Volume 64 - Number 4 - Winter 1998

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

64:40362 Amin, Sajeda; Cain, Mead. The rise of dowry in Bangladesh. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 290-306 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We examine the emergence of dowry and other changes in marriage practices since the 1960s in Bangladesh.... We find that the shift from brideprice to dowry, the rise in male advantage in the marriage market, and the increase in the value of dowry payments have a common demographic cause. The rise of dowry and corresponding changes in other marriage practices have increasingly negative consequences for young women in Bangladesh."
Correspondence: S. Amin, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40363 Andersson, Gunnar. Trends in marriage formation in Sweden, 1971-1993. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1998. 157-78 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to introduce a system of annual indices of the risks of marriage and remarriage and to use the system to display such marriage risks for Swedish women over the years since 1971.... The propensity to marry decreased considerably during the 1970s and it has continued to decrease also during the first half of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. The decrease in marriage risks is mostly due to a decreased propensity to marry among never-married women with no children. The decrease is not so strong for never-married women with children and for divorced women."
Correspondence: G. Andersson, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40364 Cebula, Richard J.; Belton, Willie J. Taxes, divorce-transactions costs, economic conditions, and divorce rates: an exploratory empirical inquiry for the United States. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 50, No. 3, 1995. 342-55 pp. Königstein, Germany. In Eng.
"This study argues that, given the tax deductibility of alimony payments in the United States, higher marginal federal income tax rates may reduce the expected transactions costs of divorce and act thereby to increase the divorce rate. After allowing for a variety of other factors, including inflation, female labor force participation, AIDS, the Vietnam War, age, the availability of legal assistance, and transfer payments, both first-differences estimates and Granger-causality tests strongly support the hypothesis."
Correspondence: R. J. Cebula, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Economics, 225 N Avenue NW, Atlanta, GA 30332. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40365 Cherlin, Andrew J. Marriage and marital dissolution among black Americans. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1998. 147-58 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Over the past few decades, the place of marriage in American family life has declined, and the decline has been sharper among Blacks than among Whites. This article describes the trends in marriage and marital dissolution among Black Americans, often making comparisons to White Americans. Blacks are less likely to ever marry, more likely to separate, and less likely to remarry. They are also more likely to bear and rear children outside of marriage. In part, these differences are due to the severity with which changes in the American economy have affected Blacks. In part, they are due to longstanding cultural patterns, such as a greater reliance on extended kin, which Blacks have drawn upon to subsist during worsening economic conditions."
Correspondence: A. J. Cherlin, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Sociology, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40366 Doty, Adam A. An economic consideration of same-gender marriage and fertility. Chicago Policy Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring 1998. 63-72 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper is an extension of Gary Becker's economic theory on families and marriage with particular attention to same-gender marriage and family formation. Summary discussion of several concepts central to the economics of the family as they relate to same-gender family formation are considered.... First, this article will present a general discussion of marriage markets and decisions and rationales for cohabiting or marrying. Second, the economic gains to marriage for both homosexual and heterosexual couples will be examined. Third, fertility alternatives and demand for children by same-gender couples will be considered. The article concludes with a discussion of future outcomes and policy implications relating to gay and lesbian marriage and fertility." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: A. A. Doty, Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. E- Mail: cpr@uchicago.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40367 Finnäs, Fjalar. Social integration, heterogeneity, and divorce: the case of the Swedish-speaking population in Finland. Acta Sociologica, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1997. 263-77 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"The study compared marital stability in Finland with focus on the two language groups. The divorce rate was remarkably lower among the Swedish-speaking minority than among the Finnish-speaking majority. An explanation for this may be differences in social integration. The assumption about the effect of social integration was also supported by covariates measuring urbanization and individual migration. A hypothesis that marital homogamy reduces the divorce rate found support only with respect to the language of the spouses but not with respect to level of education or age."
Correspondence: F. Finnäs, Åbo Academia University, Institutet för Finlandssvensk Samhällsforskning, Vörågatan 9, 65100 Vasa, Finland. E-mail: ffinnas@abo.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40368 Fricke, Tom. Marriage change as moral change: culture, virtue, and demographic transition. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 183-212 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Here I attend to culture and mortality as components of family transition within societies in which marriage and the relations it institutes are fundamental organizational principles.... I will first briefly review the recognized demographic significance of marriage and marriage systems.... I follow that discussion with an outline of an anthropological approach to understanding behaviour and moral motivation in cultural context. This is followed by an illustration with empirical material from my own research within a distinctly alliance setting, after which I draw out the implications for method and theory in the study of family and demographic transition."
Correspondence: T. Fricke, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Department of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40369 Glenn, Norval D. The course of marital success and failure in five American 10-year marriage cohorts. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 3, Aug 1998. 569-76 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using a repeated cross-sectional design to trace marital success and failure in five American 10-year marriage cohorts from 1973 to 1994 reveals no convincing evidence of an increase in aggregate-level marital success at any duration in the first five decades after first marriage. The higher mean level of marital quality in late-term than in mid-term marriages shown by cross-sectional studies apparently results largely from cohort differences in marital success."
Correspondence: N. D. Glenn, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. E-mail: ndglenn@mail.la.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40370 Hanson, Thomas L.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Thomson, Elizabeth. Windows on divorce: before and after. Social Science Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, Sep 1998. 329-49 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to examine how parental divorce is related to three important types of family resources: economic resources, parental resources (socialization practices), and community resources. We pay special attention to the dynamic character of family resources, examining how resources change as parents move closer to divorce and whether the consequences of divorce for family resources are short term or long term. Consistent with other work in this area, we find that parental divorce has severe negative consequences for the economic well-being of mothers and children."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: T. L. Hanson, University of California, Healthy Families Project-142, Riverside, CA 92521. E-mail: tom.hanson@ucr.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40371 Harmsen, C. N. Mixed marriages. [Naar geboorteland gemengde huwelijken.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 8, Aug 1998. 13-5 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the extent and characteristics of mixed marriages in the Netherlands. "Nine out of ten married persons born in Turkey or Morocco have a partner who was born in the same country. The majority of married Surinamese also have a partner originating from the same country. Those who spend (a part of) their youth in Indonesia (the former Dutch East Indies), on the other hand, are mostly married to someone born in the Netherlands."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40372 Heckert, D. Alex; Nowak, Thomas C.; Snyder, Kay A. The impact of husbands' and wives' relative earnings on marital disruption. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 3, Aug 1998. 690-703 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In the last several decades, a shift has occurred in the relative contributions of married women to household earnings. Yet we know little about the impact of relative earnings of husbands and wives on the likelihood of marital disruption. This study estimates a discrete-time hazard model using data on first married couples from the 1986-1989 waves of the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The relative earnings of husbands and wives are a significant predictor of marital disruption, although the relationship is nonlinear. We suggest this nonlinear effect is linked to the varying economic circumstances of different groups of couples."
Correspondence: D. A. Heckert, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, 102 McElhaney Hall, Indiana, PA 15705. E-mail: aheckert@grove.iup.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40373 Hoy, Caroline. Marriage and migration in China. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 97/4, Apr 1997. 20 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the growing phenomenon of long distance marriage in China. Marriage migration, over relatively short distances, was a necessary of China's patrilocal society, partially repressed during the commune era. The current impact of marriage on migration patterns in China is clearly visible in the 1990 Census where married women make up a dominant group. Partner choice and patrilocality are outlined and two marriage patterns, which operate over longer and shorter distances, are shown to have developed, partially aided by the economic reforms of the 1980s. Marital status is shown to vary much more widely in surveys of the informal migrant population. The increasing pattern of long distance marriage is examined alongside the relationship between marriage, location and status."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40374 Hullen, Gert. Children of divorced couples--the transmission of the risk of getting divorced. [Scheidungskinder--oder: die Transmission des Scheidungsrisikos.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1998. 19-38 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This article examines the following questions: "Were children of parents who had divorced also subject to a higher divorce rate? Does the age of the children at the time of parental divorce play a role? Is the number of siblings of importance for later marriage stability, and are children of divorced parents different with regard to their attitudes toward family, profession and children? The Family and Fertility Survey, conducted in 1992 with 20-39 year-olds, served as the empirical base. It became apparent that the life course of children of divorced parents does not differ from other respondents, as far as completion of education, beginning of a partnership and the first child are concerned.... The children of divorced parents separated earlier from their spouses, however, and also from the partners of consensual unions. The highest risk of separation was found in women who were under 14 years of age at the time of the parental divorce. The risk declined as the age at the time of divorce increased, and for men the risk was lower anyhow."
Correspondence: G. Hullen, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40375 Islam, M. Nurul; Ahmed, Ashraf U. Age at first marriage and its determinants in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1998. 73-92 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors investigate marriage patterns and their determinants in Bangladesh, using data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey. "It is believed that, whatever is the impact of the differentials that could be discerned from the analysis, a lower age at marriage (a) among rural women, (b) among those who are Muslims and (c) among those without pre-marital exposure to work is associated with a low level of education."
Correspondence: M. N. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: duregstr@bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40376 Jacques, Jeffrey M. Changing marital and family patterns: a test of the post-modern perspective. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1998. 381-413 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Four central constructs of the post-modern perspective are extended and tested using secondary analysis of [U.S.] Census data and the NORC General Social Survey: 1972-94 data sets. The modified postmodern themes of: (1) the decline of a single universal family organizational standard, and (2) growing cultural diversity...were supported by examining changes in American family structure, attitudes toward such structural changes, and changing attitudes toward marital and family patterns over the last quarter century. However, little support was found for the greater use of, and reliance on, (3) the mass media. Mixed results were found on the fourth construct, greater variance in, and/or loss of, personal happiness or personal or family life satisfaction."
Correspondence: J. M. Jacques, Florida A&M University, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Tallahassee, FL 32307. E-mail: jjacques@famu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40377 Jones, Gavin W. The demise of universal marriage in East and South-East Asia. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 51-79 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes changing marriage patterns in Asia, with a focus on the recent declines in marriage prevalence. "The paper will deal mainly with non-marriage for women, though the trends in non-marriage for men will also be dealt with, more briefly. The focus will be on the two main cultural blocs of East and South-East Asia: the Confucian world of sinic cultures, and the Malay world."
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40378 Kaufmann, Georgia L.; Meekers, Dominique. The impact of women's socioeconomic position on marriage patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1998. 101-14 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Several theories have suggested that Western influences would gradually alter traditional African family systems. Although the predicted convergence toward a Western type of nuclear family has not occurred, there have been important changes in African nuptiality patterns. This article examines theories stating that differentials and changes in marriage patterns are related to the relative status of women. In particular, we assess to what extent factors such as women's inheritance rights, women's involvement in trade and politics, and women's contribution to agricultural labor affect the nuptiality pattern of a society."
Correspondence: G. L. Kaufmann, UKJAID, 33 Seymour Place, London W1H 6AT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40379 King, Steven. English historical demography and the nuptiality conundrum: new perspectives. Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, 1998. 130-56 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Eng.
"In the last decade, nuptiality has been placed at the centre of the English demographic regime in the long eighteenth-century. Proto-industrial areas in particular are increasingly seen to have experienced substantial decline in the female age at first marriage during this period, helping to fuel substantial population growth. This article uses family reconstitution and other data to question the uniformity of this experience and to suggest new avenues of interpretation rather than simply observation. For Calverley in West Yorkshire, England, female marriage ages remained stable throughout the proto-industrialisation process. More significantly, the distribution of marriage ages around the mean was much narrower than similar measures elsewhere. The article suggests that kinship, a deep sentimental and practical attachment to land, and an early retirement system lay behind this experience."
Correspondence: S. King, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40380 Kritz, Mary M.; Gurak, Douglas T. Family planning and marital disruption in Malaysia. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 96.09, 1996. 13, [5] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine retrospective life histories for married women from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-2) in order to assess the impact of contraceptive use on the disruption of first marriages." Results indicate that "users of contraception are significantly less likely than non-users to experience a marital disruption and that those effects hold for Malaysian women...whose early marital experiences occurred when contraceptive practice was still relatively rare, as well as for those who were far more exposed to modern contraceptive practices...."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40381 Lee, Sharon M.; Fernandez, Marilyn. Trends in Asian American racial/ethnic intermarriage: a comparison of 1980 and 1990 census data. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1998. 323-42 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use data from the 1990 [U.S.] census to compare patterns of Asian American intermarriage with those reported by Lee and Yamanaka (1990).... Our main findings show that: (i) the overall outmarriage rate has declined; (ii) Asian American inter-ethnic marriages (that is, marriages between two Asian Americans of different Asian ethnicities) have increased; and (iii) social distance, measured by an Index of Intermarriage Distance, between Asian Americans and other racial and ethnic groups has widened. We conclude by discussing some implications of the findings for the role of racial and ethnic intermarriage as an indicator of intergroup relations."
Correspondence: S. M. Lee, Portland State University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207. E-mail: lees@pdx.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40382 Lehrer, Evelyn L. Religious intermarriage in the United States: determinants and trends. Social Science Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, Sep 1998. 245-63 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"This article uses data from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households to study the determinants of religious intermarriage in the United States as well as changes over time in its prevalence. Separate logit regressions are estimated for exclusivist Protestant, ecumenical Protestant, and Catholic respondents. Variables identified as playing a role in the intermarriage decision include the proportion of coreligionists in the relevant marriage market, various proxies for religiosity and for commitment to the parental faith, education, a premarital pregnancy, and gender. The estimated effects are generally consistent with hypotheses derived from a model of religious intermarriage. The results also show that the prevalence of religious heterogamy has increase significantly over the past decades for Catholics and ecumenical Protestants. In sharp contrast, there has been no perceptible change in the probability of marrying outside the religion for exclusivist Protestants, a group which continues to display distinctive patterns of economic and demographic behavior."
Correspondence: E. L. Lehrer, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, 601 Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7121. E-mail: elehrer@uic.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40383 Lievens, John. Interethnic marriage: bringing in the context through multilevel modelling. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1998. 117-55 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article deals with the underlying causes of interethnic marriages of Turks and Moroccans living in Belgium.... Higher odds [of interethnic marriage] are generally found for the second generation and at higher levels of age at marriage and educational attainment. Interethnic marriage is further promoted by a small size of the ethnic group, by low ethnic heterogeneity and by low correlation between the ethnic and the socio-economic dimension. Interethnic marriages are generally more prevalent in districts where the common language is French and where the majority of immigrants originate from urban regions in the country of origin."
Correspondence: J. Lievens, University of Ghent, Department of Population Studies and Social Science Research Methods, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 49, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. E-mail: john.lievens@rug.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40384 Lugaila, Terry A. Marital status and living arrangements: March 1997 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 506, Jun 1998. 1 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report briefly describes "detailed tabulations...which provide statistics on the marital status and living arrangements of people in the United States, based on the March 1997 Current Population Survey.... The [complete set of tables includes] 9 detailed tables (75 pages), 12 historical tables, 3 summary tables, and 1 state table.... The electronic version of these tables is available on the Internet in portable document format using the Adobe Acrobat reader, at the Census Bureau's World-Wide Web Site (http://www.census.gov)."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOM, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40385 Moffitt, Robert A.; Reville, Robert; Winkler, Anne E. Beyond single mothers: cohabitation and marriage in the AFDC program. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 3, Aug 1998. 259-78 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We investigate the extent and implications of cohabitation and marriage among U.S. welfare recipients. An analysis of four data sets (the Current Population Survey, the National Survey of Families and Households, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) shows significant numbers of cohabitors among recipients of AFDC. An even more surprising finding is the large number of married women on welfare.... Results of a telephone survey...indicate that, in a number of respects, AFDC rules encourage cohabitation."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. A. Moffitt, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Economics, Baltimore, MD 21218. E-mail: moffitt@jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40386 Nock, Steven L. Turn-taking as rational behavior. Social Science Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, Sep 1998. 235-44 pp. Academic Press: Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
This is an introduction to a special issue of this journal devoted to quantitative studies on marriage and the family, with a geographical focus on the United States. "The articles in this issue cover the entire course of most intimate, couple relationships; from cohabitation to marriage to divorce. The collection also illustrates new directions in quantitative research on the family. Authors focus on the private dimensions of relationships when they study perceptions of fairness, gender ideals, and spousal influence. They also incorporate an explicit temporal framework by considering past and future possibilities.... The articles suggest past and future themes that inform research on marriage--a rational consumer model of intimate behavior and temporal imagination, or what I refer to as turn-taking. Assuming that marital-specific capital...is developmental, I propose that the definition of rational behavior fluctuates within marriages depending on the couple's past, present, and imagined future together."
Correspondence: S. L. Nock, University of Virginia, Department of Sociology, 539 Cabel Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40387 Ono, Hiromi. Husbands' and wives' resources and marital dissolution. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 3, Aug 1998. 674-89 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Prominent theories converge in suggesting that a wife's resources are positively related to marital dissolution (i.e., the wife's independence hypothesis), whereas a husband's resources are inversely related to dissolution (i.e., the husband's income hypothesis). Using data from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1968-1985), a discrete-time event history analysis identifies modifications required of both hypotheses. First, wife's earnings have a nonlinear, U-shaped relationship to the risk of marital dissolution. Second, the impact of husband's earnings varies as a function of wife's earnings.... Finally, results fail to support the hypothesis that better economic prospects for a wife, measured by education and time worked, increase the risk of marital dissolution separately from her actual economic standing, measured by her earnings."
Correspondence: H. Ono, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. E-mail: ono@nicco.sscnet.ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40388 Ostermeier, Marion; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter. Residential property and divorce. A longitudinal analysis of the impact of purchased and inherited residential property on the process of divorce. [Ein Längsschnittanalyse über den Einfluß gekauften und geerbten Wohneigentums auf den Prozeß der Ehescheidung.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1998. 39-54 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The report...aims to take a closer look at the specific connection between self-owned residential property and divorce. It shows that residential property owners have much more stable marriages than those who rent their properties. It appears that they are more capable of observing their longer-term commitments. The inheritance of self-used residential property even strengthens this effect. Here, in particular, the symbolic meaning of inherited property and the social embedding in the net of family and relatives can be observed. For these families, inherited residential property represents a main vertical axis, that is, one between generations, and a horizontal axis of a social net that should not be put [at] risk, if possible."
Correspondence: M. Ostermeier, Universität Bremen, Institut für Empirische und Angewandte Soziologie, Wienerstraße, 28334 Bremen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40389 Qian, Zhenchao. Changes in assortative mating: the impact of age and education, 1970-1990. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 3, Aug 1998. 279-92 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data from the U.S. Census and Current Population Survey are used to examine trends in the propensity to marry or to cohabit by the age and educational attainment of potential partners. Marriage rates declined sharply across all age and educational combinations between 1970 and 1980 and declined more sharply for less-educated persons between 1980 and 1990.... Highly educated men were more likely, and highly educated women were no more or less likely, to marry than to cohabit with less-educated partners in 1970 and 1980. By 1990, however, educational assortative-mating patterns between these two types of unions were similar."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Z. Qian, Arizona State University, Department of Sociology, Tempe, AZ 85287-2101. E-mail: zqian@asu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40390 Qu, Lixia. Age differences between brides and grooms in Australia. Family Matters, No. 49, Autumn 1998. 27 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This one-page article analyzes changes in the age differences between spouses in Australia over the period from 1921 to 1995 using data from official sources. "Over seven decades, the mean age difference between brides and grooms for all marriages in Australia has declined by one year from 3.6 years (grooms 3.6 years older than brides on average) in 1921 to 2.6 years in 1995."
Correspondence: L. Qu, Australian Institute of Family Studies, 300 Queen Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40391 Quilodrán Salgado, Julieta. Marriage in Mexico: national developments and regional typologies. [Le mariage au Mexique: évolution nationale et typologie régionale.] Institut de Démographie Monographie, No. 10, ISBN 2-87209-503-9. 1998. iv, 256 pp. Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France; Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This is a general study on marriage patterns in Mexico. Following an introduction to the study of nuptiality in the country, the author first looks at the development of civil marriage over the course of the twentieth century. There follow chapters on the problems of collecting data on marital status in censuses and on nuptiality tables for the period 1930-1990. The fluctuating popularity of consensual unions over time is noted. The second part of the study focuses on regional aspects of marriage patterns in Mexico.
Correspondence: Academia-Bruylant, Grand'Place 29, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40392 Restall, Matthew. The ties that bind: social cohesion and the Yucatec Maya family. Journal of Family History, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1998. 355-81 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This analysis of unstudied census materials and Maya-language notarial records explores the nature of Maya familial organization and identity in colonial Yucatán, Mexico. At the intersection of the two primary units of Maya society, the community and the patronym-group, existed the extended family, which was formed through marriage alliances within largely endogamous communities between strictly exogamous patronym-groups, expressed as a multiunit patriarchal household of about ten members, and given cohesion by community and patronym-group identities and by familial participation in working and owning property. Marriages may have been later, and separate newlywed households less common, than previously suggested."
Correspondence: M. Restall, Pennsylvania State University, Department of History, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40393 Sanchez, Laura; Manning, Wendy D.; Smock, Pamela J. Sex-specialized or collaborative mate selection? Union transitions among cohabitors. Social Science Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, Sep 1998. 280-304 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
Data from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH1) and its follow-up survey NSFH2 in 1992 are used to examine the factors that influence those cohabiting in the United States to continue to cohabitate, to separate, or to marry. The factors considered include economic circumstances, domestic contributions, gender attitudes, and feelings about domestic equity. "Our findings primarily support the sex-specialized model, with women's housework and men's earnings associated with higher odds of marriage, and cohabiting men's mate selection strategies seemingly consistent with an exchange of breadwinning for homemaking. Partial support for the collaborative model shows that men's egalitarian attitudes are associated with higher odds of marriage, while the interaction between women's time spent in housework and earnings is associated with higher odds of separation."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. Sanchez, Tulane University, Department of Sociology, 220 Newcomb Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118. E-mail: lsanchez@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40394 Westley, Sidney B. What's happening to marriage in East Asia? Asia-Pacific Population and Policy, No. 46, Jul 1998. 4 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This issue...is based on a series of studies that compare marriage and family life in three contrasting societies--Japan, South Korea, and the United States.... [The] results show similar broad patterns of changing attitudes in all three countries. Young people are consistently less likely than their elders to express positive attitudes about marriage or traditional views on gender roles.... The studies also suggest that men and women have different attitudes toward marriage."
Correspondence: East-West Center, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. E-mail: poppubs@ewc.hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40395 Wilhelm, Brenda. Changes in cohabitation across cohorts: the influence of political activism. Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 1, Sep 1998. 289-313 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This article investigates increasing rates of nonmarital cohabitation in the U.S., primarily examining the link between left-oriented activism and cohabitation. The article relies on Cohort-based models of social change in concert with a theory linking New Left social movements of the 1960s and 1970s to the diffusion of new life-course patterns. Further, it addresses the question of diffusion across sociodemographic dimensions as cohabitation rates increase. Analyzing retrospective lifecourse data on three cohorts born between 1943 and 1964, I find that late cohorts are much more likely to have cohabited than are earlier cohorts, that left-oriented political activism is a strong predictor of cohabitation for all cohorts, and that there has been some demographic diffusion of cohabitation along the education dimension."
Correspondence: B. Wilhelm, University of Arizona, Department of Sociology, 400 Social Sciences Building, Tucson, AZ 85721. E-mail: bwilhelm@u.arizona.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.

64:40396 Al-Nouri, Qais N. The impact of the economic embargo on Iraqi families: re-structuring of tribes, socio-economic classes and households. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, Summer 1997. 99-112 pp. Calgary, Canda. In Eng.
The effects of the economic embargo imposed on Iraq in 1990 following the Gulf War are explored. The author concludes that, in addition to the economic hardships that have resulted from the embargo, there has been a decline in the social ties that link families. There has also been an impact on socioeconomic stratification in the country, with a polarization between the rich and the poor. The author notes that while many old and respected urban families have become impoverished, some rural and uneducated families have experienced unprecedented prosperity, and that this unexpected level of social mobility is seen by many as chaotic and disorienting.
Correspondence: Q. N. Al-Nouri, Yarmouk University, Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, Irbid, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40397 Barbagli, Marzio; Saraceno, Chiara. The status of families in Italy. [Lo stato delle famiglie in Italia.] ISBN 88-15-05974-1. 1997. 377 pp. Società Editrice il Mulino: Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
This book presents a selection of 30 papers by various authors providing an interdisciplinary review of the current status of the family in Italy. It contains information on the characteristics of Italian families and the problems they face, as well as a summary of the major changes affecting the family that have occurred over the past 40 years. Topics covered include nuptiality, family formation, consensual unions, fertility, the costs of having children, assisted reproduction, children in families, female employment, separation and divorce, one-parent families, remarriage, families and the aged, housing, family policies, and family allowances and benefits.
Correspondence: Società Editrice il Mulino, Strada Maggiore 37, 40125 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40398 Billari, Francesco; Ongaro, Fausta. The transition to adulthood in Italy. Evidence from cross-sectional surveys. Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2, 1998. 165-79 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The authors use cross-sectional data in order to study the transition to adulthood of young Italians, over the 1983-1993 decade.... Firstly, we would like to describe the condition of young adults, accounting for changes in some basic characteristics and the position in traditional states. This is done by giving special attention to gender and geographical area differences. Secondly, some theoretical-based hypotheses are tested, putting a special emphasis on residential status. The postponement of the transition to adulthood seems to be a consequence--at least in some areas--of: (a) changes in the family/residential and working structure; (b) the virtual absence of non-marital cohabitation in presence of delayed marriages."
Correspondence: F. Billari, Università degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Via San Francesco 33, 35121 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40399 Blank, Susan; Torrechila, Ramon S. Understanding the living arrangements of Latino immigrants: a life course approach. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, Spring 1998. 3-19 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1990 [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics Latino Sample, this study examines three competing hypotheses for understanding extended family living among Mexican, Puerto Rican and Cuban immigrants. The findings indicate no significant relationship between living with extended kin and cultural indicators--such as English fluency--or economic factors--such as employment and income. Rather, the data support a life course explanation. Extended family living arrangements among Latino immigrants represent a resource generating strategy for caring for young children and older adults."
Correspondence: S. Blank, University of California, School of Social Sciences, Social Science Tower, 6th Floor, Irvine, CA 92715. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40400 Boyd, Monica. Birds of a feather: ethnic variations in young adults living at home. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 98-140, 1998. 32 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1991 Canadian census, ethnic origin variations in young adults-parent co-residencies are examined within the framework of past research which emphasizes ethnic groups differences in familism and in preferences for co-residency. Logistic regression analysis shows that age and ethnic origin are the two most important factors underlying the varying propensities of single young adults age 20-34 to live in the parental home...."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2240. Author's E-mail:mboyd@coss.fsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40401 Bryson, Ken; Casper, Lynne M. Household and family characteristics: March 1997. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 509, Apr 1998. 7 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Changes affecting household and family characteristics in the United States between 1970 and 1997 are analyzed in this report, focusing on the period 1990-1997. The data are primarily taken from the March 1997 Current Population Survey. Detailed tables associated with this report are available on the Internet (http://www.census.gov) or in hard-copy format for $39 from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, P.O. Box 277943, Atlanta, GA 30384-7943. A separate sheet providing corrections for some of the data was also published in June.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. E-mail: kbryson@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40402 Elman, Cheryl. Intergenerational household structure and economic change at the turn of the twentieth century. Journal of Family History, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1998. 417-40 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article uses exchange theory to examine whether hierarchical and noncollectivist `elder strategies' shaped coresidence. Analysis of the 1910 [U.S.] Public Use Sample and linked macrolevel census data finds that the coresidence of elderly males with adult children was a function of local economic opportunities, old-age dependency, economic resources (including Civil War pensions), and remarriage alternatives. Specifically, local economic opportunities led to more coresidence, but remarriage, older men's robustness, and greater material resources led to less coresidence with a child. Older men, as those in previous cohorts, held onto the resources they possessed--including headship--for their own use and perhaps to maintain leverage over kin."
Correspondence: C. Elman, University of Akron, Department of Sociology, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40403 Faragó, Tamás. Different household formation systems in Hungary at the end of the eighteenth century: variations on John Hajnal's thesis. Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, 1998. 83-111 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Eng.
"John Hajnal's pathbreaking paper about the European marriage patterns and his household formation theory provoked high interest [among] researchers even far beyond the border of the historical demographic research. Examining them through the Hungarian sources we can say that both the declared factors and variables of household formation and their regional strength and territorial distribution cannot be interpreted unanimously and adequately with the rules established by John Hajnal. Maybe it is better not to think in universalistic regimes but, moreover, adapt a regional and temporal frame of reference."
Correspondence: T. Faragó, NKI, Demographic Research Institute, Fényes Elek v. 14-18, 1024 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40404 Gauthier, Anne H. The state and the family: a comparative analysis of family policies in industrialized countries. ISBN 0-19-828804-2. 1996. xi, 232 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an attempt to present a comparative analysis of family policies in the developed countries, focusing on the period since World War II. More specifically, "through an analysis of specific family policy indicators, this book aims at analysing the changes in family policy in different countries and their interplay with demographic changes, assessing the degree of continuity or discontinuity of policies, and emphasizing their inter-country differences or similarities. The book concludes by drawing a typology of models of family policy on the basis of the observed inter-country differences." There are chapters on early fears of population and family decline, the first elements of family policies, the expansion of state support for families, the rediscovery of poverty, women's issues, renewed demographic concerns, the new population question (below-replacement fertility), the family as a political issue, and recent trends in state support for families.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40405 Gautier, Arlette; Pilon, Marc. The families of the south. [Familles du sud.] Autrepart: Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Nouvelle Série, No. 2, ISBN 2-87678-309-6. 1997. 175 pp. Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This issue contains a selection of papers on the changes affecting families in developing countries. These include economic and cultural changes, political changes, migration, policies of structural adjustment, and AIDS, all of which have affected the traditional family. There are papers on Mumbai, India; Hanoi, Viet Nam; Samoa; Mexican families in the United States; Peru; Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Mali; and Sub-Saharan Africa in general.
Correspondence: Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 32 avenue Henri-Varagnat, 93143 Bondy Cedex, France. E-mail: lopes@bondy.bondy.orstom.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40406 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Lawton, Leora. Family experiences and the erosion of support for intergenerational coresidence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 3, Aug 1998. 623-32 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We test the affluence interpretation of the decline in intergenerational coresidence [in the United States], which implicitly affirms that close kin would still offer housing to those in need, by examining the factors that influence attitudes about coresidence with young adult children and aging parents. Using national data, we model the effects of living in a multigenerational household in childhood and living independently from parents prior to marriage on respondents' obligation to allow aging parents and adult children who are in need to coreside. We find strong effects of living arrangements experiences on attitudes that differ by the type of intergenerational coresidence."
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Maxcy Hall, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: frances_goldscheider@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40407 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Goldscheider, Calvin. The effects of childhood family structure on leaving and returning home. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 3, Aug 1998. 745-56 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We examine the effects of childhood family structure on leaving and returning home. Using retrospective data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households, we develop a competing risks, proportional hazards model of linkages among family experiences and the probability of leaving home [at] very early (ages 15-16) and by given routes (schooling, the military, marriage, cohabitation, employment, and independence) and of returning home. We find that growing up in any of a variety of alternative family structures decreases the likelihood of leaving home via college attendance and of returning home but increases the likelihood of leaving early, especially to independence and marriage."
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Maxcy Hall, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: frances_goldscheider@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40408 Guo, Zhigang; Guo, Lizhu. Recent trend in family households in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1997. 269-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on the data obtained through [the 1% sample survey of the Chinese population conducted on October 1, 1995] this study describes the size and structure of the family households in Beijing in 1995, and, with further support of the data concerning Beijing from the 1990 national census, analyzes the trend among family households in Beijing in recent years."
Correspondence: Z. Guo, Chinese People's University of China, Institute of Demographics, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40409 Habich, Roland; Berger-Schmitt, Regina. Family formation and desire for children in Germany: family/socioeconomic status/career/self-fulfillment--patterns and profiles of the attitudes toward competing life arenas. [Familienbildung und Kinderwunsch in Deutschland. Familie, Wohlstand, Beruf, Selbstverwirklichung: Einstellungsmuster und -profile zur Konkurrenz von Lebensbereichen.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 82f, 1998. 125, 73 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This is one in a series of reports presenting results of the Fertility and Family Survey (FFS) conducted in Germany in the summer of 1992. The present study is concerned with charting general attitudes about family and fertility. Data are taken from 10,012 interviews with persons aged 20-39, including about 3,000 women and 2,000 men in both the former East and West Germany. Issues addressed include the compatibility of career and children and the dilemma of women. The relative importance to Germans of family, career, self-realization, and socioeconomic status is charted and analyzed, and perceptions concerning their interrelations are examined. The focus is on factors that might affect the desire for children and, ultimately, fertility.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 4, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40410 Hiroshima, Kiyosi. A retrospective of Japanese demography for the most recent two decades, Part 3: twenty years of Japanese family demography. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 22, May 1998. 31-7 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is a review of recent demographic research by Japanese scholars on family demography.
For Part 2, by Zenji Nanjo and Takao Shigematsu, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

64:40411 Holmes-Eber, Paula. Migration, urbanization, and women's kin networks in Tunis. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, Summer 1997. 54-72 pp. Calgary, Canda. In Eng.
The extent to which the modern Euro-American model of the isolated nuclear family is becoming the norm in Tunisia is explored. "Using ethnographic data collected during a one year field study and survey (1986-7) and a follow-up field study (summer 1993) of migrant and non-migrant Muslim women and their families in the capital city of Tunis, the author proposes that rather than adopting Euro-American ideals of conjugal isolation and withdrawal from the extended family, women in Tunis continue to live in a world dominated by visits and daily interaction with near and extended kin."
Correspondence: P. Holmes-Eber, University of Wisconsin, Department of Anthropology, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0413. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40412 Hoodfar, Homa. The impact of male migration on domestic budgeting: Egyptian women striving for an Islamic budgeting pattern. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, Summer 1997. 73-98 pp. Calgary, Canda. In Eng.
The impact of male labor migration from Egypt to the Arab oil-producing countries on domestic budgeting and the position of wives in the family is examined. The data are for 42 households in Cairo. The results suggest that less-educated women and those who were primarily homemakers were often able to negotiate more favorable financial arrangements with their husbands during and after migration and to increase their status and decision-making power within the family, but that educated and income-earning wives were more likely to lose income and status within the household.
Correspondence: H. Hoodfar, Concordia University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 1455 de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40413 Kojima, Katsuhisa. Regional difference in household structure in Japan: an analysis based on prefectural data for 1980-1995. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 21, Nov 1997. 19-25 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Regional differences in the structure of households in Japan over the period 1980-1995 are analyzed using official data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40414 Kok, Jan. Family strategies and leaving home and migration by the young. The Netherlands, 1850-1940. [Estrategias familiares en el abandono del hogar y la migración juvenil. Los Países Bajos 1850-1940.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1997. 79-111 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article studies the process of leaving home in the context of family conditions and family strategies. The migratory behaviour is analyzed for nearly 3,000 youths, born between 1850 and 1929 in the central and western part of the Netherlands. Initially, labour was the predominant motive to leave home. However, in the twentieth century, marriage became much more important. Short distances and high rates of return reveal that most movers kept in close contact with their family of origin. Event history models show the influence of the family's socioeconomic position and its composition on the choice between moving and staying. For each individual child, parental expectations, that were specific to sex and birth order, were of great importance as well."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40415 Lüscher, Kurt. Demographic approaches to the "plurality of family life forms": results of a secondary analysis of data collected in the 1990 Swiss population census. [Demographische Annäherungen an die "Pluralität familialer Lebensformen". Ergebnisse einer Sekundäranalyse von Daten der schweizerischen Volkszählung 1990.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 22, No. 2-3, 1997. 269-309 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In connection with the results of a secondary analysis of the data of the Swiss population census, it is suggested that a conceptual differentiation be made between structural and personal plurality. The former is related to the distribution of the population into life forms, the latter to the demographic structure of individual life forms, such as `unmarried life partnerships', `single-person households', and `single-parent households'. This example shows that with the use of population census data, it is possible to make differentiated analyses that come close to the actual living diversity. Taking methodological considerations and factual findings into account, a picture develops that we can sum up as being a `plurality with limits'."
Correspondence: K. Lüscher, Universität Konstanz, Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457 Konstanz 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40416 Mason, Karen O.; Tsuya, Noriko O.; Choe, Minja Kim. The changing family in comparative perspective: Asia and the United States. ISBN 0-86638-187-2. LC 98-72421. 1998. xix, 258 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii; Nihon University, University Research Center: Tokyo, Japan. Distributed by University of Hawaii Press, 2840 Kolowalu Street, Honolulu, HI 96822. In Eng.
"This volume compares recent family patterns in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and other Asian countries with those found in the United States. Written by distinguished social scientists from Asia and the U.S., the essays in this volume use new surveys and censuses to compare Asian and American patterns of marriage, divorce, women's roles, men's contributions to housework, well-being in marriage, and patterns of contact and exchange between adults and their parents. The volume's results suggest that patterns of family formation and dissolution in Asia are converging with those in the United States in many respects, but that intergenerational relationships remain distinct."
Correspondence: East-West Center, 1601 East-West Center Road, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40417 McCann, Lisa M. Patrilocal co-residential units (PCUs) in Al-Barha: dual household structure in a provincial town in Jordan. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, Summer 1997. 113-35 pp. Calgary, Canda. In Eng.
Household characteristics in a lower-middle-class neighborhood in the Jordanian city of Irbid are analyzed. The dominant household form is a cluster of nuclear families whose senior males are patrilineally related. The author argues that this form of household is the result of socioeconomic as well as cultural factors, in that by pooling resources, the nuclear families involved can achieve higher standards of living than if they set up house separately.
Correspondence: L. M. McCann, Social Services Office, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, P.O. Box 17101, Amman 11195, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40418 Murphy, Mike; Wang, Duolao. Family and sociodemographic influences on patterns of leaving home in postwar Britain. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 3, Aug 1998. 293-305 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We identify child-level and parent-level characteristics associated with children's patterns of leaving home.... We find that measured variables at both the child and the parent level have important influences, as do period and cohort factors. However, unmeasured parent-level factors have an influence on the departure of children that is broadly similar in magnitude to measured factors.... The data for this analysis come from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS)."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. E-mail: M.Murphy@lse.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40419 Pihan, Jean. Students and their parents: living together and time to move. [Les étudiants et leurs parents: cohabitation familale et temps de déplacement.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2, 1998. 181-98 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Within the French student population, [the] departure from the parental home is often interrupted during weekends and holiday periods. However, almost one in three students keep on living in the parental home even during term time.... Based on a questionnaire carried out in the Brittany region...a method is proposed for modelling continued residence in the parental home which enables geographic constraints linked to journey time to be distinguished on the one hand, and the effect of other economic, social or institutional factors on the other."
Correspondence: J. Pihan, Université de Haute-Bretagne, UFR de Géographie et d'Aménagement de l'Espace, 6 avenue Gaston Berger, 35043 Rennes Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40420 Ranjit, Nalini; Gurak, Douglas T. Changes in the living arrangements of young adults: the case of returns. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 97.10, 1997. 6, [2] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The authors investigate changes in the extent to which young U.S. adults return home to live after leaving home. "Our objective [is] to analyze the institutional and personal-historical determinants of returning behavior, so that we may assess whether the phenomenon is temporary or likely to lead to enduring changes in the role incumbencies."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40421 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. Early life transitions of Canadian women: a cohort analysis of timing, sequences, and variations. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1998. 179-204 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper looks into the timing and sequences of early life transitions of Canadian women using data from the 1995 General Social Survey of Family. Six events occurring in early adulthood are examined: school completion, first job, home-leaving, first cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth. Our analysis of birth cohorts spanning 60 years shows that the biggest changes in timing occurred in school completion and start of work; that the trajectories involving work before marriage have gained popularity among later cohorts; and that education appreciably delays early life transitions."
Correspondence: Z. R. Ravanera, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. E-mail: ravanera@julian.uwo.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40422 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando. Variations in the length of male parenting: evidence from the 1995 GSS Canada. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 98-6, ISBN 0-7714-2101-X. Jun 1998. 13, [5] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"In this paper, we concentrate on measuring the quantity or the total amount of time lived by men with their children over their life course, and leave out the quality or the types and intensity of day-to-day involvement in child-rearing.... Using a life course approach and data gathered through [Canada's] General Social Survey of Families in 1995, we examine the timing of the start and end of parenting and their variations with men's socio-economic characteristics."
This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40423 Rendall, Michael S. Entry or exit? A transition-probability approach to explaining the high single-mother proportions among African-Americans. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 97.11, 1997. 23, [19] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The growth in African-American single motherhood in the United States over the 1971-96 period, and differences from non-Hispanic white single motherhood levels and growth, are studied here. Age-standardized parenting-status transition probabilities are estimated from Panel Study of Income Dynamics data, distinguishing first- and higher-order parenting unions.... Increasing divergence between African-Americans' and non-Hispanic whites' parenting-status transition probabilities is found."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40424 Schoeni, Robert F. Reassessing the decline in parent-child old-age coresidence during the twentieth century. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 3, Aug 1998. 307-13 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I propose and estimate an alternative measure of [U.S.] old-age coresidence with an adult child: the number of life-years lived in coresidence with an adult child while age 65 or older. In addition, I measure the share of lifetime lived in this state.... After I estimate the measure, I decompose it to determine the degree to which changes in the number of life-years lived in old age are due to changes in the rate of coresidence, changes in mortality, and changes in fertility." Data are from official sources including the Department of Health and Human Services life tables and the Current Population Surveys.
Correspondence: R. F. Schoeni, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. E-mail: schoeni@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40425 Settersten, Richard A. A time to leave home and a time never to return? Age constraints on the living arrangements of young adults. Social Forces, Vol. 76, No. 4, Jun 1998. 1,373-400 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Given profound demographic change in [U.S.] patterns of leaving and returning home since the 1960s, little attention has been paid to classical sociological questions related to age norms. Interviews were conducted with a random sample of 319 adults in the Chicago metropolitan area. A large majority of respondents perceived an age deadline for leaving home. In addition, there was nearly complete agreement that both men and women should leave home between the ages of 18 and 25.... At the same time, most respondents argued that there were no consequences for young adults who remain at home beyond the deadline.... These results are discussed within the context of the changing demography of these transitions and several larger life-course debates."
Correspondence: R. A. Settersten, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Sociology, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7124. E-mail: ras2@po.cwru.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40426 Stevenson, Thomas B. Migration, family, and household in highland Yemen: the impact of socio-economic and political change and cultural ideals on domestic organization. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, Summer 1997. 14-53 pp. Calgary, Canda. In Eng.
Some aspects of change affecting the family in Yemen are examined. "Drawing on data from ten rural communities, this paper examines the convergence of family form and household composition. Recognizing that internal dynamics are probably central to household unity or division, five activities identified by Wilk and Netting (co-residence, production, transmission of property, reproduction, and distribution of resources) are discussed."
Correspondence: T. B. Stevenson, Ohio University, Regional Campuses, Department of Anthropology, Athens, OH 45701-2979. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40427 Wall, Richard. Characteristics of European family and household systems. Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, 1998. 44-66 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Eng.
"This article establishes that there was considerable diversity in the size and composition of the kin group within the household that is not captured by the conventional classification of family systems according to the relative proportions of simple and complex household forms. Three case studies are presented from England, Corsica and Hungary. English households fulfilled an important welfare role in that they incorporated relatives and non-relatives who were not members of core families-- couples or parent(s) and unmarried child(ren). The societies of Corsica and Hungary provided a greater proportion of their populations with membership of a core family."
Correspondence: R. Wall, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB1 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40428 White, Lynn. Who's counting? Quasi-facts and stepfamilies in reports of number of siblings. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 3, Aug 1998. 725-33 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using panel data on approximately 9,400 individuals aged 19-95 interviewed in the 1987-1988 and 1992-1994 waves of the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households, I examine discrepancies in reported sibling number. Fifteen percent of the sample reported fewer siblings in the second wave than in the first wave. Unexpectedly, 16% also reported more siblings. I consider four explanations for these discrepancies: changes in wording of the question, complex family structure, changes in family structure between waves, and low sibling salience. Analysis demonstrates that discrepancies are greatest among, but not limited to, those with complex family histories."
Correspondence: L. White, University of Nebraska, Department of Sociology, 711 Oldfather Hall, Lincoln, NE 68588. E-mail: lwhite3@unlinfo.unl.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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