Volume 65 - Number 1 - Spring 1999

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications.

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

65:10087 Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos [INDEC] (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Mortality in Argentina between 1980 and 1991. [La mortalidad en la Argentina entre 1980 y 1991.] Serie Análisis Demográfico, No. 9, ISBN 950-896-118-X. LC 97-224172. 1997. 164 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
This is an analysis of mortality trends in Argentina from 1980 to 1991. There are chapters on the level and structure of general and infant mortality, trends in causes of death, and an analysis of mortality by region using the methodology of years of life lost.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, Centro Estadístico de Servicios, Julio A. Roca 615 P.B., 1067 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10088 Becker, Charles M.; Hemley, David D. Demographic change in the former Soviet Union during the transition period. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1998. 1,957-75 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines patterns of mortality and other demographic changes across the former Soviet Union. Using regional data from the early 1990s, a simultaneous equations model of fertility, marriage, divorce, infant mortality and abortion is estimated as a function of economic and social variables. The paper then looks at determinants of life expectancy and specific causes of death. Demographic scenarios are then forecast on the basis of specific economic environments; these forecasts in turn are used to forecast life expectancies in the coming decades. In plausible environments, there is little reason to anticipate a rapid recovery in male or female life expectancies, while further declines in fertility appear imminent."
Correspondence: C. M. Becker, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10089 Becker, Stan; Weng, Shigui. Seasonal patterns of deaths in Matlab, Bangladesh. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, Oct 1998. 814-23 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Analyses of deaths for the years 1972-1974 from the vital registration system of Matlab, Bangladesh, published in this journal 17 years ago, showed sinusoidal seasonal patterns.... The present study examines monthly counts of deaths from Matlab data for a period 15 years later and tests the hypothesis of a decrease or shift in seasonality over time.... In the recent period significant sinusoidal seasonal patterns are found in all but one of the age and cause of death groups.... Among cause groups, injury deaths (mostly attributed to drowning) show the greatest seasonal swing."
Correspondence: S. Becker, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10090 Bennett, Neil G.; Bloom, David E.; Ivanov, Serguey F. Demographic implications of the Russian mortality crisis. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1998. 1,921-37 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The Russian mortality crisis of 1990-95 represents the most precipitous decline in national life expectancy ever recorded in the absence of war, oppression, famine, or major disease. Using standard demographic techniques, we develop a model Russian mortality schedule. Applying this schedule, we estimate that there were 1.36 to 1.57 million premature deaths during 1990-95, equivalent to between 14 and 16% of all deaths recorded in Russia during that period. The deaths were distributed unevenly among the population, with approximately 70% occurring among men, and a disproportionate number among working-age individuals. Overall, the 1990-95 crisis cost between 25 and 34 million person-years lived.... The repercussions of the 1990-95 mortality crisis in Russia and its aftermath will be felt for decades to come. We estimate that Russia's population will be about 7.5 million less in 2025 than it would have been had the crisis not occurred. The male female ratio will also be reduced, particularly among the elderly. Perhaps the only silver lining of the crisis is that it will dampen the expected increase in Russia's elderly dependency ratio, thereby decreasing the burden on the public pension system."
Correspondence: N. G. Bennett, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10091 Bloom, David E.; Malaney, Pia N. Macroeconomic consequences of the Russian mortality crisis. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1998. 2,073-85 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines macroeconomic consequences of the Russian mortality crisis. Life expectancy in Russia decreased from 70 to 65 years during the first half of the 1990s, which we estimate accounts for approximately 1.6 million excess deaths during 1990-95. Coupled with its disproportionate impact on working age males, the large number of excess deaths suggests the crisis may have had a significant negative impact on the level and growth of Russia's per capita income. We estimate the economic costs of the crisis using two alternative approaches. First, we estimate the capitalized value of the income forgone due to the crisis, which represents between 1.8 and 2.7% of Russia's 1990 GDP.... Second, we estimate the parameters of a macroeconomic growth model and use it to calculate the effect of the crisis on Russia's rate of economic growth.... The paper also discusses the effects of the crisis on other macroeconomic variables such as income inequality and the fiscal balance of the pension system. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible new approaches to modeling the two-way linkages between health status and economic growth."
Correspondence: D. E. Bloom, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10092 Brainerd, Elizabeth. Market reform and mortality in transition economies. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1998. 2,013-27 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The striking increase in mortality rates in Russia in the early 1990s occurred simultaneously with the government's erratic attempts to introduce market reforms. Other transition economies, such as Poland and the Czech Republic, avoided increases in death rates while they implemented rapid and deep reforms. Is there a link between mortality and the speed or depths of reforms, as suggested by other researchers...? This paper uses aggregate data on 22 transition economies for 1989-94 to investigate this question. While the relationship between an index of reform progress and death rates is ambiguous, death rates in these countries are correlated with measures of reform success, such as GDP growth and the inflation rate. Higher crime rates and higher unemployment rates are also related to larger increases in death rates."
Correspondence: E. Brainerd, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10093 Eberstadt, Nicholas. Mortality and the fate of Communist states. In: Science with a human face: in honor of Roger Randall Revelle, edited by Robert Dorfman and Peter P. Rogers. Jul 1997. 109-38 pp. Harvard University, School of Public Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author analyzes the long-term stagnation in life expectancy in Soviet bloc countries. He "examines some characteristic differences in mortality trends between those areas in which Communist rule has recently collapsed and those in which it continues, and speculates about the significance of the distinction. [He then] discusses the significance of current mortality trends for post-Communist societies, especially as they pertain to the prospective transition to a stable economic and political order."
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10094 India. Office of the Registrar General (New Delhi, India). Mortality differentials by age and sex in India 1983-93. SRS Analytical Studies, No. 2, 1996. 142 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present report aims at providing statistics in respect of mortality levels by age and sex for India and major states. The period covered in this analysis is 1983 to 1993 for which detailed data on mortality and associated population at risk are readily available from the SRS [Sample Registration System]."
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, V. S. Division, West Block, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 066, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10095 Johannesson, Magnus; Johansson, Per-Olov. Saving lives in the present versus saving lives in the future--is there a framing effect? Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Vol. 15, No. 2, Nov 1997. 167-76 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This study considers how to compare programs that are designed to save lives. "To estimate the discount rate for lives saved in the future a number of studies have been carried out on the trade-off between saving lives now and in the future. A telephone survey is administered to about 1,700 individuals [in Sweden] to test if the framing of the question affects the estimated trade-off. In one sample the question is framed as saving 100 lives today versus saving x future lives and in one sample the question is framed as saving 100 future lives versus saving y lives today. The result shows that the framing has a major impact on the trade-off."
Correspondence: M. Johannesson, Stockholm School of Economics, Economic Research Institute, Box 6501, 11383 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10096 Kennedy, Bruce P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Brainerd, Elizabeth. The role of social capital in the Russian mortality crisis. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1998. 2,029-43 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper was to examine the role of social capital in the Russian mortality crisis. Social capital has been defined as those features of social organization--such as the density of civic associations, levels of interpersonal trust, and norms of reciprocity--that act as resources for individuals, and facilitate collective action.... Using household survey data from the All-Russian Center for Public Opinion research (VTsIOM), we carried out a cross-sectional, ecologic analysis of the association between indicators of social capital and mortality rates across 40 regions of Russia. We found associations between indicators of social capital (mistrust in government, crime, quality of work relations, civic engagement in politics) and life expectancy, as well as mortality rates. In the absence of civil society, it is believed that far more people in post-Soviet Russia rely on informal sources of support (friends, family) to deal with their day to day problems. Those lacking such sources of support may have been especially vulnerable to the economic hardships following the transformation to a market economy."
Correspondence: B. P. Kennedy, Harvard University, School of Public Health, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10097 McGee, Daniel L.; Liao, Youlian; Cao, Guichan; Cooper, Richard S. Self-reported health status and mortality in a multiethnic U.S. cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 1, Jan 1, 1999. 41-6 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors examined the relation between self-reported health status and mortality among the following racial/ethnic groups: Native Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, blacks, whites, and Hispanics. They pooled 1986-1994 data from the [U.S.] National Health Interview Survey to obtain information on more than 700,000 cohort participants.... The authors found strong associations between self-reported health status and both socioeconomic status and subsequent mortality. A self-report of fair or poor health was associated with at least a twofold increased risk of mortality for all racial/ethnic groups. Even after adjustment for socioeconomic status and measures of comorbidity, a significant relation was found between self-reported health status and subsequent mortality. The authors found that self-reported health status is a strong prognostic indicator for subsequent mortality for both genders and all racial/ethnic groups examined. These results emphasize the utility of using simple filter questions in population research."
Correspondence: D. L. McGee, Loyola University School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Maywood, IL 60153. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10098 Pienta, Amy M.; Hayward, Mark D.; McLaughlin, Diane K. Life course pathways and risk of death: a cause of death analysis among older men. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 98-10, Jul 1998. 28 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Our analysis investigates how life cycle SES [socioeconomic status] influences mortality generally, and we evaluate whether the patterning of life cycle SES effects is sensitive to the major causes of death. Cause-specific mortality models are estimated using 24 years of prospective data (combined with retrospective information) for a nationally representative cohort of older [U.S.] men.... We also evaluate the extent to which lifestyle factors intervene in the SES-mortality relationship."
Correspondence: A. M. Pienta, Wayne State University, Institute of Gerontology, 87 East Ferry Street, 226 Knapp Building, Detroit, MI 48202. E-mail: pienta@iog.wayne.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10099 Puska, P.; Vartiainen, E.; Tuomilehto, J.; Salomaa, V.; Nissinen, A. Changes in premature deaths in Finland: successful long-term prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Vol. 76, No. 4, 1998. 419-25 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article describes the long-term consequences of successful cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and its influence on premature mortality in Finland, with special reference to North Karelia.... Among men there was a great reduction in deaths from CHD [coronary heart disease], CVD, cancer, and all causes in the whole country. From 1969-71 to 1995 the age-standardized CHD mortality...decreased in North Karelia by 73%...and nationwide by 65%.... The reduction in CVD mortality was of the same magnitude. Among men, CHD mortality decreased in the 1970s, as did lung cancer mortality in the 1980s and 1990s, significantly more in North Karelia than in all of Finland. Among women there was a great reduction in CVD (including CHD and stroke) mortality and all-causes mortality, but only a small reduction in cancer mortality."
Correspondence: P. Puska, National Public Health Institute of Finland, Division of Health and Chronic Diseases, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10100 Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.; Cornia, Giovanni A.; Leon, David A.; Meslé, France. Causes of the Russian mortality crisis: evidence and interpretations. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov 1998. 1,995-2,011 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"During 1992-94 life expectancy at birth in Russia dropped by 6.1 years for men and by 3.3 years for women. Very little individual-level evidence linking mortality experience with social conditions and behaviors is available. This article puts together evidence from analysis of routinely collected data on changes in Russian mortality. These data suggest that the mortality upsurge cannot be attributed to absolute deprivation, collapse of the health system or environmental pollution. Instead, psychological stress caused by the shock of an abrupt and severe economic transition is likely to have played a major role mediated in part by the adverse health effects of excessive alcohol consumption."
Correspondence: V. M. Shkolnikov, Institute for Prognosis of the National Economy, Center of Demography and Human Ecology, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10101 Tanzania. Ministry of Health (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). Policy implications of adult morbidity and mortality. End of phase 1 report. ISBN 9987-634-01-X. [1998?]. 324 pp. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In Eng.
This is a summary report on the Tanzania Adult Morbidity and Mortality Project. Chapters are included on mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa; current sources of information for policy making; enumeration and description of project surveillance areas; summary of census findings from project areas; overview of census and verbal autopsy methods; mortality and causes of death in project areas; maternal mortality; mortality and specific health problems; noncommunicable diseases; morbidity; interventions; and evaluation of project objectives.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10102 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). Health and mortality: a concise report. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/172, Pub. Order No. E.99.XIII.2. ISBN 92-1-151328-6. Oct 1998. vii, 46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report provides a summary of recent information on selected aspects of health and mortality and covers such topics as levels and trends of mortality; child survival and health; primary health care and the health-care sector; women's health and safe motherhood; human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS); the epidemiological transition; health and mortality policies; activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations with respect to health and mortality; and health and development."
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, DC2 1950, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology, and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion. Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

No citations in this issue.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

65:10103 Arnold, Fred; Choe, Minja Kim; Roy, T. K. Son preference, the family-building process and child mortality in India. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 3, Nov 1998. 301-15 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this article, data from [India's] National Family Health Survey are used to examine the effect of son preference on parity progression and ultimately on child mortality.... The analysis indicates that son preference fundamentally affects demographic behaviour in India. Family composition affects fertility behaviour in every state examined and son preference is the predominant influence in all but one of these states. The effects of family composition on excess child mortality for girls are more complex, but girls with older sisters are often subject to the highest risk of mortality."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: F. Arnold, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10104 Barbieri, Magali. Infant mortality in France. [La mortalité infantile en France.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 813-38 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author traces declines in infant and child mortality in France during the twentieth century. "The fall in post-neo-natal mortality was without any doubt the result of improved living conditions and of increasingly effective action against infectious and respiratory diseases. From the end of the 1960s, the continued fall in infant mortality resulted primarily from better medical care during pregnancy and birth, and the considerable progress in neo-natal care techniques."
Correspondence: M. Barbieri, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: barbieri@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10105 Darras, Christian. Infant mortality differences in Bolivia. [Diferencias de mortalidad infantil dentro de Bolivia.] Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 4, No. 6, Dec 1998. 393-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"There was an overall decrease in infant mortality in Bolivia between the national censuses of 1976 and of 1992. That general pattern, however, in fact conceals differences in trends from one department to another, as well as between urban and rural areas. In order to elucidate this situation, in 1996 the reducible differences in mortality were analyzed.... The results show that in four departments of Bolivia...the differences in mortality rates increased.... Similarly, the decline in infant mortality rates in the rural areas has lagged behind the decreases seen in urban areas."
Correspondence: C. Darras, OPS, Casilla 11587, Calle #4, Número 2--Auquisamaña, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10106 DeLong, G. Robert; Leslie, Paul W.; Wang, Shou-Hua; Jiang, Xin-Min; Zhang, Ming-Li; Rakeman, Murdon A.; Jiang, Ji-Yong; Ma, Tai; Cao, Xue-Yi. Effect on infant mortality of iodination of irrigation water in a severely iodine-deficient area of China. Lancet, Vol. 350, No. 9080, Sep 13, 1997. 771-3 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"Hotien county in Xinjiang province, China, is an area of severe iodine deficiency and has a high infant-mortality rate. We investigated whether iodine replacement through iodination of the irrigation water would decrease infant mortality.... [Results indicate that] iodine supplementation of irrigation water in areas of severe iodine deficiency decreases neonatal and infant mortality."
Correspondence: G. R. DeLong, Duke University, School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Box 3936, Durham, NC 27710. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10107 Galley, Chris; Woods, Robert. Reflections on the distribution of deaths in the first year of life. [Réflexions sur la distribution des décès au cours de la première année de vie.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 921-46 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article reexamines the thesis first put forward by Jean Bourgeois-Pichat according to which the distribution of deaths in the first year of life is governed by a universal law. An examination of data from a number of countries for both past and present populations, shows no such single and universal distribution, though it does reveal the existence of a number of distinct patterns which are subject to change over time. The disparity between the observed data and those predicted by `Bourgeois-Pichat's law' cannot be taken as a systematic guide to the quality of the data, although it may provide a clue to the problems affecting these data."
Correspondence: C. Galley, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10108 Gaudino, James A.; Jenkins, Bill; Rochat, Roger W. No fathers' names: a risk factor for infant mortality in the state of Georgia, USA. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jan 1999. 253-65 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
Linked birth and death certificates in the state of Georgia for 1989-1990 are used to compare infant mortality rates between 38,943 infants with no father's name listed and 178,100 with father's name listed on the birth certificate. "Compared with the rate for married women listing names, the death rates were higher for unmarried mothers not listing fathers...unmarried mothers listing fathers...and married women not listing fathers.... Increased risks remained after stratifying by maternal race, age, adequacy of prenatal care and medical risks; and congenital malformations, birthweight, gestational age, and small-for-gestational age."
Correspondence: J. A. Gaudino, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Pregnancy and Infant Health Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333. E-mail: Jag1303@hub.doh.wa.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10109 Hoch, Steven L. Famine, disease, and mortality patterns in the parish of Borshevka, Russia, 1830-1912. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 3, Nov 1998. 357-68 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author assesses "the nature of demographic crises in Russia [in the period 1830-1912] and their contribution to overall mortality and population growth. The pattern of mortality evident in the parish under examination is distinguished by an extremely high incidence of infant, diarrhoeal diseases and childhood, infectious diseases. This unfavourable disease environment and resulting high rates of infant and early childhood mortality were more closely related to fertility levels, household size, housing conditions, and weaning practices than to annual or seasonal food availability and the nutritional status of the population."
Correspondence: S. L. Hoch, University of Iowa, Department of History, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10110 Jaffar, Shabbar; Leach, A.; Greenwood, A. M.; Jepson, A.; Muller, O.; Ota, M. O. C.; Bojang, K.; Obaro, S.; Greenwood, B. M. Changes in the pattern of infant and childhood mortality in Upper River Division, the Gambia, from 1989 to 1993. Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan 1997. 28-37 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A surveillance system was used to detect births and deaths in children in a large, rural, West African population from 1989 to 1993. Cause of death was investigated using post-mortem questionnaires.... The most frequent cause of death in infants was acute respiratory infection (ARI), whereas in children it was malaria.... There were...no differences between male and female mortality rates beyond one year of age. Despite the introduction of a number of health interventions, there has been no major change in the overall pattern of mortality in children in a rural area of the Gambia."
Correspondence: S. Jaffar, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

65:10111 Manda, Samuel O. M. Birth intervals, breastfeeding and determinants of childhood mortality in Malawi. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 3, Feb 1999. 301-12 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"Childhood mortality in Malawi is analyzed by employing proportional hazards models. The analysis uses highly reliable data collected from the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Malawi. The results show that the substantial birth interval and maternal age effects are largely limited to the infant period. The influence of social and economic variables on the mortality risk and on the relationship between biodemographic variables and mortality risk is much enhanced with increasing age of the child. It has also been found that consideration of breastfeeding status of the child does not significantly alter interpretation of effects of preceding birth interval length on mortality risk, but does partially diminish the succeeding birth interval effect."
Correspondence: S. O. M. Manda, University of Waikato, Department of Statistics, P/B 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. E-mail: somm@stats.waikato.ac.nz. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10112 Matteson, Donald W.; Burr, Jeffrey A.; Marshall, James R. Infant mortality: a multi-level analysis of individual and community risk factors. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 11, Dec 1998. 1,841-54 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports the results of an analysis of infant mortality based on a conceptual model that combines micro-level and macro-level variables taken from demographic, sociological and epidemiological research traditions. Using generalized hierarchical linear modeling techniques, we analyze 1988 and 1989 linked birth and death records for Upstate New York matched with county-level data from government and private sources. Net of health and sociodemographic risk factors, our results show that the number of per capita primary care physicians and local government expenditures on health care services and hospitals are positively linked to an increase in the probability of infant death and that our indicator of hospital facilities is negatively related to risk of death.... Our results demonstrate the utility of combining perspectives from several disciplines when evaluating infant death, especially the impact of policy-related issues concerning health care service infrastructure."
Correspondence: D. W. Matteson, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 430 Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10113 Osmond, Samuel; Manda, Makandi. Unobserved family and community effects on infant mortality in Malawi. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1998. 143-64 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"A three level variance components model is used to investigate the importance and magnitude of family and community random effects on infant mortality in Malawi. The results show that only the family random effect is significant in determining infant mortality, even in the presence of controls for a number of observed individual and family characteristics. The results also show that biodemographic and to a lesser extent sociodemographic factors are important determinants of infant mortality. However, the adverse effects of a prior death and a short preceding interval are magnified in the absence [of] controls for unobserved family random effect."
Correspondence: S. Osmond, University of Waikato, Statistics Department, P/B 31 05, Hamilton, New Zealand. E-mail: somm@hoiho.math.waikato.ac.nz. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10114 Rakotondrabe Faraniaina, Patricia. Child mortality factors in Madagascar. [Les facteurs de la mortalité des enfants à Madagascar.] Les Cahiers de l'IFORD, No. 10, ISBN 2-905327-25-1. LC 97-149906. 1996. 87 pp. Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques [IFORD]: Yaoundé, Cameroon. In Fre.
This study describes the factors that contribute to the high child mortality levels in Madagascar. It consists of three chapters. The first chapter provides a survey of previous research, including information on methodologies and data used in other studies. The two other chapters are dedicated to differential analyses of child mortality and to a discussion of the relationships between child mortality and a number of independent variables such as educational level of parents, marital status of parents, religious factors, living conditions, father's occupation, mother's occupation, and sanitary conditions. Data are from the Enquête Nationale Démographique et de Santé (ENDS) carried out in Madagascar in 1992.
Correspondence: Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaoundé, Cameroon. E-mail:ifordyao@camfido.gn.apc.org. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10115 Senah, Kodjo A. Infant and child mortality: the socio-cultural dimension of the problem in Ghana. In: Issues and perspectives on health care in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ezekiel Kalipeni and Philip Thiuri. 1997. 49-70 pp. Edwin Mellen Press: Lewiston, New York. In Eng.
Some of the socio-cultural factors that affect infant and child mortality in Ghana are explored using data from two rural communities, Bortianor and Kasena. The author provides an overview of child mortality in Ghana and an analysis of the political economy of health care delivery. It is concluded that efforts to control the major diseases that affect children are unlikely to be successful unless changes are made in the socio-cultural system in which rural people live. "Thus, the socio-cultural system of which the individual is a member provides the stress that causes the illness, a theory of disease causation, the basis for mobilization and help for the sick, and a cure. At the macro level, the maldistribution of modern health care facilities and the cost involved in their use will always constitute a significant barrier to improving the quality of life of children. Another significant contribution to child mortality are the various socio-cultural practices with regard to pregnancy, child birth, and child rearing."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10116 Van den Broeck, Jan; Eeckels, Roger; Hokken-Koelega, Anita. Fatness and muscularity as risk indicators of child mortality in rural Congo. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, Oct 1998. 840-4 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "examine the relationship of anthropometrical indicators of fatness and muscularity with mortality in children in a [community in rural Congo].... The relationship of both the fatness and muscularity scores with short-term mortality was marked by a clear threshold...below which there was a significant rise in mortality from all causes as well as from kwashiorkor and marasmus. These excess mortalities were also found in normal weight children."
Correspondence: J. Van den Broeck, Dutch Growth Foundation, Sophia Kinderziekenhuis, P.O. Box 2060, 3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10117 van der Veen, Willem J. Comment on "Compromised birth outcomes and infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups" Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 509-27 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Frisbie, Forbes, and Pullum (1996) show that it is meaningful to account for low birth weight, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth-retardation when analyzing differences in compromised birth outcomes and infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups. I compare their findings for the 1987 U.S. birth cohort with findings for the 1988 U.S. birth cohort.... I conclude that Frisbie et al.'s method is not suited for the study of intrauterine growth-retardation at the population level because of the major flaws in gestational age measurement that exist in the type of data they use." A reply by Frisbie, Forbes, and Pullum is included (pp. 519-27).
For the study by W. Parker Frisbie et al., see 63:10109.
Correspondence: W. J. van der Veen, University of Groningen, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. E-mail: w.j.van.der.veen@frw.rug.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10118 Vasconcelos, Ana G. G.; Almeida, Renan M. V.; Nobre, Flávio F. The path analysis approach for the multivariate analysis of infant mortality data. Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 8, No. 4, May 1998. 262-71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the use of the Path Analysis (PA) methodology in health determinants modeling, with special reference to infant mortality modeling.... A review of the literature of PA applications in the modeling of infant mortality and similar problems is presented, together with a discussion of the conceptual basis of PA and its relation to other multivariate statistical techniques.... The review...suggests that PA represents a methodological improvement regarding multivariate techniques used in modeling some health-related issues."
Correspondence: R. M. V. Almeida, PEB/COPPE/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68510, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10119 Visaria, Leela; Simons, John; Berman, Peter. Maternal education and child survival: pathways and evidence. LC 97-905318. 1997. xx, 254 pp. Vikas Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a collection of 10 papers on the impact of maternal education on child health. "The authors have both theoretically and empirically examined the differential behaviour of mothers with regard to domestic child care practices, provision of effective treatment to the sick children, and differential valuation of children. Some of the papers have also explored the effect of education on women's autonomy in decision making, which in turn affects child care practices and allocation of time. The focus is on clues why children of mothers with primary schooling suffer from a lower risk of death during childhood than...the children of uneducated mothers experience." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Vikas Publishing House, 576 Masjid Road, Jangpura, New Delhi 110 014, India. E-mail: chawlap@giasdl01.vsnl.net.in. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

65:10120 Hayward, Mark D.; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Saito, Yasuhiko. Cause of death and active life expectancy in the older population of the United States. Journal of Aging and Health, Vol. 10, No. 2, May 1998. 192-213 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This study investigates how the major causes of death end active and inactive life among older Americans. Based on data from the Longitudinal Study of Aging, a multistate life-table model of individuals' age-graded mortality and disability experiences reveals that many, and sometimes most, of the deaths occurring among the elderly population happen when people are active relatively close to death. This pattern is especially evident for men. Despite differences between active and inactive elders of a given age in the length of inactive life, few differences occur in the causes of death."
Correspondence: M. D. Hayward, Pennsylvania State University, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10121 Horiuchi, Shiro; Wilmoth, John R. Deceleration in the age pattern of mortality at older ages. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 391-412 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The rate of mortality increase with age tends to slow down at very old ages. One explanation proposed for this deceleration is the selective survival of healthier individuals to older ages. Data on mortality in Sweden and Japan are generally compatible with three predictions of this hypothesis: (1) decelerations for most major causes of death; (2) decelerations starting at younger ages for more `selective' causes; and (3) a shift of the deceleration to older ages with declining levels of mortality. A parametric model employed to illustrate the third prediction relies on the distinction between senescent and background mortality."
Correspondence: S. Horiuchi, Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Populations, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021-6399. E-mail: horiush@rockvax.rockefeller.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10122 Maier, Heiner; Smith, Jacqui. Psychological predictors of mortality in old age. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, Vol. 54, No. 1, Jan 1999. 44-54 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Cox regression models examined associations between 17 indicators of psychological functioning (intellectual abilities, personality, subjective well-being, and social relations) and mortality. The sample (N=516, age range 70-103 years) comprised participants in the Berlin Aging Study assessed between 1990 and 1993. By 1996, 50% had died. Eleven indicators were identified as mortality risk factors at the zero-order level and six when age was controlled. Low perceptual speed and dissatisfaction with aging were uniquely significant after controls for age, SES, health, and the 16 other psychological factors. Low intellectual functioning was a greater risk for individuals aged 70-84 years than for the oldest old (over 85 years). The effects of psychological risk factors did not diminish over time."
Correspondence: J. Smith, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: smith@mpib-berlin.mpg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

65:10123 Anderson, Robert N. United States abridged life tables, 1996. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 13, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 99-1120. Dec 24, 1998. 20 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"The life tables in this report are current abridged life tables for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 1996. The data used to prepare these abridged life tables are 1996 final mortality statistics and July 1, 1996, population estimates. Presented are tables showing life expectancy and survivorship by age, race, and sex."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10124 Haines, Michael R. Estimated life tables for the United States, 1850-1910. Historical Methods, Vol. 31, No. 4, Fall 1998. 149-69 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article presents a series of abridged life tables derived from earlier work by the author and Samuel H. Preston.... These tables provide a superior picture of the mortality situation in the United States from 1850 to 1910. In addition, these tables can be of assistance in the following ways: estimating own-children fertility and census-survival migration, calculating probabilities for finding certain family structures in the census, and making estimates of working life."
Correspondence: M. R. Haines, Colgate University, Department of Economics, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346. E-mail: mhaines@mail.colgate.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10125 Hungary. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Life tables of urban and rural population by counties:1988-1994. [A városi és a községi népesség halandósági táblái megyénként: 1988-1994.] 1997. 302 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
Abridged life tables for Hungary are presented for individual years from 1988 to 1994. The tables are presented by sex for the rural and urban population of each county.
Correspondence: Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Károly Utca 5-7, 1024 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10126 Menthonnex, Jacques; Wanner, Philippe. Longitudinal life tables for Switzerland. The generations from 1880 to 1980. [Kohortensterbetafeln für die Schweiz. Geburtsjahrgänge 1880-1980/Tables de mortalité longitudinales pour la Suisse. Générations 1880-1980.] Statistik der Schweiz/Statistique de la Suisse, ISBN 3-303-01088-9. 1998. 63 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre; Ger.
A series of life tables are presented for the generations born in Switzerland from 1880 to 1980. The tables are based on official data (up to 1995) and on a mathematical model (for 1996 and after), and provide a picture of changes in mortality over time by age, sex, and date of birth.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10127 Sommer, Bettina. Mortality in Germany compared to regional and European trends. [Die Sterblichkeit in Deutschland im regionalen und europäischen Vergleich.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 12, Dec 1998. 960-70 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Life tables for all of Germany for the period 1993-1995 are presented in this report. Life expectancies of newborns and those of men and women 60 years old are discussed separately. The author also looks at infant mortality and compares age-specific mortality among the German states. Finally, she analyzes recent changes in newborn life expectancy and briefly compares life expectancy in Germany with that in the rest of Europe.
Correspondence: B. Sommer, Statistisches Bundesamt, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 11, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

65:10128 Anson, Ofra; Anson, Jon. Surviving the holidays: gender differences in mortality in the context of three Moslem holidays. Sex Roles, Vol. 37, No. 5-6, Sep 1997. 381-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"It was hypothesized that holy days may affect mortality patterns differentially by gender. The present study focused on Moslems in Israel.... After removing the long-term growth and the seasonal effects, women's mortality was found to be significantly greater in the month of Ramadan than in the month before, and in the two weeks before the feast of 'Id el-Adhha than in the two weeks after it. For men, mortality was higher in the two weeks after the feast of 'Id el-Fitr than in the two weeks before it."
Correspondence: O. Anson, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of the Sociology of Health, P.O. Box 653, Beersheba 84105, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

65:10129 Cooper, Glinda S.; Sandler, Dale P. Age at natural menopause and mortality. Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 8, No. 4, May 1998. 229-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to examine the association between age at menopause and mortality in a population-based sample of women in the United States.... This study was based on data from the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study; 3,191 women aged 50-86 years were included.... We observed a small increased mortality rate among women who experienced natural menopause before age 40.... However, there was little indication of an association between total mortality and natural menopause at age 40-44 or 45-49."
Correspondence: G. S. Cooper, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology Branch A3-05, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10130 Ecob, Russell; Jones, Kelvyn. Mortality variations in England and Wales between types of place: an analysis of the ONS Longitudinal Study. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 12, Dec 1998. 2,055-66 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This study investigates the extent to which individuals, in England and Wales, in different types of place experienced differential mortality once account is taken of personal (individual and household) social circumstances. Data comes from the Longitudinal Study of England and Wales of the Office of National Statistics, the respondents being a one percent national random sample of people aged between 25 and 74 at the 1971 census, followed until the end of 1985. For males and females separately, differences in mortality are found for the 36 types of Craig-Webber classification in models which include, at the individual level, a number of demographic and socio-economic variables (women being classified by their own occupation). In general, for both males and females, the same types of place have elevated or lowered mortality. For males a (cross-level) interaction exists between the proportion in the area in professional social classes and individual social class, the effects of individual social class being larger in areas containing a higher proportion of those in professional occupations. For females mortality is negatively related to the proportion of car-ownership in the area."
Correspondence: R. Ecob, MRC Medical Sociology Unit, 6 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8RZ, Scotland. E-mail: russell@msoc.mrc.gla.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10131 Eisenbach, Zvi; Manor, Orly; Peritz, Eric; Hite, Yaakov. The Israel longitudinal mortality study--differential mortality in Israel 1983-1992: objectives, materials, methods and preliminary results. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 33, No. 12, Dec 1997. 794-807 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study was to investigate mortality differentials in the Israeli population, aged 40 years and above, with regard to major demographic and socio-economic characteristics, in the nine-and-a-half years following the census of 1983. The method of data collection consisted of a linkage of records from the 20% sample of the census with the records of deaths occurring until the end of 1992.... This paper focuses on a systematic evaluation of the quality of the linked file, and includes a description of the characteristics of the file.... Results of bivariate analyses of mortality differentials in relation to marital status, ethnic origin, level of education, employment, occupation and income are presented."
Correspondence: Z. Eisenbach, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Population Studies, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10132 Elo, Irma T.; Preston, Samuel H. Racial and ethnic differences in mortality at older ages. In: Racial and ethnic differences in the health of older Americans, edited by Linda G. Martin and Beth J. Soldo. 1997. 10-42 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates evidence regarding racial and ethnic differences in mortality in the United States. In keeping with the theme, we emphasize mortality at older ages; specifically, we death with ages 45 and above and attempt to extend the analyses to ages 100 and older. We focus on recent estimates rather than attempting a broader historical overview. We give our main attention to mortality rates from all causes combined, although we refer to studies of racial and ethnic differences in mortality by cause of death in a later section. We deal with four major groups: African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and whites (or, on occasion, non-Hispanic groups). The analyses are organized by type of data sources available: vital statistics/census-derived rates, linked data files, and extinct generation methods."
Correspondence: I. T. Elo, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10133 Fuhrer, R.; Dufouil, C.; Antonucci, T. C.; Shipley, M. J.; Helmer, C.; Dartigues, J. F. Psychological disorder and mortality in French older adults: do social relations modify the association? American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 2, Jan 15, 1999. 116-26 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The possible modifying effect of social relations on the association between depression and mortality in elderly people is explored. The data concern 3,777 randomly selected people 65 years or older living in southwestern France who were followed over a five-year period starting in 1988 in the Personnes Agées Quid (PAQUID) study. The results indicate that men and women with few social network connections were at increased risk of mortality. "Social relations did not significantly modify the depression-mortality associations for either men or women, although the depression-mortality effect was reduced by 12.8% in men. The latter findings do not appear to be compatible with the buffering hypothesis, whereby we would expect social relations to decrease the depression-mortality association. Nonetheless, there are independent effects from these two factors, and older men who are depressed and not socially connected are at increased risk of dying earlier."
Correspondence: R. Fuhrer, University College London, School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10134 Kennedy, Bruce P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lochner, Kimberly; Jones, Camara; Prothrow-Stith, Deborah. (Dis)respect and black mortality. Ethnicity and Disease, Vol. 7, No. 3, Autumn 1997. 207-14 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"The present study examined the association of racial prejudice--measured at a collective level--to black and white mortality across the United Sates.... Collective disrespect was measured by weighted responses to a question on a national survey.... Both measures of collective disrespect were strongly correlated with black mortality...as well as with white mortality.... A 1 percent increase in the prevalence of those who believed that blacks lacked innate ability was associated with an increase in age-adjusted black mortality rate of 359.8 per 100,000...."
Correspondence: B. P. Kennedy, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management, 718 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. E-mail: kennedy@hsph.harvard.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10135 Kolstad, Henrik A.; Olsen, Jørn. Why do short term workers have high mortality? American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 4, Feb 15, 1999. 347-52 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16,404 Danish workers in the reinforced plastics industry who were hired between 1978 and 1985 and were followed to the end of 1988." In particular, the authors examine "the healthy worker survivor effect by utilizing comprehensive hospitalization data obtained from all workers in a specific industry before employment. Here we describe how preemployment health predicts length of employment and explore differences in the prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases between short term and long term workers."
Correspondence: H. A. Kolstad, Århus University Hospital, Department of Occupational Medicine, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Århus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10136 Muntwyler, Jorg; Hennekens, Charles H.; Buring, Julle E.; Gaziano, J. Michael. Mortality and light to moderate alcohol consumption after myocardial infarction. Lancet, Vol. 352, No. 9144, Dec 12, 1998. 1,882-5 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the relationship between light or moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in individuals with previous myocardial infarction. The data are from 5,358 U.S. men from the Physicians' Health Study who had had a previous myocardial infarction. The results indicate that those who consumed small to moderate amounts of alcohol had a lower total mortality.
Correspondence: J. M. Gaziano, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center, 1600 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, MA 02132. E-mail: gaziano@maveric.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10137 Sourander, L.; Rajala, T.; Räihä, I.; Mäkinen, J.; Erkkola, R.; Helenius, H. Cardiovascular and cancer morbidity and mortality and sudden cardiac death in postmenopausal women on oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Lancet, Vol. 352, No. 9145, Dec 19-26, 1998. 1,965-73 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and cardiovascular disease and cancer is analyzed using data on 7,944 women born between 1923 and 1930 who took part in a breast cancer mammography screening program in Turku, Finland. Of these women, 988 were current users and 757 former users of ERT. The results indicate that "current ERT reduced primarily sudden cardiac death and predicted reduced cardiovascular mortality, but did not reduce morbidity. ERT did not increase the risk of breast cancer, but was associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer."
Correspondence: L. Sourander, University of Turku, Department of Geriatrics, Kunnallissairaalantie 20, 20700 Turku, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10138 Trovato, Frank. Nativity, marital status and mortality in Canada. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 1998. 65-91 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this exploratory study I examine mortality differences by marital status across seven immigrant groups and the Canadian-born population. Nativity is thought to condition this relationship through its association with migration selection and family structure. Since migration is selective of healthy persons, immigrants should constitute a relatively healthy subset of the population.... The most consistent finding in this study is that for both immigrants and the Canadian-born, married persons enjoy lower levels of mortality than either single or unmarried individuals."
Correspondence: F. Trovato, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts, 5-21 HM Tory Building, Edmonton T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10139 Yuan, Jian-Min; Ross, Ronald K.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yu, Mimi C. Body weight and mortality: a prospective evaluation in a cohort of middle-aged men in Shanghai, China. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, Oct 1998. 824-32 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study was to prospectively examine the relationship between body mass index [BMI]...and overall as well as cause-specific mortality in a large cohort [18,244] of middle-aged Chinese men in Shanghai, China." Results indicate that "underweight and overweight both are associated with an increased risk of death in middle-aged Chinese men who never smoked cigarettes. The increased total mortality in overweight men is largely due to cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases while the elevated risk of death in underweight men is attributed primarily to causes of an infectious nature."
Correspondence: J.-M. Yuan, University of Southern California, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Preventive Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033-0800. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

65:10140 Armstrong, Gregory L.; Conn, Laura A.; Pinner, Robert W. Trends in infectious disease mortality in the United States during the 20th century. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 281, No. 1, Jan 6, 1999. 61-6 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Trends in infectious disease mortality in the United States over the course of the twentieth century are analyzed using official vital statistics data. "Infectious disease mortality declined during the first 8 decades of the 20th century from 797 deaths per 100,000 in 1900 to 36 deaths per 100,000 in 1980. From 1981 to 1995, the mortality rate increased to a peak of 63 deaths per 100,000 in 1995 and declined to 59 deaths per 100,000 in 1996. The decline was interrupted by a sharp spike in mortality caused by the 1918 influenza epidemic. From 1938 to 1952, the decline was particularly rapid, with mortality decreasing 8.2% per year. Pneumonia and influenza were responsible for the largest number of infectious disease deaths throughout the century. Tuberculosis caused almost as many deaths as pneumonia and influenza early in the century, but tuberculosis mortality dropped off sharply after 1945. Infectious disease mortality increased in the 1980s and early 1990s in persons aged 25 years and older and was mainly due to the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 25- to 64-year-olds and, to a lesser degree, to increases in pneumonia and influenza deaths among persons aged 65 years and older. There was considerable year-to-year variability in infectious disease mortality, especially for the youngest and oldest age groups."
Correspondence: G. L. Armstrong, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Mailstop C-12, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. E-mail: gca3@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10141 Bostick, Roberd M.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Wu, Ying; Meyer, Katie A.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Folsom, Aaron R. Relation of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy food intake to ischemic heart disease mortality among postmenopausal women. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 2, Jan 15, 1999. 151-61 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"To investigate whether greater intakes of calcium, vitamin D, or milk products may protect against ischemic heart disease mortality, the authors analyzed data from a prospective cohort study of 34,486 postmenopausal Iowa women 55-69 years old and without a history of ischemic heart disease who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1986. Through 1994, 387 deaths due to ischemic heart disease were documented.... [The] results suggest that a higher intake of calcium, but not of vitamin D or milk products, is associated with reduced ischemic heart disease mortality in postmenopausal women, and reduced risk may be achievable whether the higher intake of calcium is attained by diet, supplements, or both."
Correspondence: R. M. Bostick, University of South Carolina, Division of Population Sciences, South Carolina Cancer Center, 15 Richland Medical Park, Suite 301, Columbia, SC 29203. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10142 Chandramohan, Daniel; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Maude, Gillian H.; Hayes, Richard J. The validity of verbal autopsies for assessing the causes of institutional maternal death. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 4, Dec 1998. 414-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents data from a study carried out in three African countries [Ethiopia, Ghana, and Tanzania] to assess the validity of verbal autopsies--based on information about symptoms and signs observed antemortem by relatives or associates of deceased individuals--for determining the causes of institutional maternal death.... Verbal autopsies were found to be highly specific...but not very sensitive.... Verbal autopsy estimates of cause-specific mortality were comparable to expected values for most of the causes."
Correspondence: D. Chandramohan, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10143 Chenet, Laurent; McKee, Martin; Leon, David; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Vassin, Sergei. Alcohol and cardiovascular mortality in Moscow; new evidence of a causal association. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 12, Dec 1998. 772-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In explaining recent trends in Russian mortality, alcohol drinking has often been put forward as a major factor. However, cardiovascular disease remains the major cause of death in Russia and alcohol is currently viewed as having a protective effect on heart disease. This study explores this apparent paradox by examining daily trends in deaths from cardiovascular disease in Moscow." Analyzing daily variation in deaths based on death certificate data for those dying in Moscow in the years 1993-1995, the authors find a "significant increase in deaths from alcohol poisoning, accidents, and violence and cardiovascular diseases on Saturdays, Sundays, and Mondays. This is especially marked for sudden deaths. This pattern is consistent with the known pattern of drinking in Russia, which is more likely to take place in binges than is the case in other countries.... A possible causative role for alcohol in sudden cardiovascular death is suggested as there are no other obvious explanations for this pattern, which cannot be accounted for by daily variations in traditional risk factors such as smoking or lipids."
Correspondence: L. Chenet, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10144 Deev, A.; Shestov, D.; Abernathy, J.; Kapustina, A.; Muhina, N.; Irving, Sandra H. Association of alcohol consumption to mortality in middle-aged U.S. and Russian men and women. Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 8, No. 3, Apr 1998. 147-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationships of alcohol consumption to total and cardiovascular disease mortality in U.S. and Russian men and women after adjustment for several covariates. A secondary objective is to determine how this relationship varies by country and gender.... Age-adjusted mortality rates were higher for non-drinkers than lower level drinkers in both genders and countries, and there was an indication that mortality rates for high level drinkers, especially in men, approached those of non-drinkers.... Relative risks for cardiovascular disease mortality rates were similar to those of total mortality."
Correspondence: S. H. Irving, Collaborative Studies Coordinating Center, 137 East Franklin Street, Suite 203, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10145 des Forts, Jacqueline. Indicators of maternal health in Algeria: developments from 1962 to 1992. [Indicateurs de la santé maternelle en Algérie: évolution de 1962 à 1992.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 859-73 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Since it is difficult to obtain accurate data on maternal mortality where medical care is lacking, several indirect indicators of maternal mortality in Algeria are researched in this paper. They are access to medical care, demographic information such as excess female mortality and recorded maternal deaths, contraceptive practice, and women's educational status. Data are taken from national surveys, government statistics and censuses, and previously published studies as well as hospital and school records.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10146 Freeman, Donald G. Determinants of youth suicide: the Easterlin-Holinger cohort hypothesis re-examined. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 57, No. 2, Apr 1998. 183-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Suicide is the third major cause of death among American youths between the ages of 15 and 19 years. This study offers additional quantitative support for the Easterlin-Holinger Hypothesis that relative cohort size is a significant statistical predictor of youth suicide.... Controlling for income, family structure and change in economic status, a one-percent increase in relative cohort size is associated with approximately four-tenths-percent increase in youth suicide rates."
Correspondence: D. G. Freeman, Southern Methodist University, Department of Economics, Dallas, TX 75275. E-mail: Freeman@mail.SMU.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10147 Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Tiihonen, Jari. Increasing homicide rate in Finland accompanied by decreasing seasonality over the period 1957-95. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 11, Dec 1998. 1,695-8 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"Finland has the highest overall homicide rate of the Nordic countries in comparisons over short time periods. Using the 39-year time series of homicide incidents in Finland from 1957-95, we analyzed the trend in homicide rate. In addition, we explored for the first time over the time trend in the seasonal variation of homicide and compared seasonal statistics over eight successive time periods. The present study revealed that there has been steadily increasing trend in homicides in Finland since 1950s. At the same time, the seasonality of homicide has decreased markedly. The peaks in homicide rates occurred commonly during summer and the troughs during winter."
Correspondence: H. Hakko, University of Oulu, Department of Psychiatry, Peltolantie 5, 90210 Oulu, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10148 Her, Minghao; Rehm, Jürgen. Alcohol and all-cause mortality in Europe 1982-1990: a pooled cross-section time-series analysis. Addiction, Vol. 93, No. 9, Sep 1998. 1,335-40 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
Using data on yearly mortality and per capita alcohol consumption from 25 European countries between 1982 and 1990, the authors test the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. "The statistical analyses controlling cross-sectional correlation and timewise autoregression were used to implement the econometric modelling." The results indicate that "increases (decreases) in the per capita consumption of 1 litre of pure alcohol were associated with increases (decreases) of 1.3% in all-cause mortality rates. The beverage-specific analyses indicated a significant relationship between consumption of beer and all-cause mortality only.... The data show that per capita alcohol consumption, according to reported levels in Europe, is related to all-cause mortality and is thus of relevance to public health."
Correspondence: M. Her, Addiction Research Foundation, Social Evaluation Department, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2S1, Canada. E-mail: MHer@arf.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10149 Jenum, Anne K.; Thelle, Dag S.; Stensvold, Inger; Hjermann, Ingvar. Regional differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease among 40-year-olds in Oslo, 1985-1988. [Regionale ulikheter i sykdomsrisiko i Oslo. Røyke- og mosjonsvaner, kroppsmasseindeks, blodlipidnivå og blodtrykk blant 40-åringer 1985-88.] Tidsskrift for den Norske Lægeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 118, No. 1, Jan 10, 1998. 23-7 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"This study highlights the differences in cardiovascular risk factors among 40 year-olds in different areas of Oslo between 1985 and 1988. A total of 14,220 persons were included in the study.... For both sexes all risk factors were shown to be more favourable in the more affluent areas than in the poorer area of the inner city.... The differences in serum cholesterol in the different areas were less pronounced than for...other risk factors. The greatest differences in risk factors were observed among women."
Correspondence: A. K. Jenum, Skjoldveien 6, 0881 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10150 Kalipeni, Ezekiel. The AIDS pandemic in Malawi: a somber reflection. In: Issues and perspectives on health care in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ezekiel Kalipeni and Philip Thiuri. 1997. 23-47 pp. Edwin Mellen Press: Lewiston, New York. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the nature and character of the [AIDS epidemic] in Malawi and its demographic and socioeconomic implications on the already precarious economic situation in the country. First, the chapter highlights the current levels of this mortally dangerous epidemic...in a quest to bring the ravages of an out of control AIDS pandemic to the attention of both the local and the international community. Second, an overview of the deep rooted traditional and modern behavioral patterns that tend to fuel the brush-fire like spread of this merciless killer virus, with specific reference to Malawi, are discussed in greater detail.... Finally, the chapter briefly comments on the negative effects of the epidemic on a number of demographic, social and health parameters such as crude death rates, infant mortality rates, life expectancy, population growth rates, loss of expensively trained manpower, health care costs, the orphanage problem and other tragic consequences. A critical...account of current government efforts to tackle this problem is also offered. The chapter concludes that if Malawians do not change their fatalistic outlook and high-risk behavioral patterns...the country could see its life expectancy drop from the current 45 years to 23 years within the next 15 years. Although the population will continue to grow...growth rates could also experience a precipitous decline from the current 3.3 percent annual growth rate to 0.6 percent or less by the year 2010."
Correspondence: E. Kalipeni, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10151 Kuagbenou, Victor K.; Biraben, Jean-Noël. An introduction to the study of mortality by cause of death in Paris in the first half of the nineteenth century: a presentation of unpublished data. [Introduction à l'étude de la mortalité par cause de décès à Paris dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle: présentation de données inédites.] Données Statistiques, No. 3, ISBN 2-7332-5003-5. 1998. 80 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the main diseases that affected the population of Paris in the mid-nineteenth century. The data concern causes of death recorded in the national archives of Paris for the period 1838-1847. A complete set of the data found in these national archives for the period 1830-1849 is provided on a CD-ROM accompanying this publication.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10152 Kunst, Anton E.; Groenhof, Feikje; Andersen, Otto; Borgan, Jens-Kristian; Costa, Giuseppe; Desplanques, Guy; Filakti, Haroulla; Giraldes, Maria do R.; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Harding, Seeromanie; Junker, Christoph; Martikainen, Pekka; Minder, Christoph; Nolan, Brian; Pagnanelli, Floriano; Regidor, Enrique; Vågerö, Denny; Valkonen, Tapani; Mackenbach, Johan P. Occupational class and ischemic heart disease mortality in the United States and 11 European countries. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 1, Jan 1999. 47-53 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Data on mortality by occupational class for men aged 30 to 64 collected from national or cross-sectional studies during the 1980s in 12 developed countries are used to examine the relationship between occupational class differences and ischemic heart disease mortality. "A north-south contrast existed within Europe. In England and Wales, Ireland, and Nordic countries, manual classes had higher mortality rates than nonmanual classes. In France, Switzerland, and Mediterranean countries, manual classes had mortality rates as low as, or lower than, those among nonmanual classes. Compared with Northern Europe, mortality differences in the United States were smaller (among men aged 30-44 years) or about as large (among men aged 45-64 years.)"
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: kunst@mgz.fgg.eur.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10153 La Vecchia, Carlo; Levi, Fabio; Lucchini, Franca; Negri, Eva. Trends in mortality from major diseases in Europe, 1980-1993. European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan 1998. 1-8 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"Trends in age-standardized death certification rates from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular diseases, all neoplasms and lung cancer were analysed over the period 1980-1993 in 20 major European countries. There were steady and substantial declines of overall mortality in all western European countries for both sexes, although appreciable geographic differences persisted.... In contrast, in eastern European countries appreciable rises were registered in mortality from major causes of death considered for males. For females, only moderate declines were observed in Eastern Europe."
Correspondence: F. Levi, Registre Vaudois des Tumeurs. CHUV-Falaises 1, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. E-mail: fabio.levi@inst.hospvd.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10154 Luoto, Riitta; Prättälä, Ritva; Uutela, Antti; Puska, Pekka. Impact of unhealthy behaviors on cardiovascular mortality in Finland, 1978-1993. Preventive Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1998. 93-100 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
"Our aim was to study how combinations of three unhealthy behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, and use of dairy fat) and an index describing their number were associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality in a society showing remarkable improvement in health behaviors [using data for Finland for 1978-1993].... The predictive values of unhealthy behaviors on cardiovascular mortality changed by period depending on their frequency."
Correspondence: R. Luoto, National Public Health Institute, Unit for Health Education Research, Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: Riitta.Luoto@ktl.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10155 Melinder, Karin A.; Andersson, Ragnar. Differences in injury mortality between the Nordic countries--with special reference to differences in coding practices. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 3, Sep 1998. 190-7 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"The aims of the study are to analyse the incidence and patterns in injury mortality in the Nordic countries, and to assess the extent to which any differences found can be explained in terns of either variation in statistical validity or the existence of genuine differences.... Finland appears as the Nordic country with the highest injury mortality.... Poisoning was found to be a diagnosis that varies in application between the Nordic countries. Falling is the diagnosis with the greatest problems of sensitivity, and cannot be recommended for comparative purposes."
Correspondence: K. A. Melinder, Folkhälsoinstitutet, 103 52 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: karin.melinder@fhinst.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10156 Mungra, A.; van Bokhoven, S. C.; Florie, J.; van Kanten, R. W.; van Roosmalen, J.; Kanhai, H. H. H. Reproductive age mortality survey to study under-reporting of maternal mortality in Surinam. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Vol. 77, No. 1, Mar 1998. 37-9 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"A nationwide confidential enquiry into maternal deaths was carried out in Surinam during the years 1991-1993. Preliminary analysis of the first two years (1991-1992) showed a maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 240 per 100,000 live births which was four times higher than officially reported for the preceding decade. The question arose whether maternal mortality was underreported in the official statistics for the years 1981-1990.... We conducted a reproductive age mortality survey...in [the five main urban] hospitals for the period 1981-1990, to investigate the reliability of the MMRs reported officially for this period." The results indicate that maternal mortality was indeed underreported in Suriname during the period 1981-1990.
Correspondence: H. H. H. Kanhai, University Hospital Leiden, Department of Obstetrics, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10157 Razzak, Junaid A.; Luby, Stephen P. Estimating deaths and injuries due to road traffic accidents in Karachi, Pakistan, through the capture-recapture method. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, Oct 1998. 866-70 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this study, the capture-recapture method was applied using combined records from police sources, and a large ambulance service in the city to estimate more accurately the death and injury rates due to RTA [road traffic accidents] in Karachi, Pakistan." The analysis "estimated at least 972 (95%...) deaths and 18,936 (95%...) injuries attributable to RTA during the study period. Official sources counted only 56% of deaths and 4% of serious injuries. The estimated rates for the year 1994 were 185 injuries and 11.2 deaths per 100,000 population."
Correspondence: J. A. Razzak, 437 Meloy Road, #B1, West Haven, CT 06512. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10158 Reitsma, Johannes B.; Limburg, Martien; Kleijnen, Jos; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P. Epidemiology of stroke in the Netherlands from 1972 to 1994: the end of the decline in stroke mortality. Neuroepidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 121-31 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"We studied the trends in the number of deaths and hospital discharges due to stroke from 1972 to 1994 in the Netherlands by age, sex and type of stroke.... The analysis of the data from two of the main national registries in the Netherlands showed an impressive decline in age-adjusted stroke mortality during the past two decades on the one hand, while on the other hand, age-adjusted morbidity, as measured by hospital discharges, simultaneously rose. The decline in stroke mortality, however, levelled off after 1987."
Correspondence: J. B. Reitsma, University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, P.O. Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdan, Netherlands. E-mail: j.reitsma@amc.uva.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10159 Savitz, David A.; Liao, Duanping; Sastre, Antonio; Kleckner, Robert C.; Kavet, Robert. Magnetic field exposure and cardiovascular disease mortality among electric utility workers. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 2, Jan 15, 1999. 135-42 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors examined mortality from cardiovascular disease in relation to occupational magnetic field exposure among a cohort of 138,903 male electric utility workers from five U.S. companies over the period 1950-1988.... Adjusting for age, year, race, social class, and active work status, longer duration in jobs with elevated magnetic field exposure was associated with increased risk of death from arrhythmia-related conditions and acute myocardial infarction. Indices of magnetic field exposure were consistently related to mortality from arrhythmia and acute myocardial infarction, with mortality rate ratios of 1.5-3.3 in the uppermost categories. No gradients in risk were found for atherosclerosis or for chronic coronary heart disease. These data suggest a possible association between occupational magnetic fields and arrhythmia-related heart disease."
Correspondence: D. A. Savitz, University of North Carolina, Department of Epidemiology, CB #7400, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10160 Swerdlow, A. J.; dos Santos Silva, I.; Reid, A.; Qiao, Z.; Brewster, D. H.; Arrundale, J. Trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Scotland: description and possible explanations. British Journal of Cancer, Vol. 77, No. 3, Suppl., 1998. 16 pp. Churchill Livingstone: New York, New York/Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"The present supplement describes site-specific trends in cancer incidence in Scotland for the last 30 years, and mortality in detail for a 40-year span and in less detail for a few sites over the past 80 years. By analysing data based on individual mortality records since 1953 and incidence records since 1960, we were able to conduct new analyses, beyond those previously published, especially with respect to risks by birth cohort based on actual year of birth."
Correspondence: A. J. Swerdlow, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Epidemiological Monitoring Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10161 Taylor, Richard; Morrell, Stephen; Slaytor, Emma; Ford, Paul. Suicide in urban New South Wales, Australia 1985-1994: socio-economic and migrant interactions. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 11, Dec 1998. 1,677-86 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"Variation of suicide with socio-economic status (SES) in urban NSW (Australia) during 1985-1994, by sex and country or region of birth, was examined using Poisson regression analysis of vital statistics and population data [for the population aged 15 or older].... The findings indicate that SES plays an important role in male suicide rates among the Australian-born and migrants from English-speaking countries and Asia, and among youth; but not in female suicide, nor suicide in most non-English speaking migrant groups. Reduction in SES differentials through economic and social policies may reduce male suicide in lower SES groups and should be seen to be at least as important as individual level interventions."
Correspondence: R. Taylor, University of Sydney, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, A-27, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10162 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Coronary heart disease mortality trends among whites and blacks: Appalachia and United States, 1980-1993. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 47, No. 46, Nov 27, 1998. 1,005-8, 1,015 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report compares temporal trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) death rates for [U.S.] blacks and whites from 1980 to 1993 (the latest year for which data were available) in the Appalachian Region with trends for the entire United States. The findings indicate that among whites aged [greater than or equal to] 35 years the burden of CHD is greater in Appalachia than in the entire United States, with the disparity increasing over time, and among blacks, only slight differences in CHD rates between Appalachia and the United States were observed."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10163 Wall, L. Lewis. Dead mothers and injured wives: the social context of maternal morbidity and mortality among the Hausa of northern Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 4, Dec 1998. 341-59 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Northern Nigeria has a maternal mortality ratio greater than 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.... Among the most important factors contributing to this tragic situation are: an Islamic culture that undervalues women; a perceived social need for women's reproductive capacities to be under strict male control; the practice of purdah (wife seclusion), which restricts women's access to medical care; almost universal female illiteracy; marriage at an early age and pregnancy often occurring before maternal pelvic growth is complete; a high rate of obstructed labor; directly harmful traditional medical beliefs and practices; inadequate facilities to deal with obstetric emergencies; a deteriorating economy; and a political culture marked by rampant corruption and inefficiency."
Correspondence: L. L. Wall, Louisiana State University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1542 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10164 Wasserman, D.; Värnik, A.; Dankowicz, M.; Eklund, G. Suicide-preventive effects of perestroika in the former USSR: the role of alcohol restriction. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 98, No. 394, Suppl., ISBN 87-16-15718-4. 1998. 44 pp. International Publishers: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
This special supplement contains six articles on the relationships among suicide, perestroika, and restrictions on alcohol in the former USSR. They examine the effect of alcohol restrictions on suicide mortality, regional differences in suicide, the decline in suicide during the perestroika period, comparisons of age-specific suicide rates between the Slavic and Baltic regions of the former USSR and 22 European countries, female suicides, and the reliability of statistics on violent death and suicide in the former USSR. An appendix presents selected demographic data for regions and republics of the former USSR for 1990.
Correspondence: International Publishers, 35 Nørre Søgade, 1370 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.