Volume 64 - Number 4 - Winter 1998

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications.

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

64:40089 Anderson, Robert N.; Rosenberg, Harry M. Age standardization of death rates: implementation of the year 2000 standard. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 3, Oct 7, 1998. 16 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is to provide the rationale for and the implications of implementing a new population standard for age-adjusting death rates. Based on the year 2000 population, the new standard replaces the existing 1940 standard million population that has been used for over 50 years. The change will be implemented by the [U.S.] National Center for Health Statistics...effective with deaths occurring in 1999. This report also includes a technical discussion of direct and indirect standardization and statistical variability in age-adjusted death rates."
Correspondence: National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40090 Capocaccia, Riccardo; Farchi, Gino; Barcherini, Sabrina; Verdecchia, Arduino; Mariotti, Sergio; Scipione, Riccardo; Feola, Giuseppe; Buratta, Vittoria. Mortality in Italy in 1994. [La mortalità in Italia nell'anno 1994.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 98/12, 1998. ii, 60 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanità [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"A series of analytical tables for mortality data in Italy in 1994 is presented. The age- and sex-specific rates for the whole of Italy are reported for 45 different death causes, as well as the national standardised rate referred to 1971 population. The standardised rates for each of the 20 regions and the three main subdivisions: North, Center, South/Islands are also reported. This report belongs to a series describing mortality in Italy since 1970, using the same methods, with yearly up-dating editions."
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40091 Cook, Noble D. Born to die: disease and New World conquest, 1492-1650. New Approaches to the Americas, ISBN 0-521-62208-5. LC 97-25064. 1998. xiii, 248 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The biological mingling of the previously separated Old and New Worlds began with the first voyage of Columbus. The exchange was a mixed blessing: It led to the disappearance of entire peoples in the Americas, but it also resulted in the rapid expansion and consequent economic and military hegemony of Europeans. Amerindians had never before experienced the deadly Eurasian sicknesses brought by the foreigners in wave after wave: smallpox, measles, typhus, plague, influenza, malaria, yellow fever. These diseases conquered the Americas before the sword could be unsheathed. From 1492 to 1650, from Hudson Bay in the north to southernmost Tierra del Fuego, disease weakened Amerindian resistance to outside domination. The Black Legend, which attempts to place all of the blame for the injustices of conquest on the Spanish, must be revised in light of the evidence that all Old World peoples carried, literally though largely unwittingly, the germs of the destruction of American civilization."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40092 Dalgard, Odd S.; Håheim, Lise L. Psychosocial risk factors and mortality: a prospective study with special focus on social support, social participation, and locus of control in Norway. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 8, Aug 1998. 476-81 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The objective [of this study] is to investigate the effect on mortality of psychosocial variables, with special focus on social support, social participation, and locus of control.... The study is based on a population sample randomly drawn from different neighbourhoods of Oslo in 1975/76.... When controlling for socio-demographic and biological factors, low social participation, and to a lesser extent, few close relationships and external locus of control, were associated with increased mortality."
Correspondence: O. S. Dalgard, National Institute of Public Health, Section SAFH, P.O. Box 4404, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40093 Donaldson, G. C.; Ermakov, S. P.; Komarov, Y. M.; McDonald, C. P.; Keatinge, W. R. Cold related mortalities and protection against cold in Yakutsk, eastern Siberia: observation and interview study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 317, No. 7614, Oct 10, 1998. 978-81 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This study examines how effective measures taken in extremely cold climates are in controlling winter mortality. The data concern 1,002 people aged between 50 and 74 living in the Yakutsk region of Siberia in the period 1989-1995. The results show that "people in Yakutsk wore very warm clothing, and in extremely cold weather stayed indoors in warm housing, preventing the increases in mortality seen in winter in milder regions of the world. Only respiratory mortality rose, perhaps because of breathing cold air."
Correspondence: W. R. Keatinge, Russian Ministry of Health, Public Health Research Institute, Moscow 127254, Russia. E-mail: w.r.keatinge@qmw.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40094 Higgs, G.; Senior, M. L.; Williams, H. C. W. L. Spatial and temporal variation of mortality and deprivation. 1: widening health inequalities. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 30, No. 9, Sep 1998. 1,661-82 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine the relationship between premature mortality and material deprivation both over time (the intercensal period, 1981-91) and over space (for the population in wards and ward groups in Wales). Our focus is on the methods of analysis for small area...multiple cross-section mortality data and their application to the substantive issue of the persistent and widening inequalities in Wales.... We examine all-cause deaths and mortality by specific disease classes for groups (quintiles) of wards ranked according to standard measures of material deprivation. Although there have been reductions in premature mortality across all deprivation groups in Wales, over the decade, the gap has widened between the most and least deprived areas."
Correspondence: G. Higgs, University of Wales, Department of City and Regional Planning, P.O. Box 906, Cardiff CF1 3YN, Wales. E-mail: higgs@cf.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:40095 Józan, Péter E.; Prokhorskas, Remigijus. Atlas of leading and "avoidable" causes of death in countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ISBN 963-215-146-1. 1997. 323 pp. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal: Budapest, Hungary; World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The atlas presents the mortality from `avoidable' and leading causes of death in 14 CCEE [Central and Eastern European countries] in the late 1980s, i.e. before the sweeping political and socio-economic changes in this part of Europe, which were followed by a deterioration in health in many countries of the region, as reflected by a sharp reduction in life expectancy. The atlas provides the background for comparisons with more recent data and will be of interest to many information users dealing with the health status and health services in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly to health administrators at national and subnational levels." The countries covered are Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia.
Correspondence: Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, P.O. Box 51, 1525 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

64:40096 Langner, Günther. Estimation of infant mortality and life expectancy in the time of the Roman Empire: a methodological examination. [Schätzung von Säuglingssterblichkeit und Lebenserwartung im Zeitalter des imperium romanum: Methodenkritische Untersuchung.] Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, 1998. 299-326 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The first available written source in human history relating to the description of the life expectancy of a living population is a legal text which originates from the Roman jurist Ulpianus (murdered in AD 228). In contrast to the prevailing opinion in demography, I not only do consider the text to be of `historical interest'...but to be a document of inestimable worth for evaluating the population survival probability in the Roman empire. The criteria specified by Ulpianus are in line with the `pan-human' survival function as described by modern model life tables, when based on adulthood. Values calculated from tomb inscriptions follow the lowest level of the model life tables as well and support Ulpianus' statements. The specifications by Ulpianus for the population of the Roman world empire as a whole in the `best fit' with modern life tables lead to an average level of 20 years of life expectancy. As a consequence a high infant mortality rate of almost 400 [per thousand] can be concluded resulting in no more than three children at the age of five in an average family in spite of a high fertility rate."
Correspondence: G. Langner, Steinbeiss Straße 45, 70839 Gerlingen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40097 Merli, M. Giovanna. Mortality in Vietnam, 1979-1989. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 3, Aug 1998. 345-60 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Little is known about past and present mortality in Vietnam, as the first official data on mortality have only recently become available from censuses taken in 1979 and 1989. Using these data, I estimate Vietnamese mortality during the intercensal period using two techniques that rely on age-specific growth rates from two successive age distributions.... [The] results suggest a trend of declining mortality between the 1970s and the 1980s and add solid empirical evidence to the debate over whether mortality in Vietnam has been deteriorating or improving."
Correspondence: M. G. Merli, University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195-3340. E-mail: giovanna@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40098 Nanjo, Zenji; Shigematsu, Takao. A retrospective of Japanese demography for the past two decades. Part 2: research on deaths and diseases in Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 21, Nov 1997. 35-41 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is a review of recent research by Japanese scholars on mortality and morbidity in the context of research on these topics being carried out elsewhere in the world.
For Part 1, by Haruo Sagaza, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40099 Peters, Kimberley D.; Kochanek, Kenneth D.; Murphy, Sherry L. Deaths: final data for 1996. NCHS National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 9, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 99-1120. Nov 10, 1998. 100 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents 1996 data on U.S. deaths and death rates according to demographic and medical characteristics such as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, State of residence, and cause of death. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality are also described.... Measures of mortality in this report include the number of deaths; crude, age-specific and age-adjusted death rates; infant, neonatal, postneonatal, and maternal mortality rates; life expectancy; and rate ratios."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40100 Prins, C. J. M. Many deaths in March and April 1998. [Veel sterfgevallen in maart en april 1998.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 8, Aug 1998. 8-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In March and April 1998 the number of deaths [in the Netherlands] was higher than usual. In these months the excess mortality was about 1,400. Around 25 April the number of daily deaths was back to normal.... It is assumed that the large number of deaths is related to the increased incidence of influenza, which lasted from mid-February until mid-April."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40101 Senior, M. L.; Williams, H. C. W. L.; Higgs, G. Spatial and temporal variation of mortality and deprivation 2: statistical modelling. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 30, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,815-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Building on the tabular analyses exemplified in our first paper and widely used in the medical literature, we use generalised linear models to provide a formal, statistical approach to the analysis of mortality and deprivation relationships, and their change over time. Three types of fixed effects model are specified and estimated with the same ward-level data sets for Wales examined in our first paper. They are: Poisson models for analysing mortality and deprivation at a single cross section in time; repeated-measures Poisson models for analysing mortality-deprivation relations, not only at cross sections in time, but also their changes over time; and logit models focusing on temporal changes in mortality-deprivation relationships. Nonlinear effects of deprivation on mortality have been explored by using dummy variables representing deprivation categories to establish the connection between formal statistical models and the tabular approach"
For Part 1, also published in 1998, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. L. Senior, University of Wales, College of Cardiff, Department of City and Regional Planning, P.O. Box 906, Cardiff CF1 3YN, Wales. E-mail: seniorml@cf.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:40102 Wilmoth, John R. Is the pace of Japanese mortality decline converging toward international trends? Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 593-600, 670-1 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Life expectancy in Japan rose at an unprecedented rate in the years following World War II. By around 1980, Japan had attained its current position of world leader in terms of average length of life. However, after catching and then surpassing other countries, the pace of mortality decline in Japan now appears to be converging toward international trends."
Correspondence: J. R. Wilmoth, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. E-mail: jrw@demog.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40103 Winegarden, C. R.; Murray, John E. The contributions of early health-insurance programs to mortality declines in pre-World War I Europe: evidence from fixed-effects models. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 35, No. 4, Oct 1998. 431-46 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"The causes of the historical decline in European mortality rates are still vigorously debated. Our contribution is to examine a previously neglected aspect, the role of the early government-sponsored health-insurance programs in widening access to medical care. We construct and test fixed-effect models of mortality rates, using data for a panel of five European countries over the 1878-1913 period. After diagnostic tests of our results, we conclude that the expanding population coverage of these health-insurance programs contributed significantly to the observed declines in mortality."
Correspondence: C. R. Winegarden, University of Toledo, Department of Economics, Toledo, OH 43606-3390. E-mail: fac0034@uoft01.utoledo.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology, and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion. Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

64:40104 Achyut, P.; Lahiri, S.; Acharya, R. Non-biological correlates of early neonatal deaths: evidences from five selected states of India. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1997. 241-60 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present paper is an attempt to...unearth specific correlates of early neonatal deaths with the help of a conceived framework of the process using latest available survey data for rural area of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal [India].... The study shows that caste and education of mother have significant effect on the survival of infant in the first week of life. All the variables related to pregnancy and delivery, mother's demographic factors and child characteristics have shown significant impact on outcome of pregnancy."
Correspondence: P. Achyut, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40105 Lalou, Richard. Endogenous mortality in New France: at the crossroads of natural and social selection. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 203-15 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes "endogenous mortality in New France [Quebec]. More specifically, early neonatal mortality was studied, since in the absence of data on causes of death, endogenous mortality could best be estimated from deaths during the first week of life. To this end, data from New France parish registers between 1621 and 1730, compiled on computer by the Programme de recherche en démographie historique at the University of Montreal, were used...."
Correspondence: R. Lalou, Institut Français de Recherche pour le Développement en Coopération, B.P. 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40106 van Enk, Adam; Buitendijk, Simone E.; van der Pal, Karin M.; van Enk, Willem J. J.; Schulpen, Tom W. J. Perinatal death in ethnic minorities in the Netherlands. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 11, Nov 1998. 735-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigate differences in perinatal death rate and associated obstetric risk factors between ethnic groups in the Netherlands.... Ethnic minorities in the Netherlands except immigrants from Asia and other European countries have higher rates of perinatal death than indigenous Dutch women. With a twofold increase, black women had the highest rate, which was related to an equally large increased rate of preterm birth."
Correspondence: A. van Enk, SORG-SAEM, Medical Research, Alberdingk, Thijmstraat 5, 1054 AH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

64:40107 Alam, Nurul; David, Patricia H. Infant and child mortality in Bangladesh: age-specific effects of previous child's death. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1998. 333-48 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines whether mortality of two adjacent siblings in families is age-specific and is modified by the MCH-FP programme and fertility and mortality declines in Matlab, Bangladesh, using data for singleton births during 1977-78, 1985-86 and 1989-90 in the treatment (MCH-FP) and comparison areas.... Odds of neonatal and postneonatal deaths of younger siblings were found to be higher if the elder sibling had died at the same age than if the sibling had survived infancy. Toddler mortality was lower if the elder sibling had died in infancy. The association between two siblings' mortality risks did not decline over time in either area."
Correspondence: N. Alam, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Health and Population Surveillance Programme, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40108 Alter, George. Infant and child mortality in the United States and Canada. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 91-108 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reviews the literature on historical trends in infant mortality in the United States and Canada. Aspects considered include health and mortality in cities and regions; ethnic and racial groups; income, wealth, and literacy; and public health measures.
Correspondence: G. Alter, Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40109 Athreya, Venkatesh; Chunkath, Sheela R. Gender and infant survival in rural Tamil Nadu: situation and strategy. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 40, Oct 3-9, 1998. 2,588-94 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a useful indicator of the health status of a population. In India IMR remains unacceptably high. A sample survey of district-level IMRs in rural Tamil Nadu shows that the crux of the problem is early neonatal mortality compounded by the practice of female infanticide. The major medical causes of infant mortality are birth asphyxia, respiratory infection, premature birth and low birth weight. Better access to health facilities, training for personnel and good quality equipment are required to tackle the problem."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40110 Bardet, Jean-Pierre; Dufour, Corinne; Renard, Jacques. The death of foundlings: a tragedy in two acts. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 245-61 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors discuss the practice of child abandonment in Paris, France, in the eighteenth century. Aspects considered include the practice of sending foundlings to wet-nurses and the impact of this practice on child mortality; comparisons of care among foundlings and bourgeois children; and reasons for high rates of mortality among children cared for by wet-nurses.
Correspondence: J.-P. Bardet, CNRS, URA 100, Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 12 place du Panthéon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40111 Basu, Alaka M. Underinvestment in children: a reorganization of the evidence on the determinants of child mortality. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 307-31 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper has tried to revise the framework of the determinants of infant and child mortality by bringing together some of the dominant strands of research on this subject in anthropological demography. It suggests that an approach based on underinvestment as the major determinant of childhood mortality has much to offer.... The paper also adds the possibility of behavioural underinvestment to the analysis of the biological determinants of infant and child mortality, to make a much less neat but perhaps much more real representation of what kills children."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-6501. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40112 Bideau, Alain; Desjardins, Bertrand; Pérez Brignoli, Héctor. Infant and child mortality in the past. ISBN 0-19-828995-2. LC 97-3696. 1997. xvii, 312 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at the Seminar on Child and Infant Mortality in the Past, held in Montreal, Canada, in 1992. Papers are grouped under the following headings: State of knowledge (Europe); State of knowledge (America and Asia); Demographical, ecological, biological, and epidemiological variables associated with infant and child mortality; and Social variables associated with infant and child mortality.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40113 Blaikie, Andrew. Infant survival chances, unmarried motherhood and domestic arrangements in rural Scotland, 1845-1945. Local Population Studies, No. 60, Spring 1998. 34-46 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper assesses patterns of infant mortality and childhood survival in areas of Scotland where illegitimacy was high during the later nineteenth century and earlier twentieth centuries. The focus will be on nominal record linkage based on rural parishes in north-east and south-west Scotland between 1845 and 1945."
Correspondence: A. Blaikie, University of Aberdeen, Department of Sociology, Aberdeen AB9 1FX, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40114 Breschi, Marco; Livi Bacci, Massimo. Month of birth as a factor in children's survival. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 157-73 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors investigate the influence of season on child mortality in historical Europe. "In the first part of our paper we will present mortality quotients by month (or season) of birth and age [for the period 1828-1888].... In the second part of the paper we will use data derived from family reconstitution of two Tuscan villages [in Italy] which make possible a deeper analysis of the mechanisms of deaths and survival in the first two years of life."
Correspondence: M. Breschi, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via di Parione 7, 50123 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40115 Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Bernhardt, Eva; Smedman, Lars. Use of a historical register in social epidemiology: child mortality in Stockholm at the turn of the 19th century. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 3, Sep 1998. 166-72 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"This study describes the age- and cause-specific levels and social determinants of high child mortality in Stockholm [Sweden] around the turn of the century. The study is based on computerized individual level sociodemographic information and the death certificates of children aged 0-15 years residing in Maria parish in Stockholm during the years 1885, 1891 and 1910 (n=36,718).... Low social class and being born out of wedlock increased the overall risk of death in early childhood."
Correspondence: B. Burström, Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Science, Division of Social Medicine, 172 83 Sundbyberg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40116 Chauhan, Rajesh K. Graduation of infant deaths by age. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1997. 261-74 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt has been made to develop a model...which will take into account the nature of declining tempo of deaths by age during the first year of life. The model is used to give a functional shape to the phenomenon of infant deaths distribution at different ages." The model is tested by fitting it to data for Sweden, the United States, and India.
Correspondence: R. K. Chauhan, Australian National University, GSD 20 Balmain Crescent, 0200 Canberra, ACT, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40117 Del Panta, Lorenzo. Infant and child mortality in Italy, eighteenth to twentieth century: long-term trends and territorial differences. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 7-21 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this report is to give an account...of the evolution of infant and child mortality in Italy.... Some considerations will also be proposed concerning the reliability of available data, with special regard to the difficulties arising when data come from different experiences and situations.... The evolution of infant and child mortality from National Unification [1861] to the middle of the twentieth century will first be described. Afterwards, some partial information will be supplied about the trends and territorial differences of pre-Unification infant mortality levels."
Correspondence: L. Del Panta, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Via Zamboni 33, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40118 Desjardins, Bertrand. Family formation and infant mortality in New France. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 174-87 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper builds on an earlier piece of research on the effects of reproductive behaviour on child mortality (Nault et al., 1990). The data used for this study are taken from the population register created by the Programme de recherche en démographie historique (PRDH) at the University of Montreal, on the basis of parish registers for the entire Quebec population since its origins in the seventeenth century.... Not surprisingly, our results confirm that the mortality of young children is influenced by the different parameters of the mother's fertility and of the formation of the family of origin."
Correspondence: B. Desjardins, Université de Montréal, Programme de Recherche en Démographie Historique, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40119 Dinh, Quang Chi. Social inequalities in infant mortality are narrowing. [Les inégalités sociales de la mortalité infantile s'estompent.] Economie et Statistique, No. 314, 1998. 89-106, 112-4 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger.
Recent trends in infant mortality in France are analyzed using official data. "The increase in public health care to cover pregnancy, birth and early infancy has helped to reduce social inequalities in infant mortality. The gaps have narrowed from one generation to the next and the social groups with the highest infant mortality rates have posted the largest decreases. Remarkable convergence in infant mortality rates is therefore found across all the social groups. The greater part of this decrease has occurred during the neonatal period (deaths in the first month), which demonstrates the protective role of the health system."
Correspondence: Q. C. Dinh, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40120 Dupâquier, Jacques. For a history of prematurity. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 188-202 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author investigates the causes of infant mortality in the past, using the example of Paris, France, since the seventeenth century. The focus is on the impact on mortality of prematurity.
Correspondence: J. Dupâquier, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40121 Dyson, Tim. Infant and child mortality in the Indian subcontinent, 1881-1947. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 109-34 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The present paper has several aims. First, we summarize previous work on early age (i.e. infant and child) mortality [in India]. Second, after a brief consideration of the system of vital registration, we present and discuss time series of infant and child mortality rates relating to British India as a whole. Third, we examine similar statistics for the various provinces of British India and address regional variation in levels, trends, age patterns, and sex differentials in early age mortality. Fourth, we discuss urban-rural variation in infant mortality--giving particular consideration to circumstances in the City of Bombay."
Correspondence: T. Dyson, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40122 George, Sabu M.; Dahiya, Ranbir S. Female foeticide in rural Haryana. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 32, Aug 8-14, 1998. 2,191-8 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Female foeticide over the last 15 years has distorted sex ratios at birth in several Asian countries. Foetal sex determination clinics have been established in India over the last 20 years in northern and western cities. Presented here is the outcome of an intensive study of the abuse of prenatal diagnostic techniques for sex selection in a rural population of 13,000 in Rohtak district. Parents tend to be calculative in choosing the sex of the next child and the decision is based on the birth order, sex sequence of previous children and number of sons. Transfer of reproductive technology to India is resulting in reinforcement of patriarchal values as professional medical organisations seem to be indifferent to ethical misconduct."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40123 Guilkey, David K.; Riphahn, Regina T. The determinants of child mortality in the Philippines: estimation of a structural model. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 56, No. 2, Aug 1998. 281-305 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper employs a longitudinal data set from the Philippines to estimate a structural model of the determinants of infant mortality. To control for the endogeneity of some explanatory variables, a set of reduced form equations for these outcomes is estimated simultaneously with the mortality hazard. A non-parametric discrete factor method is used to control for common unobservable factors in the error terms. Birth interval and parity lose explanatory power once biological measures are considered in the model. The results indicate significant correlations across the equations' error terms. The significant effects of breastfeeding and growth on mortality are quantified in simulation experiments." The data are from a longitudinal survey conducted in metropolitan Cebu between 1983 and 1986.
Correspondence: D. K. Guilkey, University of North Carolina, Department of Economics, University Square, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3305. E-mail: david_guilkey@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:40124 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Socio-demographic characteristics of infant mortality based on data for 1990-1993. Central Bureau of Statistics Publications, No. 1070, Sep 1997. [xxxvi], 45, xx pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
This is the fourth in a series of publications presenting data on infant mortality in Israel. "This publication presents data [for] the years 1990-1993, by infant's characteristics and socio-demographic characteristics of parents." Some international comparisons are also included.
For a previous publication presenting data for the period 1885-1989, see 60:10152.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, P.O. Box 13015, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40125 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. Associations between wife-beating and fetal and infant death: impressions from a survey in rural India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 3, Sep 1998. 300-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report examines the linkages between wife-beating and one health-related consequence for women, their experience of fetal and infant mortality. Community-based data are used drawn from women surveyed in two culturally distinct sites of rural India.... Results suggest that wife-beating is deeply entrenched, that attitudes uniformly justify wife-beating, and that few women can escape an abusive marriage. They also suggest that the health consequences of domestic violence--in terms of pregnancy loss and infant mortality--are considerable and that Indian women's experience of infant and fetal mortality is powerfully conditioned by the strength of the patriarchal social system."
Correspondence: S. J. Jejeebhoy, World Health Organization, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Special Programme of Research, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40126 Kertzer, David I. The proper role of culture in demographic explanation. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 137-57 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the role of economics, rationality, and culture in demographic behavior, with a focus on the implications of the large-scale abandonment of infants in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He supports "approaches to demographic explanation that pay serious attention both to history and historical contingency and to political factors that shape behaviour.... We should examine a cultural sphere that is interwoven with, both shaping and being shaped by, political and economic institutions, as well as by kinship and other social organizational structures."
Correspondence: D. I. Kertzer, Brown University, Department of Anthropology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40127 Kok, Jan; van Poppel, Frans; Kruse, Ellen. Mortality among illegitimate children in mid-nineteenth-century The Hague. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 193-211 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"We studied infant and childhood mortality of children born in the 1850s in the Dutch city of The Hague, making use of the population register and the vital registration system. We followed a cohort of children over time on a day-by-day basis, noting as far as possible all the relevant socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the environment in which legitimate and illegitimate subjects were born and grew up.... Our analysis showed that, in the middle of the nineteenth century, illegitimate children had very little chance of surviving infancy and childhood.... Multivariate analysis showed that this excess mortality was caused by a set of factors, the most important being the age of the mother at birth, regional background, and the socio-economic group to which the notifier of the birth belonged."
Correspondence: J. Kok, International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40128 Lebedev, A. D.; Saravaiskaya, L. I.; Begun, A. Z. New approaches to spatial analysis: the locus pathology concept and infant mortality. [Novye podkhody k prostranstvennomu analizu: kontseptsiya lokusov patologii i mladencheskaya smertnost'.] Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seriya Geograficheskaya, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 50-7 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The authors use data on infant mortality in Russia to address the problems inherent in spatial analysis. Three levels of geographic entities are examined: cities and their regions, urban settlements, and rural settlements. The results suggest that rather than averaging results across regions, the new approach to analyzing local data described here would result in more useful information about the health of the population and the environment in specific areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40129 MacDorman, Marian F.; Atkinson, Jonnae O. Infant mortality statistics from the 1996 period linked birth/infant death data set. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 46, No. 12, Suppl., Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS)98-1120. Aug 27, 1998. 24 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents [U.S.] infant mortality data from the 1996 period linked file.... [Data are given by] race and Hispanic origin of the mother, birthweight, period of gestation, sex of infant, plurality, trimester of pregnancy prenatal care began, maternal age, maternal educational attainment, livebirth order, marital status, mother's place of birth, maternal smoking during pregnancy, age at death, and underlying cause of death for the 50 States and the District of Columbia."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40130 McInnis, Marvin. Infant mortality in late nineteenth-century Canada. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 262-75 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter describes the estimation of rates of infant mortality for eight principal cities and 114 counties of the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec for the census year 1891.... Four categories of cause of death are examined: (1) infectious diseases (such as smallpox, diphtheria, and whooping cough), (2) bronchitis and pneumonia, (3) diarrhoea and gastro-enteritis, and (4) congenital debility.... Infant mortality in Canada was without question related to urbanization. It was certainly higher in the larger cities. It is less well established, though, that the degree of urbanization had a significant effect on the county levels of infant mortality."
Correspondence: M. McInnis, Queen's University, Department of Economics, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40131 Milankovic, Jasna. Infant mortality by cause of death. [Smrtnost odojcadi prema uzrocima smrti.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1998. 105-24 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes infant mortality in Yugoslavia by cause of death, with a focus on preventive social and health care measures. "During the initial observation period when the general level of infant mortality was exceptionally high, the share of infectious diseases and those of the respiratory system was very large.... The period from 1989 to 1996 is characterized by endogenous causes of infant mortality primarily during the neo-natal period and have to do with the constitutional features of...live-born children, congenital anomalies, premature birth, respiratory distress, etc...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40132 Mohamed, Wan N.; Diamond, Ian; Smith, Peter W. F. The determinants of infant mortality in Malaysia: a graphical chain modelling approach. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: Statistics in Society, Vol. 161, No. 3, 1998. 349-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A graphical chain modelling approach is used to study the determinants of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in Malaysia. This approach provides an easily interpretable empirical description and illustrates explicitly the conditional independence structure between each pair of variables. The interpretation can be read directly from a mathematical graph. Besides examining the direct association of each determinant on mortality, we also examine the effects of socio-economic determinants on intermediate determinants to understand the pathways through which the socioeconomic determinants affect the chance of mortality. The data anlaysed come from the second Malaysian Family Life Survey, fielded between August 1988 and January 1989."
Correspondence: P. W. F. Smith, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Highfeld, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. E-mail: P.W.Smith@soton.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40133 Montgomery, Mark R.; Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Hewett, Paul C.; Heuveline, Patrick. The consequences of imperfect fertility control for children's survival, health, and schooling. DHS Analytical Report, No. 7, Dec 1997. viii, 65 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report explores the consequences of imperfect fertility control for various dimensions of children's human capital formation--their survival, health, and schooling--using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data from [the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand].... Information on women's fertility preferences is used to investigate two conceptually distinct aspects of imperfect fertility control: unintended fertility and excess fertility.... The aim...is to determine whether...departures from women's preferences have implications for investments in the human capital of their children."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40134 Ota, A. B. Child survival and family planning. ISBN 81-86040-46-3. 1996. iv, 222 pp. Mayur Publications: Bhubaneswar, India. Distributed by United Research Pvt., N3/33 Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the factors responsible for the high rates of infant and child mortality in a backward gram panchayat (district) in Orissa, India. The data concern all infant and child deaths occurring in Dudhjori during the period 1975-1984. The analysis is done separately for the scheduled tribes and castes and the general population. Emphasis is on the relationship between such mortality and the adoption of family planning methods.
Correspondence: Mayur Publications, C/5 Unit, 3 Kharevela Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751 001, Orissa, India. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:40135 Overpeck, Mary D.; Brenner, Ruth A.; Trumble, Ann C.; Trifiletti, Lara B.; Berendes, Heinz W. Risk factors for infant homicide in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 339, No. 17, Oct 22, 1998. 1,211-6 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The timing and risk factors for infant deaths due to homicide are analyzed using linked birth and death certificates for all live births occurring in the United States between 1983 and 1991. Homicide is the leading cause of infant deaths due to injury, and 2,776 infant homicides were identified in this period. The results indicate that childbearing at an early age was strongly associated with infant homicide, particularly if the mother had given birth previously.
Correspondence: M. D. Overpeck, National Institute of Child and Human Development, Building 6100, Room 7B03, 9000 Rockville Pike, MSC 7510, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40136 Perrenoud, Alfred. Child mortality in francophone Europe: state of knowledge. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 22-37 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"I will examine the patterns of child mortality [in Belgium, France, and Switzerland] in the pre-statistical period. They can be expected to furnish us with the material to comprehend better the reduction in mortality rates at the beginning of the modern phase of the health transition. Next, after an evaluation of the differentiated trends of mortality in the nineteenth century, I will try to begin to answer the questions that this pattern of development poses."
Correspondence: A. Perrenoud, Université de Genève, Département d'Histoire Economique, 3 Place de l'Université, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40137 Prasad, Nooka R. Child survival in rural areas. ISBN 81-7488-553-6. 1997. [ix], 196 pp. Anmol Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The results of an in-depth study on maternal and child health in rural areas of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh are presented. The data, which were collected in 1993, concern 1,035 women aged 15-49 living in Warangal district. The focus of the study is on the utilization of MCH services by these women and on the impact of such use on child survival and on the adoption of family planning.
Correspondence: Anmol Publications, 4374/4B Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40138 Rajna, P. N.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Krishnamoorthy, S. Impact of maternal education and health services on child mortality in Uttar Pradesh, India. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1998. 27-38 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article, which examines the effect of maternal education on child mortality [in India], shows that education has direct as well as indirect effects through antenatal care and family formation patterns on neonatal mortality. Maternal education also has a substantial effect on later childhood mortality. While improving maternal education is a means of reducing childhood mortality, an immediate reduction in childhood mortality is feasible even under existing social conditions by enhancing accessibility to maternal and child health services and safe drinking water."
Correspondence: P. N. Rajna, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. E-mail: popstu@as250.bharathi.ernet.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40139 Rollet, Catherine. The fight against infant mortality in the past: an international comparison. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 38-60 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author compares methods used in the fight against infant and child mortality in the past. "I will compare the work of demographers and historians on specific countries...with works of sociologists, historians, doctors, and demographers on such themes as the Welfare State, the demographic transition, the role of women, and the family.... [The analyses are] structured around the following specific questions: to what extent have the different countries entering into the process of industrialization and modernization followed the same path towards the awareness, conceptualization, and actual practice of the fight against infant mortality? Were these movements planned and then implemented in similar ways by different societies?"
Correspondence: C. Rollet, Université Versailles/Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 23 rue du Refuge, 78000 Versailles, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40140 Saito, Osamu. Infant mortality in pre-transition Japan: levels and trends. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 135-53 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter is...an attempt to determine the probable level of infant mortality for a Tokugawa [Japan] village population. This chapter will also trace changes from the Tokugawa to the Meiji periods, and then to the inter-war period, in relation to the corresponding changes in childhood mortality. The results will suggest that the level of infant mortality was not very high in late Tokugawa times.... But...it will also be suggested that as far as the period before 1920 is concerned, there seems to have been no substantial improvement despite the economic, social, and institutional changes following the Meiji reforms...."
Correspondence: O. Saito, Hitotsubashi University, Institute of Economic Research, Nishi 5, Kita 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40141 Samuelsen, Sven O.; Magnus, Per; Bakketeig, Leiv S. Birth weight and mortality in childhood in Norway. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 148, No. 10, Nov 15, 1998. 983-91 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The Norwegian Birth Registry, which has been in operation since 1967, now includes about 1.5 million births which can be followed with linkage to the National Cause of Death Registry. In light of the increased interest in long-term consequences of low birth weight, the aim of this paper is to estimate the relative risk of cause-specific mortality from the second through the fifteenth year of life, for groups of children defined by different levels of birth weight and gestational age at birth."
Correspondence: P. Magnus, National Institute of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 4404 Torshov, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40142 Shah, Gulzar H.; Toney, Michael B.; Pitcher, Brian L. Consanguinity and child mortality: the risk faced by families. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, Jun 1998. 275-83 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study investigates the effects of consanguinity on a family's odds of experiencing the death of a child in Pakistan, a society in which marriage among close relatives is common. Analysis of data from the 1991 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey reveals that first cousin marriages increase a couple's risk of enduring the death of one or more of their children. These couples are 1.18 times as likely to have a child die by its fifth birthday than couples not related by blood net of other factors associated with child mortality. Elimination of first cousin marriages would contribute to a modest decrease in the proportion of Pakistani families suffering the death of a child."
Correspondence: M. B. Toney, Utah State University, Department of Sociology, Social Work and Anthropology, Population Research Laboratory, Logan, UT 84322-0730. E-mail: mtoney@wpo.hass.usu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40143 Thornton, Patricia; Olson, Sherry. Infant vulnerability in three cultural settings in Montreal, 1880. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 216-41 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors investigate cultural influences on infant mortality in Montreal in the 1800s. "Study of the Montreal birth cohort of 1879 indicates the persistence of a strong cultural differential in infant mortality.... The most powerful elements of explanation, we would suggest, may lie with attitudes, especially the shift from fatalism to conscious control which permeated so many aspects of behaviour affecting both infant care and fertility."
Correspondence: P. Thornton, McGill University, Department of Geography, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40144 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). Too young to die: genes or gender? No. ST/ESA/SER.A/155, Pub. Order No. E.98.XIII.13. ISBN 92-1-151325-1. 1998. xii, 260 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report is the product of a UN Population Division study of the sex differentials in infant, child, and under-five mortality and the specific mechanisms that may lead to excess female mortality in childhood. It consists of 10 chapters "that explore a broad range of mechanisms, ranging from the biological to the social and economic, that influence sex differentials in childhood mortality. The mechanisms considered affect mortality differentials either directly, as in the case of the nutritional status of boys and girls or the differential use of health care by sex of child, or indirectly, as in the case of maternal education and decisions regarding the intra-household allocation of resources. The study also provides a historical account of the evolution of the sex differentials in childhood mortality in today's developed countries during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Another major contribution is its measurement and analysis of the levels and trends of infant, child and under-five mortality for boys and girls during the 1970s and 1980s. Such analysis allows the identification of the countries and regions in which girls have a survival disadvantage compared to boys, and permits an objective assessment of the magnitude and extent of excess female mortality in childhood."
Correspondence: United Nations Secretariat, Population Division, Room DC2-1950, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40145 van Poppel, Frans; Mandemakers, Kees. Differential infant and child mortality in the Netherlands, 1812-1912: first results of the historical sample of the population of the Netherlands. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 276-300 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze infant and child mortality in the Netherlands from 1812 to 1912. "After a general overview of the trends and the intra-provincial variation in infant and childhood mortality, we will then give a general description of socio-economic mortality differences. Next, a more detailed description of the results is given, paying particular attention to time trends, sex differences in socio-economic mortality differentials, and regional differences in social inequality before death. Finally, we present a multivariate analysis of mortality during the first years of life...."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40146 Viazzo, Pier P. Alpine patterns of infant mortality in perspective. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 61-73 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author investigates historical infant mortality patterns in the Alpine area of Europe, with a focus on differences between this region and the surrounding lowland areas. Sections are included on broad regional patterns, small-scale spatial differences and the role of altitude, and environmental and social factors as possible causes of low mortality.
Correspondence: P. P. Viazzo, Università degli Studi di Torino, Department of Anthropology, Via Verdi 8, 10124 Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40147 Woods, Robert. Infant mortality in Britain: a survey of current knowledge on historical trends and variations. In: Infant and child mortality in the past, edited by Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Héctor Pérez Brignoli. 1997. 74-88 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter will be directed towards four questions.... First, what are the best estimates of English infant mortality rates over the last four hundred years and how might they differ from the Scottish series? Secondly, how have regional and local geographical variations persisted over time and to what extent have there been trends in common? Thirdly, have there been differences in infant mortality between social groups and how have they changed with time? Fourthly, how many differential cause of death patterns have affected mortality in early life?"
Correspondence: R. Woods, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40148 Zahid, Ghulam M. Mother's health-seeking behaviour and childhood mortality in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 35, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1996. 719-31 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The paper examines the mother's health-seeking behaviour and childhood mortality in Pakistan. This is based on the 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS).... It was found that neonatal, infant, and child mortality rate is the highest among children of mothers aged less than 20 years. Infant and child mortality rate is likewise higher among first and higher order births than among births of second or third order. It was further found that mortality declines as the length of the birth interval increases. The results reveal that the education of mother has significant effect on the neonatal, infant and child survival.... Health care factors such as antenatal care, place of delivery, assistance at delivery and immunisation also influenced neonatal, infant and child mortality."
Correspondence: G. M. Zahid, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Department of Demography, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

64:40149 Grundy, Emily. Demography and gerontology: mortality trends among the oldest old. Ageing and Society, Vol. 17, No. 6, Nov 1997. 713-25 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides a brief introduction to demography and population science and the newly emerged subfield of the demography of ageing. Links with gerontology are explored. Recent work on mortality at very high ages and on the black-white mortality `cross-over' reported from the United States is then reviewed. These topics are important substantively and theoretically and also serve to illustrate demographic approaches to data and data analysis.... Recent work indicates that the mortality of very old people, including centenarians, has fallen considerably, at least in those countries where good data exist. The mortality `cross-over', however, appears to be artefactual, at least at ages under 95 years."
Correspondence: E. Grundy, King's College London, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, Cornwall House, Waterloo Road, London SE1 8TX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40150 Meslé, France; Vallin, Jacques. Trends in mortality at advanced ages in France since 1950. [Evolution de la mortalité aux âges élevés en France depuis 1950.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 68, Apr 1998. 41 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This analysis focuses on trends in mortality among the elderly in France since 1950. The authors note that most of the gains in life expectancy that have occurred since 1950 have been due to increased life expectancy among the older population. These trends in mortality are analyzed separately by sex, cause, region, and social class.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40151 Oman, Douglas; Reed, Dwayne. Religion and mortality among the community-dwelling elderly. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 10, Oct 1998. 1,469-75 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between religious observance and mortality is analyzed using data on some 2,000 elderly residents of Marin County, California. The data were collected over the course of the early 1990s. The results indicate that those who attended religious services had lower mortality than those that did not, and that religious attendance tended to be slightly more protective for those with higher levels of social support.
Correspondence: D. Oman, Buck Center for Research in Aging, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, P.O. Box 638, Novato, CA 94948. E-mail: oman@stat.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

64:40152 Belgium. Institut National de Statistique (Brussels, Belgium). Life tables, 1997 and 1995-1997. [Tables de mortalité 1997 et 1995-1997.] Statistiques Démographiques, 1998. 113 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
Life tables are presented for Belgium for 1997 by sex and major region, and for the period 1995-1997 by sex, region, and province, and separately for the Belgian and the foreign population.
Correspondence: Institut National de Statistique, 44 rue de Louvain, Centre Albert, 8e étage, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40153 Craig, John. To be or not to be--what are the odds? Statistical News, No. 119, Spring 1998. 23-32 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Some aspects of life expectancies in England are analyzed, with the focus on quantifying the variations in length of life by looking at an individual's chances of an early death or of having an exceptionally long life. The author examines how these differences in individual length of life are related to underlying patterns of mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40154 Czech Republic. Ceský Statistický Úrad (Prague, Czech Republic). Abbreviated life tables for the districts of the Czech Republic, 1991-1995. [Zkrácené úmrtnostní tabulky za okresy CR v letech 1991-1995.] Ceská Statistika, No. 4, ISBN 80-85949-58-X. 1996. 88 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze.
Abbreviated life tables are presented for the Czech Republic by district and sex for the period 1991-1995.
Correspondence: Ceský Statistický Úrad, Sokolovská 142, 186 04 Prague 8, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40155 Lamur, H. E.; Bottse, R.; Rozenblad, C. O. N. Rise of the expectation of life in Suriname, 1964-1995. Life tables for Suriname, 1980-1995. [Stijging van de levensverwachting in Suriname 1964-1995. Sterftetafels voor Suriname, 1980-1995.] 1998. 30 pp. Census Bureau: Paramaribo, Suriname. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The publication presents both an analysis of mortality tables for the period 1980-1995 and an overview of the results of mortality tables for the pre-1980 period, in Suriname. The analysis shows that the expectation of life at birth for the Surinamese population as a whole (males and females) rose rapidly from 63.0 year in 1964 to 66.5 year [in] 1979.... The rising trend of the expectation of life at birth after 1964 may be considered as a continuation of the rapid decline in (infant) mortality which began in the early twentieth century, associated with an improvement of public health over the past decades."
Correspondence: Census Bureau, Coppenamestraat 170, Paramaribo, Suriname. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40156 Mathew, Anil C.; Krishnamoorthy, S. Refined estimates of person years lived at infant and childhood ages of model life tables. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1997. 287-96 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper improved approximations for the person years lived at infant and childhood ages are obtained for the most commonly used model life tables, namely Regional Model Life Tables (Coale and Demeny, 1983) and Model Life Tables For Developing Countries (United Nations, 1982). Using Weibull parameterisation, the refined estimates are arrived at and compared with [the originals]."
Correspondence: A. C. Mathew, Bharathiar University, Department of Statistics, Coimbatore 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

64:40157 Daly, Mary C.; Duncan, Greg J.; Kaplan, George A.; Lynch, John W. Macro-to-micro links in the relation between income inequality and mortality. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 76, No. 3, 1998. 315-39 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors apply "a variety of inequality measures, including one that accounts separately for inequality in the top and bottom halves of the income distribution, and [use] longitudinal data from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics covering the years 1978 to 1982 and 1988 to 1992, to relate state-level income inequality to the five-year, age-adjusted mortality risk of individuals. Our findings suggest that inequality is not a simple, unidimensional factor and that the significant links between inequality and mortality found at the aggregate level do not always carry over to the individual level."
Correspondence: G. J. Duncan, Northwestern University, Institute for Policy Research, 2040 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208. E-mail: greg-duncan@nwu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40158 Dickman, Paul W.; Auvinen, Anssi; Voutilainen, Esko T.; Hakulinen, Timo. Measuring social class differences in cancer patient survival: is it necessary to control for social class differences in general population mortality? A Finnish population-based study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 11, Nov 1998. 727-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study determined the degree to which the choice of survival measure affects the estimation of social class differences in cancer patient survival [in Finland].... The degree of variation in relative survival resulting from social class decreased, although did not disappear, after controlling for social class differences in general mortality. The results obtained using corrected survival were close to those obtained using relative survival with a social class correction. The differences between the three measures were largest when the proportion of deaths from other causes was large...."
Correspondence: P. W. Dickman, Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Radiumhemmet, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40159 Dontas, A. S.; Menotti, A.; Aravanis, C.; Ioannidis, P.; Seccareccia, F. Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 10, Oct 1998. 638-44 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail.... Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP [systolic blood pressure] and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV [forced expiratory volume]; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations."
Correspondence: A. S. Dontas, Centre of Studies of Age-Related Changes in Man, 137 Kifissias Avenue, Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40160 Elo, Irma T. Adult mortality among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: a review of the evidence. In: Minorities, aging, and health, edited by Kyriakos S. Markides and Manuel R. Miranda. 1997. 41-78 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews and evaluates recent evidence on mortality estimates among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in the United States by age, sex, and ethnic origin. The emphasis is on mortality at adult ages in the 1989-1991 period in comparison to White Americans.... I begin by discussing the ethnic and demographic composition of the Asian and Pacific Islander population in the United States and the availability of national-level data for the study of health and mortality among this population subgroup.... I then examine mortality differentials at adult ages among Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Other Asians and Pacific Islanders, and all Asian and Pacific Islanders combined with reference to White Americans.... In the discussion of mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders, I also review issues related to data quality. Here I examine evidence of studies that investigated the consistency of reporting of race in vital statistics and census data.... The focus then shifts to an analysis of mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders based on linked data files, and I end with a discussion of cause-specific mortality differentials."
Correspondence: I. T. Elo, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40161 Hummer, Robert A.; Rogers, Richard G.; Eberstein, Isaac W. Sociodemographic differentials in adult mortality: a review of analytic approaches. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 553-78, 669, 671 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Following a discussion of the conventional approaches used to analyze differentials in adult mortality, the authors pose a series of questions aimed at encouraging research on differential mortally along new, causally pertinent directions. These include the modeling of differential mortality in a proximate determinants perspective, the incorporation of time into differential mortality models, the inclusion of more refined outcome measures, and the use of a macro-level perspective to better understand mortality differentials. Examples of recent [U.S.] studies expanding in these directions are briefly described."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. A. Hummer, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. E-mail: rhummer@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40162 John, Robert. Aging and mortality among American Indians: concerns about the reliability of a crucial indicator of health status. In: Minorities, aging, and health, edited by Kyriakos S. Markides and Manuel R. Miranda. 1997. 79-104 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines the three main factors that complicate the analysis of mortality trends among elderly American Indians in the United States. "A first major problem is a misclassification in the underlying cause of death. A second major problem is the misidentification of the race of the decedent. Finally, mortality figures are influenced by the accuracy of the American Indian population estimates." The author concludes that "because of what we know about the problems with American Indian mortality data, our current understanding of American Indian mortality and other indicators of health status, such as life expectancy, must be interpreted with caution."
Correspondence: R. John, University of North Texas, Department of Applied Gerontology, Denton, TX 76203-3826. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40163 Manton, Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric. Non-white and white age trajectories of mortality: evidence from extinct cohort analyses, 1950 to 1992. In: Minorities, aging, and health, edited by Kyriakos S. Markides and Manuel R. Miranda. 1997. 15-40 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze total and cause-specific mortality patters for whites and non-whites in the United States for the period 1950-1992. "In those data, we saw clear evidence of a Black/White mortality crossover for the three oldest cohorts in terms of the overall age pattern of decline in each of the cohort mortality rates. The absolute levels of mortality crossover at about age 76 for males and between ages 65 and 75 for females in 1970 in the two older cohorts. The crossovers were manifest in the same two cohorts, to a greater degree, in 1980. In contrast to total mortality, total cancer mortality showed no evidence of a trend toward crossover in any of the five cohorts." The authors conclude that this crossover effect is unlikely to be due primarily to age misreporting, but that "the patterns observed seemed to be consistent with a number of insights from the genetic and molecular epidemiology of cancer risks and their differences by both gender and race."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40164 Michalek, Joel E.; Ketchum, Norma S.; Akhtar, Fatema Z. Postservice mortality of U.S. Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: 15-year follow-up. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 148, No. 8, Oct 15, 1998. 786-92 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Results are presented from an ongoing study into the mortality of U.S. veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for the aerial spraying of herbicides during the Vietnam War. Some 19,080 veterans are included in the study. The results indicate that the cumulative all-cause mortality experience of these veterans was not different from that for veterans in general. "Overall, cause-specific mortality did not differ from that expected regarding deaths from accidents, cancer, or circulatory system diseases, but the authors found that there was an increased number of deaths due to digestive diseases.... When analyzing by military occupation, they found an increase in the number of deaths caused by circulatory system diseases...among enlisted ground personnel, the subgroup with the highest dioxin levels."
Correspondence: J. E. Michalek, AFRL/HEDB, 2606 Doolittle Road, Building 807, Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235-5250. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40165 Preston, Samuel H.; Hill, Mark E.; Drevenstedt, Greg L. Childhood conditions that predict survival to advanced ages among African-Americans. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 9, Nov 1998. 1,231-46 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the social and economic circumstances of childhood that predict the probability of survival to age 85 among African-Americans. It uses a unique study design in which survivors are linked to their records in U.S. Censuses of 1900 and 1910. A control group of age and race-matched children is drawn from Public Use Samples for these censuses. It concludes that the factors most predictive of survival are farm background, having literate parents, and living in a two-parent household. Results support the interpretation that death risks are positively correlated over the life cycle."
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40166 Tickle, Leonie. The sex differential in mortality rates and underlying factors. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper, No. 006/97, ISBN 1-86408-360-3. Mar 1997. 42, [9] pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines the sex differential in population mortality in Australia, and the possible factors underlying this differential. The five main cause of death groups which contribute to the current sex differential in mortality in Australia are ischaemic heart disease, lung and related cancers, respiratory disease, cancers except lung and related cancers, and accidents and suicide. For each of these causes of death, the sex differential in mortality in different countries and over time in Australia has been presented. Research on the various genetic/biological and lifestyle environmental factors which are thought to be associated with each of these causes of death is also presented. The overall conclusion is that the data and research suggest that environmental and lifestyle factors make an important contribution to the sex differential in mortality in Australia."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Author's E-mail: ltickle@efs.mq.edu.au. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

64:40167 Waitzman, Norman J.; Smith, Ken R. Separate but lethal: the effects of economic segregation on mortality in metropolitan America. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 76, No. 3, 1998. 341-73 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This study both theoretically extends and empirically refines the burgeoning literature that links socioeconomic disparities to mortality. Its major theoretical extension rests with the formal consideration of the emerging areal configuration of socioeconomic inequalities and the potential relation of this pattern to mortality risk.... We focus our analysis on the issues of the relevant unit of space for the analysis and how the socioeconomic configuration of residence within that unit relates to health." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: N. J. Waitzman, University of Utah, Department of Economics, 1645 East Central Campus Drive Front, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9300. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40168 Wannamethee, S. Goya; Shaper, A. Gerald; Walker, Mary. Changes in physical activity, mortality, and incidence of coronary heart disease in older men. Lancet, Vol. 351, No. 9116, May 30, 1998. 1,603-8 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"In 1978-80 (Q1), 7,735 men aged 40-59 were...enrolled in a prospective study of cardiovascular disease, which included physical activity data. In 1992 (Q92), 12-14 years later, 5,934 of the men...gave further information on physical activity and were then followed up for a further 4 years. The main endpoints were all-cause mortality during 4 years of follow-up from Q92, and major fatal and non-fatal coronary-heart-disease events during 3 years of follow-up from Q92." The study found that maintaining or taking up light physical activity reduced mortality and heart attacks in older men, even after adjusting for confounding factors.
Correspondence: S. G. Wannamethee, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, London NW3 2PF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40169 Yaari, Shlomit; Goldbourt, Uri. Voluntary and involuntary weight loss: associations with long term mortality in 9,228 middle-aged and elderly men. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 148, No. 6, Sep 15, 1998. 546-55 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The association between changes in body weight and subsequent mortality is explored using data from the Israeli Ischemic Heart Disease Study on 9,228 men aged 40-65 who were observed over the period 1963-1968. "Being on a slimming diet as reported in 1963, was associated with an approximate doubling of excess mortality in men with extreme weight loss. Weight loss in 1963-1968 coincided with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus and a declining level of serum total cholesterol. This and other studies indicate that both voluntary and involuntary weight loss might be associated with a small increase in the risk of all-cause mortality."
Correspondence: S. Yaari, Bar-Ilan University, Computing Center, 52 900 Ramat-Gan, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

64:40170 Akopyan, A.; Mishiev, V.; Kharchenko, V.; Dudaev, V.; Ioffina, O. Changes in levels of morbidity and mortality from "socially marked" (sociopathological) diseases in present-day Russia. [Dinamika urovnei zabolevaemosti i smertnosti ot boleznei, imeyushchikh "sotsial'nuyu okrasku" (sotsiopatii) v sovremennoi Rossii.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 3, 1998. 87-92 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Trends in mortality and morbidity from causes defined as sociopathological in contemporary Russia are analyzed. Causes of death coming under this definition include deaths from suicide, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and AIDS.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40171 Anandalakshmy, P. N.; Buckshee, K. Maternal mortality in a referral hospital of northern India: a sixteen-year review. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 3, Sep 1997. 1-4 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, maternal mortality is reviewed retrospectively during the sixteen-year period beginning 1st April 1979 to 31st March 1995 in the AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences) Hospital, New Delhi, which is a teaching and referral hospital and caters to high risk pregnancies. The paper is expected to throw some light on the major causes of maternal death and how they could be prevented in developing countries like India."
Correspondence: P. N. Anandalakshmy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40172 Ashmore, J. P.; Krewski, D.; Zielinski, J. M.; Jiang, H.; Semenciw, R.; Band, P. R. First analysis of mortality and occupational radiation exposure based on the National Dose Registry of Canada. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 148, No. 6, Sep 15, 1998. 564-74 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A cohort mortality study of occupational radiation exposure was conduced using the records of the National Dose Registry of Canada. The cohort consisted of 206,620 individuals monitored for radiation exposure between 1951 and 1983 with mortality follow-up through December 31, 1987. A total of 5,426 deaths were identified by computerized record linkage with the Canadian Mortality Data Base. The standardized mortality ratio for all causes of death was 0.61 for both sexes combined. However, trends of increasing mortality with cumulative exposure to whole body radiation were noted for all causes of death in both males and females. In males, cancer mortality appeared to increase with cumulative exposure to radiation, without any clear relation to specific cancers. Unexplained trends of increasing mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (males and females) and accidents (males only) were also noted. The excess relative risk for both sexes...is within the range of risk estimates previously reported in the literature."
Correspondence: J. P. Ashmore, Health Canada, Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1C1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40173 Breart, Gérard. Delayed childbearing. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Vol. 75, No. 1, Dec 1997. 71-3 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Since around 1980, in countries belonging to [the] European Union the mean maternal age at birth increased by 1.5 [years] (from 27.1 to 28.6). This demographic change has important consequences on the health of the mother and of the neonate. Maternal mortality rates, stillbirth rates and frequency of congenital anomalies are affected. Without improvement in care those rates would have increased by 15 to 35% because of the increase of the mean age at birth. Nevertheless it should be noted that they continue to decrease."
Correspondence: G. Breart, INSERM, Epidemiology Research Unit on Women and Children's Health, 123 boulevard de Port-Royal, 75014 Paris, France. E-mail: breart@cochin.inserm.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40174 Burnley, I. H. Inequalities in the transition of ischaemic heart disease mortality in New South Wales, Australia, 1969-1994. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 9, Nov 1998. 1,209-22 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines changes in ischaemic heart disease mortality in New South Wales between 1969 and 1994.... Mortality from ischaemic heart disease declined in all marital status and occupational status groups, and in all geographical areas, but it declined more slowly among never married and divorced males, among manual workers, and in lower income areas. Whereas ischaemic heart disease mortality was lower in most rural areas than in metropolitan Sydney at the beginning of the period, in the 1990s it was significantly more elevated in inland small towns and rural areas than in the metropolis. Differentials increased over time, more especially with males."
Correspondence: I. H. Burnley, University of New South Wales, School of Geography, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40175 Cascioli, Raffaella; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Simonetti, Andrea. Temporal analysis of mortality by cause in the Campania region. [Analisi temporale della mortalità per causa nella regione Campania.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 98/14, 1998. iii, 113 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanità [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"A temporal analysis of mortality from 1970 to 1994 in the Campania region [of Italy] articulated on a provincial level is presented. The absolute number of deaths and standardised age rates, calculated over quinquennial periods, for 49 causes of death and the relative graphs on the temporal tendencies of the rates are presented. Alongside these results, the corresponding tendencies on a national level are reported for comparison."
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40176 Davey Smith, George; Shipley, Martin; Leon, David A. Height and mortality from cancer among men: prospective observational study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 317, No. 7169, Nov 14, 1998. 1,351-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This study examines the relation between height and mortality from cancer in a large cohort of men for whom data on smoking and socioeconomic status were available. "In the Whitehall study of London civil servants, data on employment grade, height, and smoking behaviour were available for 17,378 men aged 40-64 who were examined between 1967 and 1969. During follow up until 31 January 1995, 2,226 of these men died of cancer: 725 from cancers unrelated to smoking and 1,501 from cancers related to smoking. To adjust for the potential confounding effects of other variables proportional hazards analyses were carried out with height as a continuous variable and age (in age bands of five years), employment grade...and smoking behaviour...as covariates."
Correspondence: G. Davey Smith, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. E-mail: zetkin@bristol.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40177 Fingerhut, Lois A.; Cox, Christine S.; Warner, Margaret. International comparative analysis of injury mortality: findings from the ICE on injury statistics. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 303, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 98-1250. Oct 7, 1998. 20 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report investigates international differences in injury mortality rates among 11 of the countries participating in the International Collaborative Effort on Injury Statistics.... The cause, intent, and age-specific injury mortality rates are calculated and presented from Australia, Canada, Denmark, England and Wales, France, Israel, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland, and the United States. Data are presented by cause (or mechanism) and intent (or manner of death)...."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40178 Hallqvist, Johan; Lundberg, Michael; Diderichsen, Finn; Ahlbom, Anders. Socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction 1971-1994 in Sweden: time trends, relative risks and population attributable risks. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jun 1998. 410-5 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The general trend in incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the Stockholm area changed from increasing to decreasing around 1980. The objective of this study is to examine time trends in incidence in major socioeconomic strata, relative risk between socioeconomic groups and population risk attributable to socioeconomic differences during this period.... The increase over time of relative and population attributable risks of MI from low socioeconomic status add to the public health importance of social inequity."
Correspondence: J. Hallqvist, Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40179 Heath, Katherine V.; Frank, Odile; Montaner, Julio S. G.; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V.; Schechter, Martin T.; Hogg, Robert S. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality in industrialized nations, 1987-1991. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 4, Aug 1998. 685-90 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "compare patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality in 11 selected industrialized countries with highly developed death registration systems and a broad range of cumulative AIDS incidence rates.... A total of 141,534 deaths were attributed to HIV/AIDS (126,224 in men and 15,310 in women) in the 11 countries from 1987 to 1991.... This historical demographic analysis indicates that mortality resulting from HIV infection and AIDS among men and women varies considerable by country. Rates of death were highest in the U.S. and lowest in Australia, the Netherlands, and New Zealand."
Correspondence: R. S. Hogg, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1Y6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40180 Hummer, Robert A.; Nam, Charles B.; Rogers, Richard G. Adult mortality differentials associated with cigarette smoking in the USA. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, Jun 1998. 285-304 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Data from the 1986 [U.S.] National Mortality Followback Survey are related to data from the 1985 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey supplements to assess the smoking-related mortality differentials. We find that cigarette smoking is associated with higher mortality for all population categories studied, that the smoking mortality differentials vary across the different smoking status categories and by demographic group, and that mortality differentials vary according to whether underlying cause or multiple cause patterns of death are examined. Moreover, the multiple cause analysis highlights otherwise obscured smoking-mortality relations and points to the importance of respiratory diseases and cancers other than lung cancer for cigarette smoking research."
Correspondence: R. A. Hummer, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. E-mail: rhummer@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40181 Hussey, Jon M. The effects of race, socioeconomic status, and household structure on injury mortality in children and young adults. Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 1, No. 4, Dec 1997. 217-27 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Injuries are the leading killer of young persons in the United States, yet significant gaps in our understanding of this cause of death remain. By examining the independent influences of race, education, income, household structure, and residential location on injury mortality in young persons, this study addresses these gaps.... Using data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, survival analysis is used to examine the injury mortality risk faced by 0 to 17 year olds over a nine-year follow-up period. Separate models are estimated for homicide, suicide, unintentional injury deaths, and all injury deaths. [Results indicate that] household head's education has an independent effect on youth homicide and unintentional injury mortality risk. By contrast, family income and household structure do not have independent effects on any of the injury outcomes. Finally, much of the excess homicide risk faced by young African-Americans is explained by underlying racial differentials in socioeconomic status, household structure, and residential location."
Correspondence: J. M. Hussey, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. E-mail: jhussey@sph.unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40182 Imaizumi, Yoko. Mortality study of ten neurological diseases in Japan, 1950-1994. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1997. 21-44 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The present study deals with the secular changes in the death rates from ten neurological diseases [in Japan] using data on vital statistics during the period from 1950 to 1994." Aspects considered include age-adjusted mortality rates, sex factors, and marital status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40183 Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Il Soon; Suh, Il; Shin, Dongchun; Appel, Lawrence J. Projected mortality from lung cancer in South Korea, 1980-2004. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jun 1998. 365-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In recent years, mortality from lung cancer has increased rapidly in [South] Korea, a South East Asian country with a high prevalence of smoking. The objectives of this study are to examine how age, period, and birth cohort effects contributed to trends in lung cancer mortality in Korea 1980-1994, and to predict lung cancer mortality rates for 1995-2004.... [The] results, in conjunction with trends in tobacco consumption, indicate that mortality from lung cancer in both men and women will increase substantially through the early part of the 21st century in Korea."
Correspondence: S. H. Jee, Yonsei University Graduate School of Health Science and Management, Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, P.O. Box 8044, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40184 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. Maternal mortality and morbidity in India: priorities for social science research. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jun 1997. 31-52 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to review what we know about maternal health and mortality in India, its levels and patterns, and to identify substantive social science research gaps in this area." Aspects considered include women's autonomy, socioeconomic status, accessibility and quality of health services, and community-level indicators.
Correspondence: S. J. Jejeebhoy, 16-A Seth Minar, G. Deshmukh Marg, Mumbai 400 026, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40185 Johnson, Nan E.; Christenson, Bruce A. Socio-demographic correlates of multiple causes of death: real or artifactual? Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, Jun 1998. 261-74 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The socio-demographic and epidemiological correlates of the total number of causes of death (TC) reported on death certificates were examined with multiple classification analysis (MCA). The data were all death certificates on white and black adult residents of Michigan who died at ages 25 or older in 1989 to 1991 (n=222,763). TC was the sum of every morbid condition named as an underlying, intermediate, or immediate cause of death, or other medical condition contributing to death but not to its underlying cause.... While sex differences were generally not significant within racial groups, somewhat higher average TCs were found for blacks than whites and for lesser educated than for more educated decedents. These patterns of TC by race and education may reflect lifetime disadvantages faced by blacks and the less educated to health care or information about health practices."
Correspondence: N. E. Johnson, Michigan State University, Department of Sociology, Berkey Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. E-mail: nan.johnson@ssc.msu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40186 Kelly, Sue; Bunting, Julia. Trend in suicide in England and Wales, 1982-96. Statistical News, No. 119, Spring 1998. 8-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in suicide in England and Wales for the period 1982-1986 are analyzed by age, sex, method of suicide, and occupation. The authors also consider trends in factors associated with an increased risk of suicide, such as marital status, drug and alcohol misuse, imprisonment, and AIDS.
Correspondence: S. Kelly, Office for National Statistics, Demography and Health Division, 1 Drummond Gate, London SW1V 2QQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40187 Liu, Bo-Qi; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zheng-Ming; Boreham, Jillian; Wu, Ya-Ping; Li, Jun-Yao; Campbell, T. Colin; Chen, Jun-Shi. Emerging tobacco hazards in China: 1. Retrospective proportional mortality study of one million deaths. British Medical Journal, Vol. 317, No. 7170, Nov 21, 1998. 1,411-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
An attempt is made to assess the growing epidemic of tobacco-related mortality in China. Data are from interviews with the surviving relatives of the one million or so individuals who died from this cause during the period 1986-1988. The authors conclude that "at current age specific death rates in smokers and non-smokers one in four smokers would be killed by tobacco, but as the epidemic grows this proportion will roughly double. If current smoking uptake rates persist in China (where about two thirds of men but few women become smokers) tobacco will kill about 100 million of the 0.3 billion males now aged 0-29, with half these deaths in middle age and half in old age."
For Part 2, by Shi-Ru Niu et al., see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: B.-Q. Liu, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Panjiayuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021, China. E-mail: gale.mead@ctsu.ox.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40188 McMichael, Anthony J.; Anderson, H. Ross; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron J. Inappropriate use of daily mortality analyses to estimate longer-term mortality effects of air pollution. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jun 1998. 450-3 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors critically examine the use of daily time-series mortality analyses to estimate the long-term effects of air pollution. "Such calculations are inappropriate. Since daily time-series data provide no simple direct information about the degree of life-shortening associated with the excess daily deaths (many of which are thought to be due to exacerbation of well-advanced disease, especially cardiovascular disease), such data cannot contribute to the estimation of the effects of air pollution upon chronic disease incidence and long-term death rates."
Correspondence: A. J. McMichael, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40189 Molineaux, L. Malaria and mortality: some epidemiological considerations. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 91, No. 7, Oct 1997. 811-25 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Malaria can, a priori, kill on its own (`direct' malaria mortality) or in conjunction with some other cause(s) (`indirect' malaria mortality).... There is currently a controversy about the long-term impact on mortality of reducing the intensity of malaria transmission from `high' to `intermediate', given the expected loss of immunity.... A tentative numerical exploration of the problem, using a simple demographic model, indicates that, if indirect malaria mortality is important and the other causes of death are concentrated in early life, the long-term impact on all-cause mortality of reducing exposure (although less than the short-term) will probably always be beneficial, even if there is some increase in direct malaria mortality."
Correspondence: L. Molineaux, Peney-dessus, 1242 Satigny, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40190 Motashaw, Nergesh D. Root causes of maternal mortality: infancy to motherhood. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jun 1997. 4-7 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The author discusses the primary causes of maternal mortality in India. The impact of inequalities between men and women on maternal mortality is considered.
Correspondence: N. D. Motashaw, Family Planning Association of India, Bajaj Bhavan, Nariman Point, Mumbai 400 021, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40191 Niu, Shi-Ru; Yang, Gong-Huang; Chen, Zheng-Ming; Wang, Jun-Ling; Wang, Gong-Hao; He, Xing-Zhou; Schoepff, Helen; Boreham, Jillian; Pan, Hong-Chao; Peto, Richard. Emerging tobacco hazards in China: 2. Early mortality results from a prospective study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 317, No. 7170, Nov 21, 1998. 1,423-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Preliminary results are presented from a prospective study of smoking and mortality in China involving 224,500 men over 40 in 1991 who will be followed up over several decades. The study will provide estimates of cause-specific mortality for both smokers and non-smokers standardized for area, age, and use of alcohol. "This prospective study and the accompanying retrospective study show that by 1990 smoking was already causing about 12% of Chinese male mortality in middle age. This proportion is predicted to rise to about 33% by 2030. Long term continuation of the prospective study (with periodic resurveys) can monitor the evolution of this epidemic."
For Part 1, by Bo-Qi Liu et al., see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: S.-R. Niu, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, 29 Nan Wei Lu, Beijing 100050, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40192 Pérez, G.; Pena, A.; Sala, J.; Roset, P.; Masiá, R.; Marrugat, J. Acute myocardial infarction case fatality, incidence and mortality rates in a population registry in Gerona, Spain, 1990-1992. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 4, Aug 1998. 599-604 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objective of the present study was to determine MI [myocardial infarction] mortality, incidence, attack rate and 28-day case fatality in the province of Gerona, Spain from 1990 to 1992.... Myocardial infarction, incidence, mortality rates and case fatality in Gerona are among the lowest in the world. Age-adjusted case fatality within 28 days is only marginally higher in women than in men, but fatal cases occur later within this period in women."
Correspondence: J. Marrugat, Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica, Unitat de Lipids i Epidemiologia Cardiovascular, Carrer Dr. Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40193 Ronsmans, Carine; Vanneste, Anne M.; Chakraborty, Jyotshamoy; Van Ginneken, Jeroen. A comparison of three verbal autopsy methods to ascertain levels and causes of maternal deaths in Matlab, Bangladesh. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 4, Aug 1998. 660-6 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We compared the levels and causes of maternal mortality in three data sources from Matlab, Bangladesh: (1) maternal deaths identified through a unique demographic surveillance system (DSS); (2) maternal deaths identified as a result of a previous detailed investigation into the levels and causes of maternal mortality; and (3) maternal deaths identified in the current special study.... There were substantial disagreements between the routine reporting and the special studies.... This study confirms the known difficulties in the ascertainment of the levels and causes of maternal mortality."
Correspondence: C. Ronsmans, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, 155 Nationalestraat, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40194 Ronsmans, Carine; Campbell, Oona. Short birth intervals don't kill women: evidence from Matlab, Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 3, Sep 1998. 282-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study reviews the literature for evidence supporting an association between short birth intervals and maternal mortality and presents empirical evidence to address the question of whether short birth-to-conception intervals alter the risk of maternal death. In this nested case-control study selected from a cohort of women under demographic surveillance in Matlab, Bangladesh, the length of the preceding birth-to-conception interval is found not to affect the risk of maternal mortality. These results do not support the claim that births that are too close increase the risk of maternal death."
Correspondence: C. Ronsmans, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Maternal and Child Epidemiology Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40195 Rooney, Cleone; McMichael, Anthony J.; Kovats, R. Sari; Coleman, Michel P. Excess mortality in England and Wales, and in Greater London, during the 1995 heatwave. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 8, Aug 1998. 482-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors set out "to assess the impact on mortality of the heatwave in England and Wales during July and August 1995 and to describe any difference in mortality impact between the Greater London urban population and the national population.... An estimated 619 extra deaths...were observed during this heatwave in England and Wales, relative to the expected number of deaths based on the 31-day moving average for that period. Excess deaths were apparent in all age groups, most noticeably in women and for deaths from respiratory and cerebrovascular disease."
Correspondence: C. Rooney, Office for National Statistics, 1 Drummond Gate, London SW1V 2QQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40196 Rosamond, Wayne D.; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Cooper, Lawton S.; Conwill, David E.; Clegg, Limin; Wang, Chin-Hua; Heiss, Gerardo. Trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction and in mortality due to coronary heart disease, 1987 to 1994. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 339, No. 13, Sep 24, 1998. 861-7 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Trends in mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States are analyzed using hospital admission data for 35-74 year-olds from four different communities, representing a total of 352,481 persons in 1994. "From 1987 to 1994, we observed a stable or slightly increasing incidence of hospitalization for myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, there were significant annual decreases in mortality from CHD. The decline in mortality in the four communities we studied may be due largely to improvements in the treatment and secondary prevention of myocardial infarction."
Correspondence: W. D. Rosamond, University of North Carolina, Department of Epidemiology, CB 7400, McGavran-Greenberg Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40197 Rosenbaum, Wilfred L.; Sterling, Theodor D.; Weinkam, James J. Use of multiple surveys to estimate mortality among never, current, and former smokers: changes over a 20-year interval. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 11, Nov 1998. 1,664-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study sought to demonstrate how data from publicly available large-scale cross-sectional health surveys can be combined to analyze changes in mortality risks among never, current, and former smokers.... Data from the 1966/68 and 1986 National Mortality Follow-back Surveys and the 1970 and 1987 National Health Interview Surveys were used to estimate the distribution of never, current, and former smokers among the U.S. population at risk and decedents. Standardized mortality ratios and quotients of standardized mortality ratios were used to estimate mortality risks.... Generally, during the period from 1966 through 1986, mortality rates in the United States for most causes of death declined among all smoking groups. However, mortality rates from respiratory diseases increased for current and former smokers."
Correspondence: W. L. Rosenbaum, Simon Fraser University, Department of Computing Science, Computational Epidemiology Laboratory, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. E-mail: rosen@sfu.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40198 Simonato, Lorenzo; Ballard, Terri; Bellini, Pierantonio; Winkelmann, Regina. Avoidable mortality in Europe 1955-1994: a plea for prevention. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 10, Oct 1998. 624-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "analyse trends of avoidable mortality in Europe, emphasising causes of death amenable to primary prevention through reduction of exposures, secondary prevention through early detection and treatment, and tertiary prevention through improved treatment and medical care. [They present a] descriptive study of mortality from avoidable causes for the years 1955 through 1994, for ages 5-64 at time of death.... Between 1955-59 and 1990-94, the reduction in mortality was somewhat greater for avoidable causes than for all causes.... Reductions in mortality were greater for causes amenable to improved medical care.... From a geographical point of view, there were slight differences in trends between European regions, but overall the patterns were similar."
Correspondence: L. Simonato, Venetian Tumour Registry, via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40199 Spree, Reinhard. The retreat of death: the epidemiological transition in Germany during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [Der Rückzug des Todes. Der epidemiologische Übergang in Deutschland während des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts.] Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, 1998. 4-43 pp. Cologne, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Using the concept of the epidemiologic transition, this paper examines the long-term changes in morbidity and mortality in Germany during the nineteenth and twentieth century. It focuses on the duration of the transitional phases and their main characteristics by investigating age specific mortality rates and causes-of-death. Applying epidemiological methods such as mean age of death and potential years of life lost will contribute to understand better the epidemiologic transition and its causes from the late nineteenth century onwards. These methods have so far hardly been applied in historical research. They will be related to the causes of death which have been grouped together in 15 categories."
Correspondence: R. Spree, Universität München, Seminar für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, Ludwigstraße 33/III, 80539 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40200 Sunyer, Jordi; Lamarca, Rosa; Alonso, Jordi. Smoking after age 65 years and mortality in Barcelona, Spain. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 148, No. 6, Sep 15, 1998. 575-80 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The risk of dying associated with smoking after age 65 as well as the benefits of giving up smoking in later life are explored using data on 477 men in Barcelona, Spain, who were followed over the period 1986-1994. The results confirm "that the effects of smoking extend to later life in this elderly general population, with a magnitude as great as that seen in previous studies with different populations. In addition, it indicates that stopping smoking after age 65 reduces the risk of dying."
Correspondence: J. Sunyer, Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica, Unitat de Recerca Respiratòria i Ambiental, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40201 Szwarcwald, Célia L.; Castilho, Euclides A. de. Mortality caused by firearms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a spatial analysis. [Mortalidade por armas de fogo no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: uma análise espacial.] Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 4, No. 3, Sep 1998. 161-70 pp. Washington, D.C. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This study analyzes the gradual evolution of firearm mortality rates in [the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil] from 1979 to 1992, according to sex, age, and area of residence...and uses spatial statistical techniques to describe the propagation of this firearm mortality epidemic in time and space. During the period analyzed, mortality due to firearms showed the greatest increase among 15- to 19-year-old male adolescents, with yearly rates ranging from 13 to 16%, according to area of residence.... Empirical confirmation of a general expansion of firearm wound mortality contradicts the usual claim that violence is concentrated in areas of extreme poverty within Brazil's largest cities."
Correspondence: C. L. Szwarcwald, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Departamento de Informações para a Saúde, Avenida Brasil 4365, CEP 21045-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. E-mail: celia@malaria.procc.fiocruz.br. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40202 Trevisan, Maurizio; Liu, Jian; Bahsas, Fadlalla B.; Menotti, Alessandro. Syndrome X and mortality: a population-based study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 148, No. 10, Nov 15, 1998. 958-66 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The present report analyzes the prevalence of the cluster of metabolic abnormalities defined as syndrome X (high blood glucose, high blood pressure, low high density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and high triglycerides) and its impact on cardiovascular disease mortality in a large cohort of men and women (22,561 men and 18,495 women). These individuals were participants in a series of epidemiologic investigations of cardiovascular disease conducted in Italy between 1978 and 1987. They were followed for an average of 7 years, during which time a total of 1,218 deaths occurred (1,003 in men and 215 in women).... These data from a large population-based epidemiologic investigation indicate that the presence of a full cluster of metabolic abnormalities from syndrome X is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in both men and women, but that the low prevalence of such a cluster in the population reduces the public health impact of syndrome X. The majority of individuals who die from cardiovascular disease present elevations in any one, two, or three of the metabolic abnormalities. The notion of the cluster of metabolic abnormalities (syndrome X) should not distract our attention from established individual risk factors that have been proven to be major causes of cardiovascular disease death and disability in our society."
Correspondence: M. Trevisan, University at Buffalo, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, 270 Farber Hall, Buffalo, NY 14214. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40203 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Changes in mortality from heart failure--United States, 1980-1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 47, No. 30, Aug 7, 1998. 633-7 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes trends in mortality from heart failure in the United States for 1980-1995 and presents state-specific death rates for 1995 (the most recent year for which such data are available). National mortality statistics are based on information from death certificates filed in state vital statistics offices and are compiled by CDC."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40204 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Maternal mortality--United States, 1982-1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 47, No. 34, Sep 4, 1998. 705-7 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report presents data from death certificates compiled by CDC's National Center for Health Statistics, which indicate that in the United States, the annual maternal mortality ratio remained approximately 7.5 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births during 1982-1996.... During that time, trends by race were similar to the overall ratio, and no reductions were observed for either black or white women. Maternal mortality ratios remained higher for black women than for white women."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health (C06), Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40205 van Beeck, Eduard F.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Mortality due to unintentional injuries in the Netherlands, 1950-1995. Public Health Reports, Vol. 113, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1998. 427-39 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors aim to "detect and explain changing trends in incidence, case fatality rates, and mortality for unintentional injuries in the Netherlands for the years 1950 through 1995.... Using national registry data, the authors analyzed trends in traffic injuries, occupational injuries, and home and leisure injuries.... Between 1950 and 1970, mortality from unintentional injuries rose, reflecting an increasing incidence of injuries. This was followed by a sharp decline in mortality due to a decreasing incidence combined with a rapidly falling case fatality rate. Starting in the second half of the 1980s, the decline in mortality leveled off as the incidence of several injury subclasses once again rose."
Correspondence: E. F. van Beeck, Erasmus University Medical School, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: vanbeeck@mgz.fgg.eur.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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