Volume 64 - Number 4 - Winter 1998

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

64:40206 Adetunji, Jacob A. Unintended childbearing in developing countries: levels, trends, and determinants. DHS Analytical Report, No. 8, Jun 1998. viii, 46 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The objective of this report...is to use large-scale survey data that are cross-nationally comparable to study the levels, trends, and determinants of unintended fertility in developing countries. The report is based on the analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 10 selected countries that have participated in the DHS program at least twice. The countries are Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Morocco, Peru, Senegal, and Zimbabwe."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40207 Al-Qudsi, Sulayman. The demand for children in Arab countries: evidence from panel and count data models. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 3, Aug 1998. 435-52 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper provides empirical evidence on fertility determinants in Arab countries. Adopting a macro and micro framework and exploiting panel and count data models the paper estimates the impact of cultural and economic factors on the demand for children. The results obtained strongly support the hypothesis that cross-country heterogeneity buttresses differentiated fertility and that female education mitigates high fertility. Child mortality and parent's preferences for sons positively affect fertility. By and large, demand for children is price and income inelastic."
Correspondence: S. Al-Qudsi, Sierra College, California Energy Commission, Development Division, 3020 Mendel Way, Sacramento, CA 95833. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40208 Al-Qudsi, Sulayman S. Labour participation of Arab women: estimates of the fertility to labour supply link. Applied Economics, Vol. 30, No. 7, Jul 1998. 931-41 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Research conducted in this paper has two objectives. First, to review recent aggregate trends in Arab female employment and its link to fertility. Second, to apply a two-step econometric model to micro data sets of four Arab countries in order to estimate the impact of fertility and its correlates on the labour supply of Arab women.... The Poisson maximum likelihood estimation demonstrates that age at marriage, women's education, infant mortality and preference for male offspring are important determinants of fertility. In all countries examined, our findings confirm that fertility produces a strong negative influence on women's labour participation."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40209 Awasthi, Arvind. A comparative analysis of birth and death rates in Indian states. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1997. 149-76 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to analyse the trend in birth and death rates of India and some of its major states so that it can be ascertained which of the states have a high natural growth rate of population and what steps can be taken in these states to mitigate the sharp rise in natural growth of population. This calls for diagnosing those factors which are responsible for the differentials in birth and death rates.... Our analysis of the trend in birth and death rates [will] demarcate different stages of demographic transition in India and the various states considered in the study."
Correspondence: A. Awasthi, Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40210 Basu, Alaka M. Women's education, marriage and fertility: do men really not matter? Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 96.03, 1996. 13, [4] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper proposes that demographic analyses which look at only one aspect of marriage--its timing--in their search for the mechanisms behind a female education and fertility relationship, miss...a crucial dimension of marriage which is also linked to female education and to fertility.... [I hypothesize] that the educated man who marries an educated woman is qualitatively different from the educated or uneducated man who marries an uneducated woman and one of the important ways in which he is different is in having lower reproductive goals." The geographical focus is on India.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40211 Bledsoe, Caroline; Banja, Fatoumatta. Numerators and denominators in the study of high fertility populations: past and potential contributions from cultural anthropology. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 246-67 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"I briefly summarize some remarkable recent findings from The Gambia on an explanatory framework that appears to underlie much reproductive decision-making in high fertility West Africa. That is, it is not a woman's age or the number of children she has had that makes her fertility behaviour change. Rather, it is how she perceives the present reproductive health of her body.... I...assert that the Gambian findings suggest new ways of bringing together disciplinary strengths in social organization, demography, and biology in ways that none, individually, has yet done."
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60208-1310. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40212 Bouwens, A. Postponed parenthood: a review of recent research on the social consequences of the postponement of the first child. [Uitgesteld ouderschap: een onderzoek naar de maatschappelijke consequenties van het uitstel van de geboorte van het eerste kind.] Sep 1996. 86 pp. Emancipatieraad: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut.
This is a review of the results of recent research on the social consequences of the tendency of women in the Netherlands to delay having children until they are older. Topics covered include the motivation for postponing the birth of the first child, the relationship between female labor force participation and fertility, the availability of child care facilities and fertility, and the consequences of becoming pregnant at an older age.
Correspondence: Emancipatieraad, Postbus 90806, 2509 LV The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40213 Brass, William; Juarez, Fatima; Scott, Anne. An analysis of parity-dependent fertility falls in tropical Africa. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 80-93 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze changes in parity-dependent fertility in tropical Africa by time periods and cohorts. "The most important conclusion from the analysis is that a transition to regimes of lower fertility through family limitation became widespread over Africa South of the Sahara in the 1980s."
Correspondence: W. Brass, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40214 Caldwell, Bruce; Barkat-e-Khuda. The first generation to control family size: understanding Bangladesh's fertility decline from the perspective of the participants. ICDDR, B Working Paper, No. 73, ISBN 984-551-092-2. 1997. 22 pp. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh [ICDDR, B]: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The factors associated with the rapid fertility decline that has occurred in Bangladesh are analyzed using data from interviews with 67 women selected from the Sample Registration System of the ICDDR, B MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural). "The women were from Abhoynagar Thana in Southwestern Bangladesh and consisted of two groups: women who were currently practicing family planning, and women who had never practiced or had not done so for at least four years. The findings confirm that the family planning program has played an essential role in Bangladesh's fertility decline, but also indicate that economic and social changes, and especially growing aspirations (particularly for an alternative life outside agriculture) have combined with changes in family decision-making to make couples more receptive to the family planning message."
Correspondence: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: barkat@cholera.bangla.net. Location: Brown University Library, Providence, RI.

64:40215 Caldwell, John C. A new look at the Asian fertility transition. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 35, No. 4, Part 1, Winter 1996. 385-98 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author traces the fertility transition in Asia between 1965 and 1988. The role of policies in bringing about changes in fertility behavior is emphasized. Comments by Zeba A. Sathar are included (pp. 394-8).
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40216 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. What do we now know about fertility transition? In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 15-25 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors discuss problems of interpretation regarding the fertility transition. Aspects considered include fertility control in pre-transitional societies; lessons learned from the study of recent European history; the social and ideological components of transition timing and pace; the impact of organized family planning programs on the speed of transition; and the effects of government coercion.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40217 Cohen, Barney. The emerging fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, Vol. 26, No. 8, Aug 1998. 1,431-61 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper summarizes the recent evidence on levels, trends and differentials in achieved fertility, nuptiality, and contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing from a wide variety of data sources...an interesting picture of fertility decline emerges, one that is quite at odds with the popular perception of stationary or very limited fertility decline. A fairly widespread decline in fertility is currently underway across Africa. Moderate to large declines in fertility have already taken place in Kenya, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, and Côte d'Ivoire, with smaller declines observed in Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Mauritania, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. The driving forces behind these changes are later marriage and the greater use of modern contraception. A unique characteristic of African transitions appears to be the extent to which contraceptives are being used to space rather than to limit births."
Correspondence: B. Cohen, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40218 Crognier, E. Is the reduction of birth intervals an efficient reproductive strategy in traditional Morocco? Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 25, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 479-87 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Birth interval lengths are analysed from reproductive life histories of 517 Berber peasant women of the region of Marrakesh (Southern Morocco), whose fertility developed in a full traditional context.... The reproductive efficiency of the traditional propensity to a large family size is...examined by means of two different evaluations of reproductive success: the `absolute' reproductive success (the absolute number of offspring surviving to maturity) and the `relative' reproductive success (the proportion of live born surviving to maturity).... It is suggested that these two behaviours are not contradictory, and that they represent two successive steps of the same reproductive adjustment to evolving environmental conditions."
Correspondence: E. Crognier, Université de la Méditerranée, Faculté de Médecine Secteur Centre, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40219 de Jong, A. H. Fertility scenarios for the European Economic Area. Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 7, Jul 1998. 11-26 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article describes the assumptions on fertility underlying the new population scenarios for countries of the European Economic Area. Three scenarios will be presented. The Baseline scenario describes a situation in which observed developments are continued. According to this scenario, fertility will, within the projection period, hardly change in most countries. The Low and High scenarios describe possible alternatives, assuming a different economic and political context. The High scenario assumes that fertility will increase in all countries, whereas in the Low scenario fertility will decline in most countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40220 De Wit, Margaret L.; Ravanera, Zenaida R. The changing impact of women's educational attainment and employment on the timing of births in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1998. 45-67 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Analyzing 1995 Canadian General Social Survey data and making use of Cox Proportional Hazards (1972), we consider possible cohort differences in the impact of women's education and employment on birth timing.... Our findings demonstrate the continuing importance of education and employment for more recent cohorts and also reflect their increasing impact over time on birth timing. Further analyses of interactions between education and employment show that, for all cohorts, the effect of previous employment increases with level of education...."
Correspondence: M. L. De Wit, University of Western Ontario, Southwest Region Health Information Partnership, UWO Research Park, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40221 Demeny, Paul. Replacement-level fertility: the implausible endpoint of the demographic transition. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 94-110 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses questions about replacement-level fertility and continued sustenance of stability. He comments "on current population forecasts--demographic constructs that underlie and reinforce popular notions about the end of demographic transition as a stationary population. Next, I contrast the assumptions incorporated in these constructs with views derived from population theory. Finally, I consider some of the policy implications of the alternative perspectives on post-transition fertility trends."
Correspondence: P. Demeny, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40222 Dissanayake, Lakshman. Timing of first birth in Sri Lanka. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 4, Dec 1997. 1-7 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"In the present study, a detailed examination is made of the timing of the first birth and its relationship with the timing of first marriage, incidence of premarital conceptions and association with age at first birth, and reasons for a long interval before the first birth.... This study uses data from the Sri Lanka Fertility Survey of 1975 (SLFS), the Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Survey of 1987 (SLDHS) and the Sri Lanka Demographic Change Project of 1985 (SLDCP)."
Correspondence: L. Dissanayake, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40223 Galloway, Patrick R.; Lee, Ronald D.; Hammel, Eugene A. Urban versus rural: fertility decline in the cities and rural districts of Prussia, 1875 to 1910. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1998. 209-64 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Marital fertility in 54 Prussian cities and 407 Prussian Kreise (administrative areas) is analyzed using unusually rich and detailed socioeconomic and demographic data from eight quinquennial [censuses] between 1875 and 1910. Pooled cross-section time series methods are used to examine influences on marital fertility level and on marital fertility decline, focusing particularly on fertility differences according to level of urbanization. Increases in female labour force participation rate and income, the growth of financial services and communications, improvement in education, and reduction in infant mortality account for most of the marital fertility decline in 19th century Prussia. In 1875, rural and urban fertility were similar but by 1910, urban fertility was far lower than rural in part because the values of some of these variables changed more rapidly in the cities, and in part because some of these variables had stronger effects in urban settings."
Correspondence: P. R. Galloway, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720-2120. E-mail: galloway@demog.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40224 González Cervera, Alfonso S. The study of reproductive behavior from a cultural perspective. [El estudio del comportamiento reproductivo desde una perspectiva cultural.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1998. 141-82; 238-9 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The objective of this research is to develop a methodological proposal for studying the relation between culture and human reproduction, seeking particularly to apply it in the Mexican population.... The results of the study suggest that the prevailing Mexican values have favored high fertility. However, there are important differences between population groups (for example, between those with a higher and lower educational level). There is evidence of contradictory values, both individually and collectively, and of new valuation processes."
Correspondence: A. S. González Cervera, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Calz. del Hueso 1100, Col. Villa Quietud, C.P. 04960, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40225 Herter-Eschweiler, Robert. Long-term fertility trends in Germany: an attempt to integrate existing approaches to explaining reproductive behavior. [Die langfristige Geburtenentwicklung in Deutschland: der Versuch einer Integration bestehender Erklärungsansätze zum generativen Verhalten.] Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts für Bevölkerungsforschung, No. 27, ISBN 3-8100-2169-5. 1998. xv, 306 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany; Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
After a brief summary of fertility trends in Germany over the last 150 years, several behavioral models are examined to assess their suitability for being part of an integrated explanation of reproductive behavior. A micro-sociological behavioral model that assumes rational decision making seems most suitable, and a base model of this type is then developed in light of which existing research about reproductive behavior is discussed and analyzed.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Straße 27, 51379 Leverkusen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40226 Hull, Terence H.; Hull, Valerie J. Politics, culture and fertility: transitions in Indonesia. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 383-421 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we will explore the politics and culture of fertility decline in Indonesia through an analysis of the role of government in the creation of institutions that have effectively promoted and provided contraceptives to married couples. Central to our thesis is the notion that a combination of a nationalist ideology committed to political stability and the effective use of instruments of social control were crucial in the implementation of a wide variety of popular government programmes including primary schooling, health service delivery, and family planning."
Correspondence: T. H. Hull, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40227 Islam, M. Mazharul; Yadava, R. C. Estimation of fecundability: levels and trends in Bangladesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 3, Sep 1997. 13-21 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to estimate fecundability by the model fitting technique to data on the distribution of the number of births to women with a fixed marital duration and to study its levels and trends in Bangladesh.... The study is based on data available from two national level fertility surveys, the Bangladesh Fertility Surveys (BFS) of 1975 and 1989."
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40228 Kato, Hisakazu. Time series analysis of fertility change in postwar Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 20, May 1997. 23-35 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
An analysis of changes in fertility over time in Japan since World War II is presented. As a result of the analysis, the author concludes that "the change of fertility has moved according to a random walk with a drift, not a `deterministic' trend. Therefore, fertility is influenced by probability factors over the long-term; hence, there is the possibility that fertility will be reversed upward by an exogenous shock in the future." Attention is given to the impact on fertility of the year of Hinoe-Uma in 1966, the supposedly unlucky year for births.
Correspondence: H. Kato, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

64:40229 Khan, H. T. Abdullah; Raeside, Robert. The determinants of first and subsequent births in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1998. 39-72 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study focuses on the factors responsible for subsequent births in urban and rural Bangladesh. The results indicate that women with a higher age at the time of first marriage, higher education, work experience before first pregnancy and who take joint family planning decisions are at increased risk of having a first birth. These variables have the reverse effect for subsequent births. Later age and longer duration of birth interval are associated with lower risk of progressing towards having higher-order births over a 15-year period. In addition, religion, religiosity and child death are found to have a large positive effect on subsequent births in rural Bangladesh."
Correspondence: H. T. A. Khan, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: akhan.stat@ducc.agni.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40230 Kritz, Mary M.; Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina; Gurak, Douglas T. Wife's empowerment and fertility in Nigeria: the role of context. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 97.05, 1997. 13, [5] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper, we look at how gender conditions in different social contexts shape the reproductive behaviour of wives in five Nigerian ethnic groups. We...examine how gender conditions in wife's context of residence shape reproductive behaviour. To do this, we classify contexts according to their `average' characteristics on gender dimensions and refer to these gender-differentiated areas as `empowerment contexts'."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40231 Li, Li. Deviant fertility in China. ISBN 1-56072-445-5. LC 97-209464. 1997. 155 pp. Nova Science Publishers: Commack, New York. In Eng.
"This manuscript contributes to a better understanding of `deviant fertility' in China. To do so...[it] attempts to pursue the following objectives: (1) Conceptualize the `out-of-plan' fertility in China in a theoretical framework that incorporates sociology of fertility with deviant behavior perspectives. (2) Establish research models, based upon the conceptual framework developed, to identify relevant variables and to illustrate behavior patterns in their social contexts. (3) Understand the `out-of plan' fertility by examining its determinants with comparison to its `planned' counterpart."
Correspondence: Nova Science Publishers, 6080 Jericho Turnpike, Suite 207, Commack, NY 11725. E-mail: Novascience@earthlink.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40232 Locoh, Thérèse; Vallin, Jacques. Africa south of the Sahara: the fertility decline. [Afrique noire: la baisse de la fécondité.] Population et Sociétés, No. 338, Sep 1998. 1-3 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors review the growing evidence that a decline in fertility is occurring in the countries of Africa south of the Sahara. The relative contribution of delays in marriage and the practice of contraception to this decline is assessed. The authors note that, even with this decline, the population of the region is likely to increase from around 570 million in 1995 to 1.5 billion in 2050, and that the basic development problems of the region remain unsolved.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: vallin@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40233 Marsiglio, Willliam. Procreative man. ISBN 0-8147-5578-X. LC 97-21089. 1998. xi, 276 pp. New York University Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book is about the male role in the procreative process in the contemporary United States. The author's basic objective "is to provide a fresh conceptual scheme for viewing men's diverse thoughts and actions as procreative beings. I strive to be comprehensive in presenting a theoretically informed overview of men's experiences as they encounter the variegated question of procreation." Procreation is defined to include such issues as conception, contraception, abortion, assisted reproductive technologies, gestation, childbearing, adoption, stepfatherhood, child support, and child care.
Correspondence: New York University Press, 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40234 Maxwell, Nan L. Fertility policy and employment: implications from the former Soviet Union. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 4, Aug 1998. 351-68 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using individual-level survey data that were collected in Russia in 1993, we analyze the fertility-employment relationship for a sample of urban women who bore children during the Soviet era. Although some Russian policy makers advocate policies that reduce female employment to stimulate fertility, we find little empirical support to ensure success of these policies. Specifically, we find no connection between employment and fertility for our sample of Russian females, perhaps because of their historic, mandated commitment to the labor market. Instead, we find that demographics and attitudes influence fertility decision-making."
Correspondence: N. L. Maxwell, California State University, Department of Economics and Human Investment Research and Education Center, Hayward, CA 94542. E-mail: nmaxwell@csuhayward.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40235 Mboup, Gora; Saha, Tulshi. Fertility levels, trends, and differentials. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 28, Aug 1998. vii, 78 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to examine current fertility levels, assess fertility trends, and analyze socioeconomic differentials in fertility in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia/Near East/North Africa, and Latin America/Caribbean.... The report includes data from 28 countries in which DHS surveys were conducted between 1990 and 1995 under the second and third phases of the DHS program. Several measures of fertility are presented according to women's residence, migration status, level of education, current work status, and husband's education and occupation. The report examines trends in fertility for all countries using birth history data. In addition, for 12 countries for which data are available from at least two DHS surveys, the study examines fertility trends. Finally, the study examines age at first birth, parity progression ratios, and information on the length of birth intervals to evaluate changes in the onset of reproduction, spacing of births, and termination of childbearing."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40236 Mindogulov, Vladimir V. Some tendencies of Russian Far East population reproduction during a period of transition to a market economy. [Nekotorye tendentsii vosproizvodstva naseleniya dal'nego vostoka na etape perekhoda k rynku.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1996. 116-9 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Demographic trends associated with the change from a centrally planned to a free-market economy in the far eastern regions of Russia are analyzed. The author notes that there has been a general outflow of population from the northern industrial regions, a significant growth in unemployment, and a general decline in the social situation of the population. Particular attention is given to an analysis of fertility trends, focusing on the dramatic decline in fertility, particularly among women in the prime reproductive age groups. Trends in infant and child mortality are also considered. The author discusses the possible components of a pronatalist policy that might reverse the unfavorable fertility trends threatening the region's future.
Correspondence: V. V. Mindogulov, Russian Academy of Science, Institute of Economic Studies, Khabarovsk, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40237 Mukhopadhyay, Swapna; Savithri, R. Poverty, gender and reproductive choice: an analysis of linkages. ISBN 81-7304-106-7. 1998. 126 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This book is an attempt to explore the complex interlinkages of gender with poverty on the one hand and the interface of both with women's fertility behaviour and reproductive choice on the other. Within the parameters of a focussed literature review, the book analyses the data generated from a very detailed household survey carried out in two thousand households in rural areas of Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka [India] in 1994 in order to explore the connections between a whole range of potentially interlinked variables."
Correspondence: Manohar Publishers and Distributors, 2/6 Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40238 Nanda, Satyajeet; Sureender, S. Female work status and its relationship with fertility and child loss in Orissa. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 3, Sep 1997. 34-7 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The present paper seeks to examine the relationship between [women's] work status and (a) the number of children ever born, and (b) child mortality in Orissa [India].... Along with the three main variables of the study namely, female work participation, children ever born and child mortality, certain socioeconomic and demographic variables were also included...."
Correspondence: S. Nanda, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40239 Pozo Avalos, Arturo. Fertility in Imbabura, Los Ríos, Carchi, Tungurahua, and Manabí. [La fecundidad en Imbabura, Los Ríos, Carchi, Tungurahua y Manabí.] Correo Poblacional y de la Salud, Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec 1997. 29-36 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The authors examine the fertility decline in selected provinces of Ecuador between 1965 and 1994. Information is provided on total fertility rate according to education level; distribution of women by marital status; median age at first birth; prevalence of contraceptive use; and measurement of intermediate variables of provincial fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40240 Reinheckel, Antje; Franke, Kornelia; Weise, Wolfgang; Robra, Bernt-Peter. Effect of re-unification on fertility behaviour in East Germany: a review of the evidence. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 6, No. 11, May 1998. 122-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes the social and economic factors that influenced fertility behaviour in East Germany before and after re-unification, arising from the need to adapt to the new political, social and economic situation.... Data on abortion and sterilisation show that changes in the availability of these methods were not likely to have played a major role. Because there are no longer social benefits connected with early marriage and childbearing, the younger generation are likely to adapt to West German fertility behaviour patterns by postponing first births and having fewer children."
Correspondence: A. Reinheckel, Universitätsfrauen klinik, G. Hauptmannstraße 35, 39108 Magdeburg, Gemany. E-mail: antje.reinheckel@medizin.uni-magdeburg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40241 Rendall, Michael S.; Bahchieva, Raisa A. An old-age security motive for fertility in developed countries? The large contribution of coresident family to the poverty alleviation of unmarried and disabled elderly in the United States. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 97.02, 1997. 9 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The old-age security motive for fertility is conventionally associated with developing countries.... The present study argues for its continued relevance for developed countries. It does so primarily by uncovering the large extent of United States elderly poverty alleviation through coresident family provision of financial and functional assistance in the mid-1980s, immediately after the remarkable decline of official elderly poverty rates following successive expansions of the social security program."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40242 Rendall, Michael S.; Clarke, Lynda; Peters, H. Elizabeth; Ranjit, Nalini; Verropoulou, Georgia. Incomplete reporting of male fertility in the United States and Britain. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 97.03, 1997. 24, [5] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"We conduct a systematic analysis of the quality of men's fertility reporting with a focus on the effects of non-marital fertility and marital disruption on reporting completeness. For the United States and Britain, and for blacks and whites in the United States, we analyze births deficits from men's reports both overall and according to the marital status at the time of birth, including by whether a marital union has subsequently dissolved...."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40243 Richter, Karin. On changes in the desire for children and family formation in the new states of Germany. [Zum Wandel von Kinderwunsch und Familiengründung in den neuen Bundesländern.] Demographie Aktuell, No. 8, 1996. 38 pp. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultät III, Institut für Sozialwissenschaften, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The author examines the reproductive behavior, attitudes, and values behind the fertility decline of the East German population since unification in 1991. Data are taken from interviews of 13 women and 4 men conducted in 1994, as well as surveys of 112 subjects conducted in 1995. All those interviewed or surveyed were 18 to 34 years of age. The author concludes that while reproductive behavior has slowed, the desire for children has remained relatively unchanged among young East German women, thereby widening the gap between ideal, expected, and actual family size.
Correspondence: Humboldt-Universität, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Unter den Linden, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40244 Rosetta, Lyliane; Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. Variability in human fertility. Cambridge Studies in Biological Anthropology, No. 19, ISBN 0-521-49569-5. 1996. 225 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of 11 studies by various authors on aspects of human fertility. "It is widely believed that reproductive cycles are very similar between human females. However, there are in fact considerable variations both between individuals and within the reproductive life of any given individual. `Normal' reproductive cycles cover a wide range of eventualities, and the likelihood of successful monthly egg release and ensuing pregnancy can be modified by a large number of factors. In this book, the variability of human fertility is examined by first looking at the physiological processes regulating reproduction, and the roles of metabolic adaptation and metabolic load. Inter-population variation in normal ovarian function is then discussed, covering the importance of factors such as age, disease, and breastfeeding in modifying ovarian function."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40245 Sabuni, G. G.; Mbago, M. C. Y. The role of education on marital fertility in Zanzibar. Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1994. 5-16 pp. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In Eng.
"This paper looks at how parents' education has affected marital fertility (measured by children ever born to the mother) via some proximate determinants of fertility such as age at marriage, postpartum variables, and the use of modern contraceptives. Data for the study were collected from [a] household survey conducted in urban and rural Zanzibar [in]...1992. Married women in the child-bearing ages (15-49 years) with at least one live birth and married men aged 18 and above were interviewed. A total of 398 households were interviewed in the urban areas, and 869 in the rural areas. For both rural and urban areas the results showed an inverse relationship between the education level of both mother and father with fertility."
Correspondence: G. G. Sabuni, University of Dar es Salaam, Demographic Unit and Statistics Department, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Michigan State University Library, East Lansing, MI.

64:40246 Salisbury, Philip S. Factors affecting birth rates among white women 20-24 years of age: a trend analysis (January 1972-March 1992). Social Indicators Research, Vol. 43, No. 3, Mar 1998. 261-89 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using [U.S.] Current Population Survey data, Vital and Health Statistics data, photoperiod data and temperature data, this article attempts to provide an interdisciplinary explanation of monthly (N=243) variation in the dependent variables representing the birth rate (the rate of conceptions that become live births) for white women 20-24 years of age. Among the selected explanatory variables, four were found to play significant roles in accounting for the variation of the birth rate. They were rates of female absence from the labor market (nonparticipation plus unemployment), male employment rates, length-of-night variations and the days in the month of conception."
Correspondence: P. S. Salisbury, People Tree, Research and Development, 3004 Arlington Drive, Springfield, IL 62704. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40247 Sánchez, Jesús J. Social differences in the decline of marital reproduction in rural Navarre (Spain). European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1998. 291-301 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The continued decline of marital fertility in Navarre (Spain) during the first few decades of the twentieth century was associated with an increase in life expectancy and greater survival to adulthood. This decline affected all social strata and all geographical regions, rural areas as well as cities. Nonetheless, the decline was not homogeneous. Some sectors of Navarrese society began the fertility transition earlier than others. Cross sectional analysis is presented for different years of diverse variables that could be related to the levels of marital fertility: level of urbanization, occupation of the father, level of religious devotion and political factors. Statistical evidence is presented that confirms the relationship of these variables to the levels of fertility."
Correspondence: J. J. Sánchez, Public University of Navarre, Pamplona, Spain. E-mail: jesus.sbarricarte@upna.es. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40248 Schaich, Eberhard. The fertility breakdown in East Germany since 1990 and some hypotheses for its explanation. [Der Geburteneinbruch in den neuen Bundesländern seit 1990 und einige Hypothesen zu seiner Erklärung.] Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, Vol. 217, No. 1, Jan 1998. 93-107 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Since 1990 a dramatic fertility decline took place in the former GDR. It caused a reproduction level of not more than 37% in 1994. Pessimistic auspices for social security, new opportunities of high quality consumption and a quick adaptation of Western fertility patterns by East Germany's population are the main reasons assigned to this process.... In this paper arguments are developed why a precise adaptation of West Germany's fertility level and pattern by the population of the former GDR is not at all certain."
Correspondence: E. Schaich, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Abteilung Statistik, Ökonometrie und Unternehmensforschung, Mohlstraße 36, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40249 Stover, John. Revising the proximate determinants of fertility framework: what have we learned in the past 20 years? Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 3, Sep 1998. 255-67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The proximate determinants of fertility framework, developed in its current form by Bongaarts, has been used extensively by researchers for the past 20 years. Since the initial framework was developed, a wealth of new survey data on the proximate determinants has become available. This article reviews the new data and past experiences and suggests modifications to the framework that would take advantage of this experience. The major modifications suggested are (1) the use of sexual activity rather than marriage to indicate exposure to pregnancy; (2) a revision of the sterility index to measure infecundity from all causes; (3) a revised index of contraception that accounts for the fact that users of sterilization may become infecund before age 49; and (4) a revised definition and estimate of total fecundity."
Correspondence: J. Stover, Futures Group, 80 Glastonbury Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40250 Sureender, S.; Devi, D. Radha; Roy, T. K.; Verma, R. K.; Paswan, Balram; Vaithilingam, M. Why fertility is low in Tamil Nadu: some plausible explanations using focus group discussion. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 23, 1995-1996. [ix], 107 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Tamil Nadu [India] has experienced a decline in its fertility since early 1970s, even though the decline was much more pronounced after 1980.... The major aim of the study is to identify the important determinants that helped to bring down the fertility in Tamil Nadu and to examine how the changes in those determinants have been brought about." Sections are included on determinants of family size changes, marriage age, son preference, infant deaths, women's status and autonomy, female infanticide, abortion, knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, and the role of political leaders in influencing couples' reproductive behavior.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40251 Takahashi, Shinichi. The demographic transition in rural areas of northeastern Thailand: two regimes of population. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 20, May 1997. 49-63 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
An interpretation of the demographic transition is presented involving two separate sets of conditions, or regimes, that affect fertility. It is tested using data for northeastern Thailand collected in surveys carried out in 1994 and 1995. The first regime concerns the process whereby a growing population attempts to find ways to increase the supply of available natural resources, by increasing the amount of land under cultivation, for example, and by restricting fertility as resources become scarcer. The second regime involves the penetration of the market economy into rural areas, which changes the demand for children and the costs of raising them, with more immediate consequences for fertility. The author shows how both regimes combined to reduce fertility in the region and to create the conditions for the success of the national family planning program.
Correspondence: S. Takahashi, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

64:40252 United States. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics (Washington, D.C.). Nurturing fatherhood: improving data and research on male fertility, family formation and fatherhood. Jun 1998. v, 456 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report summarizes the presentations and recommendations of the Conference on Fathering and Male Fertility: Improving Data and Research, held March 13-14, 1997. Following a summary of the findings and recommendations, there are chapters on research and data needs concerning male fertility and family formation; conceptual, data, and policymaking issues about social fatherhood and paternal involvement; methodological issues in improving data on fathers; and opportunities to improve data and research on fatherhood. The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40253 Ventura, Stephanie J.; Martin, Joyce A.; Curtin, Sally C.; Mathews, T. J. Report of final natality statistics, 1996. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 46, No. 11, Suppl., Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 98-1120. Jun 30, 1998. 100 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents 1996 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization by pregnant women (prenatal care, obstetric procedures, complications of labor and/or delivery, attendant at birth, and method of delivery); and infant health characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, Apgar score, abnormal conditions, congenital anomalies, and multiple births). Also presented are birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's State of residence are shown including teenage birth rates and total fertility rates, as well as data on month and day of birth, sex ratio, and age of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40254 Yadav, S. S.; Badari, V. S. Age at effective marriage and fertility: an analysis of data for North Kanara. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 3, Sep 1997. 61-6 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to examine the effect of age at effective marriage (cohabitation) on fertility in a project area under the India Population Project III in Karnataka. Controlling for contraception, it analyses the influence of age at effective marriage on the number of children ever born and number of living children of women who had never used family planning and of those who had accepted sterilisation."
Correspondence: S. S. Yadav, Population Research Centre, 2nd Cross, Malleswaram, Bangalore 560 003, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

64:40255 Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad J. The fertility of immigrant women in Australia. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1998. 30-8 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The 1991 [Australian] census did not ask women how many children they had ever had. Because of this, there has been a gap in our understanding of fertility trends. The author uses the `own-children' method which allows him to fill this gap. He analyses the fertility of immigrant women in Australia and discovers that, by 1991, most had lower fertility than Australian-born women. Most also had lower fertility than women of a comparable age in their countries of origin. Second-generation `migrants' had converged even more closely to the Australian norm."
Correspondence: M. J. Abbasi-Shavazi, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40256 Bell, Eleanor O. At home and at work: accounting for changes in ever-married women's fertility and labor force participation in the U.S., 1940 to 1980. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 96.04, Aug 1996. 20, [2] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper explores the determinants of black and white [U.S.] women's fertility and labor force participation and the change in these effects over time and examines whether rational actor individual-level explanations can account for such racial differences and historical trends. Many of the associations between the two dependent variables and various economic, human capital, and family status variables diminished or reversed over the four decades between 1940 and 1980, suggesting that there has been a change in the system of relationships itself, not simply in the individual explanatory variables."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40257 Boonstra, Onno. The impact of education on the demographic life course: the family reproduction process of literates and illiterates in the Netherlands at the end of the nineteenth century. History of the Family, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998. 303-13 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"A widely held assumption is that the decline of illiteracy had a notable impact on the demographic transition in western Europe in the nineteenth century. Literates, it is said, were more open to innovation and were better equipped to control their environment and their destiny. The article examines this hypothesis by looking into the family reproduction process of literates and illiterates who lived in the town of Eindhoven between 1850 and 1900. Using the concept of the life course, the article looks at differences in age at marriage, fertility, and infant and child mortality, and finds that in each category of literacy a certain form of demographic behavior prevailed."
Correspondence: O. Boonstra, University of Nijmegen, History Department, Vakgroep Geschiedenis, Postbus 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40258 Bosveld, Willy. Explaining between-country variation in fertility: the theoretical link between individual behaviour and social context. Nethur-Demography Paper, No. 41, Aug 1998. 17 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nethur-Demography: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The goal of this paper is to create...a theoretical framework which will improve an international comparison of [European] fertility by taking into account the effect of individual behaviour upon fertility (micro-level) as well as the effect of the societal context upon fertility behaviour (macro-level), the so-called micro-macro link.... The concept of life strategies is used to create a theoretical link between the micro and macro levels.... A more dynamic life strategy approach is [then] formulated, within a broader context of social change and country-specific circumstances."
Correspondence: W. Bosveld, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 140, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: W.Bosveld@frw.uva.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40259 Buvinic, Mayra. The costs of adolescent childbearing: evidence from Chile, Barbados, Guatemala, and Mexico. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, Jun 1998. 201-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Findings from Chile, Barbados, Guatemala, and Mexico are reviewed in this article to shed light on the consequences of adolescent childbearing for mothers' economic and social opportunities and the well-being of their first-born children.... The findings show that early childbearing is associated with negative economic rather than social effects, occurring for poor rather than for all mothers. Among the poor, adolescent childbearing is associated with lower monthly earnings for mothers and lower child nutritional status. Also, among this group of women only, improvements in the child's well-being are associated with mother's education and her contribution to household income."
Correspondence: M. Buvinic, Inter-American Development Bank, Social Development Division, 1300 New York Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20577. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40260 Clements, Stephen; Stone, Nicole; Diamond, Ian; Ingham, Roger. Modelling the spatial distribution of teenage conception rates within Wessex. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul 1998. 61-71 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study attempts to determine which factors account for the spatial variation in teenage conceptions rates within the former Wessex Regional Health Authority [in England] and what factors account for the eventual outcomes of these conceptions. Postcoded data on all teenage conceptions from 1991 to 1994 were collected and related to census ward level information and indicators of accessibility to family planning services. The results show that the variation in teenage conception rates and conception outcomes is principally determined by the age of the teenager, deprivation levels, the presence of certain homogeneously distinct groups and the distance to the nearest youth-oriented family planning clinic."
Correspondence: S. Clements, University of Southampton, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Sexual Health Research, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40261 Coney, Nancy S.; Mackey, Wade C. Cultural evolution and gender roles: advantage...patriarchy. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1, Fall 1998. 45-69 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors consider some implications of the increased options open to women around the world in the areas of education and employment, and of the growing trend toward decreasing gender-specific inequalities. Particular attention is given to the implications of differential fertility between women living in modern, liberated societies and those living in traditional, patriarchal societies. "This article argues that the inertia of this cultural evolution must be with those societies whose women give birth to more children. This demographic of `more children' is not evenly or randomly dispersed around the world. There is a strong relationship between restricting women's roles to motherhood and fecundity: more restriction yields higher fertility. Thus, a cultural dynamic has evolved wherein an increased scope of women's choice in one generation reverberates in a decreased scope of women's choices in subsequent generations. That is, women with low fertility and a broad range of options must be systematically replaced with women of higher fertility and a narrower range of options."
Correspondence: N. S. Coney, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40262 Furstenberg, Frank F. When will teenage childbearing become a problem? The implications of Western experience for developing countries. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, Jun 1998. 246-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article reflects on the process that leads to perceptions of teenage childbearing as a social problem and examines whether that process will occur in developing countries as it has in the United States.... The economic, educational, and nuptial changes that have occurred in other postindustrial countries have not necessarily led to fertility problems among teenagers, because of a greater willingness to acknowledge their sexual activity and to provide the resources to prevent their childbearing."
Correspondence: F. F. Furstenberg, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, 277 McNeil, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6299. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40263 Gil Alonso, Fernando. Geographical differences in the fertility decline in Spain. An attempt at a study using retrospective census data on fertility. [Las diferencias territoriales en el descenso de la fecundidad en España. Aproximación a su estudio a partir de datos censales sobre fecundidad retrospectiva.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1997. 13-54 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This paper analyses the spatial fertility differences in Spain in the late 19th Century and early 20th Century, using information on children ever born from the 1920 Census. This is the first census including retrospective information on fertility. To start with, advantages and disadvantages of this kind of information are explained, and reliability of data is checked. In the second part, the results are analysed, both at provincial and sub-provincial level (urban, rural and intermediate areas). The spatial fertility differences found seem to back the hypothesis of the existence of several regional models of reproduction in Spain."
Correspondence: F. Gil Alonso, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Centre d'Estudis Demogràfics, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40264 Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Mott, Frank L. Sex, contraception and childbearing among high-risk youth: do different factors influence males and females? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 163-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors investigate adolescent sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, using data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. "Our major aim is to explore whether common attitudinal and behavioral covariates are associated with these behaviors, and in particular whether there are gender differences in this area." Results indicate that "for young women, having intercourse at an early age, not using contraceptives and having a child are linked with depression, low self-esteem and little sense of control over their lives. The results for young men are less consistent and often in the opposite direction."
Correspondence: L. Kowaleski-Jones, Northwestern University, Institute for Policy Research, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40265 Muhammad, Ali. Ethnic fertility differentials in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 35, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1996. 733-44 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The objective of this study...is to establish trends and patterns of fertility among different ethnic groups (on the basis of language spoken) in Pakistan.... [It] also explores the major reasons for different fertility behaviour.... The study attributes the high fertility levels among some ethnic groups to low level of education, lower age at first marriage, higher demand for children and greater value placed on number of children. It is also found that fertility levels are high among those ethnic groups who have little knowledge and less use of contraceptives." Data are from the 1990-1991 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: A. Muhammad, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40266 Mutharayappa, R. Fertility and family planning among Jenu Kuruba and Kadu Kuruba tribes of Karnataka. Man in India, Vol. 78, No. 1-2, Mar-Jun 1998. 119-26 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of the present study is to understand the factors affecting fertility among Jenu Kuruba and Kadu Kuruba tribes of Karnataka, by using primary data [concerning 1,133 ever-married women] on fertility differentials and some of the cultural factors such as age at marriage, abortion and indigenous method of fertility control.... Fertility is higher among Kadu Kuruba tribe than Jenu Kuruba tribe. Women who married at the age of 12 years have higher fertility than the women who married at the age of 16 years. The differences between [the] two tribes in terms of fertility levels in each age group are large. The practice of induced abortions [is]...common.... Among Jenu Kuruba tribe more...women are using indigenous medicines for preventing pregnancies, while among Kadu Kurubas more...women are using modern method of contraceptives. The women who are using indigenous medicines to prevent pregnancies have lower fertility."
Correspondence: R. Mutharayappa, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40267 Sprangers, A. H. Fertility of foreign-born women. [Vruchtbaarheid van in het buitenland geboren vrouwen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 7, Jul 1998. 8-10 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The total fertility rate of Moroccan women living in the Netherlands has strongly decreased, from 4.9 children in 1990 to 3.4 children in 1996. The total fertility rate of women born in Turkey decreased from 3.1 in 1990 to 2.5 in 1996. The fertility of Turkish and Moroccan women appears to develop in the direction of the level of fertility of Dutch women...[which] is stationary at 1.5 children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40268 Suwal, Juhee; Trovato, Frank. Canadian aboriginal fertility. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1998. 69-86 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study compares the fertility of aboriginal peoples with that of non-aboriginal Canadians. Three hypotheses are developed: the characteristics-assimilation hypothesis, the minority status insecurities hypothesis, and the pronatalist subculture thesis.... It is concluded that although there is some degree of aboriginal assimilation to the mainstream Canadian society through intermarriage and socioeconomic improvements, pronatalist norms tend to counteract the pace of fertility decline among aboriginal peoples."
Correspondence: J. Suwal, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40269 Umezaki, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro. Impact of rural-urban migration on fertility: a population ecology analysis in the Kombio, Papua New Guinea. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1998. 411-22 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The Anjangmui dialect group of the Kombio in Papua New Guinea has experienced a rapid increase in rural-urban migration since European contact commenced in the 1930s.... Comparison of age-specific marital fertility rates between migrants in urban areas and non-migrants in rural areas revealed higher rates among migrants in the 15-19 and 20-24 year age groups, but lower rates in the 25-29 year or older age groups; the total marital fertility rate for migrants was lower than that for non-migrants. The differences may be attributable to the different influences of birth control practices on fertility reduction between the migrants in urban areas and non-migrants in rural areas."
Correspondence: M. Umezaki, University of Tokyo, School of International Health, Department of Human Ecology, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

64:40270 Hussain, R. The role of consanguinity and inbreeding as a determinant of spontaneous abortion in Karachi, Pakistan. Annals of Human Genetics, Vol. 62, No. 2, Mar 1998. 147-57 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effect of consanguinity and inbreeding on spontaneous abortion is assessed with the help of data from a population-based study conducted in four squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. The analysis is based on 4,966 pregnancy records belonging to 873 women. Results of the multivariate analysis show that both consanguinity and inbreeding were independent risk factors for spontaneous abortion despite undertaking control for other biological and socio-demographic factors that could confound the association. The combination of fetal and parental inbreeding led to a greater likelihood of a pregnancy ending in spontaneous abortion than one generation of inbreeding alone."
Correspondence: R. Hussain, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: rxh868@nceph.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40271 Matsuda, Shinya; Kahyo, Hiroaki. Geographic differences in seasonality of preterm births in Japan. Human Biology, Vol. 70, No. 5, Oct 1998. 919-35 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Based on vital statistics from 1979 to 1983, we used a time-series analysis using the Box-Jenkins model (ARIMA model) to compare the seasonality of preterm births among 47 prefectures in Japan. We also evaluated the relation between seasonality of preterm births and temperature. According to the Box-Jenkins analysis, a seasonal moving average was detected for 44 prefectures. The seasonality of preterm births in general shows a bimodal pattern with two peaks, one in summer and one in winter. The most interesting result is that the peaks show a trend with geographic location; one peak is dominant in winter among the northern prefectures and the other peak is dominant in summer among the southern prefectures.... These results suggest that climate-associated factors should be associated with the occurrence of preterm births in Japan."
Correspondence: S. Matsuda, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40272 O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Holman, Darryl J.; Wood, James W. Declining fecundity and ovarian ageing. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 98-11, Aug 1998. 19 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"We undertook an 11 month prospective endocrinological study in a natural fertility...population [in] (rural Bangladesh) to estimate the contributions of fetal loss and fecundability...to declining fecundity with age.... The results indicate that much of the decline in fecundity can be attributed to an increasing risk of fetal loss with maternal age.... Fecundability, on the other hand, does not begin to decline until the early 40's. We hypothesize that this is also a result of ageing at the ovarian level, namely follicular atresia, in the years just prior to menopause."
Correspondence: K. A. O'Connor, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, 409 Carpenter, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: oconnor@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

64:40273 Amin, R. Contraceptive use and desire for more children in two rural districts of Sierra Leone. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1998. 287-96 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study explores contraceptive use and desire for more children in rural areas by socioeconomic differentials, the methods of contraception used and the sources of availability" using data from a 1993 household survey in Sierra Leone. "Logistic regression analysis showed that contraceptive use was positively associated with age, number of living children, age at marriage, education, and economic status, and negatively associated with Islamic and traditional religious affiliations.... The lower desire for more children might relate to demographic pressure from the recent improved child survival rate compounded by recent economic hardship."
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239-9972. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40274 Amin, Sajeda; Diamond, Ian; Steele, Fiona. Contraception and religiosity in Bangladesh. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 268-89 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the nature of religious influences on contraceptive behaviour [in Bangladesh] by examining the high degree of regional variability in contraceptive use and religiosity.... Our results confirm previous findings from Bangladesh, that the use of modern contraception is affected by a host of individual and community characteristics. We have attempted to explain further the considerable variation between districts that exists in the country and find that variations in women's literacy and religiosity account for a large proportion of the unexplained district-level variation."
Correspondence: S. Amin, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40275 Bhat, P. N. Mari; Halli, S. S. Factors influencing continuation of IUD use in South India: evidence from a multivariate analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1998. 297-319 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper studies the correlates of IUD continuation, particularly in relation to quality of service provided in Karnataka, South India, by using a discrete-time logit model. Provision of follow-up services had a moderate influence on continuation, and medical check-up at insertion influenced the experience of side effects. But these effects were trivial in comparison with the overriding influence of motivational variables and of reported side effects. The IUD is retained for a limited duration in rural India where it is used mainly as a spacing device by lowly motivated young women who discontinue the method at the slightest feeling of discomfort or abnormality."
Correspondence: P. N. M. Bhat, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Dharwad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40276 Bhat, T. N. Social change and family planning: a case study of backward classes. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 4, Dec 1997. 25-45 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to analyse the process of family planning diffusion [in India] among backward classes in relation to the influence of caste and changing social conditions. The paper first reviews the social underpinnings of caste on the diffusion of family planning, and goes on to analyse a case study of six backward class communities of Uttar Kannada district, a highly forested region in Karnataka state."
Correspondence: T. N. Bhat, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Population Research Centre, Nagarbhavi P.O., Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40277 Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre; Jakobi, Lucienne. Evidence for a spatial diffusion of contraception at the onset of the fertility transition in Victorian Britain. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 181-204 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Contraception can be diffused according to several modes: vertical (social), horizontal (geographically) or both (oblique). Most authors subscribing to a view of a diffusion at the start of the European fertility transition use the term in the sense of a vertical diffusion. This article reexamines the nature of the diffusion, by testing the hypothesis of a horizontal diffusion at the onset of the transition. The data used are the rate of variation in the Ig fertility index and 8 socio-demographic variables representing secularization, illiteracy and social scale in 78 counties of Great Britain in the periods 1861-1871, 1871-1881, 1881-1891, 1891-1901.... It is shown that only a process of geographical diffusion can generate such a representation with a diffusion velocity of 14.6, 26.1, 42.4 and 34.9 km/year for each period."
For the French version of this article, see 64:10280.
Correspondence: J.-P. Bocquet-Appel, UMR 152, Musée de l'Homme, 17 place du Trocadéro, 75116 Paris, France. E-mail: bocquet@mnhn.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40278 Brewis, Alexandra A.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Tu'u'au-Potoi, Nu'ualofa. Structure of family planning in Samoa. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Vol. 22, No. 4, Jun 1998. 424-7 pp. Curtin, Australia. In Eng.
"To assess the structure of family planning acceptance in [Western] Samoa, structured interviews were conducted with 155 reproductive age women from seven villages in both rural and urban settings. The survey data show accord with returns on contraceptive use from Samoan clinics, and demonstrate that awareness and use of contraception have increased markedly in the previous decade but desired family size remains high in younger women."
Correspondence: A. A. Brewis, University of Georgia, Department of Anthropology, Athens, GA 30602-1619. E-mail: abrewis@arches.uga.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40279 Caballero Gordo, Adelardo. Male contraception. [Contracepción del varón.] In: La explosión demográfica y la regulación de la natalidad, edited by José Botella Llusiá and Salustiano del Campo Urbano. 1997. 163-74 pp. Editorial Síntesis: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a review of the methods of contraception available to men. The author first examines the reasons why contraceptive methods are less well developed for men than for women. The various methods available for men are then described, including suppression of spermatogenesis, the inhibition of the maturing of sperm, vasectomy, barrier methods such as the condom, and coitus interruptus.
Correspondence: A. Caballero Gordo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40280 Dourlen-Rollier, A. M. Voluntary sterilization in France and in the developed countries as a whole. [La stérilisation volontaire en France et dans les pays développés.] Contraception--Fertilité--Sexualité, Vol. 26, No. 4, Apr 1998. 255-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The current situation in the developed world concerning the practice of voluntary sterilization is reviewed based on published sources. The focus is on the legality and availability of this method of contraception. The author concludes with a review of the relevant legislation in France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40281 Dyalchand, Ashok; Kakkar, Shalini; Lubhaya, Ram; Mangal, Daya K.; Narayana, Gadde; Narvekar, Sharad; Salunke, Subhash; Seshu Babu, V. V. R.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Venkata, Ramana. Targets for family planning in India. An analysis of policy change, consequences, and alternative choices. Oct 5, 1998. xi, 139 pp. Futures Group International, POLICY Project: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report describes the difficulties encountered in India following the abolition of the centrally determined target-based organization of the national family planning (or family welfare) program in 1996 and the adoption of a system based more on local autonomy and different work rules. The authors describe how the conflicting messages coming from various administrative levels have contributed to a general confusion about the purpose of the program and have led to a decline in program performance in many states. The report also gives some information about pilot projects and state experiences that give some reason to hope that these difficulties might be resolved in the foreseeable future.
Correspondence: Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 4/2 Shanti Niketan, New Delhi 110 021, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40282 Escudero Fernández, Manuel. Barrier methods of contraception. [Contracepción de barrera.] In: La explosión demográfica y la regulación de la natalidad, edited by José Botella Llusiá and Salustiano del Campo Urbano. 1997. 149-62 pp. Editorial Síntesis: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a general description of barrier methods of contraception, defined as including the IUD, condom, diaphragm, spermicides, and other barrier methods.
Correspondence: M. Escudero Fernández, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40283 Freedman, Ronald. Observing Taiwan's demographic transition: a memoir. 1998. 87 pp. Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"This article is a memoir of [the author's] observation on Taiwan's demographic transition.... It [records] in detail the experience of [the] Taichung experiment, other program related research and the role of [the] Michigan group, research results, quality of family planning services, and the impact of [the] Taichung study and of the whole program on programs in other Asian countries."
Correspondence: Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning, 5F, No. 503 Sec. 2. Li-Ming Road, Taichung, Taiwan. E-mail: tpifp@ms1.hinet.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40284 Gao, Ersheng; Tu, Xiaowen; Yuan, Wei. Shanghai premarital adolescent use of contraceptive methods and analysis of influencing factors. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1997. 375-88 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article analyzes the premarital adolescent use of contraceptive methods and influencing factors according to data from a 1995 survey of couples who underwent premarital physical exams in three urban and two rural areas of Shanghai [China]. Research results indicate that the rate of sexual activity and abortion by premarital youth is high, and the rate of first-time contraceptive use is low. It is necessary to intensify sex education among premarital adolescents."
Correspondence: E. Gao, Shanghai Institute of Birth Control Science, Shangha, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40285 Glasier, Anna; Baird, David. The effects of self-administering emergency contraception. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 339, No. 1, Jul 2, 1998. 1-4 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We undertook a study to learn how women might behave if given a supply of emergency contraceptive pills to keep at home.... One hundred eighty of the women in the treatment group (47 percent) used emergency contraception at least once.... Eighty-seven women in the control group (27 percent) used emergency contraception at least once.... The women in the treatment group were not more likely to use emergency contraception repeatedly." The study was conducted in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1994-1996.
Correspondence: A. Glasier, University of Edinburgh, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 18 Dean Terrace, Edinburgh EH4 1NL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40286 Gorbach, Pamina M.; Hoa, Dao T. Khanh; Tsui, Amy; Nhan, Vu Quy. Reproduction, risk and reality: family planning and reproductive health in northern Vietnam. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1998. 393-409 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This analysis focuses on the relationships between women's individual characteristics, use of family planning and abortion, and reported RTI [reproductive tract infection] symptoms [in two northern Vietnam communes]. The findings reveal that IUDs do not raise women's likelihood of experiencing RTI symptoms in either commune. A recent abortion, however, strongly increases women's likelihood of having RTI symptoms in the rural commune, while low socio-economic status is associated with RTI symptoms in the urban commune."
Correspondence: P. M. Gorbach, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40287 Gracia Guillén, Diego. Ethics and the control of fertility. [Etica y regulación de la natalidad.] In: La explosión demográfica y la regulación de la natalidad, edited by José Botella Llusiá and Salustiano del Campo Urbano. 1997. 203-23 pp. Editorial Síntesis: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Before considering ethical aspects of family planning, the author sets out to establish the facts concerning population growth and the ways it has been controlled in times past and can be controlled today. He then examines some of the ethical considerations relevant to efforts to control the rate of population growth and to allowing individuals control over their own fertility. He reviews both the debate concerning the relationship between socioeconomic development efforts and the need to control rates of population growth, and the religious debate, particularly that involving the Roman Catholic church, about the legitimacy of contraception and family planning. He concludes that both at the global and the individual level, fertility will be controlled; the issue is whether mankind can use intelligence to achieve such controls efficiently and humanely, or allow them to occur inhumanely by default.
Correspondence: D. Gracia Guillén, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40288 Guruswamy, M.; Sureender, S. Conventional contraceptives: towards a selective policy of free distribution in India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 4, Dec 1997. 17-21 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The authors "examine the strategies adopted by the [Indian] government for propagating the use of the condom and the pill.... It can be concluded that the commercial distribution of condoms and oral pills has a greater potential of attracting people than the free distribution scheme."
Correspondence: M. Guruswamy, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40289 Hashmi, Sultan S. Shy/silent users of contraceptives in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 35, No. 4, Winter 1996. 705-17 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Based on the data of three national surveys, 1984-85 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (PCPS), 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), and 1994-95 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (PCPS), the hypothesis of shy/silent users is tested.... The concept of shy/silent users is defined as those respondents who, at the time of interview, did not divulge that they were users of contraceptive methods or traditional ways of preventing conception or birth due to cultural reasons. All three surveys show substantial numbers of shy/silent users. If these numbers are included, the Current Prevalence Rate (CPR) of each survey rises significantly. But the CPR, in spite of including shy users, is still far lower than most developing and neighbouring countries." Comments by Mohammad Afzal are included (pp. 716-7).
Correspondence: S. S. Hashmi, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40290 Johansson, Annika; Nguyen, The Lap; Hoang, Thi Hoa; Diwan, Vinod K.; Eriksson, Bo. Population policy, son preference and the use of IUDs in north Vietnam. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 6, No. 11, May 1998. 66-76 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper discusses contraceptive use and discontinuation among women in north Vietnam, in the context of a strong cultural preference for sons and a stringent two-child population policy. Among a random sample of 1,432 married women aged 15-49 in a rural province in north Vietnam in 1994, nearly 60 per cent used the intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception; other modern methods were hardly used at all. Overall discontinuation rates were high--nearly 45 per cent after three years; the most common reason was expulsion. Women without sons reported significantly higher rates of IUD discontinuation due to expulsion and contraceptive failure than women who had a son."
Correspondence: A. Johansson, Karolinska Institutet, IHCAR, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: Annika.Johansson@phs.ki.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40291 Kaler, Amy. A threat to the nation and a threat to the men: the banning of Depo-Provera in Zimbabwe, 1981. Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 347-76 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, I discuss the prohibition of the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera in Zimbabwe in 1981 by analysing the confluence of events which led both to its popularity amongst Zimbabwean women and to the suspicion in which it was held by many Zimbabwean men. I argue that the prohibition of Depo-Provera must be seen both as an act of nationalist self-assertion by the newly victorious majority government under ZANU (PF) and also as a significant moment in the gendered politics of reproduction in Zimbabwe.... I argue that national politics and fear of `disorderly' women, along with the genuine health risks posed by the synthetic hormones in Depo, led to its banning by the Minister of Health."
Correspondence: A. Kaler, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. E-mail: kaler@pop.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40292 Kane, Thomas T.; Gueye, Mohamadou; Speizer, Ilene; Pacque-Margolis, Sara; Baron, Danielle. The impact of a family planning multimedia campaign in Bamako, Mali. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 3, Sep 1998. 309-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this report, the results are discussed of an evaluation of a 1993 information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign that integrated traditional forms of communication and modern mass media to present family planning messages through radio and television to men and women in Bamako, Mali." Results indicate that "contraceptive knowledge and use and more favorable attitudes toward family planning are positively associated with intensity of exposure to the project interventions, after controlling for relevant variables."
Correspondence: T. T. Kane, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40293 Katz, Karen R.; West, Caroline G.; Doumbia, Fodé; Kané, Fatoumata. Increasing access to family planning services in rural Mali through community-based distribution. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 104-10 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An examination of CBD [community-based distribution] activities in Mali provides an opportunity to gain a better overall understanding of the impact of these programs on contraceptive use and of the characteristics of the programs that foster success. The purpose of our work was to determine whether integration [of] CBD services into a primary health care system can successfully increase contraceptive use. We also intend to illustrate the usefulness of a quasi-experimental research design to evaluate CBD programs." Results indicate that "the CBD approach tested in rural Mali raised contraceptive knowledge and practice through use of an existing health care framework, and may be a model for those working to expand and improve family planning programs elsewhere in Africa."
Correspondence: K. R. Katz, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40294 Kumari, Chitra. Contraceptive practices of women living in rural areas of Bihar. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul 1998. 75-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A prospective survey of 972 married (sexually active) women living in rural areas of Lalganj block of Vaishali district in Bihar state of India was carried out. The study was aimed at obtaining first hand information from the rural women regarding their contraceptive practices and to use the information thus gained to identify those spheres of concern where greater attention needs to be paid to make the family planning system more efficient."
Correspondence: C. Kumari, Bihar State Health Services, Bihar, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40295 Leridon, H. 30 years of contraception in France. [30 ans de contraception en France.] Contraception--Fertilité--Sexualité, Vol. 26, No. 6, Jun 1998. 435-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Modern contraceptive methods have diffused almost continuously over the last 30 years in France. The progress of the pill has been masked during the recent years by the spread of new treatments of perimenopause, while the use of IUD seems to have reached a ceiling. French couples rely now basically on these two methods for their contraception, and sterilisations remain uncommon. The use of pill is highest among younger women, while IUD is at a maximum between 35 and 45 years. Differences by social status are limited, and the number of unplanned births has decreased dramatically. The relatively high number of abortions, however, shows that the situation is not yet fully satisfactory."
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40296 Machera, E. Mumbi. Social, economic and cultural barriers to family planning among rural women in Kenya: a comparative case study of the divisions in Embu District. Union for African Population Studies Study Report, No. 25, 1997. iv, 51 pp. Union for African Population Studies: Dakar, Senegal. In Eng.
This study examines the social, economic, and cultural factors that are likely to act as barriers to the use of family planning methods among rural women in Kenya. The data concern 230 women aged 15-49 living in Embu District, 77 of whom were interviewed in focus groups. The importance of the lack of education for women as a barrier to the adoption of contraception is stressed. The author also suggests that programs should target married women, who have a greater need for family planning than the unmarried.
Correspondence: Union for African Population Studies, B.P. 21007, Dakar-Ponty, Senegal. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

64:40297 Magnani, Robert J.; McCann, H. Gilman; Hotchkiss, David R.; Florence, Curtis S. The effects of monetized food aid on reproductive behavior in rural Honduras. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 4, Aug 1998. 305-28 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article presents research findings on the question of whether the monetization of non-emergency food aid has adversely influenced national family planning program efforts in Honduras. Women receiving food aid in the form of cash coupons are compared in the study with women receiving food rations and a third group of women with similar characteristics who were not food aid recipients on three types of outcomes: recent fertility, fertility preferences, and contraceptive use.... No compelling evidence for adverse demand- or supply-side effects of monetized food aid on family planning efforts was observed. The most striking study finding was the extremely high level of unmet need for family planning."
Correspondence: R. J. Magnani, Tulane University Medical Center, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health and Development, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70112. E-mail: magnani@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40298 Meekers, Dominique. Improving condom social marketing in Malawi: evidence from a consumer profile survey. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 18, 1998. 34 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The Chishango condom social marketing program is the largest HIV prevention program in Malawi, a country with a very high level of HIV prevalence. To further improve this program, program managers need to understand the market for social marketing brand condoms. This paper uses data from a 1997 Malawi consumer profile survey conducted among a random sample of 1,621 adults frequenting condom retail outlets. The purpose of this analysis was to (1) identify segments of the target market that have the greatest market potential; (2) [understand] which outlets or media can be used to most effectively reach those segments; and (3) understand the reasons why consumers use or do not use condoms."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40299 Miller, Kim S.; Levin, Martin L.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Xu, Xiaohe. Patterns of condom use among adolescents: the impact of mother-adolescent communication. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,542-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The association between timing of discussions about condoms between mothers and their adolescent children and subsequent condom use by those adolescents is analyzed using data on 372 sexually active adolescents from the Family and Adolescent Risk Behavior Study carried out in New York, Alabama, and Puerto Rico. The results show that "mother-adolescent discussions about condoms that occurred prior to sexual debut were strongly associated with greater condom use during first intercourse and most recent intercourse, along with greater lifetime regular condom use."
Correspondence: K. S. Miller, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop E-45, Atlanta, GA 30333. E-mail: KXM3@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40300 Mugabe, Mbulawa. Males and family planning in Botswana: a review of the literature. NIR Research Notes, No. 25, ISBN 99912-2-036-4. Jan 1993. ii, 22 pp. University of Botswana, National Institute of Development Research and Documentation: Gaborone, Botswana. In Eng.
This is a general review of the literature on family planning in Botswana, focusing on the issue of male involvement. "This paper is divided into six sections. The first summarizes the international milieu with regard to both the extent of and the concern about the role and involvement of males in family planning. The next section looks at the historical processes...and examines how the current low male involvement in family planning and contraceptive use relates to and stems from these historical antecedents. In the third section, the available male contraceptive methods and the socio-economic and cultural issues that seem to influence male contraceptive behaviour are reviewed. The social issue of teenage males' involvement in contraceptive use is reviewed in the fourth section of the paper. The fifth section [examines] the Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) problem."
Correspondence: University of Botswana, National Institute of Development Research and Documentation, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40301 Oddens, B. J.; Lolkema, A. A scenario study of oral contraceptive use in Japan: toward fewer unintended pregnancies. Contraception, Vol. 58, No. 1, Jul 1998. 13-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A scenario study was conducted to assess the extent to which the unintended pregnancy rate in Japan, where oral contraceptives (OC) have not been legalized for family planning purposes and couples rely mainly on condoms, might change if more women were to use OC.... Data provided by the 1994 Japanese National Survey on Family Planning were used to construct scenarios for national contraceptive use.... Each theoretical percentage increase in the OC use rate in Japan was found to lead to a roughly equivalent percentage decrease in the number of unintended pregnancies."
Correspondence: B. J. Oddens, International Health Foundation, Europalaan 506, 3526 KS Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40302 Peel, Robert A. Marie Stopes, eugenics and the English birth control movement. ISBN 0-9504066-2-7. 1997. ix, 113 pp. Galton Institute: London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference held in London that focused on Marie Stopes, who in 1921 established the world's first birth control clinic in England. The aims of the conference were "to examine a number of the lesser known aspects of the life and achievements of Marie Stopes, to demonstrate the way in which the Marie Stopes and Eugenics Society archives are being productively researched and to stress those features of Marie Stopes' work which impinge on the traditional concerns of the Galton Institute."
Correspondence: Galton Institute, 19 Northfields Prospect, Northfields, London SW18 1PE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40303 Rahman, Mizanur. The effect of child mortality on fertility regulation in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 3, Sep 1998. 268-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study analyzes longitudinal data from Matlab, Bangladesh, to examine the impact of child mortality on subsequent contraceptive acceptance and continuation. The strong negative impact is found to attenuate with family size, indicating a `replacement effect'. An `insurance effect' is observed as contraceptive acceptance and continuation were negatively associated with the number of previous deaths of children. Couples seem to find contraceptive use acceptable if the child who dies is one of a large family. Potentially, contraceptive use could be acceptable for spacing after a child in a small family dies."
Correspondence: M. Rahman, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40304 Rajaretnam, T. Socioeconomic differentials in fertility and family size of sterilisation acceptors of the 1980s in rural Karnataka. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 4, Dec 1997. 46-58 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze various demographic, socioeconomic and background factors influencing fertility and family size of sterilisation acceptors, using data from eight studies conducted during the 1980s in rural areas of five districts of Karnataka State [India].... Though recent acceptors of sterilisation had lower fertility and smaller families as observed by us, a rapid decline in rural fertility is less likely to be achieved in the near future through sterilisation alone because the overall socioeconomic conditions of rural couples is poor, their desired family size is large, and they still exhibit a strong son preference."
Correspondence: T. Rajaretnam, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40305 Senegal. Direction de la Prévision et de la Statistique (Dakar, Senegal). A Survey on Family Planning in the Urban Environment (1990): an analytical report. [Enquête sur la Planification Familiale en Milieu Urbain (1990): rapport d'analyse.] Jun 1994. 76 pp. Dakar, Senegal. In Fre.
Results are presented from a 1990 survey on family planning in the cities of Senegal. The survey involved 4,472 women aged 15-49 and some 2,000 men. There are chapters on fertility and fertility preferences, nuptiality and other factors exposing individuals to the risk of pregnancy, knowledge and use of contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS.
Correspondence: Direction de la Prévision et de la Statistique, Point E, B.P. 116, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

64:40306 Shane, Barbara. Family planning saves lives. 3rd ed. Jan 1997. 24 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This new edition "provides data from the latest research on maternal and child health in developing countries. It also includes new information on the linkages between family planning and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, reproductive health, adolescents, and abortion."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: popref@prb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40307 Singh, Amarjeet; Kaur, Arvinder. Oral contraceptive use in a rural area in Haryana. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 4, Dec 1997. 64-8 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The authors assess oral contraceptive use in a rural area of Haryana State, India. "The pill has not gained popularity [in India] and its use rate has remained in the range of 1-2 per cent at the most. The low use rate through public sector distribution schemes suggests problems of logistics and inadequate information, education and communication support."
Correspondence: A. Singh, Post Graduate Institute, Department of Community Medicine, Chandigarh 160 012, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40308 Tuladhar, Jayanti; Donaldson, Peter J.; Noble, Jeanne. The introduction and use of Norplant implants in Indonesia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 3, Sep 1998. 291-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study, patterns of Norplant use in Indonesia are reviewed to assess the implications of this experience for the introduction of new contraceptive methods. Data from the Norplant Use-Dynamics Study and the 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey are analyzed, and patterns of acceptance, continuation, and removal are described. Acceptance of Norplant has increased steadily since it was first introduced. The method is now used by more than 5 percent of all married women of reproductive age. Continuation rates among Norplant users are higher than among users of the IUD. One factor behind high continuation rates may be that a substantial proportion of acceptors were not told that removal before five years was possible."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. Tuladhar, United Nations Population Fund/Country Support Team, Office for East and Southeast Asia, 14th Floor, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Avenue, Bangkok 10200, G.P.O. Box 618, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40309 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Family planning targets in relation to fertility reduction and reproductive health care in ECA member states. Pub. Order No. ECA/POP/TP/94/3(b)/4. Dec 1994. v, 77 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
This study examines the issue of setting targets for family planning programs in Africa, and the effect of so doing on the reduction of fertility and the improvement of reproductive health. Having reviewed the African experience in these areas, the report concludes with a number of recommendations concerning the setting of such targets in the future.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

64:40310 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Statistical compendium on contraceptive prevalence and practice in ECA member states. Pub. Order No. ECA/POP/TP/95/3(b)/1. Nov 1995. xvii, 75 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"The present publication presents statistical data on contraceptive knowledge and use as an update on the 1990 edition of the Statistical Compendium on Contraceptive Prevalence and Practice in African Countries." There are chapters on knowledge of contraceptive methods and source of methods; use of contraception; women not using contraception; discussion and approval of family planning; desire for more children, met and unmet family planning needs, ideal number of children, and planning status of births; and some results from male surveys. A selection of statistical tables is included.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40311 Watkins, Elizabeth S. On the pill: a social history of oral contraceptives 1950-1970. ISBN 0-8018-5876-3. LC 98-5003. 1998. viii, 183 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This book evaluates commonly held assumptions about the impact of the pill on middle-class American society and explores the changing perceptions of the pill in the context of the 1950s and 1960s.... Chapter 1 describes the context for the development of an oral contraceptive in the postwar years.... Chapter 2 looks at the different kinds of information that promoted the acceptance of the pill by the medical profession and by women of reproductive age.... Chapter 3 focuses on perceptions of the pill at the specific moment in the mid-1960s when the popular press framed the discussion of oral contraception in social, moral, and political terms. Chapter 4 examines the evolution of the controversy over the adverse health effects of oral contraception and assesses the roles of physicians, patients, and the media in the increasingly public drama about its safety in the late 1960s. Chapter 5 uses the 1970 Senate hearings and the development of the FDA pill package insert to interpret the pill as a catalyst in the rise of two new movements: health feminism and informed consent. The final chapter takes a longer view of the pill in American society, discussing the consequences of the medical and popular commotion over oral contraceptives in the 1960s in light of the pill's record [usage] during the following three decades."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4363. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40312 Zambrana, José E. A new perspective on family planning from the point of view of both women and men. [Una nueva perspectiva de la regulación de la fecundidad, desde la vida de las mujeres y varones.] Feb 1998. 72 pp. Family Health International: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; Cooperazione Internazionale [COOPI]: Cochabamba, Bolivia. In Spa.
This study examines the impact of male knowledge, attitudes, and behavior concerning family planning on the lives of women in Cochabamba, Bolivia, as well as the psychosocial factors affecting female contraceptive usage. The data are from a 1996 survey of 630 couples, in which the woman was aged between 20 and 49.
Correspondence: Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

64:40313 Baulieu, E. E. Contraception in the future. [La contracepción del futuro.] In: La explosión demográfica y la regulación de la natalidad, edited by José Botella Llusiá and Salustiano del Campo Urbano. 1997. 185-99 pp. Editorial Síntesis: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author reviews some possible future developments in contraceptive technology. The focus is on RU-486, including its use to interrupt an early pregnancy, use in obstetrics, and other clinical uses.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40314 Botella Llusiá, José. The natural methods of contraception. [Métodos naturales de contracepción.] In: La explosión demográfica y la regulación de la natalidad, edited by José Botella Llusiá and Salustiano del Campo Urbano. 1997. 139-48 pp. Editorial Síntesis: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a general review of the natural methods of contraception that are available today and of how to use them. Some indication of the relative effectiveness of the methods described is included.
Correspondence: J. Botella Llusiá, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40315 Clavero-Núñez, José A. Contraception today: methods, indicators, and results. [La contracepción hoy: técnicas, indicaciones y resultados.] In: La explosión demográfica y la regulación de la natalidad, edited by José Botella Llusiá and Salustiano del Campo Urbano. 1997. 123-38 pp. Editorial Síntesis: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a general descriptive review of the modern contraceptive methods that are available in today's world. Some indication is given as to the effectiveness of the various methods described.
Correspondence: J. A. Clavero-Núñez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40316 Dexeus Trias de Bes, Santiago. Compliance with instructions concerning hormonal contraception. [Observancia de la contracepción hormonal.] In: La explosión demográfica y la regulación de la natalidad, edited by José Botella Llusiá and Salustiano del Campo Urbano. 1997. 175-83 pp. Editorial Síntesis: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines the problems associated with the fact that those using hormonal methods of contraception do not always follow the directions for the proper use of such methods. Separate consideration is given to the medical factors associated with failure to use oral contraceptives as directed, the reasons for giving up use of such methods, and measures designed to make oral contraceptive use more effective.
Correspondence: S. Dexeus Trias de Bes, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40317 Ecochard, R.; Pinguet, F.; Ecochard, I.; De Gouvello, R.; Guy, M.; Huy, F. An analysis of the failure of natural family planning: an analysis carried out over 7,007 cycles. [Analyse des échecs de la planification familiale naturelle: à propos de 7.007 cycles d'utilisation.] Contraception--Fertilité--Sexualité, Vol. 26, No. 4, Apr 1998. 291-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The effectiveness of natural family planning is analyzed using data collected between 1989 and 1991 by seven francophone associations wishing to promote this method; the surveys involved 626 users who were French, Belgian, or Swiss. The results indicate that although this method can be very effective in theory, there were many pregnancies due to intercourse occurring in the known fertile period. The authors suggest that more education for couples wishing to use this method is required.
Correspondence: R. Ecochard, Hôpital de l'Hôtel-Dieu, Département d'Information Médicale des Hospices Civils de Lyon, 1 place de l'Hôpital, 69288 Lyon Cedex 02, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40318 Evans, Imogen; Huezo, Carlos. Family planning handbook for health professionals: the sexual and reproductive health approach. ISBN 0-86089-114-3. 1997. viii, 379 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]: London, England. In Eng.
This handbook replaces the Family Planning Handbook for Doctors, last published in 1988. It is based on the acknowledgement that family planning requires the work of a team of health professionals, including medical doctors, nurses, midwives, and counselors. It also incorporates the concepts of sexual and reproductive health. "The Handbook not only covers methods of contraception but also includes chapters on various components of sexual and reproductive health, especially those most relevant to family planning services, such as infertility, sexually transmitted diseases, reproductive health screening for well women, and cervical cytology."
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. E-mail: info@ippf.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40319 Frezieres, Ron G.; Walsh, Terri L.; Nelson, Anita L.; Clark, Virginia A.; Coulson, Anne H. Breakage and acceptability of a polyurethane condom: a randomized, controlled study. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1998. 73-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Although the first commercial polyurethane condom was approved for use several years ago, no U.S. clinical trial has compared its performance to that of the latex condom.... In a masked crossover study, 360 couples were randomized to use three polyurethane condoms and three latex condoms.... The clinical breakage rate of the polyurethane condom is significantly higher than that of the latex condom. However, nearly half of the users preferred the polyurethane condom...."
Correspondence: R. G. Frezieres, California Family Health Council, Research Division, Los Angeles, CA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40320 McIntosh, Noel; Blouse, Ann; Schaefer, Lois. Norplant implants guidelines for family planning service programs. 2nd ed. ISBN 0-929817-09-5. 1995. xiii, [218] pp. JHPIEGO Corporation: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This manual was developed to meet the growing need of family planning trainers and service providers for concise, up-to-date information on levonorgestrel (NORPLANT) implants. The first edition of these guidelines was adapted from educational materials developed by the Population Council and by a collaborative group of international organizations.... This...second edition...[includes] new information on: the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of Norplant implants;...the importance of thorough counseling to improve client satisfaction and continuation;...a simpler process for client assessment;...the management of the most common side effect--changes in the menstrual bleeding pattern;...and a removal method that is easier to learn than the standard method.... Finally, a new chapter, Providing Quality Services, has been added. This chapter reflects the need for up-to-date information on how to practically assess the quality of Norplant implants services, seek solutions to problem areas and gradually introduce changes that will improve all areas of service delivery."
Correspondence: JHPIEGO Corporation, 1615 Thames Street, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21231-3447. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40321 Mishell, Daniel R. New developments and practice guidelines: oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices. Contraception, Vol. 58, No. 3, Suppl., Sep 1998. 74 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: New York, New York/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This special issue is the product of two meetings of experts held in New York City on April 19, 1997, and in Cincinnati, Ohio, on October 20, 1997, on aspects of oral contraception and IUDs. "The purpose of the supplement is to provide information that will assist healthcare providers in prescribing the appropriate contraceptive methods for use by their female patients. Topics discussed in the supplement include the cardiovascular safety of OCs, OC estrogen dose considerations, clinical benefits of low-androgen progestins, noncontraceptive benefits of OCs, safety and efficacy of IUD, and factors that different types of individuals should consider when selecting a particular type of contraceptive."
Correspondence: Elsevier Science Publishers, 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40322 Rosenberg, Michael J.; Waugh, Michael S. Oral contraceptive discontinuation: a prospective evaluation of frequency and reasons. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 179, No. 3, Pt. 1, Sep 1998. 577-82 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
The authors "define the frequency and reasons for oral contraceptive discontinuation and subsequent contraceptive behavior...[using data from] a nationwide prospective study of 1,657 [U.S.] women initiating or switching to the use of a new contraceptive from private practices, clinics, and a health maintenance organization.... [Results indicate that] six months after a new oral contraceptive prescription, 68% of new starts and 84% of switchers still used oral contraceptives. Of women who discontinued, 46% did so because of side effects, whereas 23% had no continuing need. More than four fifths of women who discontinued oral contraceptives but remained at risk of unintended pregnancy either failed to adopt another method or adopted a less effective method.... [The authors conclude that] counseling should emphasize the possibility of side effects, stressing the fact that most will be transient, and the need to identify a backup method."
Correspondence: M. J. Rosenberg, Health Decisions, 1512 East Franklin Street, Suite 22, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

64:40323 Ali, Samia R. Final report. Village relations study. Population Council Research Report, No. 9, Aug 1998. iv, 127, [4] pp. Population Council: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The purpose of this study was to examine in depth the interactions between village-based family planning workers in Pakistan and the communities they are meant to serve. The data concern 10 villages in Punjab, Sindh, and North-West Frontier Province. The results indicate a growing acceptance of family planning in all the villages surveyed, and particularly in the more developed villages. The most valuable contributions of such village-based workers are the provision of easy access to the means to plan families, the interpersonal exchange of information among women, and the aid in the diffusion process for knowledge about family planning and reproductive health issues.
Correspondence: Population Council, 7 Street 62, F-6/3, Islamabad, Pakistan. E-mail: info@pcpak.sdnpk.undp.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40324 Bulatao, Rodolfo A. The value of family planning programs in developing countries. ISBN 0-8330-2633-X. LC 98-8108. 1998. xix, 79 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This report synthesizes research on family planning programs in developing countries. It focuses on what is known on three principal issues: the implications for developing countries of high fertility rates and unmet need for contraception, the benefits of family planning programs, [and] program costs and the role of donor nations. The report concludes that family planning programs are providing women in developing countries with desired access to contraceptive services and helping to reduce fertility rates. These programs are also associated with a range of other benefits, most notably improvements in women's and children's health."
Correspondence: RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407. E-mail: order@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40325 Gangopadhyay, Bhaswati; Das, D. N. Quality of family planning services in India: the users' perspective. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 3, Sep 1997. 5-12 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The present study was undertaken to evaluate [India's] family planning programme from the users' perspective. The information collected has been supplemented with some individual experiences.... A brief mention of the problems faced by the doctors and other health workers in rendering family welfare services is also within the periphery of the study."
Correspondence: B. Gangopadhyay, Centre for Media Studies, 9/1 Institutional Area, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40326 Hughes, Jane; McCauley, Ann P. Improving the fit: adolescents' needs and future programs for sexual and reproductive health in developing countries. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, Jun 1998. 233-45 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Demand is growing in developing countries for sexual and reproductive health programs for young people. However, little scientifically based evidence exists about which program approaches are most effective in shaping healthy behaviors.... Research indicates that current programs often do not match the needs and health-seeking behaviors of young people.... Constraints on financial and human resources, coupled with the great size of the youth population, highlight the need to find less costly ways to reach young people. These observations generate six programming principles to help planners and communities experiment with a wide variety of programming approaches."
Correspondence: J. Hughes, Rockefeller Foundation, Population Services, 420 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10018-2702. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40327 Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, Arvind; Singh, B. S. Approaches to target setting of family planning in India: an analytical review and application of a new approach. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 22, 1995-1996. 22 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The authors first review existing methods of setting targets for family planning program performance in India. They then present a model that considers the distribution of surviving children to formulate a method of target setting. The method is applied to data for India and its major states.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40328 Sen, Narayan. Family planning programme implementation--a new method. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 4, Dec 1997. 59-63 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The author assesses a method for identifying couples eligible for family planning, using data from the Community Health Programme of St. Paul's Cathedral Relief Service in Calcutta, India. "Considering the success rate and family planning coverage [achieved] with the method described...it can be recommended for any integrated community health programme conducted by the Government or NGOs."
Correspondence: N. Sen, DC/3/4-Golf Green, Phase I, Calcutta 700 095, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40329 Viet Nam. National Committee for Population and Family Planning (Hanoi, Viet Nam). Costs and benefits of Vietnam's national investment in population and family planning from 1979 to 2010. Final report. Aug 1997. viii, 35 pp. Hanoi, Viet Nam. In Eng.
"In this study, cost-benefit analysis (CBA) was used to investigate how much [Vietnam's] population and family planning program has saved in terms of avoided social sector spending.... Results showed that due to the national PFP program, between 1979 and 1996 total fertility dropped by 1.6 children per woman more than it would have without the program. By 2010, this gap is expected to grow to 2.1 children per woman.... Comparing national PFP program costs with savings in health, education, and social security, this analysis shows that by 1995, PFP investments have already paid for themselves."
Correspondence: National Committee for Population and Family Planning, 12 Ngo Tat To Street, Hanoi, Viet Nam. E-mail: dungva@netnam.orgvn. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40330 Viet Nam. National Committee for Population and Family Planning (Hanoi, Viet Nam). Vietnam's population and family planning investments and savings (1979-2010). Aug 1997. 32 pp. Hanoi, Viet Nam. In Eng; Vie.
"The principal objective of this cost-benefit analysis was to determine the extent to which Vietnam's national-level investments in PFP [population and family planning] programs and services have produced savings by averting expenditures in health, education, and other social sector services. These two expenditure categories (PFP and social sector services) [are] compared. Specifically, the cumulative difference between the high and low PFP program expenditure levels [are] compared to the cumulative savings in social sector services accruing because of slower population growth."
Correspondence: National Committee for Population and Family Planning, 12 Ngo Tat To Street, Hanoi, Viet Nam. E-mail: dungva@netnam.org.vn. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

64:40331 Eswaran, Mukesh. One explanation for the demographic transition in developing countries. Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 50, No. 2, Apr 1998. 237-65 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper considers, in an overlapping generations model, the fertility choice of parents confronted with the possibility of child mortality. The motive for having children is assumed to be old age security and, therefore, not altruistic. It is shown first in a partial equilibrium setting that reductions in child mortality can induce a demographic transition. In a general equilibrium setting, it is shown that a marginal reduction in child mortality can raise or lower the standard of living of the steady-state equilibrium population, depending on the initial level of child mortality. Finally the paper draws some relevant policy implications."
Correspondence: M. Eswaran, University of British Columbia, Department of Economics, 997-1873 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40332 Hume, Maggie; Haas, Taylor; Scheinmann, Roberta; Burgess, Adam. Catholics and reproduction: a world view. 1997. 17 pp. Catholics for a Free Choice: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine differences in reproductive attitudes and behavior of Catholics worldwide. "Because the sources vary--from national opinion polls to multinational, comparative demographic studies--the data are presented in varying ways, including multinational tables and prose snapshots specific to single nations. The studies cited are the most recent and reliable that could be located for each country." Sections are included on family planning and contraception, abortion, divorce, and the limits of church authority.
Correspondence: Catholics for a Free Choice, 1436 U Street NW, No. 301, Washington, D.C. 20009. E-mail: cffc@igc.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40333 Johnson, Kay; Huang, Banghan; Wang, Liyao. Infant abandonment and adoption in China. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 469-510, 668, 670 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article reports the findings of a research project conducted in 1995-96 on infant abandonment and adoption in China. These two practices were found to be closely linked. Restrictive birth planning policies combined with parents' perceived need for a son produce patterns of abandonment that primarily affect higher-parity daughters in sonless families. A lesser, but nonetheless strong desire for daughters among daughterless families leads to adoption as a means to remedy this situation as well as a means to overcome childlessness. These aspects of contemporary Chinese culture...have helped alleviate the ill effects of increased infant abandonment in the 1980s and 1990s by leading many families to adopt foundlings."
Correspondence: K. Johnson, Hampshire College, Department of Asian Studies and Politics, Amherst, MA 01002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40334 Kulkarni, Sumati; Choe, Minja Kim. Wanted and unwanted fertility in selected states of India. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 6, Feb 1998. 32 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"In this report, we propose new measures of wanted and unwanted fertility based on actual and wanted parity progression ratios, and we apply these procedures to [National Family Health Survey] data for eight states in India. In the four large states with high fertility, levels of wanted fertility are high, at three or more children per married woman, and the proportion unwanted ranges from 20 to 28 percent of total marital fertility. In the three states with moderate levels of fertility, the proportions of unwanted fertility are even higher, ranging from 31 to 34 percent. In Kerala, wanted fertility is already at replacement level, and there is very little unwanted fertility.... Multivariate analysis indicates that education, religion, exposure to family planning messages on radio or television, experience of child loss, and son preference are among the important determinants of contraceptive use among women who want no more children."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. Kulkarni, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: ipps@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40335 Mwageni, Eleuther A.; Ankomah, Augustine; Powell, Richard A. Attitudes of men towards family planning in Mbeya region, Tanzania: a rural-urban comparison of qualitative data. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1998. 381-92 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper...presents a rural-urban comparison of the attitudes of men in Mbeya region, Tanzania, to family size preference, sex composition, partners' communication on family planning matters and contraceptive behaviour. Findings indicate that men express positive attitudes towards fertility-regulating methods. There is, moreover, little rural-urban variation in male attitudes towards family planning in the study area. Possible reasons for this normative convergence (including structural similarities and rural-urban migration between the two communities) are discussed."
Correspondence: R. A. Powell, University of Exeter, Postgraduate Medical School, Exeter EX2 5DW, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40336 Pataki-Schweizer, K. J. On reproduction and population: views from men in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. ISBN 9980-84-058-7. LC 97-190994. 1996. xvii, 110 pp. University of Papau New Guinea Press: University, Papau New Guinea. In Eng.
This study examines the attitudes and knowledge of men living in the Highlands region of Papua New Guinea concerning aspects of human reproduction, population growth, contraception and family planning, the role of women in society, perceived and actual access to family planning services, and vectors of family planning information. The data were gathered in 1992 in interviews with 80 individuals and 20 focus groups, involving about 260 men overall.
Correspondence: University of Papua New Guinea Press, P.O. Box 320, University, National Capital District, Papua New Guinea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40337 Rutstein, Shea O. Change in the desired number of children: a cross-country cohort analysis of levels and correlates of change. DHS Analytical Report, No. 9, Jul 1998. ix, 46 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys are used to analyze changes in women's desired number of children over time in developing countries. The results indicate that about half of the change recorded over time can be explained by changes in women's desired number of children. "Greater decline in desired number of children is found to be associated with higher levels of family planning effort in a country, decreases in per capita income, and increases in national levels of schooling. It is also found that there is a `rationalizing' of fertility desires that accompanies an increased number of children. The analysis of the determinants of differences in fertility desires according to cohort of births finds that the greater the urbanization and education of a cohort in its formative period, the lower the level of desired number of children. Higher levels of income and fertility (proxying for parents' family size) during the formative period increases the level of desired number of children. The results of this study are very encouraging. They show that countries do not have to wait to become developed before they can reduce their rates of population growth."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40338 Shah, Nasra M.; Shah, Makhdoom A.; Radovanovic, Zoran. Patterns of desired fertility and contraceptive use in Kuwait. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 133-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article, we report on the results of the first household survey in Kuwait to include questions on desired family size. We then analyse the determinants of ideal family size and desire for another child, and examine the impact of various measures of desired family size on contraceptive use." Results indicate that "in a social setting that encourages high fertility, number of living children and ethnic background are the most important factors in whether women want to stop childbearing and whether they use contraceptives, as well as in how many children they consider ideal."
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Kuwait University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Science, P.O. Box 24923, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40339 Stycos, J. Mayone. Men, couples, and family planning: a retrospective look. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 96.12, 1996. 10 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews the literature on gender differences in desired family size, with a focus on the role of men in reproductive decision making. The extent to which poor communication between spouses interferes with attainment of family size goals is discussed.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40340 Thomson, Elizabeth; Hoem, Jan M. Couple childbearing plans and births in Sweden. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 3, Aug 1998. 315-22 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We use data from a nationally representative sample of Swedish couples to estimate effects of partners' childbearing plans on the rate of subsequent childbearing. Only 11% of the couples in this sample expressed plans in opposite directions...but 24% had differing levels of certainty about their plans.... We discuss these results in the context of Sweden's public support for gender equality and for childrearing, its pervasive contraceptive regime, and its high rates of cohabitation."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: E. Thomson, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: thomson@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40341 Williams, Linda B.; Abma, Joyce; Piccinino, Linda. Fertility intentions, subsequent behavior, and wantedness reports of births: a comparison of prospective and retrospective attitudes. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 96.14, 1996. 13, [13] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of this research is to compare the birth intentions of women who were interviewed for the 1988 round of the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth, with their contraceptive use and actual fertility over the two years following the survey, as reported during a telephone reinterview that took place in 1990.... We examine women's attitudes toward future childbearing, their level of certainty about the number of (additional) births they expect to have, their contraceptive behavior, and a number of changes in life circumstances which may have occurred during the interval and may have affected fertility desires."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40342 Williams, Lindy; Sobieszczyk, Teresa; Perez, Aurora. Using in-depth interviews and survey data to understand couples' views about planning births in the Philippines. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 97.09, 1997. 19, [8] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"We examine reports by women and men of the wantedness of recent pregnancies in the Philippines.... We examine the extent to which conscious decisions are made about contraception and childbearing and examine whether women who are better able to communicate with their husbands about sex and fertility play a greater role in making decisions about contraception and planning pregnancies."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Author's E-mail: lbw2@cornell.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

64:40343 Agadjanian, Victor. "Quasi-legal" abortion services in a Sub-Saharan setting: users' profile and motivations. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 111-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study focuses on Mozambique, a country with `quasi-legal' abortion services. We explore the profile of women who obtain abortions at an urban hospital and the reasons behind their decisions to terminate pregnancy; we also attempt to determine how representative these women are of the urban female population and what segments of this population have limited access to safe abortion services." Results indicate that "women's socioeconomic circumstances may affect their attitudes toward and ability to obtain an induced abortion. Legalization of the procedure would help extend services to underserved segments of the population, but greater access for poor, rural women will depend on the nation's socioeconomic progress."
Correspondence: V. Agadjanian, Arizona State University, Department of Sociology, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40344 Ahmed, M. Kapil; Rahman, Mizanur; van Ginneken, Jeroen. Induced abortion in Matlab, Bangladesh: trends and determinants. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 128-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from a longitudinal demographic surveillance system are used to analyze the outcomes of about 75,000 pregnancies between 1982 and 1991 in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh.... The incidence of abortion was higher among women who had had six or more births or who became pregnant fewer than 12 months after the previous pregnancy. Induced abortion ratios were higher among users of the pill, condoms or traditional methods than among users of injectable contraceptives or among contraceptive nonusers."
Correspondence: M. K. Ahmed, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Health and Demographic Surveillance Program, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40345 Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela; Haas, Taylor. Reasons why women have induced abortions: evidence from 27 countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 117-27, 152 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Findings from 32 studies in 27 countries were used to examine the reasons that women give for having an abortion, regional patterns in these reasons and the relationship between such reasons and women's social and demographic characteristics.... Worldwide, the most commonly reported reason women cite for having an abortion is to postpone or stop childbearing. The second most common reason--socioeconomic concerns--includes disruption of education or employment; lack of support from the father; desire to provide schooling for existing children; and poverty, unemployment or inability to afford additional children."
Correspondence: A. Bankole, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40346 Bélanger, Danièle; Khuat, Thu Hong. Young single women using abortion in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1998. 3-26 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article presents the results of an exploratory study on a sample of single women who had an abortion in the northern part of Viet Nam. Results from a survey questionnaire show that most women had an unwanted pregnancy in the context of a committed relationship. Few of them had ever used a contraceptive method and, of the ones who did, they did not use it regularly or effectively. Few opportunities for exchanges on sexuality related matters and poor contraceptive knowledge and skills stand out as important determinants of abortion use."
Correspondence: D. Bélanger, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. E-mail: dbelang@julian.uwo.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40347 Boyle, Mary. Re-thinking abortion: psychology, gender, power and the law. ISBN 0-415-16364-1. LC 97-14933. 1997. vi, 164 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This study is about the psychological aspects of induced abortion. The first chapter describes the relevant legislation on abortion in Great Britain, Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic, and the United States. The next two chapters review two of the debates on abortion issues, first on motherhood, morality, and the sanctity of life, and then on the role of the medical profession in abortion. The relationship between abortion and contraception is considered next. Another chapter examines the experience of abortion, and how it may be related to its social meanings and to the discourses surrounding it. The final chapter reexamines psychology's relationship to abortion, as well as " psychology's uneasy relationship to social policy and its reluctance to acknowledge the role of social, moral and political factors in the production of knowledge."
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40348 Caldwell, Bruce; Barkat-e-Khuda; Ahmed, Shameem; Nessa, Fazilatun; Haque, Indrani. The determinants and consequences of pregnancy termination in rural Bangladesh: the wider context. ICDDR, B Working Paper, No. 77, ISBN 984-551-098-1. 1997. iv, 24 pp. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh [ICDDR, B]: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This study examines the factors that motivate rural Bangladeshi women to terminate pregnancies, the decision-making process involved, the service providers used, the sources of information available to the women on pregnancy termination, and the broader consequences of terminating a pregnancy." The data concern 41 currently married women who had undergone pregnancy termination. "The primary reason given for having terminations was to limit family size, while the second most-cited reason given was for birth spacing. Most of these women were not using any contraceptive methods, either because they did not believe that they required them or because they were concerned about possible side-effects. Other women reported that they were using methods incorrectly or that the method had failed.... Half of the respondents initially sought treatment from untrained providers or conducted their own terminations, despite the availability of trained government providers."
Correspondence: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: barkat@cholera.bangla.net. Location: Brown University Library, Providence, RI.

64:40349 Desgrées du Loû, Annabel; Msellati, Philippe; Viho, Ida; Welffens-Ekra, Christiane. The growing resort to induced abortion in Abidjan over the last 10 years: is this one of the factors leading to the recent decline in fertility? [Le recours croissant à l'avortement provoqué à Abidjan depuis 10 ans. Un des mécanismes de la récente baisse de fécondité?] Documents de Recherche, No. 5, Apr 1998. 21 pp. ETS/ORSTOM: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Although fertility has declined in the Ivory Coast from 7.2 children in 1980 to 5.7 in 1994, the level of reported contraceptive use remains at less than 20%. "This study presents the levels and trends of induced abortion, observed from the retrospective pregnancy histories of 1,201 pregnant women in Abidjan. These data reveal a frequent use of induced abortion (one third of women aborted once at least) which seems to be a recent phenomenon, generalised during the last ten years. The use of induced abortion concerned all age-groups, but particularly the youngest who used it from the beginning of their fertile life as a way to delay the first birth, whereas the oldest used it after several pregnancies, in order to space births. This rapid and recent increase of induced abortion is concomitant to the recent fertility decrease in Ivory Coast and may have played a part in such a decrease."
Correspondence: ETS/ORSTOM/LPE, Case 10, Centre St. Charles, 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseilles Cedex 3, France. E-mail: vimard@orstom.rio.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40350 Jacoby, Kerry N. Souls, bodies, spirits: the drive to abolish abortion since 1973. ISBN 0-275-96044-7. LC 97-33700. 1998. xv, 230 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This book attempts to provide a portrait of the pro-life, or anti-abortion, activists in the United States. "It presents the [abortion] abolitionists in the context of their own historical reality, their belief systems, and the American culture as they see it. By seeking to understand abolitionism in its incarnations as a moral crusade, a social movement, and an adjunct phenomenon to religious revivalism, we can better see the tapestry that is abolitionism--a multifaceted, many-hued portrait of light and dark, patience and passion."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, P.O. Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40351 Ketting, Evert; Smit, Jonna. Abortion matters: international conference on reducing the need and improving the quality of abortion services, 27-29 March 1996. ISBN 90-70632-15-2. Mar 1997. 370 pp. Stimezo Nederland: Utrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This volume contains papers presented at an international conference on induced abortion held in the Netherlands in 1996. The main theme of the conference was that abortion is a serious women's health issue that should be treated openly and directly. The text of a conference declaration is included, which emphasizes the need for an informed debate on the reality of abortion, the right to legal and safe abortion for all women in need as an integral part of reproductive health care, the value of linking abortion services to family planning services, the reduction of reliance on abortion through the promotion of contraception, the establishment of care guidelines for abortion services, and the need to increase men's understanding of abortion issues.
Correspondence: Stimezo Nederland, Oudenoord 182, 3513 EV Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40352 Knudsen, Lisbeth B. 25 years with induced abortion in Denmark. Danish Center for Demographic Research, Research Report, No. 2, ISBN 87-90736-02-8. 1998. 12 pp. Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research: Odense, Denmark. In Eng.
"An act on pregnancy interruption, which gives any woman in Denmark the right to induced abortion on request, came into force in Denmark on October 1, 1973. Since then, the act has been subject to only minor revisions. During the 25 years that have past since 1973, legally induced abortion has become a generally accepted form of birth control in Denmark. Based on various published data, this report addresses main trends during the 25 years and presents various measures and calculations in order to elucidate their different suitability in the interpretation of the development."
Correspondence: Odense University, Danish Center for Demographic Research, Hollufgaard, Hestehaven 201, 5220 Odense SØ, Denmark. E-mail: per.b@demfo.ou.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40353 Llovet, Juan J.; Ramos, Silvina. Induced abortion in Latin America: strategies for future social research. Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 6, No. 11, May 1998. 55-65 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper analyses the present state of knowledge on induced abortion in Latin America based on a critical review of information from regional meetings and seminars in the 1990s and articles in international journals in the field. It focuses on the incidence of abortion, the abortion decision-making process, and the political and public dimensions of induced abortion, and discusses theoretical and methodological aspects of abortion research, and ethical and political concerns.... [The authors suggest a] range of priorities for future research in the region."
Correspondence: S. Ramos, Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad, Sanchez de Bustamente 27, Buenos Aires 1173, Argentina. E-mail: arcoiris@cedes.edu.ar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40354 Mathai, Saramma T. Making abortion safer. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jun 1997. 71-80 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The author reviews the status of legal abortion in India, with a focus on the accessibility and safety of the procedure.
Correspondence: S. T. Mathai, WHO/INTRAH, Sanga Rachana, 53 Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40355 Parnell, Allan M.; Rodgers, Joseph L. Seasonality of induced abortion in North Carolina. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1998. 321-32 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the seasonality of induced abortion in North Carolina between 1980 and 1993. Distinct seasonal patterns are found, with a peak in February and a valley in September. These patterns correspond to the implicit seasonality of conceptions associated with the seasonality of birth pattern. One notable difference from the general pattern is among unmarried women aged 18 and younger. They have the February peak and an additional peak in August that may be associated with the summer vacation from school."
Correspondence: A. M. Parnell, Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, NC 27708. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

64:40356 Chowdhury, Nazneen; Islam, M. Ataharul; Chakraborty, Nitai. Infant and child feeding practices in Bangladesh: evidence from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 1993-94. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1997. 275-86 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper explores the various aspects of breastfeeding using [the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 1993-94].... The study reveals that although breastfeeding is universal in Bangladesh and its duration is quite long...certain aspects of breastfeeding are not practiced in [an] effective manner."
Correspondence: N. Chowdhury, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40357 Murray, Nancy J.; Zabin, Laurie S.; Toledo-Dreves, Virginia; Luengo-Charath, Ximena. Gender differences in factors influencing first intercourse among urban students in Chile. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 139-44, 152 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article, we examine Chilean data from a detailed evaluation of a sex education program in public schools in the capital, Santiago de Chile. We analyze factors significantly associated with early sexual initiation, as documented in the U.S. and Latin American literature, among a sample of middle school and high school students from neighborhoods of low socioeconomic status in Santiago." Results indicate that "there were few differences by gender in the attitudinal, behavioral and social relations factors that were significantly related to sexual debut, although father's presence in the home and academic achievement were still significant in the final model for young women only."
Correspondence: N. J. Murray, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40358 Nath, Dilip C.; Leonetti, Donna L. Correlates of coital patterns in a traditional Indian society. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 98-10, Jun 1998. 22 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The authors suggest that "frequency and timing of intercourse is one the strongest and most persistent factors affecting fertility in non-contracepting populations. Relatively few rigorous studies on coital pattern and correlates in contemporary India have been published. This study used a small window [of] data from traditional Indian society to investigate current coital pattern and to identify the key factors that influence coital life in scheduled castes of Hindu population living in rural areas in the Northeastern Indian state of Assam.... Covariates such as susceptibility condition of wife, age of wife, age of husband, couple's marital duration, sub-caste, per capita monthly income of the household, number of male surviving children and total number of surviving children have strong effects on the risk of sexual intercourse."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Author's E-mail: dnath@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40359 Warren, Charles W.; Santelli, John S.; Everett, Sherry A.; Kann, Laura; Collins, Janet L.; Cassell, Carol; Morris, Leo; Kolbe, Lloyd J. Sexual behavior among U.S. high school students, 1990-1995. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1998. 170-2, 200 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Nationally representative data from [U.S.] Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted in 1990, 1991, 1993 and 1995 are used to examine levels of sexual experience, age at first intercourse, current sexual activity and condom use at last intercourse among students in grades 9-12.... The proportion of students who reported being sexually experienced remained at 53-54% from 1990 through 1995, while the percentage of sexually active students who used condoms at last intercourse rose from 46% to 54% between 1991 and 1995." Differences among blacks, whites, and Hispanics and between males and females are noted.
Correspondence: C. W. Warren, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

64:40360 Abrahamson, Mark. Out-of-wedlock births: the United States in comparative perspective. ISBN 0-275-95662-8. LC 97-43954. 1998. viii, 172 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This is an attempt to provide a comparative analysis of births outside of marriage in the United States. Part 1 examines the current situation in the United States, with sections on marriage and parenthood, the availability and quality of the relevant U.S. data and rates, and the who, how, and when of nonmarital births. Part 2 presents comparative case studies from Essex in England, 1590-1625; Madrid, Spain, 1760-1800; and Jamaica in the West Indies, 1950-1985. Part 3 concludes the book with a theoretical overview and a discussion on the relationship between welfare and fertility outside of marriage.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40361 Graham, David T. The geography of extra-marital fertility in the East Midlands, 1981 and 1991. East Midland Geographer, Vol. 20, No. 1-2, 1997. 3-19 pp. Nottingham, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the recent trends in extra-marital fertility in the United Kingdom and the East Midlands.... By means of bivariate and multivariate analyses the spatial variation in extra-marital fertility can be explained in terms of levels of urbanisation, female unemployment, low social class and female educational attainment. The increase in extra-marital fertility over the decade can also be explained by changes in level of urbanisation and female educational attainment as well as changes in the levels [of] owner occupation, non-married female activity rates and married females."
Correspondence: D. T. Graham, Nottingham Trent University, Department of International Studies, Nottingham NG11 8NS, England. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.


Copyright © 1998-1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.