Volume 65 - Number 1 - Spring 1999

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration. Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects.

65:10043 Iltanen, Jussi. Statistical indications of ruralization in Finnish towns. [Tilastot valaisevat Suomen kaupunkien maaseutuistumista.] Terra, Vol. 108, No. 4, 1996. 224-32 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
"There has been a clear tendency to decreasing population density and increasing rate of primary output in urban municipalities in Finland in the 20th century. It is a commonly known fact that this tendency is caused by some rural municipalities changing their status to urban municipalities and by some rural municipalities incorporating urban municipalities.... In this article urban regions have been created, which are quite [the] same as urban municipality districts in Finland today. In these regions population density has increased in contrast to urban municipalities each year of compiling these statistics."
Correspondence: J. Iltanen, University of Helsinki, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 4, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:10044 Locay, Luis. Population equilibrium in primitive societies. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Vol. 37, No. 4, Fall 1997. 747-67 pp. Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. In Eng.
"The aboriginal distribution of population in North America is found not to be positively related to the richness of the natural environment, contrary to the predictions of the Malthusian model, the dominant one in Anthropology. Great abundance of some resources can encourage nomadism or raise the productivity of women, two determinants of the cost of children, which I find are associated with lower aboriginal population density among a sample of tribes of North American Indians."
Correspondence: L. Locay, University of Miami, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 248126, Coral Gables, FL 33124-6550. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration.

65:10045 Bier, Thomas; Howe, Steven R. Dynamics of suburbanization in Ohio metropolitan areas. Urban Geography, Vol. 19, No. 8, Nov-Dec 1998. 695-713 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"We conducted two studies on the dynamics of suburbanization in Ohio's seven largest metropolitan areas. In the first study, we applied a model for projecting change in the number of households living in a central city, based on the amount and location of housing development in the metropolitan area and on the number of households living in the area. We concluded that declining household growth coupled with continuing suburban development would result in greater population losses for cities. In the second study, we documented the movement of homesellers who had been living in the central counties of the seven areas. We found that suburban sellers moved outward and up in price almost as much as city sellers. Movement out of three of these cities, however, was less than in the other four; in those three cities, it was more possible to move up in price and remain in the city."
Correspondence: T. Bier, Cleveland State University, Levin College of Urban Affairs, 1737 Euclid Avenue, Room 45, Cleveland, OH 44115. E-mail: tom@wolf.csuohio.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10046 Denis, Eric. Urban growth and socio-spatial dynamics: Cairo from 1950 to 1990. [Croissance urbaine et dynamique socio-spatiale: le Caire de 1950 à 1990.] Espace Géographique, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1998. 129-42 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Urban growth patterns in Cairo, Egypt, are analyzed over the period 1950-1990. "In the last 40 years, Cairo's population growth has been accompanied by a major shift in socio-demographic distribution. By using social area analysis models to measure the spatial structuring of social disparities, we can see how Cairo society has moved from sectoral segmentation reflecting a socio-professional hierarchy to a concentric pattern based increasingly on age differences and family structures."
Correspondence: E. Denis, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-CEDEJ, B.P. 494, Dakki, Cairo, Egypt. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:10047 Dick, H. W.; Rimmer, P. J. Beyond the third world city: the new urban geography of south-east Asia. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 12, Dec 1998. 2,303-21 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Scholars, as area specialists, have typified south-east Asian cities as Third World cities and emphasised their uniquely south-east Asian or even national characteristics. This paper will argue that the early decades of decolonisation which gave rise to this perspective were in fact a transitional phase. In the late colonial period south-east Asian cities were already becoming more like Western cities. Since the 1980s, in the era of globalisation, this process of convergence has re-emerged. Clearly, there should now be a single urban discourse. This is not to deny that south-east Asian (or Third World) cities have distinctive elements. The problem is the paradigm which shuts out First World elements."
Correspondence: H. W. Dick, University of Melbourne, Department of Business Development and Corporate History, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. E-mail: hdick@econfac.unimelb.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10048 Dureau, Françoise. Residential trajectories and urban recompositions in Bogotá. [Trajectoires résidentielles et recompositions urbaines à Bogotá.] Cahiers des Amériques Latines, No. 22, 1997. 181-200 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Since the 1980s the growing concentration of Bogotá's urban population and of its metropolitan services have been accompanied by major changes in the rhythm, components and forms of the capital's development as well as by rapid, internal reconstruction. In order to consider these changes this article prioritizes the analysis of residential behaviour by emphasizing, on the one hand, the relationships between residential mobility and every day mobility and, on the other hand, between the micro level of these spatial movements and the macro level of the production processes of the residential area. It is within this systemic perspective that the analysis of spatial mobility, as a factor in the changes which the Colombian capital is currently undergoing, is contextualized."
Correspondence: F. Dureau, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

65:10049 Ebanks, G. Edward. Urbanization in Cuba. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 98-10, ISBN 0-7714-2155-9. Aug 1998. 26 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The process of urbanization in Cuba has many aspects. This paper will examine the current level of urbanization, the rate of growth of the urban population, the cities of Cuba, and the policies relating to urbanization from about 1950 up to 1996, as well as a look at projection up to 2020 and 2025."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10050 Giri, Pabitra. Urbanisation in West Bengal, 1951-1991. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 47-48, Nov 21, 1998. 3,033-8 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The paper discusses the urbanisation process in West Bengal [India] during 1951-91 with reference to the changes in workforce structure and urban-rural productivity gap. In general the relative industrial stagnation and the population pressures determined the urbanisation process in West Bengal in the post-independence period. Moreover, the agricultural growth and the changed political scenario since the late 1970s had influenced the process."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:10051 Glavac, Sonya M.; Vias, Alexander C.; Mulligan, Gordon F. Population and employment interactions in the growth of United States micropolitan centers. Urban Geography, Vol. 19, No. 7, Oct-Nov 1998. 632-56 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper examines population and employment growth in 219 emerging metropolitan (micropolitan) areas in the United States during the 1980s. In the spirit of Carlino and Mills (1987) and Clark and Murphy (1996), a partial adjustment model is used to examine the simultaneity of population and employment change, while controlling for the area-specific effects of amenities, fiscal conditions, and demographic composition, as well as for broad regional differences. The statistical evidence does not provide strong support for the simultaneity of micropolitan-area population and employment change during that decade."
Correspondence: S. M. Glavac, Sunshine Coast University, Locked Bag No. 4, Maroochydore South, Queensland 4558, Australia. E-mail: sglavac@scuc.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10052 Howe, Steven R.; Allor, David; Bier, Thomas; Finnerty, Thomas; Green, Phyllis. The shrinking central city amidst growing suburbs: case studies of Ohio's inelastic cities. Urban Geography, Vol. 19, No. 8, Nov-Dec 1998. 714-34 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"Four of Ohio's urban areas have at their centers `inelastic' cities, or cities unable to grow through annexation. In this paper, we discuss the post-World War II development of Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dayton, and Youngstown, Ohio. Their most important common experience has been the loss of central-city population and housing units to the suburbs. Except for Cincinnati, the suburbs of these cities grew between 1970 and 1990 even though the population of the metropolitan area as a whole decreased. Another common experience is the degree to which these cities have been harmed by enhancements to the regional transportation system. The findings suggest that policies explicitly designed to manage further suburban sprawl and promote metropolitan cooperation are needed to maintain the viability of these cities."
Correspondence: S. R. Howe, University of Cincinnati, Department of Psychology, Cincinnati, OH 45221. E-mail: steven.howe@uc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10053 Krakover, Shaul. Testing the turning-point hypothesis in city-size distribution: the Israeli situation re-examined. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 12, Dec 1998. 2,183-96 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This study re-examines city-size distribution in Israel in selected years between 1948 and 1995, using expanded rank-size distribution functions. Unlike most previous studies, this analysis is carried out using populations of metropolitan areas. Utilising this definition, it has been found that population continued to concentrate at least to the end of the 1980s and at a much higher economic level than anticipated by previous studies. There are indications that distribution of population in the urban system of Israel remained more or less stable during the last five decades."
Correspondence: S. Krakover, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Geography and Environmental Development, 84105 Beer-Sheva, Israel. E-mail: shaul@bgumail.bgu.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10054 Portnov, Boris A.; Pearlmutter, David. Sustainability of population growth: a case study of urban settlements in Israel. Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 129-45 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"One of the most sensitive criteria for gauging the degree of socio-economic prosperity of an urban settlement is the ability to sustain stable rates of population growth by attracting newcomers and retaining existing population. The present paper argues that after reaching a particular size (on the average, 20-30,000 residents), urban localities in Israel tend to experience substantial changes in components of their annual population growth. Starting with this inflection point, the growth of settlements gradually becomes less dependent on natural causes (birth and death rates) than on the ability to attract newcomers and retain current residents. On the basis of this conclusion, a strategy of `redirecting priorities' to developing the peripheral regions of the country is suggested."
Correspondence: B. A. Portnov, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Center for Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Sede-Boker Campus, 84990 Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10055 Ranjan, Rajiv. Problems of growing Indian cities. ISBN 81-85891-07-9. LC 97-906165. 1997. 148 pp. Rajesh Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines "the major problems of growing Indian cities with special reference to the city of Bhagalpur.... The first chapter provides the introductory background. The geographical background has been analysed in the second chapter. Problems of growing Indian cities have been analysed in the third chapter. Chapters [four, five, and six] deal with physical, economic and social problems of the city of Bhagalpur. The last chapter provides [a] brief summary, suggestions and conclusions."
Correspondence: Rajesh Publications, 1 Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10056 Schweitzer, Frank; Steinbrink, Jens. Estimation of megacity growth: simple rules versus complex phenomena. Applied Geography, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1998. 69-81 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The growth of large urban aggregates (megacities) is analogous to the development of self-organized structures known in physics. Using empirical data about changes in the built-up areas of different cities as input, the self-organizing model employed here suggests that megacities evolve towards a hierarchical form of spatial organization, and provides estimates of the size of subclusters that compose the urban aggregate.... The model has been validated by reproducing the evolution of the Berlin area over a period of 35 years (1910-45). Using the same assumptions, the evolution of the built-up area of Daegu (Korea) is simulated up to the year 2010."
Correspondence: F. Schweitzer, Humboldt University, Institute of Physics, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: frank@physik.hu-berlin.de. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10057 Serrano, José M. Urban growth in Spain, 1950-1991. The end of a process with negative consequences for the territorial balance. [La croissance urbaine en Espagne (1950-1991). La fin d'un processus qui eut des conséquences négatives pour l'équilibre territorial.] Acta Geographica, Vol. 113, 1998. 51-73 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis of urbanization patterns in Spain during the period 1950-1991. The author notes that there was a strong current of rural-urban migration over this time period, mainly to towns with populations of over 10,000, driven primarily by economic factors. This trend has resulted in territorial imbalances in the spatial distribution of the population. The need for more central planning initiatives to deal with these imbalances is noted.
Correspondence: J. M. Serrano, Universidad de Murcia, Avenida Teniente Flomesta s/n, Edificio Convalecencia, 30001 Murcia, Spain. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

65:10058 van Kempen, Ronald; van Weesep, Jan. Ethnic residential patterns in Dutch cities: backgrounds, shifts and consequences. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,813-33 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article describes recent trends in the residential patterns of ethnic minorities, specifically Turks and Moroccans, in Dutch cities.... The patterns in the big cities are compared to those observed elsewhere in the country and in other European cities. This brief comparison is followed by a discussion of how the observed spatial patterns affect the social life of the groups in question. The article concludes with a list of factors that are likely to influence the evolution of ethnic residential patterns in the Netherlands in the near future. There seem to be ever fewer reasons to believe that the trend towards increasing segregation in Dutch cities can be reversed."
Correspondence: R. van Kempen, University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80.155, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. E-mail: R.vanKempen@geog.uu.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10059 van Kempen, Ronald; Özüekren, A. Sule. Ethnic segregation in cities: new forms and explanations in a dynamic world. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,631-911 pp. Carfax Publishing: Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers on ethnic segregation in cities worldwide. The introduction offers "an overview of the explanatory factors of ethnic segregation and spatial concentration in modern welfare states. After a discussion of the disadvantages and advantages of segregation and concentration...we will briefly review some `traditional' theories. That review will be followed by a closer look at behavioural theories and explanations in which constraints are central. The next section will collaborate on restructuring processes, giving special attention to economic change and its effects on cities, groups and spatial arrangements. We will conclude this introduction with a few remarks on the future of ethnic segregation and concentration and outline some possible directions for future research in this field."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Carfax Publishing, P.O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3UE, England. Author's E-mail: R.vanKempen@geog.uu.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10060 White, Paul. The settlement patterns of developed world migrants in London. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,725-44 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The movement of less-skilled labour migrants [into European cities] has been replaced by the circulation of high-skill executives and specialist personnel.... To these are added other new service migrants and increased flows of students and independent young people. As a result, world cities are now witnessing the emergence of important categories of non-racialised international migrant groups. This paper considers whether such groups form distinctive residential concentrations in Greater London and uses the limited aggregate data available from the census to establish a general view of the geography of developed world migrants."
Correspondence: P. White, University of Sheffield, Department of Geography, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. E-mail: P.White@Sheffield.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

65:10061 García, Benjamín; Paricio, Jesús M. Rural population in Europe and Spain: future perspectives. [Población rural en Europa y en España: perspectivas de futuro.] Política y Sociedad, Vol. 26, Sep-Dec 1997. 95-111 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is an analysis of current trends in the rural population in the European Union as a whole and in Spain in particular, using data from UN and official sources. The authors conclude that, in wealthy countries such as those examined in the present study, the rural population no longer suffers from deficiencies in services and a lower quality of life in comparison with the urban population. As a consequence, the characteristics of the rural population are changing.
Correspondence: B. García, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento Sociología II, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.