and migration."
Correspondence: S. I. Rajan, Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10206 Rees, Philip. The second demographic transition: what does it mean for the future of Europe's population? School of Geography Working Paper, No. 96/19, Aug 1996. 15 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I want to raise an issue which is likely to have profound effects in the next century on the direction of population change in Europe. The issue is the continuance of low birth rates in most European countries. What is the situation in the 1990s and how is fertility likely to develop? What are the consequences of such levels continuing and what, if anything, should societies do about it?"
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10207 Rogers, Randall. The role of economics and culture in determining fertility rates in Kenya. Great Plains Sociologist, Vol. 10, No. 2, Spring 1998. 37-49 pp. Brookings, South Dakota. In Eng.
"The role of both economic and cultural factors are investigated for their impact on fertility rates in Kenya. Economic factors tend to favor rational control of fertility while cultural factors favor uncontrolled fertility. Both demand and supply side reasons are presented to show that fertility decision making is becoming based more on economics and rationality than on tradition. Policy implications are investigated."
Correspondence: R. Rogers, South Dakota State University, College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Rural Sociology Department, Brookings, SD 57007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10208 Rowland, Donald T. The prevalence of childlessness in cohorts of older women. Australasian Journal on Ageing, Vol. 17, No. 1, Feb 1998. 18-23 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
The author aims to "define the immediate causes of childlessness and provide estimates of the percentages of women--in the past and present aged population of Australia--who remained voluntarily or involuntarily childless.... The proportion of women childless has ranged between 9 and 32 per cent in cohorts born since the 1850s. Married childlessness was predominant among cohorts born between the 1890s and the 1920s, owing to the effects on family building of the two World Wars and the Great Depression."
Correspondence: D. T. Rowland, Australian National University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: Donald.Rowland@anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10209 Sánchez, Jesús J. Mortality and the fertility transition in rural Navarre (Spain). Genus, Vol. 54, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1998. 57-75 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"In this article we will concentrate on the analysis and study of marital reproduction, in other words, we analyze fertility by `isolating' it from the effects of definite celibacy. We want to know when and why the women of Navarre [Spain] began to have a smaller average number of children.... On the basis of the analyses performed, we were able to verify that between 1850 and 1970, 94% of the total variation in levels of marital reproduction was accounted for by variations in levels of survival from birth until the age of 15."
Correspondence: J. J. Sánchez, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadía s.n., 31006 Pamplona, Spain. E-mail: jesus.sbarricarte@unpa.es. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10210 Sathar, Zeba A.; Casterline, John B. The onset of fertility transition in Pakistan. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 112, 1998. 39 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper we present empirical evidence from multiple and independent studies carried out in the past eight years demonstrating that marital fertility decline has finally begun in Pakistan. The decline is gentle but nevertheless represents a genuine break from the past, most notably because of the increasing use of modern contraception for the purpose of limiting family size. The slight declines in overall fertility prior to 1990 were due almost entirely to increases in age at first marriage...."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10211 Schoen, Robert; Kim, Young J. Momentum under a gradual approach to zero growth. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 3, Nov 1998. 295-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A population's growth potential is significantly underestimated by conventional calculations of population momentum which assume an immediate drop to replacement level fertility. Here we assume that the growth rate of births linearly declines to zero over a specified time interval, and find simple and intuitively meaningful expressions for the size of the ultimate birth cohort and the resultant population momentum. In particular, we find that the increase in the number of births over the transition is equal to growth at the initial rate for half the time needed to attain a constant birth level."
Correspondence: R. Schoen, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10212 Stloukal, Libor. An APC analysis of demographic responses to population policy measures: the case of the Czech and Slovak republics, 1960-1990. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1998. 87-121 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The age-period-cohort framework is applied to analyse Czech and Slovak fertility and abortion rates.... Behavioural responses to changes in abortion law implemented in 1957 and 1986 are examined in more detail. The results indicate that lack of awareness of age, period, and cohort dimensions of fertility and abortion can distort one's interpretation of observed time-trends, and lead to erroneous conclusions about effects of changing abortion policies on demographic behaviour."
Correspondence: L. Stloukal, University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies, Hooper House, 101 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter EX4 6DT, England. E-mail: ips.director@exeter.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10213 Swar-Eldahab, Amna M. Contraceptive use and fertility of women in urban Sudan. Ahfad Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, Dec 1996. 12-30 pp. Omdurman, Sudan. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"This article provides evidence from within the urban areas of the Sudan to undermine the generally hypothesized negative relationship between contraceptive and reproductive behaviour. In the absence of effective use of [contraceptives, the] fertility level can be high despite the high rate of contraceptive prevalence." Data are from a 1991 contraceptive survey conducted in Khartoum.
Correspondence: A. M. Swar-Eldahab, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10214 Thomas, Duncan. Fertility, education, and resources in South Africa. In: Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world, edited by Caroline H. Bledsoe et. al. 1999. 138-80 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using recently collected household survey data, this chapter examines an important consideration in the design of [population policy in South Africa]: the relationship between fertility and resources, with a focus on the role played by maternal education.... [It] examines three potential mechanisms in an attempt to provide insight into what underlies the observed association between education and fertility among South African blacks." Aspects considered include the relationship between fertility and education; the influence of household resources on demographic outcomes; and the role of other measures of human capital.
Correspondence: D. Thomas, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10215 Ventura, Stephanie J.; Anderson, Robert N.; Martin, Joyce A.; Smith, Betty L. Births and deaths: preliminary data for 1997. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 4, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 99-1120. Oct 7, 1998. 44 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents preliminary data on births and deaths in the United States from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for 1997. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. National and State data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Mortality data presented include life expectancy, leading causes of death, and infant mortality."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10216 Vlaardingerbroek, Barend. Fertility transition and education in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Science in New Guinea, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1997. 115-20 pp. University, Papua New Guinea. In Eng.
"This paper presents data on fertility and some of its concomitants--marriage patterns, infant mortality and child fostering rates--in relation to educational attainment for a Papua New Guinea Highlands town. Trends in women's fertility are discussed with reference to both women's and husbands' educational attainment. The data are generally consistent with the Fertility Deficit Model of early fertility transition. Increasing educational attainment levels of both women and their spouses appear to be fertility primers, probably via increased income generation."
Correspondence: B. Vlaardingerbroek, University of Papua New Guinea, Goroka Campus, P.O. Box 1078, Goroka, Papua New Guinea. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:10217 Wiley, Andrea S. The ecology of low natural fertility in Ladakh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 4, Oct 1998. 457-80 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This report presents an analysis of 1981 Indian census data that documents low natural fertility in Ladakh, a high-altitude region of the Himalaya in north India.... Hypotheses to explain very low fertility in Ladakh are considered from among the likely proximate determinants and evaluated using two supplementary sources of information derived from fieldwork in Ladakh in the early 1990s. The most likely explanations for low marital fertility include sterility from STDs [sexually transmitted diseases], high rates of fetal loss, and possibly nutritional constraints on ovarian hormone status."
Correspondence: A. S. Wiley, State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10218 Zhang, Jie; Casagrande, Richard. Fertility, growth, and flat-rate taxation for education subsidies. Economics Letters, Vol. 60, No. 2, Aug 1998. 209-16 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper we show that an increase in the ratio of educational subsidies to income financed by flat-rate consumption and income taxes enhances economic growth, and has no net effect on fertility with logarithmic preferences. Using data from 69 countries, a cross-section analysis indicates that these theoretical results are consistent with empirical evidence."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Victoria University of Wellington, School of Economics and Finance, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. E-mail: jie.zhang@vuw.ac.nz. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10219 Zhang, Jie. Fertility, growth, and public investments in children. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 30, No. 4A, Nov 1997. 835-43 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper it is shown how subsidies for education and for the number of children affect economic growth, fertility, and welfare in an endogenous growth model with altruistic agents. Subsidizing education has not only a direct positive effect on growth but also an indirect positive effect on growth through reducing fertility. After some finite periods, future generations will gain in welfare in the education-subsidy regime. In contrast, subsidizing the number of children increases fertility, depresses growth and reduces all generations' welfare."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. E-mail: Jie.Zhang@vuw.ac.nz. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

65:10220 Bereczkei, Tamas. Kinship network, direct childcare, and fertility among Hungarians and Gypsies. Evolution and Human Behavior, Vol. 19, No. 5, Sep 1998. 283-98 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study is based on fieldwork that was conducted in a Gypsy and a Hungarian non-Gypsy population. The main goal of our study was to examine the primary factors having the largest impact on Gypsy fertility. Contrary to widespread views--based mainly on anecdotal evidence--level of education, occupational status, or use of contraceptive pills do not seem to have a profound influence on the number of births. In fact, the evidence suggests that the extensiveness of kinship networks and the degree of the relatives' assistance with childcare are most strongly predictive of fertility in the Gypsy population."
Correspondence: T. Bereczkei, Pécs University Medical School, Institute of Behavioral Science, Szigeti u.12, Pécs, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10221 Delaunay, Daniel. Migrant women and reproduction of Mexicans in the United States. [Femmes migrants et reproduction des Mexicains aux Etats-Unis.] Cahiers des Amériques Latines, No. 22, 1997. 145-79 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author uses data from the 1990 U.S. census and on border crossings for the years 1993 and 1994 to assess the level of female migration from Mexico to the United States. Particular attention is given to the fertility of female Mexican immigrants. The author concludes that the key role that women play as the center and focus of the Mexican family means that the demographic impact of such migration is far greater than the numbers involved would suggest.
Correspondence: D. Delaunay, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, COLEF, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

65:10222 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo. Explaining contraceptive use differences: do men play a role? African Population Studies/Etude de la Population Africaine, No. 10, Nov 1995. 15-37 pp. Dakar, Senegal. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Data from the Kenya and Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are used to assess the observed differences in modern contraceptive use between the two countries. The findings indicate that although female fertility preferences and education remain important, differences in male fertility goals also appear to be a crucial determinant of the contraceptive gap between Kenya and Ghana. Some implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Vanderbilt University, Department of Sociology, Nashville, TN 37235. E-mail: dodoof@ctrvax.vanderbilt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10223 Donovan, Patricia. Falling teen pregnancy, birthrates: what's behind the declines? Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, Vol. 1, No. 5, Oct 1998. 6-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Nearly one million U.S. teenagers become pregnant each year and about 500,000 give birth. For more than two decades, these figures have helped to define one of the country's major social problems. But now, after years of steady increases, teenage birthrates are down and pregnancy rates have fallen to their lowest level in 20 years; teenage sexual activity is also declining. These trends raise two important questions: Why have the rates gone down, and how can these trends be sustained?"
Correspondence: P. Donovan, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10224 Hoffman, Saul D. Teenage childbearing is not so bad after all...or is it? A review of the new literature. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 236-9, 243 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"What are the socioeconomic effects of teenage childbearing for women and their families?... [Recent] research...has challenged the conventional view, arguing...that the problem of teenage childbearing has been exaggerated, perhaps substantially.... I review this new literature and appraise it critically, to assess whether the recent research persuasively makes the case that the effects of teenage childbearing are benign or even positive."
Correspondence: S. D. Hoffman, University of Delaware, Department of Economics, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10225 Hotz, V. Joseph; Mullin, Charles H.; Sanders, Seth G. Bounding causal effects using data from a contaminated natural experiment: analysing the effects of teenage childbearing. Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 64, No. 4, Oct 1997. 575-603 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we consider what can be learned about causal effects when one uses a contaminated instrumental variable. In particular, we consider what inferences can be made about the causal effect of [U.S.] teenage childbearing on a teen mother's subsequent outcomes when we use the natural experiment of miscarriages to form an instrumental variable for teen births.... [We examine] the effects of early childbearing on the teen mother's subsequent educational and labour market attainment.... [We find] that women who have births as teens have higher labour market earnings and hours worked compared to what they would have attained if their childbearing had been delayed."
Correspondence: V. J. Hotz, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10226 Kasmiyati; Kantner, Andrew. Regional patterns of fertility in Indonesia: evidence from 1991 and 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys. East-West Center Working Papers, Population Series, No. 99, Jan 1998. i, 28, 54 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"At the regional level [in Indonesia], fertility and contraceptive use do not appear to be highly correlated. Provinces with lower fertility rates, such as Jakarta and East Java, do not always have higher levels of contraceptive use. This paper provides an assessment of regional fertility patterns by means of a synthetic cohort analysis of fertility using data from the 1991 and 1994 IDHS [Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey]. Results show that unexpectedly low levels of fertility are associated with a relatively high proportion of women never married and high levels of infecundity. In a few provinces, actual fertility levels may also be underreported. Results also show that many women have an unmet need for family planning, particularly for limiting births. In fact, unmet need actually rose slightly between 1991 and 1994.... A large proportion of women, at all levels of education, plan to space their children more closely than recommended, increasing their own and their children's health risks."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Publication Sales Office, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10227 Steele, Fiona; Amin, Sajeda; Naved, Ruchira T. The impact of an integrated micro-credit program on women's empowerment and fertility behavior in rural Bangladesh. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 115, 1998. 39 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of participation in women's savings and credit groups organized by Save the Children USA on women's empowerment, contraceptive use, and fertility in a rural area of Bangladesh. The data are drawn from a panel survey conducted in 1993, shortly before the groups were formed, and in 1995 after interventions began. This quasi-experimental design enables us to identify the characteristics of women who chose to join savings groups. The findings show that those who joined tend to be more educated and more socially independent than are women who did not. Thus, to control for selection bias, preintervention measures of empowerment are taken into consideration in the analyses of the impact of savings groups on 1995 levels of empowerment and fertility behavior. The analysis shows positive impacts of the credit program on aspirations with regard to children's education, age at marriage, and use of modern contraceptives."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10228 Takenaka, Katsuyuki. Regional differences in fertility in Spain. Geographical Review of Japan, Series A, Vol. 70, No. 7, 1997. 433-48 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper, the regional differences in fertility in Spain are analyzed statistically in relation to the level of urbanization and the socioeconomic composition of the population, with special attention to the baby-boom period around the 1960s.... The results of this analysis suggest that, although urbanization has some degree of influence on...fertility, regional differences in fertility in Spain are difficult to explain exclusively by the level of urbanization and the socioeconomic composition of the population."
Correspondence: K. Takenaka, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

65:10229 Colborn, Theo; Dumanoski, Dianne; Myers, John P. Our stolen future: are we threatening our fertility, intelligence, and survival?--a scientific detective story. ISBN 0-525-93982-2. LC 95-30015. 1996. xii, 306 pp. Dutton: New York, NY. In Eng.
This work reviews the large and growing body of scientific evidence linking synthetic chemicals to aberrant sexual development and behavioral and reproductive problems. It includes a chapter on the impact of such chemicals on human fertility.
Correspondence: Dutton, Penguin Group USA, 375 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10014. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10230 Frisch, Rose E. Body weight, body fat and ovulation: relation to the natural fertility of populations. In: Science with a human face: in honor of Roger Randall Revelle, edited by Robert Dorfman and Peter P. Rogers. Jul 1997. 139-66 pp. Harvard University, School of Public Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author discusses her research, and past collaboration with Roger Revelle, concerning the relationship between body fat and infertility in women. Aspects covered include relative fatness as a determinant of minimal weights for menstrual cycles; the impact of physical exercise; nutrition, physical work, and natural fertility; the effects of nutrition and exercise on male reproduction function; and the paradox of rapid population growth in undernourished populations.
Correspondence: R. E. Frisch, Harvard University, Department of Population and International Health, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10231 Swan, Shanna H.; Elkin, Eric P.; Fenster, Laura. Have sperm densities declined? A reanalysis of global trend data. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 105, No. 11, Nov 1997. 1,228-32 pp. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
"In 1992 a worldwide decline in sperm density was reported.... Because of the public health importance of this finding, a detailed reanalysis of data from 61 studies was warranted to resolve these issues. Multiple linear regression models...were used to examine regional differences and the interaction between region (United States, Europe, and non-Western countries) and year. Nonlinear models and residual confounding were also examined in these data.... Further analysis of these studies supports [the report of] a significant decline in sperm density in the United States and Europe. Confounding and selection bias are unlikely to account for these results. However, some intraregional differences were as large as mean decline in sperm density between 1938 and 1990, and recent reports from Europe and the United States further support large interarea differences in sperm density."
Correspondence: S. H. Swan, California Department of Health Services, Environmental Health Investigations Branch, Reproductive Epidemiological Section, 5900 Hollis Street, Suite E, Emeryville, CA 94608. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

65:10232 Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Steiner, Markus J.; Attafuah, John D. Contraceptive use at an STD clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 57-65 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"We interviewed 298 consecutive clients attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Kumasi, Ghana to assess their contraceptive practices and willingness to accept male condoms. Almost a quarter of females (22%) and 14 percent of males were diagnosed HIV positive. Condom use among females was low with almost three-fourths (72%) reporting never having used condoms in the past three months. Half the males (47%) said they used condoms all or most of the time. The most common reason for nonuse was desired pregnancy (females 31%; males 20%). Almost all the clients currently using condoms (females 100%; males 89%) said they never had problems obtaining condoms."
Correspondence: M. J. Steiner, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10233 Agadjanian, Victor. Women's choice between indigenous and Western contraception in urban Mozambique. Women and Health, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1998. 1-17 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"Based on qualitative data collected in Greater Maputo, Mozambique, in 1993, this study explores and analyzes women's choice between western [contraceptive] methods--mainly oral contraceptives, intra-uterine devices and injectables--available from state-run family planning clinics, and indigenous contraception, a combination of herbal and magical medicine, provided by traditional healers. The study demonstrates that women's choice between the two types of methods is determined by their socio-demographic characteristics and cultural background, access to these methods, perceptions of the effectiveness and undesirable side-effects of these methods, and by restrictions imposed by the providers."
Correspondence: V. Agadjanian, Arizona State University, Department of Sociology, Tempe, AZ 85287-2101. E-mail: agadjanian@asu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10234 Aguinaga, Hélio. The story of family planning in Brazil. [A saga do planejamento familiar no Brasil.] 1996. 228 pp. Topbooks: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
This is a study of the development of family planning in Brazil over the course of the twentieth century. The author describes the change from a strongly pronatalist society to one in which there is a general acceptance of the principles of responsible parenthood. The individuals and institutions that helped to bring about these changes at both the state and federal levels are identified and described.
Correspondence: Topbooks, Rua Visconde de Inhaúma 58/gr. 413, 20091-000 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10235 Becker, Stan; Hossain, Mian B.; Thomson, Elizabeth. Disagreement in spousal reports of current contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 98-07, Dec 1998. 28, [10] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population and Family Health Sciences: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Contraceptive prevalence...estimated from reports of husbands differs widely from that estimated for wives. In this research, using data from six Demographic and Health Surveys of sub-Saharan Africa, we examine reports from spouses in monogamous couples with no other reported sex partners in the recent period. Agreement ranged from 47% to 82%...."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Author's E-mail: sbecker@jhsph.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10236 Biddlecom, Ann E.; Fapohunda, Bolaji M. Covert contraceptive use: prevalence, motivations, and consequences. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 4, Dec 1998. 360-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines women's covert use of contraceptives, that is, their use of a method without their husbands' knowledge. Three questions are addressed: (1) How is covert use measured? (2) How prevalent is it? and (3) What are the factors underlying covert use? Existing studies are used together with survey and qualitative data collected in 1997 in an urban setting in Zambia from married women and their husbands. Women's covert use of contraceptives is estimated to account for 6 to 20 percent of all current contraceptive use.... The multivariate analysis indicates that difficult spousal communication about contraception is the strongest determinant of covert use." This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. E. Biddlecom, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10237 Carlson, Elwood; Omori, Megumi. Fertility regulation in a declining state socialist economy: Bulgaria, 1976-1995. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 184-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Findings from a 1976 World Fertility Survey of married women and from a 1995 survey of married and unmarried women are used to asses changes in contraceptive usage during a two-decade time period in Bulgaria. Data on the number of births and abortions from the country's vital and health statistics system are then used to analyze corresponding changes in reproductive outcomes."
Correspondence: E. Carlson, University of South Carolina, Department of Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10238 Coleman, Lester; Ingham, Roger. Attenders at young people's clinics in Southampton: variations in contraceptive use. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 3, Oct 1998. 101-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents findings from a survey of 424 people attending nine young people's clinics within the Southampton [England] Community Health NHS Trust.... One major aim of the study was to investigate whether talking to the sexual partner about contraception before their first intercourse together and delaying this first intercourse influenced contraceptive use."
Correspondence: L. Coleman, University of Southampton, Centre for Sexual Health Research, Department of Psychology, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10239 Coll Capdevila, C.; Iglesias Cortit, L.; Creatsas, G. Contraception today. International Congress, Symposium and Seminar Series, Vol. 14, ISBN 1-85070-767-7. LC 97-48549. 1997. xi, 282 pp. Parthenon Publishing Group: Pearl River, New York/Carnforth, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles by various authors on methods of family planning and contraceptive usage around the world, and represents the proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the European Society of Contraception. The chapters deal with contraception and health in Europe; oral contraception, with special emphasis on long-term effects; biochemical aspects of hormonal contraception; non-oral contraception through a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system; postcoital contraception; natural contraception; intrauterine contraception; barrier methods; abortion in Europe; how repeat aborters are handled in Central and Eastern Europe; contraception in adolescence and perimenopause; male contraception; and sexually transmitted disease prevention in contraceptive centers.
Correspondence: Parthenon Publishing Group, One Blue Hill Plaza, P.O. Box 1564, Pearl River, NY 10965. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10240 Cushman, Linda F.; Romero, Diana; Kalmuss, Debra; Davidson, Andrew R.; Heartwell, Stephen; Rulin, Marvin. Condom use among women choosing long-term hormonal contraception. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 240-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from a prospective, multisite [U.S.] study were collected to examine the probability of condom use among 1,073 new users of either the contraceptive implant or injectable.... Although condom use among all women declined markedly once they initiated long-term hormonal contraception, frequency of condom use varied by subgroup and was associated with several factors. Most importantly, women with more than one sexual partner and those who received a message during counseling on the need to continue using condoms were more likely than others to use condoms in conjunction with the implant or injectable."
Correspondence: L. F. Cushman, Columbia University, School of Public Health, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10241 de Guibert-Lantoine, Catherine; Leridon, Henri. Contraception in France: a balance-sheet of 30 years of liberalization. [La contraception en France: un bilan après 30 ans de libéralisation.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 785-811 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
A 1994 survey, the Enquête sur les Situations Familiales et l'Emploi, "provides material to review the current state of contraceptive practices [in France].... Contraception today is practiced mainly by women and takes a medical form: use of the pill has become widespread, particularly among young people; the IUD appears as the follow-on method once the family has been formed; traditional methods are now marginal; use of the condom is on the increase, particularly among young people and single people, for whom it is often used in conjunction with the pill, being both a means of contraception and a protection against sexually transmitted diseases."
Correspondence: C. de Guibert-Lantoine, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: lantoine@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10242 Diman, Tohir; Kantner, Andrew. Household expenditure and the utilization of family planning and maternal health services in Indonesia. East-West Center Working Papers, Population Series, No. 101, Feb 1998. i, 41 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS), this paper provides information on family and household income and expenditure levels.... Households with high expenditure levels are more likely to use contraception (56 percent) than are households with low expenditure levels (45 percent). Households with higher expenditure levels are also more likely to rely on the private sector for family planning, prenatal, and delivery services.... In general, the total costs for family planning services are far lower for households with low monthly expenditure levels than for more prosperous households. Among clients who paid for family planning services, however, the median price paid for pills does not vary by household welfare status, suggesting a rather inefficient market segmentation. Multivariate analysis indicates that poor Indonesian households are still heavily reliant on government-service outlets for family planning and maternal health care."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Publication Sales Office, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10243 Eggleston, Elizabeth. Use of family planning at first sexual intercourse among young adults in Ecuador. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 4, Oct 1998. 501-10 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with the use of family planning at first sexual intercourse among young adults aged 15 to 24 in urban Ecuador.... In the overall population, the following variables were significantly related to using family planning at first sex: being male; being from Guayaquil; older age; father's completion of secondary school. Having lost one's virginity to a prostitute was significantly associated with non-use of family planning."
Correspondence: E. Eggleston, University of North Carolina, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10244 Fathonah, Siti; Kantner, Andrew. An assessment of recent levels and trends in long-term contraceptive method use in Indonesia. East-West Center Working Papers, Population Series, No. 96, Dec 1997. 28 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1991 and 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS), this paper identifies factors that may be inhibiting the growth of long-term [contraceptive] method use. Results show that the use of long-term methods declined in two regions of the country (Java-Bali and Outer Java-Bali I), in rural areas, among women with higher levels of education, and among women with four or more children. The analysis suggests that family planning information, education, and communication (FP-IEC) activities had a modest effect in promoting the use of long-term methods, most notably the use of implants. Recent contact with family planning field workers, however, was associated with lower use of long-term methods. "
Correspondence: East-West Center, Publication Sales Office, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10245 Fung, K. K. How many children?--Fixing total annual births as a population control policy. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 5, Oct 1998. 403-19 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Traditional family planning's emphasis on manipulating the total fertility rate often results in erratic number of births which disrupts school enrollment and labor supply. Fixing total annual births to a permanently lower level will avoid such repeated disruptions and can eventually lead to a lower stationary population with annual deaths equal to the fixed annual births. If allocation of the fixed birth quotas is conditional upon deaths, each death can be converted to a variable number of inheritable and tradable birth quotas. Tradable birth coupons allow families to have the number of children they want and can afford within the overall fixed birth quotas. Inheritable birth quotas provide incentive for higher old-age mortality and consequently less aging in a declining population."
Correspondence: K. K. Fung, University of Memphis, Department of Economics, Memphis, TN 38152. E-mail: kkfung@memphis.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10246 Gold, Rachel B.; Darroch, Jacqueline E.; Frost, Jennifer J. Mainstreaming contraceptive services in managed care--five states' experiences. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 204-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In each of five [U.S.] areas with relatively mature managed care environments (all of Colorado, Massachusetts and Michigan, as well as selected counties in California and Florida), all managed care organizations serving commercial or Medicaid enrollees were asked about their coverage of contraceptive services and procedures for obtaining that care. In addition, all publicly funded family planning agencies in these areas were queried about their involvement with managed care plans, and representative samples of reproductive-age women at risk of unintended pregnancy and enrolled in managed care plans were asked about their plan's coverage and their experiences in obtaining contraceptive services."
Correspondence: R. B. Gold, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10247 International Alliance of Women [IAW] (Athens, Greece); Medical Women's International Association [MWIA] (Cologne, Germany). Better access to family planning for all. 1995. 50 pp. Athens, Greece. In Eng.
This volume contains reports presented at a workshop at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. Contents are as follows: Modern contraception: its benefits, its risks, by Dorothy Ward; Better access to family planning for all and the obstacles to its implementation, by Gudrun Eger-Harsch; Family planning in India and our problem, by Aroti Dutt; The problem in Burkina Faso, by Chantal Ouedraogo; and Family planning from a human rights perspective, by Alice Yotopoulos-Marangopoulos.
Correspondence: International Alliance of Women, 1 Lycavittou, 106 72 Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10248 Islam, M. Mazharul; Islam, M. Nurul. Contraceptive use among married adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1998. 32-41 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This study analyses certain important aspects of contraception among married adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh utilising data from a field survey. The findings indicate that while knowledge about family planning was nearly universal among the adolescents, only 36.4 per cent of them had ever used a contraceptive and 25 per cent were currently practicing contraception.... Our study indicated that the adolescents were highly in favour of family planning and most were of the opinion that every couple should use family planning to control family size...."
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10249 Jeannin, André; Konings, Elke; Dubois-Arber, Françoise; Landert, Charles; Van Melle, Guy. Validity and reliability in reporting sexual partners and condom use in a Swiss population survey. European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 14, No. 2, Feb 1998. 139-46 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The authors "examine the validity and reliability of indicators of sexual behavior and condom use in annual telephone surveys (n=2,800) of the general population aged 17 to 45 for the evaluation of AIDS prevention in Switzerland.... The reliability of reports on sexual behaviour and condom use...is good. The indicators derived from the annual surveys are robust measures and the monitoring of trends seems to be based on reliable measurement. However, more research is required on the validity of the data."
Correspondence: A. Jeannin, Institut Universitaire de Médecine Social et Préventive, Unité d'Evaluation des Programmes de Prévention, 17 rue de Bugnon, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10250 John, Anja. The socio-cultural context of population programs. Materialien und Kleine Schriften, No. 161, ISBN 3-927276-47-2. 1997. 27 pp. Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Institut für Entwicklungsforschung und Entwicklungspolitik: Bochum, Germany. In Eng.
The author provides a cross-cultural comparison of population programs in developing countries. The socio-cultural situations in the Arab states, Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean are outlined, with information provided for selected countries in each area. Differences in family planning programs are briefly discussed.
Correspondence: Ruhr University of Bochum, Institute of Development Research and Development Policy, P.O. Box 10 21 48, 44780 Bochum, Germany. E-mail: iee@rz.ruhr-uni.bochum.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10251 Kaufman, Carol E. Contraceptive use in South Africa under apartheid. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 421-34 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper, patterns of contraceptive use among black South African women in the late 1980s are examined. Multilevel logit models are used to evaluate the extent to which segregation of the African population into homelands gave rise to uneven patterns of contraceptive use; how this pattern was shaped by variations in family-planning acceptability; and the way in which the system of male labor migration and social and economic inequities across communities affected women's use of contraceptives. Results show that variation in contraceptive use across homeland areas diminished with the addition of community controls for development and migration."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: C. E. Kaufman, Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, 9th Floor, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: ckaufman@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10252 Konje, Justin C.; Oladini, Folashade; Otolorin, Emmanuel O.; Ladipo, Oladapo O. Factors determining the choice of contraceptive methods at the Family Planning Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 3, Oct 1998. 107-10 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In a study of 2,000 women volunteers seeking contraceptive services at the Family Planning Clinic (FPC), University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, 66.2 per cent chose the intrauterine device (IUD).... Factors influencing choice of contraceptive methods were advice from friends and family members, intended duration of use and information from the media. Ignorance, fear and unfounded cultural beliefs were factors responsible for the delay in seeking contraceptive advice."
Correspondence: J. C. Konje, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Leicester LE2 7LX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10253 Kyaddondo, David; Nangendo, Florence. Availability and accessibility of condoms and family planning services to adolescents: a study of Mpigi District. LC 97-981768. Jun 1995. vi, 39 pp. Makerere University, Child Health and Development Centre: Kampala, Uganda. In Eng.
The authors aim "to describe the range and nature of traditional and modern family planning services offered to adolescents in Mpigi district [Uganda]...to describe the range and nature of constraints to family planning supply to adolescents...[and] to identify the range and nature of potential entrepreneurs and contraceptive providers in the community who can target the contraceptive needs of adolescents."
Correspondence: Makerere University, Child Health and Development Centre, Kampala, Uganda. E-mail: CHDC@Uga.Healthnet.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10254 Magnani, Robert J.; Haws, Jeanne M.; Morgan, Gwendolyn T.; Gargiullo, Paul M.; Pollack, Amy E.; Koonin, Lisa M. Vasectomy in the United States, 1991 and 1995. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 1, Jan 1999. 92-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The extent to which the controversy concerning the link between vasectomy and prostate cancer has had an effect on the acceptance of vasectomy in the United States is explored using data from national probability surveys of urology, general surgery, and family practices carried out in 1992 and 1996. "Estimates of the total number of vasectomies performed, population rate, and proportion of practices performing vasectomy were not significantly different in 1991 and 1995. This study provides no solid evidence that the recent controversy over prostate cancer has influenced vasectomy acceptance or practice in the United States. However, the use of vasectomy appears to have leveled off in the 1990s."
Correspondence: R. J. Magnani, Tulane University Medical Center, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health and Development, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70112. E-mail: magnani@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10255 Mfono, Zanele. Teenage contraceptive needs in urban South Africa: a case study. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 180-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article explores qualitatively the needs of urban South African teenagers for sexuality education and contraceptive services, and the problems such youths encounter, as perceived both by the teenagers themselves and by the service providers. The information is taken from a descriptive process evaluation of the needs and use patterns of teenage clients at family planning outlets in urban areas of Gauteng Province. Descriptive methods are used instead of quantitative data, based on field notes made in the course of visits to four service points."
Correspondence: Z. Mfono, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10256 Murphy, Joseph J.; Boggess, Scott. Increased condom use among teenage males, 1988-1995: the role of attitudes. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 276-80, 303 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1988 and the 1995 [U.S.] National Survey of Adolescent Males are used to determine changes in attitudes toward condoms, pregnancy prevention and HIV and AIDS.... Between 1988 and 1995, young men's attitudes toward partner appreciation of condom use, condom-use embarrassment and pleasure reduction from condom use all changed in a direction suggestive of more consistent condom use. However, attitudes related to pregnancy prevention and AIDS avoidance changed in a direction suggestive of less-consistent condom use."
Correspondence: J. J. Murphy, University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10257 Ntozi, James P. M.; Kirunga, Christine T. Family planning and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and strategies. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 44-56 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper reviews the interface between family planning and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, and discusses the policies toward integration of strategies. In many countries of the region, both contraception and HIV/AIDS are increasing, with the exception of Uganda where there is evidence of a recent decline in HIV/AIDS prevalence. Strategies to integrate policies that promote family planning and prevent HIV infection have been initiated in some African countries. A future research agenda to study the link between the two subjects is suggested."
Correspondence: J. P. M. Ntozi, Makerere University, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Department of Population Studies, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10258 Nzioka, Charles. Factors influencing male interest in family planning in Kenya. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 122-41 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines factors that influence male interest and participation in family planning in Kenya.... Male knowledge and interest in family planning was found to be higher among the young and educated. However, some socio-cultural and method-related obstacles inhibited inter-spousal communication. The study identifies increased male services, and community-based male peer-educator approaches, as ways of ensuring sustained male interest and participation in family planning in rural Kenya."
Correspondence: C. Nzioka, University of Nairobi, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10259 Onokerhoraye, Andrew G.; Omorodion, Francisca I. Rural community structure and contraceptive use in Nigeria. Benin Social Science Series for Africa, ISBN 978-2027-21-9. LC 97-137869. 1993. xviii, 280 pp. University of Benin: Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng.
"In many ways, the state of knowledge of rural community structures and contraceptive use in Nigeria today is comparable to that of the determinants of contraceptive use. There is little concrete data, and the subject is rife with generalizations which disguise infrastructural, social, economic and cultural variations in a country as diverse as Nigeria. Such generalizations are not relevant for policy formulation which must be locality-specific. This book on Rural Community Structures and contraceptive use in Nigeria considers the intricate and variable ways in which community factors affect the use of modern contraceptives and are affected by it, as well as how they can be integrated into strategies to improve the level of [contraception] in rural Nigeria."
Correspondence: University of Benin, PMB 1154, Ugbowo, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10260 Potts, Malcolm; Rooks, Judith; Holt, Bethany Y. How to improve family planning and save lives using a stage-of-life approach. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 195-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The organization of reproductive health services [in developing countries], including family planning, must be rethought and dramatically altered to give priority to women at the beginning of their reproductive careers, who tend to have the most serious health and social problems. In this viewpoint, we propose a bold strategy to make better use of the limited human and financial resources currently devoted to specialized family planning clinics."
Correspondence: M. Potts, University of California, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10261 Potts, Malcolm; Walsh, Julia. Making Cairo work. Lancet, Vol. 353, No. 9149, Jan 23, 1999. 315-8 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development set broad new goals for family planning and reproductive health. The resources available to fund these much needed programmes, however, are much smaller than was originally calculated. To divide the limited budgets for the maximum health impact, likely resource flows need to be set against the cost of various family planning and reproductive health interventions. Preliminary analysis suggests that selection of cost-effective delivery of family planning services would still meet much of the need for family planning, and that some progress could be made towards improved control of sexually transmitted diseases."
Correspondence: M. Potts, University of California, School of Public Health, Earl Warren Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720. E-mail: potts@socrates.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10262 Riehman, Kara S.; Sly, David F.; Soler, Hosanna; Eberstein, Isaac W.; Quadagno, David; Harrison, Dianne F. Dual-method use among an ethnically diverse group of women at risk of HIV infection. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 212-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Interviews were conducted with 552 low-income [U.S.] women at risk of HIV who attended public health or economic assistance facilities in Miami [Florida] in 1994 and 1995. Multinomial logit analyses were used to determine the influence of women's background characteristics, perceived vulnerability to pregnancy and AIDS, and relationship characteristics on the odds of dual-method use.... Both women's individual characteristics and the context of their sexual relationships influence whether they simultaneously protect themselves from pregnancy and HIV. The involvement of male partners in family planning decision-making and women's control over economic decision-making ensure greater protection against HIV infection."
Correspondence: K. S. Riehman, University of California, School of Medicine, Drug Abuse Research Training Center, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10263 Sarkar, N. N. Trends in sexual and contraceptive behaviour. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1998. 49-59 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The present article reviews the relevant literature and elaborates upon some...common factors...to study possible trends in sexual and contraceptive behaviour [worldwide] particularly among young people." Aspects considered include knowledge of conception and contraception, initiation of sexual activity, contraceptive use, number and gender of children, rural and urban factors, risk of transmission of HIV/AIDS, and sociocultural factors.
Correspondence: N. N. Sarkar, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Reproductive Biology, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10264 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (Ottawa, Canada). The Canadian Consensus Conference on Contraception. 1998. 72 pp. Ribosome Communications: Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
This document, which is also available in French, presents the consensus statement developed by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada on contraception. The statement, "which reviews statistics on contraceptive use, gives information on the determinants of contraception and on various aspects of sexual health, describes each contraceptive method available in Canada and underlines the role of health care professionals in sexual counselling and contraception provision. It is designed to support professionals working in the area of family planning, including those in family medicine, gynaecology, nursing, pharmacy and public health."
Correspondence: Ribosome Communictions, 50 St. Clair Avenue East, 4th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M4T 1M9, Canada. E-mail: jsogc@ribosome.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10265 Tey, Nai Peng; Tan, Poo Chang; Ng, Sor Tho; Kuppusamy, Singaravelloo; Wan Sabri, Wan Hussin. Contraceptive choice in the rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia: determinants and change. Dec 1997. ix, 190, [50] pp. University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Based on 1,676 currently married women aged 15-49 years in eight rural districts, this study examines the underlying factors affecting the dynamics of contraceptive use for programme planning [in Malaysia]. Unlike past surveys which focussed on socio-economic differentials of contraceptive prevalence, the present study also looked at psychological factors, which include personality traits, attitudes, beliefs, values and value orientations, programmatic and other factors that influence the initiation, continuation and choice of methods."
Correspondence: University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10266 Unger, Jennifer B.; Molina, Gregory B. Contraceptive use among Latina women: social, cultural, and demographic correlates. Women's Health Issues, Vol. 8, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 359-69 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study examined contraceptive use and related variables among a sample of Latina women in the Los Angeles area, many of whom were low-acculturated, Spanish-speaking, or of low socioeconomic status. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which contraceptive use is related to attitudinal and psychosocial variables, including cultural norms and expectations about pregnancy and motherhood, perceived social support for contraceptive use, perceived reliability of contraceptives, beliefs that contraceptives interfere with sexual pleasure, perceived stigma, embarrassment about negotiating contraceptive use with partners, embarrassment about purchasing contraceptives, perceived barriers to contraceptive use, contraceptive use self-efficacy, and acculturation."
Correspondence: J. B. Unger, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Institute of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10267 Vu, Hoang Ngân. The need for family planning in Vietnam. [Le besoin de planification familiale au Viêt-Nam.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 50, ISBN 2-87762-114-6. Oct 1998. 36 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This study investigates the need for family planning in Vietnam and its evolution given the dynamic socio-economic context of the country.... The need for contraception in Vietnam is great, reaching approximately 90% of non-single women. The national family planning programme covers approximately 49% of this need, whereas the unmet need is therefore 51%. Given a preliminary review, women without access to family planning methods rely on abortions as a last resort [for] family planning (or fertility control). The number of abortions has increased throughout Vietnam during the past few years."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10268 Wells, Elisa S.; Hutchings, Jane; Gardner, Jacqueline S.; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Fuller, Timothy S.; Downing, Don; Shafer, Rod. Using pharmacies in Washington State to expand access to emergency contraception. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 288-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article describes preliminary results from an innovative project to expand access to emergency contraceptive pills by promoting collaboration between pharmacists and independent prescribers in the provision of emergency contraception.... We also discuss the impact that their expanded role is having on access to emergency contraception, and thereby the potential impact of the program on rates of unintended pregnancy."
Correspondence: E. S. Wells, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, 4 Nickerson, Seattle, WA 98109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10269 Zwingle, Erla. Women and population. National Geographic, No. 4, Oct 1998. 36-55 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses the impact of contraception and family planning on worldwide birth rates, women's health and status, and cultural practices. The increasing attention given to men in family planning clinics and programs is noted. Problems caused by high adolescent pregnancy rates are also examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

65:10270 Farley, Timothy M. M.; Meirik, Olav; Chang, C. Lan; Poulter, Neil R. Combined oral contraceptives, smoking, and cardiovascular risk. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 12, Dec 1998. 775-85 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The objective of this study was to "assess age specific incidence and mortality of stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with use of modern low dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) and the interaction with smoking." Data were obtained from a hospital-based case-control study carried out during the period 1989-1993 in hospitals in the Oxford region in the United Kingdom. The results indicate that "the incidence of fatal cardiovascular events among women aged less than 35 years is low.... For women over age 35 years the absolute risks associated with OC use and smoking are greater because of the steeply rising incidence of arterial diseases. The combination of smoking and OC use among such women is associated with particularly increased risks.... However, the mortality associated with smoking is far greater than that associated with with OC use (of any type) at all ages."
Correspondence: T. M. M. Farley, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research on Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10271 Glasier, Anna. Emergency postcoital contraception. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 337, No. 15, Oct 9, 1997. 1,058-64 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author reviews methods and use of emergency postcoital contraception. Aspects considered include mode of action, indications, efficacy, estrogen and progestins, the IUD, antiprogestins, and availability of emergency contraception. Reasons for the relatively low levels of use are discussed.
Correspondence: A. Glasier, University of Edinburgh, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 18 Dean Terrace, Edinburgh EH4 1NL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10272 Hull, Terence H. The challenge of contraceptive implant removals in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 176-9, 205 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reports on a 1996 study of contraceptive implant use in Indonesia. "Spontaneous comments and discussions about implant acceptance and, in particular, problems associated with timely removal led the team to look closely at information available from clinics to assess whether standard medical records were adequate to keep track of users over the five years following insertion."
Correspondence: T. H. Hull, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10273 Miller, Eric R.; Shane, Barbara; Murphy, Elaine. Contraceptive safety: rumors and realities. 2nd ed. Dec 1998. 40 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C.; World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This report "is intended as a resource guide on contraception for policymakers, program managers, service providers, and others needing accurate information on the risks and benefits of contraceptive methods.... Each method is described along with its advantages and disadvantages. In addition to the method's contraceptive effectiveness, other health benefits of methods are explained...." Information is also included on medical risks and possible complications, side effects, and common rumors about methods along with factual details.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: popref@prb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

65:10274 Cohen, Deborah A.; Farley, Thomas A.; Bedimo-Etame, Jean R.; Scribner, Richard; Ward, William; Kendall, Carl; Rice, Janet. Implementation of condom social marketing in Louisiana, 1993 to 1996. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 2, Feb 1999. 204-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The implementation and impact of a condom social marketing initiative carried out in the state of Louisiana from 1993 to 1996 are described. The program made condoms freely available in public health clinics, community mental health centers, substance abuse treatment sites, and business locations. Over 33 million condoms were distributed without giving rise to significant opposition. The authors conclude that "condom social marketing can be successfully implemented in the United States. The widespread availability of free condoms is associated with increased condom use, particularly among persons at high risk for STDs and HIV."
Correspondence: D. A. Cohen, Louisiana Office of Public Health, Department of Health and Hospitals, HIV Program Office, 1600 Canal Street, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10275 Cunnan, Priscilla. Family planning in an informal settlement: the case of Canaan in Durban, South Africa. In: Issues and perspectives on health care in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ezekiel Kalipeni and Philip Thiuri. 1997. 165-77 pp. Edwin Mellen Press: Lewiston, New York. In Eng.
This is a study of contraceptive practice by black women in a small informal settlement in the Durban urban region of South Africa. "Specifically, the paper describes the socioeconomic profile of the women in this settlement and attempts to determine the reasons for the utilization or nonutilization of modern contraceptive techniques. The types of contraceptives generally used are also identified and assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraceptives, particularly the attitude of men towards contraceptives, is offered. Availability and accessibility to health care resources, particularly family planning clinics is also discussed...." The author notes that most men disapproved of or disliked male methods of contraception, and that Depo Provera and injectable contraception was utilized by most women because of its convenience and discreetness. Reasons for nonuse of contraception were mostly associated with political or cultural factors rather than with lack of access to services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10276 Gautier, Arlette. Women and family planning in the Yucatan. [Femmes et planification familiale au Yucatan.] Cahiers des Amériques Latines, No. 22, 1997. 87-102 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This study looks at the impact that the family planning program that has been developed in the Mexican state of Yucatan over the past 50 years has had on the status of women. "A survey carried out in the Henequén region does not provide a clear-cut response. Women do not have a part in the development of the programme and they have lost their role as midwives. Moreover, they are the targets of a policy which does not address their daily rights and which is not also focused on men. However, this policy has increased the control they have over their own bodies."
Correspondence: A. Gautier, Université de Paris X, 200 avenue de la République, 92001 Nanterre Cedex, France. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

65:10277 Jensen, Eric R. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of family planning in the Philippines. East-West Center Working Papers, Population Series, No. 97, Jan 1998. 26 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This study uses the 1993 National Demographic Survey (NDS) to examine issues of contraceptive effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in the Philippines.... Focusing on pills, the analysis...indicates substantial performance differences among outlets delivering the same contraceptives to comparable populations.... On the basis of numbers of contraceptives distributed, public hospitals appear to be a cost-effective provider of all methods. However, if effectiveness is measured in terms of impact on fertility, public and private hospitals and private clinics are much less effective than barangay [local administrative unit] health stations or rural health units."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Publication Sales Office, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10278 Kirby, Douglas; Brener, Nancy D.; Brown, Nancy L.; Peterfreund, Nancy; Hillard, Pamela; Harrist, Ron. The impact of condom distribution in Seattle schools on sexual behavior and condom use. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 2, Feb 1999. 182-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impact of a condom distribution program carried out in 10 Seattle, Washington, high schools in the period 1993-1995 is analyzed. The program made condoms available through vending machines, baskets in school clinics, or both. The results indicate that "making condoms available in Seattle schools enabled students to obtain relatively large numbers of condoms but did not lead to increases in either sexual activity or condom use."
Correspondence: D. Kirby, ETR Associates, P.O. Box 1830, Santa Cruz, CA 95061-1830. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10279 Kols, Adrienne J.; Sherman, Jill E. Family planning programs: improving quality. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 47, Nov 1998. 39 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
By applying the principles of the quality movement in the business and medical world to family planning programs, the authors make some recommendations for improving the quality of such programs in developing countries. They delineate several principles and benefits of good quality, sketch the development of the quality movement in health care, discuss the principles of quality management, address issues of quality design, control, and improvement, and provide a bibliography of quality-related literature. Egypt's Gold Star program is cited as an example of a family planning program that has successfully applied these principles.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. E-mail: PopRepts@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10280 Lindstrom, David P. The role of contraceptive supply and demand in Mexican fertility decline: evidence from a microdemographic study. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 3, Nov 1998. 255-74 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses retrospective life history data to assess the impact of family planning services on contraceptive use in a rural Mexican township. Between 1960 and 1990 contraceptive use rose and fertility declined dramatically. Both contraceptive supply and demand factors were influential in these trends. The start of the government-sponsored family planning programme in the late 1970s was associated with a sharp rise in female sterilization and use of the IUD. However, once we controlled for the changing socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the sample, the presence of family planning services had no significant effect on the likelihood that women used modern reversible methods compared to traditional methods."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. P. Lindstrom, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Population Studies and Training Center, Maxcy Hall, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: David_Lindstrom_1@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10281 Luther, Norman Y.; Kristianto, Bambang Y. Parity progression analysis of fertility decline in provinces and major islands of Indonesia, 1963-90. East-West Center Working Papers, Population Series, No. 98, Jan 1998. 14 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
"In order to evaluate the family planning program and identify target areas for increased effectiveness, this study calculates period parity progression ratios (PPRs) and total fertility rates (TFRs) for the period 1963-90 for Indonesia's provinces and regions. Results show that the two-child family is being increasingly adopted in Java and Bali, although more slowly in West Java than in other Java and Bali provinces. Outside Java and Bali, in provinces where family planning was introduced later, fertility tends to be considerably higher. In every province, fertility is lower in urban areas than in the countryside. Fertility also goes down with women's education and is particularly low for women who have completed high school or above. Women holding non-agricultural jobs have lower fertility than women holding agricultural jobs, and both these groups have much lower fertility than women who do not have jobs."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Publication Sales Office, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10282 Mellor, Jennifer M. The effect of family planning programs on the fertility of welfare recipients: evidence from Medicaid claims. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 33, No. 4, Fall 1998. 866-95 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Previous studies of U.S. publicly funded family planning services have produced conflicting and sometimes confounding results. These studies have relied exclusively on single-equation estimates of family planning program effectiveness. Economic theories suggest that single-equation estimates may understate program effectiveness when the same unobserved variable affects both the fertility outcome and contraceptive behavior. To eliminate the bias that may result from single-equation estimation, I use a bivariate probit model to estimate the effect of contraceptive acceptance on the individual's probability of giving birth. I employ a unique data set created from Maryland Medicaid claims records. Results from bivariate probit estimation show that contraceptive acceptance plays a much larger role in reducing fertility than single-equation estimates would suggest."
Correspondence: J. M. Mellor, College of William and Mary, Department of Economics, Williamsburg, VA 23185. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10283 Miller, Kate; Miller, Robert; Askew, Ian; Horn, Majorie C.; Ndhlovu, Lewis. Clinic-based family planning and reproductive health services in Africa: findings from situation analysis studies. ISBN 0-87834-094-7. 1998. ix, 255 pp. Population Council: New York, New York; U.S. Agency for International Development [USAID]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents the results and discussions of the implications of 12 situation analysis studies of family planning and reproductive health services in 11 African countries undertaken since 1989. "Situation Analysis is a comprehensive and standardized approach for systematically assessing both the readiness of family planning/reproductive health programs to deliver services and the quality of care received by clients. The studies demonstrate how program managers can identify and solve problems that compromise the quality of their programs." The results "indicate that the challenge now is in the area of improved counseling, including provision of information on prevention of HIV/AIDS, and in the need to maintain aseptic conditions for specific contraceptive methods. The analysis...found that while family planning services are widely available, many women would benefit from additional method-specific information, including method side effects, benefits and drawbacks, and, in the case of condoms, protection provided against HIV/AIDS."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: pubinfo@popcouncil.org. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10284 Osteria, Trinidad S.; Kantner, Andrew. Postpartum family planning services in the Philippines: an assessment of current service provision and future program requirements. East-West Center Working Papers, Population Series, No. 104, Oct 1998. 58 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"The 1998 Philippine Survey of Postpartum Family Planning Services documents the range and quality of family planning services offered to new mothers in the Philippines.... The study is divided into two principal components: (1) interviews with 338 providers regarding family planning postpartum care; and (2) interviews with 3,452 mothers who gave birth between January 1994 and December 1997 and who accepted a family planning method within six months of delivery. Information was obtained from 86 clinics in 28 provinces across the Philippines. Results indicate that the percentage of mothers accepting family planning during the six-month period following delivery is quite low (only 6.7 percent between January 1996 and July 1997 in the clinics covered in this study). The main methods accepted by postpartum clients are IUDs, DMPA, and oral pills. The study found that the level of provider and client knowledge pertaining to postpartum family planning services is often inadequate."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Publication Sales Office, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10285 Ramanathan, Mala. Reproductive health index: measuring reproduction or reproductive health? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 49, Dec 5-11, 1998. 3,104-7 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The case is made that the Reproductive Health Index developed by the Population Foundation of India is more appropriate for measuring the status of the family planning program in India than it is for actually measuring reproductive health status. The author notes that this index excludes such factors as maternal mortality and childlessness among women.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10286 Schuler, Sidney R.; Hossain, Zakir. Family planning clinics through women's eyes and voices: a case study from rural Bangladesh. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 170-5, 205 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article presents qualitative data [from six villages in Bangladesh collected in 1996] on family planning clients' perceptions of health and family planning services.... We quote researchers' direct observations and clients' descriptions to describe through women's eyes and voices problems that need urgent attention if clinics are to become the focal point for reproductive health services in the near future." Results indicate that "hierarchical modes of interaction and poor communication dominated many of the encounters, and women had to beg for services in some clinics.... Most clients expressed a willingness to overlook rude treatment, long waits and unhygienic conditions, saying that because they were poor, they could not expect better care and had no service alternatives."
Correspondence: S. R. Schuler, JSI Research and Training Institute, 1616 North Fort Meyer Drive, 11th Floor, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10287 Stein, Karen; Measham, Diana; Winikoff, Beverly. The quality of family planning services for breastfeeding women in Senegal. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 188-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from an operations research study of all family planning service delivery sites in Senegal were used to assess the management of contraceptive services for lactating women visiting the clinics for the first time.... Although most providers knew the correct advice to give breastfeeding women, 21% of the women were not asked their breastfeeding status during the clinic visit, and more than one-third accepted estrogen-containing contraceptives (which are not recommended for breastfeeding women)."
Correspondence: K. Stein, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10288 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). The sexual and reproductive health of adolescents: a review of UNFPA programme experience. UNFPA Technical Report, No. 43, ISBN 0-89714-509-7. 1998. [vi], 86, [5] pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The report presents a review of projects and programmes supported by the United Nations Population Fund designed to meet adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) needs. Projects and programmes dating back to 1989...have been analyzed through file studies for the purpose of documenting the scope of UNFPA support to this field and to highlight examples of best practices, achievements, lessons learned and challenges for the future.... The report analyzes programmes supported at the interregional level and for each of the five regions Africa, Asia and Pacific, Arab States, Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean."
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10289 United States. Agency for International Development [USAID] (Washington, D.C.). From commitment to action: meeting the challenge of ICPD. Jan 1999. 34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The report highlights the range of USAID programs in family planning, reproductive health, and women's empowerment, and the progress that has been made toward meeting the goals of the ICPD [International Conference on Population and Development] Program of Action.... Contact information for many of USAID's partners can be found at the back of this report."
Correspondence: U.S. Agency for International Development, Center for Population, Health and Nutrition, Information Unit, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20523-3600. E-mail: phn@usaid.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

65:10290 Bankole, Akinrinola; Westoff, Charles F. The consistency and validity of reproductive attitudes: evidence from Morocco. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 4, Oct 1998. 439-55 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, the recently completed panel survey in Morocco by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) was used to investigate the consistency of reporting of ideal number of children, reproductive intentions and the planning status of the last birth. The validity of reproductive intentions for subsequent fertility behaviour was also examined. The findings indicate that the three measures of reproductive attitudes are subject to different degrees of measurement error. The measure of reproductive intentions is the most consistent of the three, followed by ideal number of children."
Correspondence: A. Bankole, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10291 Calvès, Anne-Emmanuèle; Meekers, Dominique. Marital status and the value of children in Cameroon. [Status matrimonial et valuer des enfants au Cameroun.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 47, ISBN 2-87762-108-1. Sep 1997. 29 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The analysis of data from the 1991 Cameroon Demographic Health Survey (CDHS) demonstrates that married women, women in co-residential informal unions, and women in non-co-residential informal unions have different perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of having many children.... The results also show that non-co-residential and co-residential informal unions are conceptually different from marriages, which strongly suggests that the reported increases in the prevalence of informal unions in many African societies indicate an important change in the African family, the implications of which are still poorly understood."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10292 Haughton, Jonathan; Haughton, Dominique. Are simple tests of son preference useful? An evaluation using data from Vietnam. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1998. 495-516 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Ideally son preference should be measured in the context of a hazards or parity progression model of fertility, or a logistic model of contraceptive use.... Can son preference be discerned reliably using tests which rely on more limited information? The answer is yes, based on applying eight simple tests to data from the Vietnam Living Standards Survey of 1992-93 and comparing the outcomes with the benchmark results from fuller models. Some, but not all, of the simpler tests accurately measure son preference...."
Correspondence: J. Haughton, Suffolk University, Department of Economics, Boston, MA 02114. E-mail: haughton@world.std.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10293 Kalda, R.; Sarapuu, H.; Pikk, A.; Lember, M. Sex education and contraceptive methods: knowledge and sources of information among the Estonian population. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1998. 121-30 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study provides an overview of the knowledge of various contraceptive methods and sources of information as well as attitudes towards family planning and sex education among the Estonian adult population.... This survey shows that the respondents' knowledge of contraceptive methods was not adequate. There were no significant differences among the various age and sex groups. However, the oldest [40-50-year-old] female group tended to be slightly better informed. At the same time, the youngest age groups had somewhat less knowledge."
Correspondence: R. Kalda, University of Tartu, Department of Family Medicine, Puusepa 1a, 2400 Tartu, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10294 Ku, Leighton; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Lindberg, Laura D.; Bradner, Carolyn H.; Boggess, Scott; Pleck, Joseph H. Understanding changes in sexual activity among young metropolitan men: 1979-1995. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 256-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data on the sexual behavior, sexual attitudes, educational experiences and demographics of 2,087 never-married metropolitan males aged 17-19 from the 1979 [U.S.] National Survey of Young Men and the 1988 and 1995 waves of the National Survey of Adolescent Males were analyzed through multivariate methods to examine factors that predict sexual behavior as well as those that predict sexual attitudes.... More conservative sexual attitudes and increased exposure to AIDS education are key predictors of decreased sexual activity among adolescent males. However, broader societal factors, such as fear of AIDS and increased awareness of problems associated with teenage pregnancy and STDs, may underlie both attitudinal and behavioral changes."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. Ku, Urban Institute, Population Studies Center, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10295 Larsen, Ulla; Chung, Woojin; Das Gupta, Monica. Fertility and son preference in Korea. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 3, Nov 1998. 317-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the notion that son preference hinders fertility decline, and examines the effects of patriarchal relations and modernization on fertility using the 1991 [South] Korea National Fertility and Family Health Survey. It was found that women who have a son are less likely to have another child, and that women with a son who do progress to have another child, take longer to conceive the subsequent child.... A multivariate analysis showed that preference for male offspring, patriarchy, and modernization are all strong predictors of second, third, and fourth conceptions."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10296 Latten, J. J.; Vinkers, J. Family building in the Netherlands and in Norway. [Relatie- en gezinsvorming in Nederland en Noorwegen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 11, Nov 1998. 12-23 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors compare fertility and family characteristics in the Netherlands and Norway. "Recent economic-demographic scenarios for the Netherlands all expect rising female labour force participation.... If the observed relations between emancipation and demographic behaviour continue, this would imply that in the Netherlands non-marital cohabitation will encroach further on marriage, that the number of non-marital births will increase and that the frequency of dissolution of relationships will further increase. On the other hand, in the present Dutch situation more highly educated people have fewer children than less educated people, whereas this phenomenon does not occur in Norway."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10297 Little, Paul; Glew, Christine; Kelly, Joanne; Griffin, Simon; Dickson, Nigel; Sadler, Caroline. Contraceptive knowledge: development of a valid measure and survey of pill users and general practitioners. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 3, Oct 1998. 98-100 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We report the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess contraceptive knowledge in combined oral contraceptive pill users in primary care, and report predictors of knowledge among pill users [in England].... Women taking the pill have poor knowledge of what to do in situations of pill failure and about the details of emergency contraceptions, which is likely to contribute to the high level of unwanted pregnancy in this country."
Correspondence: P. Little, University of Southampton, Primary Medical Care Group, Aldermoor Health Centre, Aldermoor Close, Southampton SO16 5ST, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10298 Marleau, Jacques; Maheu, Martine. Boy or girl? Men's and women's choices for the only child. [Un garçon ou une fille? Le choix des femmes et des hommes à l'égard d'un seul enfant.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 1,033-41 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Based on a review of the available literature, most of which concerns the situation in North America, the authors analyze the preferences expressed by men and women concerning the sex of only children, and the demographic and psychosocial factors that affect that preference. The authors note that men's preferences for having a son have remained constant over the past 45 years. Women's preferences, if they have any, tend to be for a daughter.
Correspondence: J. Marleau, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10299 McKibben, Bill. Maybe one: a personal and environmental argument for single-child families. ISBN 0-684-85281-0. LC 98-5417. 1998. 254 pp. Simon and Schuster: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author "takes on the most controversial of environmental problems--population. We live in a unique and dangerous time, he asserts, when the planet's limits are being tested and voluntary reductions in American childbearing could make a crucial difference.... McKibben maintains that bringing one, and no more than one, child into this world will hurt neither your family nor our nation--indeed, it can be an optimistic step toward the future.... [He] cites new and extensive research about the developmental strengths of only children; he finds that single kids are not spoiled, weird, selfish, or asocial, but pretty much the same as everyone else."
Correspondence: Simon and Schuster, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10300 Mutharayappa, R.; Choe, Minja Kim; Arnold, Fred; Roy, T. K. Is son preference slowing down India's transition to low fertility? National Family Health Survey Bulletin, No. 4, Jan 1997. 4 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This issue...examines fertility levels and indicators of son preference in 19 Indian states, analyses the impact of son preference on fertility decline, and offers policy recommendations for alleviating some of the constraints that son preference imposes on India's social and economic development."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10301 Neema, Stella. Conducting successful focus groups and analysis: experience from a pilot study on family planning and sexual behaviour in the era of HIV/AIDS and STDs. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 175-89 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
A pilot study "using four focus group discussions (FGDs)...was undertaken in Kampala district [Uganda] among sexually active men and female contraceptive users and non-users. The pilot focus group discussions were conducted to test FGD guidelines developed to collect contextual and attitudinal data on family planning and issues related to sexual health in the community. A further aim of the pilot study was to develop a coding schedule for the analysis of focus groups discussions and to formulate tips for conducting and analyzing successful FGDs and their analysis to assist other researchers."
Correspondence: S. Neema, Makerere University, Makerere Institute of Social Research, P.O. Box 16022, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10302 Ojha, Ashutosh. The effect of sex preference on fertility in selected states of India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1998. 42-8 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The present study was designed with the objectives of examining the variations in sex preference among contraceptive users in selected states of India, and assessing the applicability of contraceptive use as the indicator for measuring the overall impact of sex preference on fertility in the Indian context.... It is clear that there is sex preference for sons in all the selected states of India."
Correspondence: A. Ojha, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10303 Perkins, Annabel. Media influence and differential fertility preference formation of couples in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 66-81 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The paper investigates determinants of differential ideal family size of couples in two Sub-Saharan African countries, Ghana and Kenya. Whilst the theory of positive assortative mating and prior empirical evidence suggest that couples agree on ideal family size, cross-country means are found to mask the extent to which couples disagree. Using data on the percentage of couples whose ideal family sizes do not coincide, substantially more disagreement emerges.... The analysis pinpoints exposure to radio broadcasts as a major determinant of ideal family size, with the apparent effects greater for husbands than wives."
Correspondence: A. Perkins, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10304 Singh, Kaushalendra K.; Bloom, Shelah S.; Tsui, Amy O. Husbands' reproductive health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in Uttar Pradesh, India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 4, Dec 1998. 388-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To enhance the reproductive health status of couples in developing countries, the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of both women and men must be investigated, especially where women depend on men for the decision to seek care. This study analyzes data from a survey of 6,727 husbands from five districts in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Data are presented on men's knowledge of women's health and on their own sexual behavior outside the context of marriage, on their perceptions of sexual morbidity and their attempts at treatment for specific conditions, and on their opinions concerning the social role of wives."
Correspondence: A. O. Tsui, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, Room 302B, CB #8120, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10305 Thomson, Elizabeth. Her, his and their children: influences on couple childbearing decisions. NSFH Working Paper, No. 76, Mar 1, 1997. 32 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this paper, I use data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to investigate effects of her, his and their children on [couples'] childbearing intentions and behavior. The analysis is limited to couples in which the wife was under 40 at the time of the NSFH interview, i.e., couples still in their childbearing years. The risk of a subsequent birth is observed over a period averaging six years after the initial interviews in 1987-88."
The full text of this paper is available on the Web at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/nsfhwp/home.htm.
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Author's E-mail: thomson@ssc.wisc.edu.

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

65:10306 Addor, V.; Ferron, C.; Narring, F.; Michaud, P. A. Induced abortion in a Swiss canton from 1990 to 1993: implications for epidemiological monitoring. [Interruptions de grossesse dans un canton suisse de 1990 à 1993: implications pour la surveillance épidémiologique.] Revue d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Vol. 45, No. 6, Dec 1997. 474-82 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors "describe abortion utilization in the Canton of Vaud (Switzerland) and...identify desirable changes in the data collection system to improve the epidemiologic monitoring.... Nine women out of 1,000 residents requested an abortion, but the abortion rate was higher among women of foreign origin compared to Swiss women.... The abortion rate was lower during adolescence...or after 40 years of age...whereas the proportion of terminated conceptions was highest at these ages...."
Correspondence: V. Addor, Institut Universitaire de Médecine Sociale et Préventive de Lausanne, 17 rue du Bugnon, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland. E-mail: veronique.addor@inst.hospvd.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10307 Cabezas-García, Evelio; Langer-Glass, Ana; Alvarez-Vázquez, Luisa; Bustamante, Patricia. Sociodemographic profile of induced abortion. [Perfil sociodemográfico del aborto inducido.] Salud Pública de México, Vol. 40, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 265-71 pp. Morelos, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors aim "to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with induced abortion of the first pregnancy and quantify the strength of association between them [in] Havana, Cuba throughout 1991 and the beginning of 1992.... The sociodemographic characteristic identified as [a] risk factor for induced abortion during the first pregnancy is being younger than 24 years of age, a risk which increased with women who were less than 20 years old, whether single or in union."
Correspondence: E. Cabezas-García, Dirección de General Salud Reproductiva, Secretaría de Salud, Insurgentes Sur 1397, Mexico City, 03920 DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10308 Guttmacher, Sally; Kapadia, Farzana; Naude, Jim T. W.; de Pinho, Helen. Abortion reform in South Africa: a case study of the 1996 Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 191-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the policies that have regulated accessibility of abortion [in South Africa] and assesses their impact on reproductive health. We also describe the newly enacted legislation, and examine some of the difficulties that will need to be overcome to ensure that women derive full benefit from the law."
Correspondence: S. Guttmacher, New York University, School of Education, Department of Health Studies, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10309 Henshaw, Stanley K. Abortion incidence and services in the United States, 1995-1996. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 263-70, 287 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides new information on the number and geographic distribution of [U.S.] abortion providers as of 1996, and updates national and state-level data on the number of abortions performed and abortion rates. The availability of abortion services by state, metropolitan area and county is documented and compared with past years. Also described are trends in the types of providers, the extent to which early medical abortion is used, the frequency of dilation and extraction abortions, and the other services offered by abortion providers. The data are derived from the 12th national survey by the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) of all known abortion providers."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10310 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Singh, Susheela; Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A.; Adewole, Isaac F.; Iwere, Ngozi; Cuca, Yvette P. The incidence of induced abortion in Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 156-64 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The principal goal of this article is to estimate the current level of abortion in Nigeria, including both the number of abortions performed by physicians in private clinics and hospitals and the number performed by nonphysician practitioners and by women themselves. A secondary goal is to produce a comprehensive profile of the provision of abortion services in the country as a whole." Results indicate that "each year, Nigerian women obtain approximately 610,000 abortions, a rate of 25 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44.... An estimated 40% of abortions are performed by physicians in established health facilities, while the rest are performed by nonphysician providers."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10311 International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. East and South East Asia and Oceania Region (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). Country experiences on abortion. Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines and Japan. [1993]. iv, 107 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at the IPPF-ESEAOR Regional Programme Advisory Panel Meeting on Abortion, held October 30-31, 1993, in Bali, Indonesia. The papers "raise basic issues and concerns such as the lack of accurate information on abortion, the kind of care given to women who seek abortion or suffer from abortion complications, and barriers to providing safe abortion services.... The authors highlighted the need for information and a better understanding of the sexual behavior, fertility control practices and the psychosocial effects of abortion among adolescents. They underscored the existing gap in services and the need for more appropriate policies and programmes for this age group."
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, ESEAOR Field Office, 246 Jalan Ampang, 50450 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10312 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Socio-demographic characteristics of women applying for interruption of pregnancy in Israel, 1995. Current Briefings in Statistics, No. 25, Jul 1998. 41, xv pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
This publication presents data on the demographic and social characteristics of the 18,145 women who submitted applications to the Pregnancy Termination Approval Boards for permission to terminate their pregnancies in 1995. Of these requests, 17,627 were approved.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, P.O. Box 13015, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. E-mail: yaell@cbs.gov.il. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10313 Johansson, Annika; Nga, Nguyen Thu; Huy, Tran Quang; Dat, Doan Du; Holmgren, Kristina. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 4, Dec 1998. 400-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance.... Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed."
Correspondence: A. Johansson, Karolinska Institutet, Division of Public Health Sciences, IHCAR, Unit for International Health Care Research, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10314 Kolonovits, Dieter. Restrictions on abortion funding in the USA and in Austria. Zeitschrift für Öffentliches Recht, Vol. 52, No. 4, 1997. 477-526 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"The question how the legal system should treat the abortion issue has been answered in many different ways throughout the world.... In this paper the approach taken by two different legal systems, the U.S. legal system and the Austrian legal system, will be compared.... I will [first] examine one area in the [U.S.] abortion context, namely the question of public funding of abortions in...detail.... The second part of the article will...give an introduction to the Austrian law on abortion in general. The order of treatment of the relevant law will basically follow the approach taken [in] the discussion of the U.S. law. This will facilitate the comparison of the two different legal systems."
Correspondence: D. Kolonovits, Universität Wien, Institut für Staats- und Verwaltungsrecht, Schottenbastei 10-16, 1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: University of Iowa, Law Library, Iowa City, IA.

65:10315 Levine, Phillip B.; Staiger, Douglas; Kane, Thomas J.; Zimmerman, David J. Roe v Wade and American fertility. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 2, Feb 1999. 199-203 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors attempt to estimate the effect of abortion legislation on fertility in the United States by comparing fertility rates among states that varied in the timing of such legislation. They conclude that "a complete recriminalization of abortion nationwide could result in 440,000 additional births per year. A reversal of the Roe v Wade decision leaving abortion legal in some states would substantially limit this impact because of the extent of travel between states."
Correspondence: P. B. Levine, Wellesley College, Department of Economics, Wellesley, MA 02181. E-mail: plevine@wellesley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10316 Lichter, Daniel T.; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Ribar, David C. State abortion policy, geographic access to abortion providers and changing family formation. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 281-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"State and county fixed-effects models were used to estimate the effects of factors influencing [U.S.] abortion availability--geographic access, parental notification requirements and Medicaid funding restrictions--on the county-level proportion of women heading households.... Welfare reform legislation and attempts to reduce the availability of abortion services in the United States appear to be working at cross-purposes. Cutbacks in access to abortion may have contributed modestly to the increase in the proportion of women heading households."
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10317 McDonagh, Eileen L. Breaking the abortion deadlock: from choice to consent. ISBN 0-19-509141-8. LC 95-25899. 1996. xiii, 280 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Drawing on the traditional legal doctrine of consent, [the author] constructs a powerful, new, women-centered framework for abortion rights based on a woman's right to consent to pregnancy. [Her] analysis turns anti-abortion rhetoric and anti-abortion state policy on their heads, and offers a strong foundation for abortion rights generally and the government's obligation to provide Medicaid funding for abortions for poor women more particularly." The geographical focus is primarily on the United States.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10318 Misago, Chizuru; Fonseca, Walter; Correia, Luciano; Fernandes, Lucilia M.; Campbell, Oona. Determinants of abortion among women admitted to hospitals in Fortaleza, North Eastern Brazil. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, Oct 1998. 833-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to present the findings on the determinants and medical characteristics of abortions among women admitted to hospitals...[in] October 1992 and September 1993 in Fortaleza, Brazil.... Women with an induced abortion as compared with those with [who are unlikely to have had an] induced abortion are younger, more often not married, have fewer children alive and experienced one or more previous induced abortions. We have not found any important differences with regard to complication or duration of stay in hospital."
Correspondence: C. Misago, Institute of Women and Child Health, 15 Rua Silva Jatahy, Sala 801, Fortaleza 60165-070, Ceará, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10319 Mpangile, Gottlieb S.; Leshabari, Melckizedek T.; Kaaya, Sylvia; Kihwele, David. Abortion and unmet need for contraception in Tanzania--the role of male partners in teenage induced abortion in Dar es Salaam. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 108-21 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper presents information from 150 teenage abortion patients on their knowledge and use history of available contraceptive methods, and the role played by male partners in facilitating induced abortions in Dar es Salaam [Tanzania].... Findings of the study revealed that the majority of young adolescents (88%) did not know of any method they could use to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. Further, although the majority of the partners of these teenage girls advised abortion, less than one third of the men were willing to identify an abortionist, pay the fees required, or provide assistance when complications developed."
Correspondence: G. S. Mpangile, IPPF Regional Office for Africa, Madison Insurance House, Upper Hill Road/Ngong Road, P.O. Box 30234, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10320 Nossiff, Rosemary. Discourse, party, and policy: the case of abortion, 1965-1972. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 26, No. 2, Summer 1998. 244-56 pp. Carbondale, Illinois. In Eng.
"The parameters of the contemporary [U.S.] abortion debate were established in the pre-Roe period between 1965 and 1972, when groups and forces on the state and national level competed to redefine the issue in order to pass new policies regulating it. This article traces the abortion politics of New York and Pennsylvania, the two states that led the nation in creating abortion policies before Roe, by looking at the relationship between the discourses created by various groups, the degree of party support they received, and the disparate policies that each state passed as a result."
Correspondence: R. Nossiff, Rutgers State University, Department of Political Science, Newark, NJ 07102. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10321 Simon, Rita J. Abortion: statutes, policies, and public attitudes the world over. ISBN 0-275-96060-9. LC 98-14928. 1998. viii, 154 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned series of volumes that will examine major global public policy issues using an explicitly comparative approach. This volume is concerned with induced abortion. "Following a brief historical introduction, the major section of this volume is divided into (1) a report on the legal statutes pertaining to abortion in the selective countries and (2) an account of public attitudes toward abortion based on responses to national public opinion polls. There is also a discussion of the relationships between the laws and statutes pertaining to abortion and the nations' policies vis-à-vis population growth and control."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10322 Tatalovich, Raymond. The abortion controversy in Canada and the United States. Canadian-American Public Policy, No. 25, ISBN 1-882582-13-6. Feb 1996. 39 pp. University of Maine, Canadian-American Center: Orono, Maine. In Eng.
"The political dynamics and policy processes which have affected the abortion controversy in the United States and Canada offer a unique opportunity for cross-cultural research on how regimes of fundamentally unlike character cope with contentious disputes over morality. While there are excellent case studies of abortion politics in the United States and in Canada, none offers a comparative perspective of both countries from common vantage points.... This comparative analysis offers mixed findings about whether the similarities or the differences are greater.... The similarities seem to be rooted in cultural and socio-economic forces, whereas the differences are linked to institutional arrangements."
Correspondence: University of Maine, Canadian-American Center, 154 College Avenue, Orono, ME 04473-1591. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10323 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Abortion surveillance: preliminary analysis--United States, 1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 47, No. 47, Dec 4, 1998. 1,025-35 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"For 1996, CDC compiled data about legal induced abortions from the 50 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia. The total number of legal induced abortions was available from all reporting areas; however, not all areas collected information about the characteristics of women who obtained abortions. This report presents preliminary data for 1996; final abortion data for 1996 will be published during spring 1999."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10324 Vach, Trinh Huu; Bishop, Amie; Hoa, Vuong Thi; Hien, Luong Xuan; Chien, Tran Dinh; Nguyen, Tuong I. The potential impact of introducing pregnancy testing into menstrual regulation services in Vietnam. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Dec 1998. 165-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Researchers provided pregnancy testing to 923 consecutive women seeking menstrual regulation at a government clinic in rural Thai Binh Province, Vietnam, to determine the proportion of unnecessary procedures being performed. They also estimated the costs and savings of using pregnancy testing before menstrual regulation.... Of women seeking menstrual regulation, 17% had negative pregnancy tests. If this proportion is applicable to Vietnam as a whole, some 136,000 of the estimated 800,000 menstrual regulation procedures performed each year are unnecessary."
Correspondence: T. H. Vach, Thai Binh Medical College, Research Center for Rural Population and Health, Thai Binh, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10325 West, Robin; Ireland, Patricia; O'Connor, Karen; McDonagh, Eileen. Breaking the abortion deadlock? Twenty-five years after Roe v. Wade. Studies in American Political Development, Vol. 12, No. 1, Spring 1998. 204-28 pp. New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"In recognition of the intense debates that continue to surround the question of [U.S.] abortion rights, the editors present [this] forum, based on Eileen McDonagh's recent book, Breaking the Abortion Deadlock.... McDonagh forges a bold constitutional argument for abortion rights, one she places squarely in the tradition of American liberalism. She reframes the abortion issue, from a woman's right of privacy...to a woman's right to consent to what another entity, the fetus, does to her by implanting itself in her body.... McDonagh's further claim is that reformulating abortion rights on the basis of a woman's right to consent to pregnancy also invokes a constitutional right to abortion funding."
Correspondence: R. West, Georgetown University, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:10326 World Health Organization [WHO] (Geneva, Switzerland). Unsafe abortion. Global and regional estimates of incidence of and mortality due to unsafe abortion with a listing of available country data. Pub. Order No. WHO/RHT/MSM/97.16. 1998. 109 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This document brings together, in a standard format, data on the incidence of and mortality due to unsafe abortion worldwide. The tabulations consist of data collected from a variety of sources, including health service reporting and surveys. Regional and global estimates have been derived from data in the country listings. A description of materials and methods is included.... It is estimated that every year almost 20 million unsafe abortions take place in developing countries where the risk of death is estimated at 1 in 260 abortion procedures. Worldwide almost 80,000 women die as a consequence of unsafe abortion."
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Office of Publications, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

65:10327 Manning, J. T.; Scutt, D.; Lewis-Jones, D. I. Development stability, ejaculate size, and sperm quality in men. Evolution and Human Behavior, Vol. 19, No. 5, Sep 1998. 273-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"There is accumulating evidence that women prefer symmetric men. This preference would be adaptive if symmetry was correlated with a fitness trait such as fertility. We show that, in a sample of 53 men from an infertility clinic [in Liverpool, England], a measure of overall absolute fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in digits 2 to 5 was negatively related to sperm number per ejaculate, sperm speed, and sperm migration, and overall relative FA was negatively related to sperm number and sperm speed.... Controlling for weight, height, and age left sperm number, sperm speed, and sperm migration significantly related to both absolute and relative FA."
Correspondence: J. T. Manning, University of Liverpool, School of Biological Science, Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Nicholson Building, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L6G 3BX, England. E-mail: jtmann@liv.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10328 Morabia, Alfredo; Costanza, Michael C. International variability in ages at menarche, first livebirth, and menopause. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 148, No. 12, Dec 15, 1998. 1,195-205 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study describes the variability in reproductive factors [such as menarche, first birth, and menopause] across populations in Europe, the Americas, Asia, Australia, and Africa. The study sample consisted of 18,997 women from 13 centers in 11 countries interviewed between 1979 and 1988 who comprised the control group in a World Health Organization international, multicenter case-control study of female cancers.... The median ages at menarche varied across centers from 13 to 16 years. For all centers, the median age at first livebirth was 20 or more years, with the largest observed median (25 years) occurring in China. The median delay from menarche to first livebirth ranged from 5 to 11 years. Among the centers, the median age at natural menopause ranged between 49 and 52 years.... These results reveal, perhaps for the first time, the variability of reproductive histories across different populations in a large variety of geographic and cultural settings. Except for menopause, international variability is substantial for both biologically related variables (age at menarche) and culturally related variables (age at first birth). There is a generational effect, characterized by more variability of age at first birth and delay to first birth in the younger than in the older generations."
Correspondence: A. Morabia, Geneva University Hospital, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10329 Park, Chai Bin; Islam, Mohamed A.; Chakraborty, Nitai; Kantner, Andrew. Partitioning the effect of infant and child death on subsequent fertility: an exploration in Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 3, Nov 1998. 345-56 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A method of partitioning the fertility impact of infant and child death into two components--a physiological and a behavioural effect--is proposed by use of the Cox hazard model with three dummy variables that indicate the time of child death and the status of breastfeeding with reference to the return of menstruation postpartum. An application of the method to the 1991 Bangladesh Contraceptive Prevalence Survey data suggests that the effect from the physiological mechanism outweighed the effect from the behaviourial mechanism.... It appears that the effect of a child death declined over time and an early cessation of breastfeeding was not the sole cause for invoking the physiological mechanism."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: C. B. Park, University of Hawaii, School of Public Health, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

65:10330 Munoz-Pérez, Francisco; Prioux, France. Born outside marriage. [Naître hors mariage.] Population et Sociétés, No. 342, Jan 1999. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a description of the situation in France regarding births outside marriage. Currently, 300,000 children are born outside marriage every year in France, up from 50,000 children per year just 30 years ago. The authors show how the marked increase in births outside marriage is closely related to a simultaneous increase in the number of consensual unions in France. Data are provided on the legal recognition of children before birth by one or more parents; last names of children born outside marriage; and marriages of cohabiting parents after the birth of children.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.