Volume 64 - Number 4 - Winter 1998

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

64:40429 Akwawua, Siaw. Individual characteristics and the propensity to migrate: a logit analysis. Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jun 1996. 11-7 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between individual human resource characteristics and the propensity to migrate or not to migrate. The analysis emphasises the individual characteristics that distinguish migrants from the rest of the nonmigrant population at the origin areas of the migrants.... This study adopts a logit specification in analysing the relationships between individual human resource characteristics and the propensity to migrate."
Correspondence: S. Akwawua, #207-110-25th Street W, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7L OCI, Canada. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

64:40430 Azrael, Jeremy R.; Payin, Emil A. Cooperation and conflict in the former Soviet Union: implications for migration. ISBN 0-8330-2466-3. 1996. ix, 185 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This volume is an outgrowth of an April 1996 conference [held in Minsk, Belarus] at which policymakers and policy analysts from Soviet successor states, the United States, and a number of international organizations discussed specially prepared reports on migratory processes and policies in the former USSR in the context of current and emergent political, social, and economic changes in the region." The 14 papers are organized into five sections, which deal with migration trends in the CIS, the Slavic states, and Central Asia; and prospects for international cooperation and integration.
Correspondence: RAND, P.O. Box 2138, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. E-mail: order@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40431 Cesareo, Vincenzo. Migration as a resource for development and cooperation. [Le migrazioni, risorsa per lo sviluppo e la cooperazione.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 129, Mar 1998. 49-64 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This study is concerned with the relationship between migration and socioeconomic development. The author considers some of the factors affecting migration, such as the availability of information and training, the legal status of migrants, the recognition of migrant associations, the coordination of international and local policies, and the process of migrant integration. Particular attention is given to the findings of some Italian research on migrant remittances and their impact on the development process. The author attempts to replace the traditional concept that migration problems will be solved by the development process with one that sees migrants as active agents in the process of development and change.
Correspondence: V. Cesareo, Fondazione Cariplo per le Iniziative e lo Studio sulla Multietnicità, Foro Buonaparte 22, 20121 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40432 Grieco, Elizabeth M. The effects of migration on the establishment of networks: caste disintegration and reformation among the Indians of Fiji. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, Fall 1998. 704-36 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article focuses on how migration auspices affect the formation of migrant networks and ethnic communities. Using ethnographic data and migration histories to focus on caste `reformation' in the subcommunities of the Indians of Fiji, the ability to reestablish and maintain subcaste group `extensions' in Fiji is shown as directly related to the migration auspices that originally established the community. By determining the characteristics of migrants, the reason for migrating, and the magnitude and duration of migration streams, migration auspices define a migration type. This migration type affects the strength and density of social ties present in migration streams. It also affects the strength and density of network ties that members of a migrant community can establish in a receiving society."
Correspondence: E. M. Grieco, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40433 Iontsev, V. A. International population migration in Russia. [Mezhdunarodnaya migratsiya naselniya v Rossii.] ISBN 5-89209-319-0. 1998. 83 pp. Dialog-MGU: Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
This is a collection of articles based on papers presented by Russian researchers at the 23rd IUSSP General Population Conference held in Beijing, China, October 1997. The topics include a general assessment of Russia's role in the international migration exchange (both historical and current), primarily as a country attracting immigration from the former Soviet republics and Socialist states. Special attention is given to Chinese immigration to the Russian Far East, the impact of immigration on the Russian labor market, and the emigration of skilled professionals from Russia and Eastern European countries to the West. A note in memory of Julian L. Simon is included.
Correspondence: Moscow State University, Department of Economics, Center for Population Studies, 119899 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40434 Krasinets, E. Migration of the population. Problems of Economic Transition, Vol. 40, No. 11, Mar 1998. 49-66 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
This is a review of recent migration trends affecting Russia. There are sections on migration between Russia and former republics of the Soviet Union, forced migrations, migration between Russia and countries outside the former USSR, the in-migration of foreign labor, Russians working abroad, and changes in internal migration patterns. The author notes that the continuing political and socioeconomic crises affecting the country have had a significant effect on migration trends. In general, there is a positive migration balance between Russia and the countries of the "near abroad" as Russians return from the countries that were formerly part of the USSR, but this is partly offset by emigration to the "far abroad", primarily to the developed countries in the West.
Correspondence: E. Krasinets, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40435 Nolte, Hans-Heinrich. German migrations. [Deutsche Migrationen.] Politik und Geschichte, Vol. 2, ISBN 3-8258-2724-0. 1996. 262 pp. Lit Verlag: Münster, Germany. In Ger.
This is a collection of 16 papers that various researchers, mostly at the University of Hannover, presented at a conference on German migration held in Hannover in the winter of 1992-1993. Speaking to the issues of minorities and intolerance, the authors examine various migrations into and out of Germany, both historical and current. Specific topics addressed include minorities in late medieval and early modern Germany, the historical German presence in the Baltic region, German labor migration to the Netherlands, German Jews in Poland, German scientists in Russia, Gypsies in Germany, Polish workers in Germany, foreign forced labor in the Third Reich, Jewish women who emigrated from Germany to New York during World War II, guest workers in Germany, a Turkish migrant's experience in Germany, a discussion of multiculturalism, post-World War II nationalism in Eastern Europe, and German identity in a global perspective.
Correspondence: Lit Verlag, Dieckstraße 73, 48145 Münster, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40436 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). Population distribution and migration. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/133, Pub. Order No. E.98.XIII.12. ISBN 92-1-151324-3. 1998. xii, 400 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a UN expert group meeting on population distribution and migration held in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, January 18-22, 1993. The meeting was convened in preparation for the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Part 1 contains the report and recommendations of the meeting. Parts 2-5 present the 15 background papers prepared for the meeting, organized under the following topics: patterns of population distribution and development; social, environmental, and policy aspects of population distribution and internal migration; international migration trends and prospects; and social, economic, and political aspects of international migration. Part 6 contains discussion notes, consisting primarily of position statements from the relevant UN organizations and specialized agencies.
Correspondence: United Nations Secretariat, Population Division, Room DC2-1950, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40437 Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qian. Gravitation model for the magnitude of migration and its application. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1997. 357-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The magnitude of migration is one part of the feasibility study on migration, its result being critical to the yield of positive or negative effect.... The key to the success of migration is that the magnitude of migration must be limited within the capacity of the place of destination with generous room for flexibility. It is therefore necessary to determine the appropriate magnitude by scientific methods." The geographical focus is on China.
Correspondence: T. Zhang, Lanzhou University, Department of Economics, 298 Tianshui Road, 730000 Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

64:40438 Adepoju, Aderanti; Hammar, Tomas. International migration in and from Africa: dimensions, challenges and prospects. 1996. 198 pp. Population, Human Resources and Development in Africa [PHRDA]: Dakar, Senegal; Stockholm University, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations [CEIFO]: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference on international migration affecting Africa, held in Dakar, Senegal, in 1995. There are seven substantive papers, which are: The links between intra-continental and inter-continental migration in and from Africa, by Aderanti Adepoju; Ties between emigration and destination countries: historical, colonial and cultural, by Tade Akin-Aina; Comparison of the structure and change of political and legal systems of regulation hindering or promoting emigration in Sub-Saharan Africa, by A. A. Afolayan; Immobility: low intercontinental emigration from Sub-Saharan Africa--a sociological investigation, by Dominic Milazi; Economic migration: poverty, unemployment, income differentials, population, by Elizabeth Annan-Yao; Brain drain and brain gain in Africa: dimensions and consequences, by T. O. Fadayomi; and Refugees and displacement in Sub-Saharan Africa: instability due to ethnic and political conflicts and ecological causes, by John O. Oucho.
Correspondence: Population, Human Resources and Development in Africa, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40439 Blum, Alain. How to describe immigrants? Some recent research on immigration. [Comment décrire les immigrés? A propos de quelques recherches sur l'immigration.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 569-87 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article examines the relevance of the categories used, and the conclusions that are reached, in two books which have analyzed the behavioural factors of immigrant populations: Faire France by Michèle Tribalat and Le Destin des Immigrés by Emmanuel Todd.... The author demonstrates how the categories employed are often intended to `justify' an established point of view and overlook the multi-dimensional character of immigration. It is suggested that the demonstrations given are less the result of an in-depth analysis than the reflection of a preconceived idea of differentiations and as such are integral to the definition of the groups."
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: blum@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40440 Bolaria, B. Singh; von Elling Bolaria, Rosemary. International labour migrations. ISBN 0-19-564166-3. 1997. vi, 209 pp. Oxford University Press: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a selection of eight studies by various authors on aspects of international labor migration. The studies are: Capital, labour, migrations, by B. Singh Bolaria and Rosemary von Elling Bolaria; Migration and articulation of racism in Western Europe 1974-88, by Robert Miles and Nora Rathzel; New towns and racism: barriers to mobility for settled migrant populations in Great Britain, by John Wrench; Immigrant Labour, racism and class: the Australian experience, by Jock Collins; Asian workers in the Gulf states of the Middle East, by Hassan N. Gardezi; Asian immigration and the changing U.S. labour markets, by Arthur Wilke; Racialization and genderization: the Canadian state, immigration and temporary workers, by Ricardo Trumper and Lloyd Wong; and Immigrants, migrants and labour market opportunities, by B. Singh Bolaria and Rosemary von Elling Bolaria.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40441 Bouillon, Antoine. Immigration and immigrants in South Africa. [Immigration et immigrés en Afrique du Sud.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1998. 193-219 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The reversal of [South Africa's] pro-active (white) immigration policy in 1990 has been supplemented by an unprecedented level of repression of `illegal' immigration. Although they have never been recognised as such, black immigrants are the most numerous component of the South African immigrant population. After giving an account of this situation, this article endeavours to take stock of the immigrant population as a whole, by covering the whole range of permanent, temporary, refugee and `illegal' immigrant status and populations."
Correspondence: A. Bouillon, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40442 Brochmann, Grete. European integration and immigration from third countries. ISBN 82-00-22721-9. 1996. xiv, 164 pp. Scandinavian University Press: Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
This book examines the process whereby immigration in Europe has evolved from being encouraged as a major factor in economic development to being discouraged as a threat to existing socioeconomic structures. The main focus is on the political process toward the harmonization of migration policies among the receiving countries and efforts to control immigration. The issue of immigration is first introduced in the context of national sovereignty and nationhood. This is followed by a historical review of immigration in Europe in the period following World War II. Next, the characteristics of the immigrant population are described. The remaining chapters examine the factors that have influenced the development of migration policies and the trend toward the harmonization of those policies.
Correspondence: Scandinavian University Press, P.O. Box 2959 Tøyen, 0608 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40443 Burnley, Ian; Murphy, Peter; Fagan, Bob. Immigration and Australian cities. ISBN 1-86287-258-9. 1997. vii, 167 pp. Federation Press: Leichhardt, Australia. Distributed by Distributed in North America by William W. Gaunt & Sons, Gaunt Building, 3011 Gulf Drive, Holmes Beach, FL 34217-2199. In Eng.
This book "presents...a review of the impact of Australia's immigration program on its cities. It emphasises that urban issues are sometimes really subsets of broader national political, social and economic debates. Amongst matters covered in the book are: How does globalisation affect immigration patterns and what impact has this had in Australia? How have migrants contributed to the growth of Australian cities? What impact has immigration had on house prices in Australian cities? What impact has immigration had on urban environmental quality? Have `ghettos' been created? [and] What impact does immigration have on employment and unemployment in the cities?"
Correspondence: Federation Press, P.O. Box 45, Annandale, NSW 2038, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40444 Cacopardo, María C.; Lopez, Elsa. Family, work, and fertility among migrants from bordering countries. [Familia, trabajo y fecundidad de los migrantes de países limítrofes.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 12, No. 35, Apr 1997. 187-217 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"A first set of results of a research on households [in Argentina] from migrants from boundary countries is analyzed here. [The] main object is the study of family structure and work among Bolivian, Chilean, Paraguayan and Uruguayan immigrants within each community's own social-cultural frame. The article analyzes information from the 1991 Census, in particular concerning the family structure, job structure of household heads and other household members, and fertility of household heads' wives."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40445 Camarota, Steven A. Does immigration harm the poor? Public Interest, No. 133, Fall 1998. 23-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impact of current levels of immigration for the United States is assessed in the light of the recent report issued by the National Academy of Science's National Research Council. "The findings of the NRC study basically tell us this: we can now say with confidence that immigration is not the benefit to the economy that it was once thought to be. While the overall economic impact of immigration is modest, the effect on the unskilled and on taxpayers in high-immigrant states is substantial. We should, therefore, change our immigration policy not because the negative effects are so large for the country as a whole but because they are so concentrated." The author suggests that policy changes are needed to limit immigration to those with more skills and qualifications.
For the NRC study referred to, published in 1998, see 64:30542.
Correspondence: S. A. Camarota, Center for Immigration Studies, 1815 H Street NW, Suite 1010, Washington, D.C. 20006-3604. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:40446 Canada. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (Ottawa, Canada). Canada: a welcoming land. 1999 Annual Immigration Plan. [Le Canada: terre d'accueil. Plan en matière d'immigration pour 1999.] Pub. Order No. Ci1-1999. ISBN 0-662-63856-5. Oct 1998. i, 9; 9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This document lays out, as required by law, the immigration plan for Canada for 1999. It includes estimates of the total number of immigrants, including refugees, that will be admitted for the year. Data on immigration for the period 1995-1998 are also included.
Correspondence: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Communications Branch, Jean Edmonds Tower South, 365 Laurier Avenue West, 19th Floor, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1L1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40447 Castles, Stephen. New migrations in the Asia-Pacific region: a force for social and political change. International Social Science Journal, No. 156, Jun 1998. 215-27 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A group of scholars have decided to establish an Asia Pacific Migration Research Network (APMRN) within the UNESCO-MOST (Management of Social Transformations) Programme. The project focuses on the social and political aspects of international migration.... This article looks at the issues being studied by the APMRN, and discusses the progress made so far."
Correspondence: S. Castles, University of Wollongong, Institute of Social Change and Critical Inquiry, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. E-mail: stephen_castles@uow.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40448 Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The migration process in the Mercosur countries (1860-1990). [Procesos migratorios en países del Mercosur (1860-1990).] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 12, No. 35, Apr 1997. 248 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
This special issue contains seven papers on aspects of migration affecting the Mercosur countries of Latin America. The papers were presented at a workshop held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in June 1997.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Independencia 20, 1099 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40449 Cheng, Lucie; Yang, Philip Q. Global interaction, global inequality, and migration of the highly trained to the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, Fall 1998. 626-53 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The authors "argue that national variation in the size of highly trained migration can be explained by interaction and inequality between nations, both reflecting the process of global integration. Guided by this analytical framework, we tested the structural determinants of highly skilled migration to the United States. The evidence confirms our hypotheses that economic and educational interactions between sending countries and the United States increase the flow of the highly trained to the United States. Results also provide mixed proof for our hypotheses that levels of professional migration are positively associated with disparities between sending countries and the United States in living conditions, research conditions, children's educational opportunities, political conditions, and professional employment opportunities."
Correspondence: L. Cheng, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40450 Christensen, David. Leaving the back door open: Italy's response to illegal immigration. Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, Spring 1997. 461-505 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article addresses the state of illegal immigration in Italy. Part II describes some of the problems that Italy currently faces as a result of the relatively high number of illegal immigrants. Part III recounts the development of Italian immigration policy, attempting to illustrate how particular government actions helped to create the problem of illegal immigration. Finally, Part IV suggests some possible policies that Italy might adopt in order to lessen illegal immigration."
Correspondence: D. Christensen, Latham and Watkins, 663 West 5th Street, #4000, Los Angeles, CA 90071-2005. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:40451 Cross, Malcolm. Incorporating migrants in multicultural societies: migration control and its effects. New Community, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1997. 437-570 pp. Carfax Publishing: Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains seven papers on the problems associated with incorporating immigrants into the increasingly multi-cultural societies that now exist in the developed countries of the West. The primary focus is on the effects of policies designed to control immigration on the countries of destination.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: University of Utrecht, European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, Netherlands. E-mail: J.Johst@fsw.ruu.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40452 Di Comite, Luigi. Migration to and from the Maghreb. [Le migrazoni maghrebine.] Quaderni del Dipartimento per lo Studio delle Società Mediterranee, No. 9, 1995. 400 pp. Cacucci Editore: Bari, Italy. In Fre; Ita.
This is a collection of papers, in French or Italian, presented at a conference on migration to and from the countries of Northern Africa. The conference was organized by the Department for the Study of Mediterranean Societies and held in Bari, Italy, October 8-9, 1993. The focus is on migration from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia to the countries of Europe, and particularly to the countries of Southern Europe bordering the Mediterranean. Subjects covered include the measurement of migration flows, the economic reasons for migration, the role of the wives of migrants left in countries of origin, assimilation of immigrants in countries of destination, migration policies, return migration, and the reassimilation of returning migrants.
Correspondence: Cacucci Editore, Via Nicolai 17, 70122 Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40453 Eaton, April L. Immigration and the structure of demand: do immigrants alter the labor market composition of U.S. cities? Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 98-11, Jul 1998. 21, [9] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This study explores the relationship between immigration and labor market demand by employing information about the occupational distribution of recent immigrants as compared to natives to analyze the circumstances under which the two groups are more likely to compete with or complement each other in the labor market of U.S. cities. The findings lend some support to Light and Rosenstein's (1995) specific demand hypothesis: in small and medium-sized cities, many immigrants fill occupational niches that would not exist in their absence. The picture is different in large metro areas; here there appears to be little relationship between the relative sizes of the immigrant population and of the labor market sector made up of occupations which are--on a national scale--immigrant-dominated."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40454 Eltard, Dorte. Trends in international migration to Denmark: Sopemi report to the OECD Denmark--1996. [Tendenser i internationale migrationsbevægelser til Danmark: Sopemirapport til OECD Danmark--1996.] ISBN 87-7703-250-0. May 1997. 110, [12] pp. Arbejdsmarkedsstyrelsen: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
This report provides a description of trends in immigration to Denmark during 1989-1995. Chapter 1 focuses on immigration to Denmark during 1994. Chapter 2 describes trends in arrivals of refugees and asylum seekers in 1995. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the national origin of the foreign population. Chapter 4 deals with the labor market participation of the foreign population, listing employment and unemployment statistics. Chapter 5 focuses on war refugees from the former Yugoslavia, estimating how many such refugees have arrived in Denmark and which legal changes have been made as a consequence of the arrival of this particular immigrant group. Finally, Chapter 6 is an outline of the dominant views behind the current migration and refugee policy in Denmark.
Correspondence: Arbejdsmarkedsstyrelsen, Blegdamsvej 56, Postboks 2722, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40455 Fassmann, Heinz. Emigration from Poland. [Auswanderung aus Polen--Polen im Ausland.] Geographische Rundschau, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan 1998. 18-23 pp. Brunswick, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Apart from Ireland and Italy Poland belongs to the `classical' emigration countries of the 19th and 20th century. Due to economical and political factors a considerable number of Poles left their country.... Spread over many countries on several continents the emigrants established a Polish diaspora and developed a national feeling that is...[connected] with the Polish culture and the Polish `community'. The existence of ethnic networks structures characterized the Polish emigration also after 1989/90. Political and ethnic factors become thereby less important in comparison with economical push- and pull-factors. This leads to an emigration of qualified people who get jobs in the urban labour markets of Western Europe in private households, and in the building trade, sometimes under precarious circumstances."
Correspondence: H. Fassmann, Technischen Universität München, Geographisches Institut, Arcisstraße 21, 80290 Munich, Germany. E-mail: heinz.fassmann@lrz.tu-muenchen.de. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

64:40456 Findlay, Allan M.; Li, F. L. N. A migration channels approach to the study of professionals moving to and from Hong Kong. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, Fall 1998. 682-703 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article evaluates the concept of migration channels, identifying the strengths and weaknesses that have emerged from use of a migration channels framework in international migration research. Using professional migration to and from Hong Kong in the 1990s as an empirical lens, it is argued that the meso-scale understanding offered by examining the effect of migration channels is valuable. This is illustrated in terms of the contrasting channels used by different professions, as well by migrants motivated to move by citizenship as opposed to career reasons."
Correspondence: A. M. Findlay, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40457 Freeman, Gary P. Immigration as a source of political discontent and frustration in Western democracies. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 32, No. 3, Fall 1997. 42-64 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This article describes the migration context of three sets of Western democracies and then explores plausible linkages between the scale, timing, and characteristics of migration, and the substance and process of migration policies, on the one hand, and support for government, on the other. Trying to move beyond plausibility, I discuss indirect indicators of the impact of immigration on Western publics: attitudes toward immigration policy and immigrants, support for extremist parties, and acts of violence and disorder linked to anti-immigrant or racist motives."
Correspondence: G. P. Freeman, University of Texas, Department of Government, Burdine Hall, Austin, TX, 78712. E-mail: gfreeman@jeeves.la.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40458 Gans, Paul. Foreign citizens in German cities: regional patterns and economic structure. [Ausländische Bevölkerung in Großstädten Deutschlands: regionale Trends und Wirtschaftsstruktur.] Geographische Rundschau, Vol. 49, No. 7-8, Jul-Aug 1997. 399-405 pp. Brunswick, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The German cities in the old federal states showed a remarkable increase in foreigners from 1980 to 1994. Their number grew from 5.2 to 15.1 per cent. This is mostly a result of migration gains. The regional pattern is closely related to the economic structures and functions of the cities. But administrative and legal measures as well as differences in the composition of nationalities have influenced the diffusion pattern since the recruitment-stop in 1973."
Correspondence: P. Gans, Universität Mannheim, Geographisches Institut, L9, 1-2, 68131 Mannheim, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

64:40459 Golini, Antonio; Strozza, Salvatore. Immigration and foreign people in six Italian metropolitan areas. Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 129, 1998. 65-86 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The study deals with size, main features (citizenship, sex and age) and legal status (settled and semi-settled legal migrants, illegal or irregular migrants) of [the] foreign population in six Italian metropolitan areas (Rome, Milan, Turin, Naples, Bologna and Palermo). Available data and their reliability are first analysed. The six metropolitan provinces reveal a very high concentration of foreign population, Rome and Milan in particular. The general picture is that of an increasing concentration of foreign residents in the capital city, but at the same time of the growing scattering in the metropolitan municipalities. Estimates for illegal or irregular migrants, obtained by applying the shares of illegality [emerging] from sample surveys to the regular stock, suggest that the percentage of illegal and irregular immigrants is particularly high in the provinces of Rome and Naples and is mainly connected with flows from Eastern Europe and North Africa."
Correspondence: A. Golini, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40460 Haldenwang, B. B. International migration: a case study of South Africa. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 13, No. 6, Dec 1996. 829-45 pp. Halfway House, South Africa. In Eng.
"South Africa, which has traditionally been a popular destination for international migrants, is currently experiencing a net loss of legal migrants, but an enormous gain of illegal immigrants. This article analyses trends in legal international migration to and from South Africa and provides a demographic profile of legal immigrants and emigrants. The reasons for and results of the influx of illegal immigrants into the country are discussed, and possible policies and strategies to reduce this influx are presented."
Correspondence: B. B. Haldenwang, University of Stellenbosch, Institute for Futures Research, Stellenbosch 7600, Cape Province, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40461 Hamilton, Kimberly A. Europe, Africa, and international migration: an uncomfortable triangle of interests. New Community, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1997. 549-70 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article places sending and receiving states in a dynamics historical context within which states strive to protect political, economic, and socio-cultural interests. This framework is applied to the Euro-African migration system and leads to three primary findings. First, migration flows from Africa have diversified in terms of origins and destinations and no longer necessarily follow patterns of colonial relations. Such a trends calls into question the efficacy of bilateral responses. Second, African states have clearly demonstrated interests in managing emigration and return migration and need to be considered as partners in policy responses. Third, African migrant communities are exerting greater independence vis-à-vis sending and receiving states."
Correspondence: Howard Gilman Foundation, 111 50th Street, New York, NY 10020. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40462 Hugo, Graeme. Globalisation and international migration in Asia. Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 129, Mar 1998. 2-47 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The present paper attempts to summarise the major contemporary trends in international migration in Asia and how this is related to the rapid demographic transition occurring across most of the region. The diversity of types of mobility is one of the striking features of Asian international migration and developments in each major type [are] discussed in the paper. It is then argued that there are elements within the Asian migration system that give it a momentum which to some extent operates outside of the influence of economic and political trends. Finally some emerging issues in Asian international migration are briefly addressed. These include the scale and effects of remittances, the feminisation of migration, undocumented migration, increasing government involvement and brain drain issues."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40463 Huisman, Corina; van Wissen, Leo. Regional forecasts of immigrants from developing countries, 1996-2016. [Regionale allochtonen prognose 1996-2016.] NIDI Rapport, No. 54, ISBN 90-70990-74-1. 1998. [xvii], 149 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut.
This report presents forecasts of the immigrant population from developing countries in the Netherlands by region for the period 1996-2016. It updates the forecasts provided in a 1994 report by Evert van Imhoff et al. The forecasts are provided separately for immigrants from Turkey, Morocco, the Dutch Antilles, Suriname, and other developing countries. The results indicate that this immigrant population will grow from about 354,400 in 1996 to 1,037,500 in 2016.
For the report by van Imhoff et al., see 60:30086.
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: Info@Nidi.NL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40464 Inglis, Christine. Migration, ethnic relations and identity construction. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3-4, 1997. 267-519 pp. Scalabrini Migration Center: Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The papers contained in this issue...were, with one exception, all presented in Manila [the Philippines] in May 1996 at the first Asia Pacific Regional Conference of Sociology and the linked conferences organized by the International Sociological Association's Research Committees on Ethnic, Race and Minority Relations (RC05) and migration (RC31). As a group they explore the diverse ways in which migration becomes directly articulated with ethnic relations and the process of ethnic and national identity construction. This exploration involves not only countries with different historical patterns of migration and ethnic relations but also countries at different stages of economic development and with different political systems."
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, P.O. Box 10541 Broadway Centrum, 1113 Quezon City, Philippines. E-mail: smc@mn1.sequel.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40465 Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (Jerusalem, Israel); Konrad Adenauer Foundation (Jerusalem, Israel). Immigration and its impact on the state of Israel. ISBN 965-218-033-5. 1997. xiv, 122, 16 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Heb. with sum. in Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference, held in May 1997, on the impact of immigration on Israel. There are papers on the influence of immigration on Israeli society, immigrant absorption policy and services, the labor market, the environment, the contribution of the National Insurance Institute to immigrant absorption, the contribution of immigrants to the economy, foreign workers in Israel, immigration law, the educational system, the health system, the political organization of immigrants, the absorption of women immigrants, the absorption of immigrants by the armed forces, and the regional distribution of immigrants. There is also one paper in English on the German experience with immigration.
Correspondence: Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 13 Tel Hai Street, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

64:40466 Junankar, P. N.; Pope, David; Withers, Glenn. Immigration and the Australian macro-economy: perspective and prospective. CEPR (ANU) Discussion Paper, No. 351, ISBN 0-7315-2215-X. Oct 1996. 24 pp. Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The task for this paper is to propose major lessons to be distilled from the Australian experience and knowledge [of the macroeconomic effects of migration], and to judge their relevance for the longer term future. The focus is on macro-economic effects of international migration.... The paper looks at both longer-run effects and short-run macro-economic impacts." The paper also includes an opening address to the workshop at which the paper was presented, given by Philip Ruddock, Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs .
Correspondence: Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: baird.cepr@coombs.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40467 Karafolas, Simeon. Migrant remittances in Greece and Portugal: distribution by country of provenance and the role of the banking presence. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1998. 357-81 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The article examines migrant remittances per country of origin of remittances for two emigration countries, Greece and Portugal. It also examines the relationship between remittances and the number of banks of the emigration country in the host country. From the analysis it appears that remittances are concentrated in a small number of host countries--the U.S. and Germany for the Greek case; France (mainly) and the U.S., Germany and Switzerland for the Portuguese case. Remittances followed similar trends, characterized by especially high growth during the 1970s and also during the second half of the 1980s. For both countries similar trends are observed regarding the relationship between remittances and remittances per migrant with the presence of banks of the home country at the important countries of origin of remittances. The growth of the banking presence in host countries had a significant impact on the growth of migrant remittances."
Correspondence: S. Karafolas, Ministry of Development of Greece, Veria, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40468 Kritz, Mary M. Alternative international migration pathways: who goes where and why? Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 97.04, 1997. 14, [4] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"While inequalities may generate demand for migration from developing to developed countries, this article examines whether demand necessarily corresponds to total number of migrants produced and number of destinations to which migrants are sent.... The analysis shows that developed countries are significantly more likely than developing countries to send migrants to multiple destinations which, in turn, increases the overall number of migrants they produce."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40469 Kritz, Mary M. Investment, population growth and GNP as determinants of U.S. immigration. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 3, Sep 1998. 243-58 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The author evaluates whether emigration to the United States in the 1989-93 period can be accounted for by demographic and economic conditions in sending countries, as postulated by neoclassical theorists, or by levels of U.S. investment in sending countries, as claimed by world system theorists. Utilizing data on U.S. permanent migration, emigration rates for 150 sending countries are calculated and the correlates of emigration assessed. The analysis provides no support for claims that rapid population growth and U.S. investment fuel U.S. immigration. Rather emigration is significantly lower from countries experiencing rapid population growth and not significantly correlated with U.S. investment."
Correspondence: M. M. Kritz, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. E-mail: mmk5@cornell.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40470 Kritz, Mary M. U.S. investment, population growth and GNP as determinants of emigration to the U.S.A. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 96.07, 1996. 14, [7] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Given the fact that the United States receives the bulk of its legal migrants from developing regions and has a more diversified immigration flow than most other countries of immigration, it offers an interesting case for evaluating whether population growth and economic development are key factors shaping its migration flows.... I evaluate the extent to which the determinants of emigration to the United States [are] consistent with neoclassical and world system theories in the 1989-93 period."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40471 Libercier, Marie-Hélène; Schneider, Hartmut. Migrants: partners in development co-operation. ISBN 92-64-14907-4. 1996. 71 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre: Paris, France. In Eng.
This study examines the contribution that emigrants can make to the development process in their countries of origin. The authors synthesize the results of six case studies concerning Cape Verdeans in the Netherlands, Haitians in Quebec, Italians in Switzerland, Malians in France, Tunisians in Italy, and Zairians in Belgium. "Although in most cases migrants' contributions to their own country's development is fairly small in macroeconomic terms, they can sometimes have a substantial impact at the local level. Moreover, the effect of these contributions could be amplified if appropriate policies were devised and implemented in the host and home countries. The studies demonstrate what might at first sight seem a paradox: that the social integration of migrants in the host country is favoured by the existence of associations whose purpose is to maintain links with the home country and to undertake actions in support of its development. Thus, the better migrants are integrated in the host country, the greater can be their contribution to the development of the home country."
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40472 López, Ramón; Schiff, Maurice. Migration and the skill composition of the labour force: the impact of trade liberalization in LDCs. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1998. 318-36 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on the conditions under which trade liberalization in the developing countries is likely to cause an increase or a decrease in out-migration. We also examine the impact of trade liberalization on the skill composition of migration and of the labour force. For this purpose, we explicitly incorporate four additional features in the Heckscher-Ohlin model: heterogeneity of labour skills, international migration, migration costs, and constraints on financing migration."
Correspondence: R. López, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40473 Mammey, Ulrich; Schiener, Rolf. The integration of expatriates into German society. Results of a panel study of the Federal Institute for Population Research. [Zur Eingliederung der Aussiedler in die Gesellschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Ergebnisse einer Panelstudie des Bundesinstituts für Bevölkerungsforschung.] Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts für Bevölkerungsforschung, No. 25, ISBN 3-8100-2084-2. 1998. 142 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany; Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
The social and occupational integration into Germany of ethnic Germans who have repatriated themselves from Poland, the former Soviet Union, and Romania is examined using data from a panel survey conducted by the German Federal Population Institute. A post-industrial paradigm of occupational and class structure is employed. The integration of these people into the labor and housing market is also addressed, and regional mobility is discussed. The general conclusion is that integration is proceeding, albeit accompanied by economic hardship.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Straße 27, 51379 Leverkusen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40474 Marcantonio, Katia. Italian emigration in Ireland. [L'emigrazione italiana in Irlanda.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 129, 1998. 127-35 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The principal aim of this brief essay is to examine...Italian migration in Ireland, considered itself a country of [emigration]. It is quite impossible to examine the history of [the] Italian community through pages of diaries, recollections or books, written in handwriting, because the majority of them were, unfortunately, illiterate. Today, the Italians in [Ireland] are divided between those originally from the area around Frosinone, especially from Casalattico, and involved in the catering trade and those from other parts of Italy. The words `fish and chips' and `chipper' automatically bring to mind Italians, because many Irish people used to visit [the] chipper after an evening in the pub, [a] few decades ago."
Correspondence: K. Marcantonio, Università degli Studi di L'Aquila, Piazza Rivera 1, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40475 Morgan, Nicole; Oudghiri, Rémy. Immigration: the American experiment. [Immigration: le laboratoire américain.] Futuribles, No. 219, Apr 1997. 59-71 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This article, which is in two parts, examines aspects of current U.S. concerns about immigration. The first part, by Nicole Morgan, summarizes some of the recent work by David M. Kennedy and Georges J. Borjas on the benefits and costs of immigration. The second part, by Rémy Oudghiri, examines the growing concern among some whites in California who fear the consequences of becoming the minority rather than the majority population in the state. The importance of taking economic and social factors into account in the resolution of problems associated with immigration is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40476 Münz, Rainer. Where did they all come from? Typology and geography of European mass migration in the twentieth century. Demographie Aktuell, No. 7, 1995. 46 pp. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultät III, Institut für Sozialwissenschaften, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft: Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper gives an overview of the size and geography of migration to and within Europe. Changing causes, patterns and trends of international migration, as well as key periods, are discussed. [The paper] also analyses the composition of foreign resident populations in Europe. The paper covers the period since World War I. But the main focus is on the second half of the 20th century. Different types of mass migration are discussed.... The paper also looks at public opinion concerning the number of foreigners in Europe. At the end policy options are discussed." The paper was presented at the 1995 European Population Conference in Milan, Italy.
Correspondence: Humboldt-Universität, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Unter den Linden, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40477 O'Connor, David; Farsakh, Leila. Development strategy, employment and migration: country experiences. Development Centre Seminars, ISBN 92-64-14790-X. 1996. 259 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]: Paris, France. In Eng.
This is one of two publications based on papers and discussions from a workshop held July 11-13, 1994, at the OECD Development Centre in Paris. The workshop was entitled Development Strategies, Employment and International Migration. Most of the eight papers in this volume focus on the situation in developing countries, particularly the rapidly growing economies of East and Southeastern Asia. Part 1 has two papers on structural change and labor market adjustment in East Asia and in Malaysia and Taiwan. Part 2 has two papers on labor market and migration transitions in Thailand and Indonesia. Part 3 looks at remittances and return migration in Pakistan, the Philippines, and South Asia. Part 4 has one paper on trade and migration in the NAFTA region.
For a related volume, edited by J. Edward Taylor, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40478 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). Migration and regional economic integration in Asia. ISBN 92-64-16039-6. 1998. 176 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"This publication, based on a workshop series jointly organised by the Government of Japan, the Japan Institute of Labour, the OECD and the International Labour Organisation, analyses recent trends in international migration movements and policies in East and South-east Asia. Individual country reports on Indonesia; China; Hong Kong, China; Japan; the Republic of Korea; Malaysia; the Philippines; Singapore; and Thailand, describe in detail foreign worker flows and trends in foreign employment, while also providing an overview of the main characteristics of economic growth and labour market change. Asian countries are seeking to combat illegal migration and manage migration flows in accordance with both labour market requirements and the ability to absorb foreign workers. To what extent can sub-regional economic development play a role in channeling migration flows in a more orderly fashion? What is the nature of emigration in Asia and what are the reasons behind it? These issues are examined in a context of rapid labour force growth for some Asian countries and with an eye to identifying strategies to generate more job opportunities in sending countries."
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Publications, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40479 Raijman, Rebeca; Semyonov, Moshe. Best of times, worst of times, and occupational mobility: the case of Soviet immigrants in Israel. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1998. 291-312 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article compares the incorporation of two groups of immigrants from the former Soviet Union into the Israeli labour market. The first group arrived in Israel in 1979 and the second group...in 1990. The first period was characterized by a small number of immigrants (best of times), and the second period was characterized by mass migration (worst of times). Using data sets assembled by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, labour force status of the two groups in Israel were examined four years after arrival (1983 and 1994, respectively). We found no difference in rate of labour force participation but considerable differences in the rate of occupational mobility between the two groups of immigrants. Specifically, the data reveal that immigrants were able to find employment in both periods. However, during periods of mass migration, recent immigrants had experienced higher rates of downward occupational mobility and greater loss of occupational status."
Correspondence: R. Raijman, University of Haifa, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Mount Carmel, 31 905 Haifa, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40480 Reitz, Jeffrey G. Warmth of the welcome: the social causes of economic success for immigrants in different nations and cities. ISBN 0-8133-8346-3. LC 97-50570. 1998. xiii, 298 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a comparative analysis of the differences in the social and economic acculturation of recent immigrants, who are primarily of non-European origin, in the United States, Canada, and Australia. The main thesis is that the differences observed reflect fundamental differences in the characteristics of the three recipient societies under consideration far more than has previously been recognized. The author maintains not only that the impact of immigration is a social product shaped by the various institutional structures existing in the receiving countries, but also that these institutions are in a process of rapid change, partly in response to global economic change, which will in turn change the impact of immigration in all three countries.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40481 Reyes, Belinda I. Dynamics of immigration: return migration to western Mexico. ISBN 0-9653184-2-7. Jan 1997. xxi, 98 pp. Public Policy Institute of California: San Francisco, California. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the return migration of Mexican immigrants in the United States to their country of origin. It examines "how long Mexican immigrants stay in the United States and the differences between those who stay and those who return. It analyzes data on return migration for a sample of immigrants from western Mexico--an area that accounts for a large percentage of California's immigrants. The study's major findings suggest how important return migration could be for considering the social and economic effects of immigration: half of all immigrants from western Mexico return home within two years and about 70 percent have left within ten years; undocumented immigrants and the unemployed leave at even faster rates; the long-term settlers have more education and higher-paying jobs and are thus the most likely to succeed in the U.S. labor market. These and other findings suggest that migration is driven primarily by economic incentives. The results also suggest that the costs and benefits of immigration should be estimated over time."
Correspondence: Public Policy Institute of California, 500 Washington Street, Suite 800, San Francisco, CA 94111. E-mail: info@ppic.org. Location: University of California Library, Berkeley, CA.

64:40482 Rieucau, Géraldine. An interpretation of the codification of emigration and the emergence of a wage-earning class: the examples of Italy and Spain. [Una interpretación de la codificación sobre emigración y nacimiento del salariado: los casos de Italia y España.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1997. 135-67 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article deals with the genesis of the statistical categories and the official standards that regulated emigration in Italy [and] in Spain, from the last decades of [the] last century until the First World War. By underlining or negating the population drain in the traditional sector, the codification of migration encouraged or discouraged the emergence of wage earning. Spain and Italy showed marked differences."
Correspondence: G. Rieucau, Centre d'Etudes de l'Emploi, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40483 Schuck, Peter H.; Münz, Rainer. Paths to inclusion: the integration of migrants in the United States and Germany. Migration and Refugees: Politics and Policies in the United States and Germany, Vol. 5, ISBN 1-57181-091-9. LC 97-30105. 1998. xxii, 306 pp. Berghahn Books: Providence, Rhode Island/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This selection of eight essays examines the institutions, laws, and social policies that are designed to facilitate the integration of immigrants and refugees into receiving countries, particularly Germany and the United States. The contents are as follows: Assimilation, exclusion, or neither? Models of incorporation of immigrants in the United States, by Richard D. Alba; Divergent destinies: immigration, the second generation, and the rise of transnational communities, by Alejandro Portes; Governmental and nongovernmental roles in the absorption of immigrants in the United States, by Nathan Glazer; Social and economic integration of foreigners in Germany, by Wolfgang Seifert; Ethnic inequalities in the German school system, by Richard D. Alba, Johann Handl, and Walter Müller; Long-distance citizens: ethnic Germans and their immigration to Germany, by Rainer Münz and Rainer Ohliger; The treatment of aliens in the United States, by Peter H. Schuck; and Nationality law in the United States and Germany: structure and current problems, by Gerald L. Neuman.
Correspondence: Berghahn Books, 165 Taber Avenue, Providence, RI 02906. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40484 Seifert, Wolfgang. Occupational, economic, and social mobility of labor migrants between 1984 and 1993. [Berufliche, ökonomische und soziale Mobilität von Arbeitsmigranten zwischen 1984 und 1993.] In: Lebenslagen im Wandel: Sozialberichterstattung im Längsschnitt, by Wolfgang Zapf, Jürgen Schupp, and Roland Habich. ISBN 3-593-35429-2. 1996. 240-63 pp. Campus Verlag: New York, New York/Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Ger.
The situation of several generations of foreign workers in Germany is examined using longitudinal socioeconomic panel data from 1984-1988 and 1989-1993. The author concludes that while there is no systematic exclusion of foreigners from more desirable occupations, entry into certain sectors of the labor market is more difficult for foreigners than for native Germans. Subsequent generations of foreigners have improved their occupational situation, but tend to retain their ethnic identity rather than to assimilate into the dominant culture.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40485 Seifert, Wolfgang. The mobility of migrants. The occupational, economic, and social situation of foreign workers in Germany: a longitudinal analysis using socioeconomic panel data, 1984-1989. [Die Mobilität der Migranten. Die berufliche, ökonomische und soziale Stellung ausländischer Arbeitnehmer in der Bundesrepublik: eine Längsschnittanalyse mit dem Sozio-Ökonomischen Panel, 1984-1989.] ISBN 3-89404-146-3. 1995. 276 pp. Edition Sigma: Berlin, Germany; Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The author uses panel data collected from 1984 to 1989 to compare the situation of foreigners in Germany with that of native Germans, and to determine whether the opportunities for foreigners in Germany have changed over time. He concludes that while the German labor market is not a closed system, it contains significant structural barriers for foreigners, even in subsequent generations. Foreign workers are concentrated mainly in the unskilled sector, and even for those with qualifications comparable to those of native Germans, entry into more desirable sectors has been impeded both by labor laws giving preference to Germans and by prejudice on the part of employers. Great improvements in integration in the foreseeable future seem unlikely.
Correspondence: Edition Sigma, Heimstraße 14, 10965 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40486 Shimada, Haruo. Japan's "guest workers": issues and public policies. ISBN 4-13-047061-2. 1994. ix, 220 pp. University of Tokyo Press: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This study puts forward the argument that Japan has a serious foreign worker problem that is likely to play a major role in shaping the nation's future. The author notes that, in the late 1980s, when the economy was booming, there was a lively debate over the illegal employment of unskilled foreign workers between those wishing to promote a more open policy and those wanting to exclude foreign labor altogether. With the current economic recession, the concern over foreign labor seems to have diminished. The author suggests that as soon as the economy recovers, the debate is likely to be renewed, particularly as Japan's shrinking and aging labor force is increasingly unwilling to tackle hard or dangerous types of work. The author suggests that success or failure in developing policies that welcome and provide suitable training for the immigrant labor needed by the economy will play a critical role in the nation's future.
Translated from the original Japanese by Roger Northridge.
Correspondence: University of Tokyo Press, 3-1 Hongo 7 chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40487 Simon, Patrick. Nationality and origin in French statistics: ambiguous categories. [Nationalité et origine dans la statistique française: les catégories ambiguës.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 541-67 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"To understand the gap that has developed between the categorization used in the official statistics and the scientific questions about migration and its long-term consequences for French society, we examine the history of the classification of immigrant populations. This overview points to the influence of the national model on the categories employed in the social sciences. The second part of the article explores the strengths and weaknesses of the various categories used in the quantitative studies of social phenomena that involve `immigrants' or people of `immigrant origin'. The problems associated with the construction of categories based on the origins, usually ethnic, of individuals are examined by means of a non-exhaustive catalogue of recent survey applications."
Correspondence: P. Simon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: simon@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40488 Singer, Audrey; Massey, Douglas S. The social process of undocumented border crossing among Mexican migrants. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, Fall 1998. 561-92 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"In this article a theoretical model is developed that views undocumented border crossing as a well-defined social process influenced by the quantity and quality of human and social capital that migrants bring with them to the border, and constrained by the intensity and nature of U.S. enforcement efforts. Detailed histories of border crossing from undocumented migrants originating in 34 Mexican communities are employed to estimate equations corresponding to this model.... As people gain experience in border crossing, they rely less on the assistance of others and more on abilities honed on earlier trips, thus substituting migration-specific human capital for general social capital.... On all trips, the intensity of the U.S. enforcement effort has little effect on the likelihood of arrest, but INS involvement in drug enforcement sharply lowers the odds of apprehension."
Correspondence: A. Singer, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 11 Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036-1207. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40489 Smith, Paul J. Human smuggling: Chinese migrant trafficking and the challenge to America's immigration tradition. Significant Issues Series, Vol. 19, No. 2, ISBN 0-89206-291-6. LC 97-14610. 1997. xv, 207 pp. Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book contains eight studies on the roots and logistics of the growing system of Chinese migrant smuggling into the United States, and on the push and pull factors that are fueling this migration. The studies are: Chinese migrant trafficking: a global challenge, by Paul J. Smith; Mass migration within China and the implications for Chinese emigration, by Ling Li; A tsunami on the horizon? The potential for international migration from the People's Republic of China, by Jack A. Goldstone; Sourcing the problem: why Fuzhou?, by Marlowe Hood; Of Qinqing, Qinshu, Guanxi, and Shetou: the dynamic elements of Chinese irregular population movement, by Willard H. Myers; Immigrant smuggling through Central America and the Caribbean, by Anthony M. DeStefano; Canada's growing role as a human smuggling destination and corridor to the United States, by Kenneth Yates; and Safe house or hell house? Experiences of newly arrived undocumented Chinese, by Ko-lin Chin.
Correspondence: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1800 K Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20006. E-mail: info@csis.org. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40490 Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M. Crossings: Mexican immigration in interdisciplinary perspectives. ISBN 0-674-17766-5. LC 98-18176. 1998. vii, 440 pp. Harvard University, David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. Distributed by Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. In Eng.
This book is the product of a two-day international conference entitled Immigration and the Socio-Cultural Remaking of the North American Space, held at Harvard University in April 1997. It brings together a number of original essays on the most significant features of Mexican immigration to the United States. The chapters are: Mexican immigration in interdisciplinary perspectives, by Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco; Recent structural changes in Mexico's economy, by Enrique Dussel Peters; U.S. immigration policies and trends, by Susan González Baker, Frank D. Bean, Augustin Escobar Latapi, and Sidney Weintraub; The structural embeddedness of demand for Mexican immigrant labor, by Wayne A. Cornelius; Dimensions of economic adaptation by Mexican-origin men, by Dowell Myers; Migration and integration [through intermarriage], by Jorge Durand; Access to health insurance and health care for Mexican American children in immigrant families, by E. Richard Brown, Roberta Wyn, Hongjian Yu, Abel Valenzuela, and Liane Dong; The education of Mexican immigrant children, by Enrique T. Trueba; Cultural mourning, immigration, and engagement, by Ricardo C. Ainslie; Ethnic Mexicans and the transformation of "American" social space, by David G. Gutiérrez; The U.S. immigration control offensive, by Peter Andreas; and Immigration and public opinion, by Thomas J. Espenshade and Maryanne Belanger.
Correspondence: Harvard University, David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40491 Taslim, M. A. Household saving, immigration and the current account. CEPR (ANU) Discussion Paper, No. 355, ISBN 0-7315-2219-2. Nov 1996. 28 pp. Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"There is some concern that immigration contributes to a larger current account deficit in a net borrowing country like Australia.... This paper uses both micro survey and aggregate data to investigate [this issue]. It is shown that although the immigrants as a group have a lower propensity to save, and hence, make a greater direct contribution to the current account deficit than the local-born, the relationship is considerably weakened when indirect effects are taken into account. On balance, immigration does not appear to have had a significant effect on the current account for the period considered in the study."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: baird.cepr@coombs.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40492 Taylor, J. Edward. Development strategy, employment and migration: insights from models. Development Centre Seminars, ISBN 92-64-14800-0. 1996. 207 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]: Paris, France. In Eng.
This is one of two publications based on papers and discussions at a workshop held July 11-13, 1994, at the OECD Development Centre in Paris entitled Development Strategies, Employment and International Migration. The seven papers in this volume are organized under two subject headings: Migration, trade, and development; and Trade and employment. "Much of the research presented in this volume is based on theoretical or empirical models, ranging from game theory to computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. Major attention is focused on the likely impacts of the recent international trade liberalisation on the movement of people across borders.... Other papers...fall primarily into the `trade and employment' category and cover various aspects, including political economy aspects of reform." The focus is on the policy implications of these trends for developed countries.
For a related volume, edited by David O'Connor and Leila Farsakh, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40493 Tribalat, Michèle. Foreign-born youth in France. [Jeunes d'origine étrangère en France.] Futuribles, No. 215, Dec 1996. 55-80 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Data from an INED survey on migration and social integration (Mobilité Géographique et Insertion Sociale) carried out in France in 1992 are used to examine the process of assimilation of young people aged 20-29 in France. The results show that although there are many problems facing the young of foreign origin, and particularly those of North African origin, the situation concerning their integration into French society has improved significantly over the course of a generation despite the economic and social problems affecting the country that have made the process of assimilation more difficult.
Correspondence: M. Tribalat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: tribalat@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40494 Ullmo, Sylvia. American immigration: an example or a warning for France? [L'immigration américaine: exemple ou contre-exemple pour la France?] ISBN 2-7384-2922-X. 1994. 204 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This collective work is a product of a conference held at the University of Paris X in Nanterre on contemporary U.S. immigration. The focus is on the reasons why the immigration experience of the United States, a country that has traditionally seen itself as a nation of immigrants, has, over time, led to policies favoring the exclusion of immigrants from many aspects of American society. The 13 papers are organized into four sections: National identity and racist ideas; The role of the state--definitions and laws; Ways toward integration and cultural pluralism; and Spatial segregation. A general theme is the relevance of the U.S. experience to the current immigration issue in France.
Correspondence: Editions L'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole-Polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: New York University, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York, NY.

64:40495 Ungar, Sanford J. Fresh blood: the new American immigrants. ISBN 0-684-80860-9. LC 95-19405. 1995. 399 pp. Simon and Schuster: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book attempts to paint a portrait of current immigrants to the United States using data from interviews with immigrants. The focus is on the positive contribution that immigrants make to American society. The author also criticizes current efforts to restrict immigration through tightening up of border controls.
Correspondence: Simon and Schuster, Rockefeller Center, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40496 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). World population monitoring, 1997: international migration and development. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/169, Pub. Order No. E.98.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151315-4. 1998. ix, 204 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report stems from the UN effort to undertake studies to improve the understanding of the causes and consequences of international migration and to document trends and policies. It "provides recent information on selected aspects of international migration and covers such topics as: the international migration agenda from Bucharest to Cairo and beyond; migration dynamics; international migration policies; documented and undocumented migrants; refugees and asylum-seekers; labour migration; gender issues; and interlinkages between migration and development.... This report contains an extensive set of annex tables providing indicators of the current demographic situation in major areas and regions, as well as data on population size and growth, population distribution, fertility and mortality levels, and population policies in countries, major areas and regions."
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40497 Waldorf, Brigitte. Intentions to return home of foreigners living in Germany. [Rückkehrabsichten und -verhalten von Ausländern in Deutschland.] Geographische Rundschau, Vol. 49, No. 7-8, Jul-Aug 1997. 423-7 pp. Brunswick, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This article provides a comparison between intentions to return home and observable return migration behaviour of Italians and Turks living in Germany. It is argued that external factors (economic and legal conditions) and internal factors (assimilation in the host country and ties to home) influence the discrepancies between return intentions and behaviours. Using micro-data from the MARPLAN surveys and macro-data published by the German government for the 1970s and 1980s, the analysis reveals that the return migration behaviour of Italians is by and large consistent with their expressed intentions. In contrast, Turks are less prone to translate their intentions into behaviour. Specifically, Turks are more likely to postpone their intended return and extend their sojourn in Germany."
Correspondence: B. Waldorf, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Harvill Building, Box #2, Tucson, AZ 85721. E-mail: bwaldorf@ccit.arizona.edu. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

64:40498 Weiner, Myron; Hanami, Tadashi. Temporary workers or future citizens? Japanese and U.S. migration policies. ISBN 0-333-69087-7. 1998. xv, 482 pp. Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
This book contains papers presented at one of two meetings held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in November 1994 and in Tokyo, Japan, in June 1995. The theme of the two meetings was a comparison of the ways in which Japan and the United States deal with immigration, refugees, illegal migration, and citizenship policies. The 15 papers are organized under the following headings: The challenge of migrant incorporation in Japan and the United States; Do Japan and the United States need immigrants?; Rights and benefits, Germany's migration policies through Japanese and American eyes; Controlling migration; and Refugee and asylum policies.
Correspondence: Macmillan Press, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40499 Wendt, Hartmut. In-migration and asylum in Germany--against the background of demographic developments. [Zuwanderung und Asyl in Deutschland--vor dem Hintergrund demographischer Entwicklungen.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 22, No. 2-3, 1997. 319-46 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The course of immigration to Germany [is] presented analytically...with special consideration for refugees seeking political asylum.... The causes of immigration [are then discussed], with political and socio-economic and also demographic aspects, and [are] presented in connection with the projected population development and the demographic aging process in Germany.... In conclusion, there is a discussion of areas of conflict in migration and refugee issues."
Correspondence: H. Wendt, Allersberger Straße 175, 90461 Nürnberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40500 Zlotnik, Hania. International migration 1965-96: an overview. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 429-68, 668, 670 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Various measures of international migration are used to discuss trends since 1965. Estimates of the migrant stock in each country of the world for 1965 and 1990 are used to assess changes at the global level. For developed countries, flow statistics permit the analysis of trends in South-to-North and East-to-West migration over 1965-96. Analysis of trends in other world regions is made on the basis of less comprehensive data. Labor migration to Western Asia and the Pacific Rim is assessed using statistics on contract clearances issued by sending countries. Data compiled by UNHCR are used to evaluate trends in forced migration."
Correspondence: H. Zlotnik, UN Population Division, Mortality and Migration Section, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40501 Zweig, David. To return or not to return? Politics vs. economics in China's brain drain. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 32, No. 1, Spring 1997. 92-125 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This study, based on 273 face-to-face interviews with students, scholars, and former residents of China in the United States in 1993, uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to explain people's views about returning to China. Although less than 9 percent of interviewees had concrete plans to return, over 32 percent were positively disposed to returning in the future. Key background variables that affect that decision are people's age, sex, social background in China, and their views about returning when they first left China. Concern about children's future was not significant, but having a wife abroad greatly increased the desire to stay abroad. Why people chose not to return varied significantly between people [who had] children and those who didn't."
Correspondence: D. Zweig, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Division of Social Science, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

64:40502 Andersson, Kjetil; Carlsen, Fredrik. Local public services and migration: educational change evidence from Norwegian municipalities. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, Fall 1997. 123-42 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"We take advantage of a large panel data base covering most Norwegian municipalities during seven years to examine the relationship between local public services and migration to and from municipalities for different age groups. The main innovation of the paper is that we use a survey data set to verify that the input measures employed as explanatory variables in the migration study actually are related to citizen satisfaction with local public services. We find that the results depend crucially on whether the input measures are instrumented. When input measures are instrumented, we find few effects of local public services on migration."
Correspondence: K. Andersson, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Economics, Universitetsadministrasjonen, 7034 Trondheim, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40503 Cameron, Gavin; Muellbauer, John. The housing market and regional commuting and migration choices. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 45, No. 4, Sep 1998. 420-46 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between the housing tenure structure and the relatively low level of labor mobility in the United Kingdom is explored. In particular, the authors "provide evidence...on net commuting as well as net migration between British regions in a common framework with a more sophisticated modelling of housing market effects than seen in previous work. Our data on net commuting are derived from the ratio of employment on a region of employment basis to employment on a region of residence basis using Census of Employment and Labour Force Survey information for 1983 to 1995. The migration data come from the...National Health Service Central Register."
Correspondence: G. Cameron, University of Oxford, Nuffield College, Oxford OX1 1NF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40504 Droz, Yvan; Sottas, Beat. To leave or to stay? Or to leave and stay. Kikuyu migrations in Kenya. [Partir ou rester? Partir et rester. Migration des Kikuyu au Kenya.] Homme, Vol. 37, No. 142, Apr-Jun 1997. 69-88 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Subsequent to population growth, land scarcity and the diminishing yields, Kikuyu started a search for arable land. This migration has been extended toward areas which are unsuitable for agriculture, where survival strategies of Kikuyu migrants have been analysed. Results of the extended data collection have shown that a range of social practices within the mainly patrimonial families enable them to survive in the semi-arid savannah on the Laikipia plain (Kenya). Two strategies could be distinguished: on the levels of the individuals the mobility may be described as personal transhumance, and on the level of the domestic units as steps on the various islands of a vertical archipelago; both are characteristics of a family circulation that constitutes a migratory scheme prevailing among the Kikuyu. The study concludes with a model of migratory practices which associates individual tactics and the strategies applied by domestic units."
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

64:40505 Faber, Carol S. Geographical mobility: March 1996 to March 1997 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 510, Jul 1998. 1 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report briefly describes "detailed tabulations...which provide statistics on the geographical mobility of the noninstitutional population of the United States, based on the March 1997 Current Population Survey.... The [complete] set...consists of 43 tables from the 1997 CPS (165 pages) and four historical tables. The electronic version of these tables is available on the Internet, at the Census Bureau's World-Wide Web Site (http://www.census.gov)."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOM, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40506 Fang, Di; Brown, David L. Geographic mobility of the foreign-born Chinese in large metropolises, 1985-1990. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 97.12, 1997. 19 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The spatial assimilation and ethnic resource models, two major theoretical explanations of the adaptation of immigrants, provide different views on the mechanism of spatial mobility of immigrants. We used the 1990 5% PUMS to analyze the migration of foreign-born Chinese in three large metropolises, New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. We tested the two explanations in this study, and argue that our results largely support the assimilation model."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40507 Frey, William H.; Liaw, Kao-Lee; Lin, Ge. State magnets for different elderly "migrant types" Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 98-420, Jul 1998. 16, [13] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study identified a number of elderly `migrant types' using [U.S.] census data information on State of birth and State of residence prior to the 1985-90 migration period. This typology is useful because it points up significant socio-demographic profiles associated with each migrant type with distinct impacts on elderly `magnet' States.... Based on specially prepared migration tabulations, we list largest gaining and largest losing States for different elderly `migrant types'."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. E-mail: psc-pubs@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40508 García Coll, Arlinda; Stillwell, John. Inter-provincial migration in Spain: age-specific patterns and geographical classifications. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 98/1, Jan 1998. 56 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides new insights into the spatial pattern of internal migration in Spain at the provincial scale during the period 1981-91. Analyses are reported which show a decline in the level of inter-provincial migration over the last three intercensal periods and a much more uniform spatial pattern of net gains and losses in the 1980s than in previous decades.... The paper is based primarily on an unpublished sample of anonymised census records relating to migration.... The main focus of the paper is on age-specific migration and on the analysis and interpretation of the composition of migration age schedules and of their spatial variation between provinces.... It is evident that aggregate patterns of inter-provincial migration conceal a diversity of age-specific experience in Spain and that flows between any two provinces will depend on a variety of influences on migrants at different stages in their life courses."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40509 Gauthier, Madeleine. Why leave? Migration and young people yesterday and today. [Pourquoi partir? La migration des jeunes d'hier et d'aujord'hui.] ISBN 2-89224-276-2. LC 98-143713. 1997. 315 pp. Editions de l'IQRC: Sainte-Foy, Canada. In Fre.
This collective work presents a selection of studies on the migration of young people in the Canadian province of Quebec. The 13 papers are organized into three sections, which are concerned with the facts, the search for solutions, and the tensions inherent in this migration. Attention is given both to past and to present migrations. The main focus is on the current situation, the complexity of reasons given for migration, the spatial dynamics of current migration, and the many ways that modern youth enter into adult life in today's society.
Correspondence: Editions de l'IQRC, Pavillon Maurice-Pollack, Bureau 3103, Cité Universitaire, Sainte-Foy, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:40510 Grimmeau, Jean-Pierre; Van Criekingen, Mathieu; Roelandts, Marcel. Emancipation migrations in Belgium. [Les migrations d'émancipation en Belgique.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2, 1998. 235-47 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper analyses the proportion of people by age group living with at least one of their parents (non-married couples included) and then the intermunicipality migration rate by age. The conclusions are that emancipation in Belgium takes place between 20 and 30 and that the migrations linked with the growth of the household closely overlap the emancipation migrations. A principal component analysis of the growth rates of the cohorts between 1981 and 1991 shows that the cohorts aged between 10 and 20 in 1981 are the best markers of emancipation migrations in that period."
Correspondence: J.-P. Grimmeau, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de Géographie Humaine, Campus de la Plaine, C.P. 246, boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40511 Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica [ISTAT] (Rome, Italy). Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Italy. ISTAT Essays, No. 3, ISBN 88-458-0106-3. 1998. 116, [3] pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"The aims of the study are (1) to investigate the extent of rural depopulation [in Italy], (2) to analyse the degree to which the processes of urbanization, counterurbanization and suburbanization are in train and (3) to describe the patterns of and trends in internal migration. For each aim comparison of the situation in the early/mid-1980s with that in the early/mid 1990s is to be carried out."
Correspondence: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 16, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40512 Kritz, Mary M.; Gurak, Douglas T. Context determinants of interstate migration of U.S. immigrants. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 96.08, 1996. 19, [4] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Using 1990 [U.S.] PUMS data, this paper examines determinants of interstate migration for immigrants as a whole and for 24 subgroupings in the 1985-90 period, focusing on whether state context of residence or immigrant group characteristics themselves explain migration differentials.... The analysis shows that group concentration in a given state operates as the greatest deterrent of interstate migration but economic and demographic conditions of the state in which immigrants resided in 1985 serve as strong and important determinants."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40513 Kupiszewski, Marek; Drbohlav, Dusan; Rees, Philip; Durham, Helen. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Czech case study. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 98/10, Nov 1998. 56 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"[The] Czech Republic has experienced, over the last decade, quite a balanced population system with low growth. This has changed recently and from 1994 we noted a decrease in population partially offset by international migration, for the time being mainly temporary labour circular movements. The decreasing trend may well continue due to future replacement in the reproductive ages of large female cohorts with much smaller cohorts, currently aged 0-15 years.... In terms of population dynamics the most important feature we have observed is slow but clear deconcentration of population from large cities to suburban areas. The main gains are observed in medium size towns and smaller communities at the expense of large cities and rural areas. However, the migration factor plays a lesser role than in the past. Net migration is low and migration effectiveness is very limited."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40514 Kupiszewski, Marek; Durham, Helen; Rees, Phil. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Polish case study. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 97/3, Apr 1997. 36, [15] pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"The report analyses population migration and change in Poland over three periods 1980-1990, 1984-1994 and 1990-1994. The analysis is conducted for communes and municipalities.... The results of the investigation show substantial changes in population migration and dynamics over time. The most important changes between the eighties and the nineties are the reduction of outmigration from rural areas, the increase in the number of communes and towns suffering from structural depopulation and the decrease of the role of largest urban agglomerations as population growth poles...." Attention is given to migration differences by sex.
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40515 Kupiszewski, Marek; Berinde, Diana; Teodorescu, Virginia; Durham, Helen; Rees, Philip. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Romanian case study. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 97/7, Nov 1997. iv, [71] pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"The report analyses population migration and change in Romania over the period 1984-1994. The analysis of population change is conducted for 2,948 communes and towns, the finest administrative division for which population data are available. The lack of migration data on the level of communes and towns makes in-depth analysis of the migration for small spatial units impossible. For that reason analysis of the patterns of migration is conducted for 40 Judete (also referred to as counties or regions) and the capital city of Bucharest...."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40516 Kupiszewski, Marek; Durham, Helen; Rees, Philip. Internal migration and urban change in Poland. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1998. 265-90 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The paper investigates population change and migration over the period 1984-1994 for communes. There are important conclusions emerging from this study. The first is that we are watching now a profound change of population redistribution patterns in Poland. We observed that direct upwards hierarchical mobility has been markedly modified. The first modification is the substantial reduction of migration from rural to urban locations.... Largest cities, massive gainers of the seventies and eighties, have tended to lose population in the mid-nineties. It is likely that they lose population mainly to the neighbouring communes. We believe that a suburbanization process has been put into motion. Medium to large sized towns and cities, in the range between 50,000 and 500,000 as well as small, but not the smallest, towns attract substantial parts of the migration pool."
Correspondence: M. Kupiszewski, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40517 Murayama, Yuji; Inoue, Takashi; Hashimoto, Yuichi. Spatial chain patterns of intra-urban migration. Geographia Polonica, No. 69, 1997. 135-52 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"This research analyzes quantitatively the track of individual chain-type migration of many residents to determine how they move in response to changes in their lives, i.e., whether there is spatial regularity on the chain patterns of intra-urban migration. The study area for this research is the industrial city of Yokkaichi, Japan. The study helps us to understand the state of intra-urban migration at the non-aggregate level for all residents during a 15-year period. Special attention is given to the age at which a resident relocates, and to the interval between two successive movements, i.e., the stationary period."
Correspondence: Y. Murayama, University of Tsukuba, Institute of Geoscience, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40518 Portnov, Boris A. The effect of housing on migrations in Israel: 1988-1994. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 3, Aug 1998. 379-94 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The analysis of 1988-1994 statistical data indicates that the population of Israel simultaneously moves in two opposite directions: while the initial distribution of new immigrants is primarily focused on the areas where jobs are available, the existing population of these areas tends to move outward, to the less populated districts where housing is more available and affordable. The paper thus argues that the heterogeneity of the population is indeed a crucial consideration for the proper modeling of migration behavior."
Correspondence: B. A. Portnov, Ben-Gurion University of Negev, J. Blaustein Institute for the Desert Research, Sede-Boker Campus 84990, Israel. E-mail: portnov@bgumail.bgu.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40519 Qian, Wenbao. Rural-urban migration and its impact on economic development in China. ISBN 1-85972-456-6. LC 96-85557. 1996. xviii, 165 pp. Avebury: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the factors affecting internal migration in China, with data collected during a survey of 300 households in 1992. "The first chapter is a review of the literature of internal migration both in developed and developing countries, and a brief introduction to and critique of...four migration models. The main task of the second chapter is to hypothesise a set of social/anthropological and economic variables and their relationships to the internal migration decision, and to build up a multi-disciplinary internal migration model. In the third and fourth chapters, a detailed description of the field study in the five villages, one town and one city is given and a qualitative analysis follows. The fifth chapter is the quantitative analysis, testing the model to see whether or not there is correlation between the hypothesised independent variables and the making of the internal migration decision. Finally, a conclusion and some proposals for further research are given in the sixth chapter."
Correspondence: Avebury Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40520 Rees, Philip; van Imhoff, Evert; Durham, Helen; Kupiszewski, Marek; Smith, Darren. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Netherlands case study. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 98/6, Aug 1998. vii, 78 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on internal migration and regional population dynamics in the Netherlands. It examines internal migration patterns and trends in two years, 1984 and 1994, and compares them. By 1984 the Netherlands had reached a mature phase in the urban deconcentration process. The main centres of population were losing migrants to ring towns and peripheral municipalities outside of the short distance spheres of influence of major centres.... The most striking feature of regional population dynamics in the Netherlands...was the dramatically different migration behaviour of young adults (aged 15-29). In most of the Netherlands smaller and lower density municipalities were places the young leave in large numbers for the advantages of the large urban centres.... The retreat to the suburbs and exurbs follows when family and work responsibilities loom larger."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40521 Rees, Philip; Østby, Lars; Durham, Helen; Kupiszewski, Marek. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Norway case study. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 98/4, Aug 1998. vii, 66 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on internal migration and regional population dynamics in Norway. It examines internal migration patterns and trends in two years, 1984 and 1994, and compares them.... Although the direction of migration is towards denser and more central places, this is a product mainly of the migration of young people. When the migration streams are broken down by age, the resulting tales show that the largest urban areas are experiencing net losses from middle age and upwards.... Throughout the current report the role of life course stage in influencing the direction of migration has been stressed. Most often the overall pattern of population shifts conceal very different flow structures for family migrants, young adults, older workers, retirees and the elderly."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40522 Rees, Philip; van Imhoff, Evert; Durham, Helen; Kupiszewski, Marek; Smith, Darren. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in the Netherlands. NIDI Rapport, No. 55, ISBN 90-70990-75-X. 1998. 102 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study reports on internal migration and regional population dynamics in the Netherlands, as part of a larger internationally comparative study sponsored by the Council of Europe and the European Commission. The aims of the study are threefold: (1) to investigate the extent of rural depopulation; (2) to analyse the degree to which the processes of urbanization, counter-urbanization and sub-urbanization are in train; and (3) to describe the patterns of and trends in internal migration.... By 1984 the Netherlands had reached a mature phase in the urban deconcentration process. The main centres of population were losing migrants to ring towns and peripheral municipalities outside of the short distance spheres of influence of major centres. This pattern, established in the 1950-1980 period, marginally intensified between 1984 and 1994.... While rural depopulation was characteristic of a few remote municipalities in the northern Netherlands, this phenomenon was swamped by the attractiveness of rural municipalities with slightly better accessibility. However, the most striking feature of regional population dynamics in the Netherlands was the dramatically different migration behaviour of young adults (aged 15-29)."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: Info@Nidi.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40523 Rees, Philip; Kupiszewski, Marek. Internal migration and regional population dynamics: what data are available in the Council of Europe member states? School of Geography Working Paper, No. 96/1, Feb 1996. v, 43 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on the results of a survey of the National Statistical Offices of the member states of the Council of Europe, in which data on the kinds of internal migration data available were gathered. A key finding of the survey is that there is a great deal of detailed data on migration within countries that could be used to produce a comparative set of measures of migration.... The paper concludes with an assessment of what research questions can be answered using the data available and tries to estimate the level of resources that might be required."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

64:40524 Allen, Tim. In search of cool ground: war, flight and homecoming in northeast Africa. ISBN 0-85255-229-7. 1996. xv, 336 pp. James Currey: London, England; Africa World Press: Trenton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This volume focuses on population displacement in one of the most disturbed parts of Africa. For thousands of people flight across an international border occurs repeatedly and is not a uniquely traumatic event. For thousands more, displacement has occurred within their own countries. The chapters demonstrate that in situations of such long-term upheaval, notions of flight into refuge and repatriation to a homeland cease to have much meaning. These populations have received minimal assistance from international organizations and have lacked protection from oppressive governments and marauding guerrillas. Their plight has largely been ignored. A conference organized in Addis Ababa by UNRISD drew attention to this problem and discussed new ways in which relief and development work might be organized. Most of the chapters in this book are by researchers and aid workers with many years experience of assisting displaced groups."
Correspondence: James Currey, 54b Thornhill Square, Islington, London N1 1BE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40525 Brochmann, Grete. Bosnian refugees in the Scandinavian countries: a comparative perspective on immigration control in the 1990s. New Community, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1997. 495-510 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"In all the Nordic countries, a change of direction in refugee policy has taken place in recent years, primarily for similar reasons to those in the rest of Western Europe. These changes have been sparked off by the situation in the former Yugoslavia, but should also be seen as reflecting something more.... The prospect of a continuing influx of refugee groups, and a corresponding strain on national budgets, creates a backdrop for new thinking in all countries. An interesting aspect of this issue in the Nordic region is that, despite being a fairly homogeneous area, these countries have chosen radically different points of departure for their approach to refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina. The article identifies these different national strategies and analyses the subsequent tendency towards convergence of policies that has taken place along the way."
Correspondence: G. Brochmann, Institute for Social Research, Munthes gt. 31, 0260 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40526 den Dulk, W.; Nicolaas, H. Family reunification and family formation of asylum migrants. [Gezinshereniging en gezinsvorming onder asielmigranten.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 9, Sep 1998. 8-16 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Estimates have been made of the number of family-reunifying and family-forming migrants of asylum migrants [in the Netherlands], using population stock data per 1 January 1997 obtained from the municipal population registers. The estimates are based on such demographic characteristics as country of birth, age, sex, marital status, year of marriage, family situation after the migration and year of most recent settlement in the Netherlands.... The calculations refer to the years 1990-1996 and are carried out for the following countries: Afghanistan, Angola, Ethiopia, Ghana, Iraq, Iran, (former) Yugoslavia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Zaire."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40527 Fearnside, Philip M. Transmigration in Indonesia: lessons from its environmental and social impacts. Environmental Management, Vol. 21, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1997. 553-70 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Indonesia's transmigration program to transport people from Java and other densely populated islands to largely forested outer islands has high environmental, social, and financial costs, while doing little towards relieving population pressure on Java. Transmigration has been an important cause of forest loss in Indonesia. World Bank financing promoted the program directly over the 1976-1989 period and continues to underwrite other settlement models that have supplanted earlier programs. The Bank projects included creating and strengthening a Ministry of Transmigration, which also carried out settlements of types other than those financed as discrete components of Bank loans. Some of these indirectly supported activities have had particularly serious human rights consequences. The case of transmigration provides valuable lessons for tropical countries and international development agencies such as the World Bank, and many of these lessons have yet to be learned."
Correspondence: P. M. Fearnside, National Institute for Research in the Amazon, C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:40528 Huetz de Lemps, Christian. The major shifts of population in Indonesia: transmigration and spontaneous migration. [Les grands déplacements de population en Indonésie: transmigration et migrations spontanées.] Annales de Géographie, Vol. 107, No. 599, Jan-Feb 1998. 84-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This note describes a long-term joint Franco-Indonesian research project concerning both planned and spontaneous resettlement in Indonesia, focusing on migration from Java to southern Sumatra. The author summarizes the impact these migrations have had both on agricultural practices and on the demography of the region of settlement.
Correspondence: C. Huetz de Lemps, Pacifica (PRODIG), Institut de Géographie, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40529 Levang, Patrice. The land opposite: transmigration in Indonesia. [La terre d'en face: la transmigration en Indonésie.] ISBN 2-7099-1382-8. LC 98-130827. 1997. 419 pp. Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a general review of the transmigration program that has been carried out in Indonesia since the colonial era, with the focus on developments since independence. The author suggests that most of the problems that the program has experienced are due not to problems inherent in its implementation, but to confusion as to the conceptions and objectives of the program. He suggests that the program's setbacks are due to misunderstandings about the Javanese peasantry's ability to adapt in the face of population growth, prejudices concerning the population of the outer islands, and, above all, to policies exclusively focused on agricultural development.
Correspondence: L'Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, ORSTOM, 209-213 rue La Fayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:40530 McGarry, John. "Demographic engineering": the state-directed movement of ethnic groups as a technique of conflict regulation. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 21, No. 4, Jul 1998. 613-38 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this article I examine the state-directed movement of ethnic groups.... An important theme of the article is that, while such policies have been implemented for centuries, modern state-directed movements are closely linked to the growth of nationalism. The study seeks to answer three important questions: (1) Why do states move ethnic groups? (2) How do states move ethnic groups? (3) Under what circumstances will states engage in such policies?"
Correspondence: J. McGarry, University of Waterloo, Department of Political Science, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40531 Morokvasic, Mirjana. War, flight, and expulsion in the former Yugoslavia. [Krieg, Flucht und Vertreibung im ehemaligen Jugoslawien.] Demographie Aktuell, No. 2, 1993. 22, [10] pp. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultät III, Institut für Sozialwissenschaften, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The author gives an account of the refugees from the former Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, using varied official sources as well as surveys. After a brief historical overview, there are sections on the various waves of migration in the current conflict, reasons for leaving, prospects for returning home, destinations for refugees, and the European response.
Correspondence: Humboldt-Universität, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Unter den Linden, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40532 Struve, Nikita. Seventy years of Russian emigration, 1919-1989. [Soixante-dix ans d'émigration russe, 1919-1989.] ISBN 2-213-59753-7. 1996. 297, [6] pp. Fayard: Paris, France. In Fre.
The emigration of Russians from the former Soviet Union from 1919 to 1989 is described, with particular attention given to the period of greatest migration, which occurred between the 1920s and the 1950s. Topics covered include the number of emigrants and their characteristics, and how they survived and made their living in exile. The political, religious, and cultural aspects of this emigrant society are analyzed. Attention is also given to migration associated with World War II, including refugee movements and forced migrations.
Correspondence: Libraire Arthème Fayard, 75 rue des Saints-Pères, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40533 Zhang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Be; Fang, Chuanglin. The mode of immigrant settlement in the "help the poor" program. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1997. 307-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper studies the settlement of the immigrants from the poor areas of China in the aid-the-poor program, which is a government program providing assistance for poor areas of China. The layout and construction of the new immigrant community and the steps necessary for the creation of an immigrant settlement are also discussed in this paper."
Correspondence: Z. Zhang, Lanzhou University, Research Center of Population and Economy Development, 298 Tianshui Road, 730000 Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

64:40534 Kulu, Hill. Ethnic return migration: an Estonian case. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1998. 313-36 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines return migration during the post World War 2 period of descendants of Estonians who emigrated to Russia at the end of the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth century" The focus is on changing migration patterns over time. "The behavioural norm of Estonians born in the 1910s-1920s has been return migration to Estonia, while the migration behaviour of the 1930s-1940s and the 1950s-1960s generations can be characterized by urbanization in West Siberia. The results give reason to assume that ethnic return migration over a long period depends neither directly nor indirectly on momentary environmental changes, but rather on changes in people's values, habits, identity etc., which in the case of an ethnic minority living outside its historical homeland may be followed generation by generation."
Correspondence: H. Kulu, University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Vanemuise 46, 202400 Tartu, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

64:40535 Altamirano, Teófilo; Hirabayashi, Lane R.; Albó, Xavier; Carrasco, Hernán; Doughty, Paul L.; Kearney, Michael; Mitchell, William P.; Roberts, Bryan. Migrants, regional identities and Latin American cities. Society for Latin American Anthropology Publications Series, Vol. 13, ISBN 0-913167-79-7. LC 97-3401. 1997. xiii, 180 pp. American Anthropological Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a selection of essays on aspects of Latin American regionalism, urbanization, and migration. These essays are entitled: Change and regional identities in contemporary Latin American cities, by Bryan Roberts; The constitution of regional identities in urban Latin America, by Teófilo Altamirano and Lane R. Hirabayashi; Pressures on peasant production and the transformation of regional and national identities, by William P. Mitchell; The politicization of regional identity among mountain Zapotec migrants in Mexico City, by Lane R. Hirabayashi; Life goes on: revisiting Lima's migrant associations, by Paul L. Doughty; Indians of the Sierra in Quito and Guayaquil: interethnic relations and the urbanization of migrants, by Hernán Carrasco; La Paz/Chukiyawu: the two faces of a city, by Xavier Albó; and Borders and boundaries of state and self at the end of empire, by Michael Kearney.
Correspondence: American Anthropological Association, 1703 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40536 Birrell, Bob; Seol, Byung-Soo. Sydney's ethnic underclass. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1998. 16-29 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Sydney is Australia's richest metropolis. But it is also attracting a disproportionate share of lower-skilled, NESB-origin [non-English speaking background] migrants. These migrants earn low incomes and are concentrating in a group of suburbs to the city's south-west. A case study of the experience of Korean migrants indicates some of the factors shaping the process."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40537 Bootsma, Hans G. The myth of reurbanization: location dynamics of households in the Netherlands. NethurD Publication Series A, ISBN 90-5170-462-3. 1998. 193 pp. Netherlands Graduate School of Housing and Urban Research: Utrecht, Netherlands; Thesis Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Dut.
This doctoral dissertation is concerned with the changing dynamics of household location in the Netherlands, and particularly with examining the evidence that there is a trend toward reurbanization. The main factors that might affect reurbanization are analyzed, including economic change due to the recession in the early 1980s, the postponement of marital union or family formation, increasing female labor force participation, more positive attitudes about the values of urban living, and increases in the number of immigrants. The focus of the study is on providing policy guidelines to encourage certain types of households to choose the city as a place to live.
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nethur-Demography, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40538 Chan, Kam Wing; Zhang, Li. The hukuo system and rural-urban migration in China: processes and changes. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 98-13, Jul 1998. 30 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"Until recently, few people in mainland China would dispute the significance of the hukou (household registration) system in affecting their life--indeed, in determining their fates. In the West, a number of China scholars, notably Christiansen, Chan, Cheng and Selden, and Mallee have begun in recent years to study this important subject in relation to population mobility. Their work has significantly expanded our understanding. Unlike population registration systems in many other countries, the Chinese system was designed not merely to provide population statistics and identify personal status, but also to directly regulate population distribution and serve many other important objectives desired by the state."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Author's E-mail: kwchan@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40539 Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine; d'Almeida-Topor, Hélène; Sénéchal, Jacques. Urban-rural interdependence in Africa: the mobility of individuals, the circulation of assets, and the diffusion of models since independence. [Interdépendances villes-campagnes en Afrique: mobilité des hommes, circulation des biens et diffusion des modèles depuis les indépendances.] ISBN 2-7384-4068-1. 1996. 293 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This collective work examines several aspects of the relationship between the city and rural areas in post-colonial Africa. It is a product of the Afrique Noire team based at the Dynamics of Developing Societies Laboratory of the Université de Paris VII-Denis Diderot. One of the issues covered is migration flows between rural and urban areas. The primary focus is on the Francophone African countries.
Correspondence: Editions L'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole-Polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40540 Ishikawa, Y.; Fielding, A. J. Explaining the recent migration trends of the Tokyo metropolitan area. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 30, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,797-814 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Recent migration trends affecting the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA) in Japan are analyzed. The focus is on the factors affecting the change in migration patterns that resulted in a net outflow of migrants from the area in 1994, the first time this has occurred. "The results from a set of time-series analyses lead the authors to conclude that, as far as the study period (1979-92) as a whole is concerned, the changing migration pattern of the TMA arose from factors closely related to Tokyo's transformation into a world city (specifically in terms of industrial restructuring and changes in residential land prices) and from cycles of economic boom and bust. However, it was found that the change to world city was more important than the economic cycle. Such findings suggest that the Japanese migration system experienced structural change during the 1980s and entered a new phase in the 1990s."
Correspondence: Y. Ishikawa, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Letters, Department of Geography, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. E-mail: d54676@sakura.kudpc.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:40541 Lee, Bun Song; Phillips, Joseph M. The earnings experience of rural-urban migrants in Korea. International Economic Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, Winter 1997. 85-101 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Eng.
"Migration models in the Harris-Todaro tradition imply that urban informal sector earnings are less than rural sector earnings. Examining the situation for [South] Korea, we find that both urban formal and informal sector earnings exceed earnings opportunities in rural areas, making rural-urban migration the best decision for the individual and for the Korean economy in terms of maximizing output.... The implication for policy makers is that government efforts may be better directed toward mitigating the externalities caused by over-crowding, rather than attempting to influence population movements."
Correspondence: B. S. Lee, Seoul City University, Division of Economics, 90 Jeon-nong-dong, Dong-dae-mun-ku, Seoul 130-743, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40542 Liaw, Kao-Lee; Hayase, Yasuko. Rural/urban migrations in Zimbabwe in 1982-92: selectivity by gender, place of birth, and educational attainment. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 20, May 1997. 3-22 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"This paper studies the selectivity of the 1982-92 rural/urban migrations of the Africans in Zimbabwe, based on the data from a multidimensional tabulation of all the individual records in the 1992 Population Census. The focus is on the selectivity with respect to gender, place of birth, and educational attainment. The selectivity is interpreted in the context of the country's colonial legacy, cultural norms, and current socioeconomic conditions."
Correspondence: K.-L. Liaw, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

64:40543 Ma, Laurence J. C.; Xiang, Biao. Native place, migration and the emergence of peasant enclaves in Beijing. China Quarterly, No. 155, Sep 1998. 546-81 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Since the early 1980s, reduced migration control by the state and increasing economic liberalization in China have led to the movement of millions of peasants to the cities, creating various types of new `urban spaces' and `non-state spaces'. This influx has fundamentally changed the social, spatial and economic landscapes of the Chinese city, making the urban scene much more varied, lively and dynamic, but less safe and orderly than that of the Maoist era. Aside from the resulting expansion of city population, the Chinese city is also taking on some of the features common to other Third World cities, including the formation of migrant communities in both the cities and suburbs."
Correspondence: L. J. C. Ma, University of Akron, Department of Geography, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40544 Zeng, Yanhong. A comparative study of the mobile population in Wuhan and other major cities. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1997. 347-56 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses ways of effectively controlling the mobile population in urban areas of China, using data for Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, and Shenzen. Aspects considered include migrant place of origin, previous occupations, age, sex, and education. The impact of the mobile population on socioeconomic development in urban areas is considered.
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Wuhan Institute of Economics, Wuhan 430072, Hubei Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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