Volume 64 - Number 3 - Fall 1998

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

64:30711 Asher, Mukul G. Financing old age in Southeast Asia: an overview. Southeast Asian Affairs, 1996. 72-98 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"The main purpose here is to provide an overview of the social security arrangements in selected Southeast Asian countries. Given the significant differences in these countries in the underlying philosophy, design and detailed provisions concerning social security arrangements, a country-by-country rather than a comparative approach is adopted." The countries analyzed are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.
Correspondence: M. G. Asher, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Public Policy, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:30712 Baldwin-Edwards, Martin. Third country nationals and welfare systems in the European Union. Jean Monnet Working Paper in Comparative and International Politics, No. 12.97, Sep 1997. 9 pp. University of Catania, Department of Political Studies: Catania, Italy. In Eng.
"In this paper I shall sketch the patterns of evolution of European welfare states, their various phases and the broad relations with immigrants. Then I address the question of the welfare needs of migrants, by migrant category and also using life-cycle hypotheses; the relative successes of different welfare systems in satisfying these needs are then examined."
Correspondence: University of Catania, Department of Political Studies, Catania, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30713 Barkley, David L.; Henry, Mark S.; Bao, Shuming. The role of local school quality in rural employment and population growth. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1, Summer 1998. 81-102 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This study investigates the influence of school quality (measured at the high school level) on 1980 to 1990 population and employment change for nonmetropolitan fringe and hinterland census tracts in South Carolina. A Boarnet variation of the Carlino-Mills model is used to examine the interdependence of population and employment change.... Results...indicate that fringe tracts' population growth was positively related to student test scores, and hinterland tracts population and employment growth were negatively related to student-teacher ratios. Empirical results suggest that local school quality provided a positive influence on rural growth, primarily in terms of residential growth. The role of school quality for employment growth was less clear."
Correspondence: D. L. Barkley, Clemson University, Department of Economic Development, Clemson, SC 29634. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30714 Blanchet, Didier; Pelé, Louis-Paul. Social security and retirement in France. NBER Working Paper, No. 6214, Oct 1997. 33 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Among numerous retirement schemes in France, the Social Security general regime covers all wage earners from the private sector, about 65% of workers. In this regime, retirees are eligible for a full pension at 65, or between 60 and 65 if they contributed to the regime for at least 37.5 years. For people between 60 and 65 who do not fulfill this condition, retirement is still possible but with a downward adjustment of benefits. Our computations show that early retirement adjustment rules give strong incentives to go on working until being eligible for a full pension, even if mandatory complementary schemes soften incentives, especially for executives. These results are consistent with empirical hazard rates, showing two spikes at 60 and 65, and with the change in the retirement age induced by the 1983 reform."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30715 Gruber, Jonathan. Social security and retirement in Canada. NBER Working Paper, No. 6308, Dec 1997. 30, [9] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Government transfers to older persons in Canada are one of the largest and fastest growing components of the government budget. I provide an overview of the interaction between these transfer programs and retirement behavior. I begin by documenting historical trends in labor force participation and program receipt, and contemporaneous patterns of work and income receipt for the current cohort of older persons. I then present an overview of the structure of this system of Canadian transfers programs. Finally I present results of a simulation model which measures the implicit tax/subsidy rate on work after age 55 through this system."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: jonathan.gruber@ms01.do.treas.sprint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30716 Lamy, Marlène. Educational perspectives: some perspectives derived from the application of a method that recognizes fluctuations. [Perspectives scolaires: des perspectives dérivées à l'application de la méthode des flux.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 151-8 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Some problems concerning the forecasting of education trends in developed countries are examined using the example of France. Two alternative methods of studying education trends are considered, one based on demographic data alone and the other on the impact of the educational choices pupils in the system actually make as they progress through the system. Reasons for using the two alternative approaches to study different problems are discussed.
Correspondence: M. Lamy, Université de Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne, IDUP, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30717 Pinnelli, Antonella. Gender and demography. In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 221-44 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
This is an introduction to the study of gender issues in demography. The author provides some definitions of what is meant by gender in this context and describes the trend from women's studies to gender studies in demography. "The next few paragraphs will summarize the results which have emerged over the last few years in the literature on gender and population, with a highlighting of the lines of research which seem most promising in relation to the main contents of demographic research: the family, fertility and birth control, health and mortality, migration and ageing. Then one paragraph will be devoted to data and methods for research on gender and population, and the last paragraph to reflections and proposals on the introduction of the perspective of gender into the teaching of demography."
Correspondence: A. Pinnelli, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30718 Rochon, Madeleine. Demographic aging, health status, and the financing of expenditures on public health and the social services. [Vieillissement démographique, état de santé et financement des dépenses publiques de santé et de services sociaux.] Collection de Thèses et Mémoires, No. 47, Apr 1997. xiii, 212, xliv pp. Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This doctoral thesis, which is not an official publication of the Department of Demography at Montreal University, deals with the financial impact of demographic aging on public health expenditures. The focus is on the Canadian province of Quebec during the period 1991-2066. Attention is given to changes in mortality and in the age distribution of the population. The author focuses on possible changes in the morbidity of the elderly and possible modifications to their financial contributions to the health system.
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30719 Sinn, Hans-Werner. The value of children and immigrants in a pay-as-you-go pension system: a proposal for a partial transition to a funded system. NBER Working Paper, No. 6229, Oct 1997. 22 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"It is shown that the net fiscal externality created by an additional member of a pay-as-you-go pension system that is endowed with individual accounts equals the gross contributions of this member. In Germany, this is an amount of about DM 175,000. The paper uses this information to design a hybrid funded system that avoids this externality and improves the public pension system under equity and efficiency considerations."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: hans-werner.sinn@ces.vwl.uni-muenchen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30720 Stromquist, Nelly P. Women in the third world: an encyclopedia of contemporary issues. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 760, ISBN 0-8153-0150-2. LC 98-14689. 1998. xxxiv, 683 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This encyclopedia seeks to provide a feminist perspective on issues involved in socioeconomic development of Third World countries.... [It] comprises 10 sections. Its content begins with a discussion of some central conceptual and theoretical issues and then moves to major areas concerning gender and development. These areas can be classified into two categories: areas that document and explain the situation of women, such as political and legal contexts, sex role ideologies, demographics and health, marriage and the family, women and production; and areas that inform the reader of more transformative positions, such as the sections on women and the environment, enabling conditions for change, and movements for change. The final section of the encyclopedia contains geographical entries."
Correspondence: Garland Publishing, 717 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2500, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30721 Welti, Carlos. Population dynamics and social change in Latin America. [Dinámica demográfica y cambio social en América Latina.] Estudios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 3, No. 5, Jan-Jun 1996. 143-60 pp. Mexico City, DF, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Given the current necessity to forecast the medium and long range scenarios in Latin America, sociological analyses of demographic trends have become very relevant. [The author] argues that it is essential to reflect upon the relationship between population and development. This is even more critical now that all seems to revolve around the search for growth via structural adjustment. The author analyzes the present demographic setting in Latin America and the impact of demographic policies undertaken within structural adjustment."
Correspondence: C. Welti, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

64:30722 Anderson, James; Shuttleworth, Ian. Sectarian demography, territoriality and political development in Northern Ireland. Political Geography, Vol. 17, No. 2, Feb 1998. 187-208 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Here we discuss, firstly, the limits of Census-based empiricism [in Northern Ireland] and the usually unacknowledged problems of data and interpretation which have resulted in a seriously misleading `conventional wisdom'. Secondly, we question its sectarian terms of reference, the over-identification of religion and politics, and misconceptions of ethnicity.... Thirdly, we focus on some of the flawed policy `solutions' associated with empiricism and sectarianism, including `internal' power-sharing and `consociational' strategies for political development."
Correspondence: J. Anderson, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30723 Cherrad, Salah E. Demography and crises in Algeria. [Démographie et crises en Algérie.] Bulletin de la Société Languedocienne de Géographie, Vol. 30, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 57-66 pp. Montpellier, France. In Fre.
This article argues that demographic factors are an underlying cause of the many political, economic, social, and cultural crises that Algeria has experienced over the course of the 1990s. The author suggests that although the demography of the country is generally ignored when these issues are discussed, the rapid rate of population growth, which has caused the population to double in about 20 years, and the continued dependency burden, due to the fact that over 50% of the population are under age 20, are major causes of the country's current malaise.
Correspondence: S. E. Cherrad, Université de Constantine, Route d'Aïn El Bey, Constantine, Algeria. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:30724 Coleman, D. A. Origins of multi-cultural societies and problems of their management under democracy. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,457-96 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper investigates three related demographic and political aspects of the creation, coherence and survival of states which comprise more than one nation or ethnic group: 1. to what extent are ethnic differences reflected in demographic differences...? 2. how do these interact with the democratic process, to effect the coherence of modern states and societies...? 3. are substantial ethnic divisions and nation states compatible under a democratic (i.e. people-counting) system? If not, are there alternatives to fragmentation or to assimilation?"
Correspondence: D. A. Coleman, Oxford University, Department of Applied Social Studies and Social Research, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30725 Gotanègre, J.-F. Overpopulation and war: the example of Rwanda. [Surpopulation et guerre: l'exemple du Rwanda.] Bulletin de la Société Languedocienne de Géographie, Vol. 30, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1996. 33-55 pp. Montpellier, France. In Fre.
The author examines the extent to which the recent events in Rwanda, including the civil war and the attempts at genocide, are related to overpopulation. In particular, three questions are considered: Under what circumstances can reasonable people arrive at a situation in which they can participate in collective suicidal behavior? Do such crises arise from lack of resources, or failure to make the best use of the resources that do exist? Are such events part of a global conflict between liberal societies and societies governed by extremist idealists?
Correspondence: J.-F. Gotanègre, Université Paul-Valéry, B.P. 5043, 34032 Montpellier Cedex, France. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:30726 Lévy, Michel L. Demography and the suffrage. [Démographie et suffrage.] Population et Sociétés, No. 335, May 1998. 3 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Some aspects of modern industrialized democracies are examined in the context of the various political problems that France is currently experiencing. Topics discussed include the relationship between the citizen and the elected representative, state and local budgets, and social security. The emphasis is on the availability of the appropriate demographic and socioeconomic data required in order to examine such problems in a meaningful way.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30727 Parsons, Jack. Medicine, population and war. Medicine, Conflict and Survival, Vol. 12, Jan-Mar 1996. 23-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A major problem in our desire to abolish war is that of causation. Presumably, if the causes of violence can be discovered then in principle they can be addressed directly and at least to some extent brought under control. `World population growth' must assuredly be one of these causes, so this and its relationship with the practice of medicine forms the central theme of this article."
Correspondence: J. Parsons, Treferig Cottage Farm, Llantrisant, Mid-Glamorgan CF72 8LQ, Wales. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

64:30728 Ronsin, Francis; Le Bras, Hervé; Zucker-Rouvillois, Elisabeth. Demography and politics. [Démographie et politique.] ISBN 2-905965-14-2. 1997. 207 pp. Editions Universitaires de Dijon: Dijon, France. In Fre.
This book, which contains 13 studies by various authors, is a product of conferences and seminars held in Dijon, France, in 1993 and 1994. The common theme of the collection is how the demographic approach can be used to study the conflicts that can arise when ideologues and those holding political power attempt to control the exercise of fundamental individual freedoms concerning sexuality, relations between the sexes, and family life in general. The papers are organized into three main parts: Birth control and moral policy; Pronatalism, nationalism, eugenics, and social Darwinism; and Between the paternalistic state and the welfare state. The primary geographical focus is on Western Europe.
Correspondence: Editions Universitaires de Dijon, 4 boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

64:30729 Aaby, Peter. Bandim: an unplanned longitudinal study. In: Prospective community studies in developing countries, edited by Monica Das Gupta et al. 1997. 276-96 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author describes an interdisciplinary project that began in 1978 in Guinea-Bissau to examine nutritional priorities in preventive health care. The project was originally planned to last one or two years, but developed into a more long-term project as new data were collected in response to the questions that arose as the project evolved. The author shows how the project developed to focus on the significance of measles for child mortality and how this mortality could be influenced by immunization efforts. The value of general research as opposed to the testing of specific hypotheses in such situations is noted.
Correspondence: P. Aaby, Statens Serum Institute, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Department of Epidemiology, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30730 Addai, Isaac. Demographic and sociocultural factors influencing use of maternal health services in Ghana. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 1, Apr 1998. 73-80 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Using data from the 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS), this study investigates the demographic and sociocultural determinants of use of maternal health services. The maternal health services considered in this study are: (i) use of a doctor for prenatal care; (ii) soliciting antenatal check-up; (iii) place of delivery and, (iv) family planning.... Multivariate analyses reveal that the use of the four maternal health services under study tend to be shaped mostly by level of education, place of residence, region of residence, occupation, and religion."
Correspondence: I. Addai, Acadia University, Department of Sociology, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada. E-mail: isaac.addai@acadiau.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30731 Akhter, Halida H.; Rahman, M. Hafizur; Ahmed, Shehlina. Reproductive health issues and implementation strategies in Bangladesh. BIRPERHT Technical Report, No. 57, LC 96-905207. May 1996. ix, 94 pp. Bangladesh Institute of Research for Promotion of Essential and Reproductive Health and Technologies [BIRPERHT]: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The authors discuss reproductive health issues in Bangladesh. Chapters are presented on reproductive health status, including historical perspectives, policy considerations, service delivery infrastructure, family planning services, and sexually transmitted diseases; maternal-child health care; familiarization with the reproductive health care concept; and recommendations for short- and long-term plans.
Correspondence: Bangladesh Institute of Research for Promotion of Essential and Reproductive Health and Technologies, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:30732 Berggren, Gretchen; Berggren, Warren; Menager, Henri; Genece, Eddy. Longitudinal community health research for equity and accountability in primary health care in Haiti. In: Prospective community studies in developing countries, edited by Monica Das Gupta et al. 1997. 157-85 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors present the results of two longitudinal community health research (LCHR) studies undertaken in Haiti to assess primary health care activities in rural areas. The two studies were undertaken in 1967 and 1972 near Deschapelles and in 1974-1978 in Petit Goave. "The two LCHR studies reviewed here provide insights into the determinants and consequences of high mobility and its effect on family structure in rural Haiti. In these studies, the authors documented facts about Haitian conjugal unions dissolving at the time of migration, and the consequent separation of children from their biological mothers. The risk of child displacement and some of the consequences to the child are explored."
Correspondence: G. Berggren, World Relief, 1028 College Avenue, Wheaton, IL 60187-5773. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30733 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. Toward an epidemiological model of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Social Science History, Vol. 20, No. 4, Winter 1996. 559-91 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The authors analyze the existence and persistence of the heterosexual AIDS epidemic in the main AIDS belt, extending from Uganda and Rwanda to Zimbabwe and Botswana...." Sections are included on the peculiar nature of the Sub-Saharan AIDS epidemic, the geographic spread of HIV/AIDS in the region, explanations for the Sub-Saharan AIDS epidemic, and the nature of the epidemic and its future in this region.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30734 Campbell, Cameron. Public health efforts in China before 1949 and their effects on mortality: the case of Beijing. Social Science History, Vol. 21, No. 2, Summer 1997. 179-218 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Efforts to improve public health and sanitation began in China well before the founding of the People's Republic in 1949.... By means of a case study of Beijing, I investigate in this article whether or not these diffuse efforts had the potential to substantially reduce mortality rates in the areas where they were carried out. I evaluate the overall effects on age-specific death rates in Beijing of a variety of public health and sanitary measures undertaken there in the first decades of this century. I also compare the death rates of the Qing imperial lineage, an elite population living in Beijing during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with the rates of residents of the First Demonstration Health Station, a district of the inner city, between 1929 and 1933."
Correspondence: C. Campbell, University of California, Department of Sociology, Box 951551, Room No. 264, Haines Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1551. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30735 Ford, N. J.; Siregar, K. N. Operationalizing the new concept of sexual and reproductive health in Indonesia. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1998. 11-30 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"In the 1990s the so-called `new politics of family planning' has entailed the articulation of a comprehensive concept of sexual and reproductive health (SRH).... A major issue at present is how governments (and Ministries of Health in particular) translate the broad statements into operational policies and programmes. This paper explores the ways in which this process is taking place in Indonesia.... The policy process in Indonesia is explored in terms of pre-existing reassessments (e.g. of family planning in the light of fertility decline), setting key priorities and moralistic and pragmatic policy orientations."
Correspondence: N. J. Ford, University of Exeter, Department of Geography, Exeter EX4 4RJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30736 García, Rolando; Catasús, Sonia; Alvarez, Luisa; Santana, Felipe. Reproductive health in Cuba (investigations). [Salud reproductiva en Cuba (investigaciones).] Feb 1997. 441, [14] pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demográficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
These two volumes present a selection of the scientific studies that have been undertaken in Cuba on the subject of reproductive health. The first volume contains sections on reproductive rights, sexuality, fertility and infertility, and maternal and child health. The second volume has sections on family planning and contraception, abortion, AIDS, and other aspects of maternal health.
Correspondence: Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Avenida 41 Número 2003, Playa 13, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30737 Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Rotkirch, Anna. Generational and gender differences in sexual life in St. Petersburg and urban Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 133-60 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This article is [an] empirical comparison of sexual behavior in Eastern and Western Europe. The timing of some sexual life events, sexual behavior patterns, and sexual satisfaction will be compared on the basis of survey data and sexual autobiographies from urban Finland and St. Petersburg (former Leningrad) in Russia. We were interested in the impact of the so-called sexual revolution taking place in public life in different decades--in Western Europe and Finland in the 1960s [and] in Russia in the late 1980s. We assumed that this difference would appear as country differences in `traditional' vs. `liberated' sexual behavior, and especially in the sexual satisfaction of women. This hypothesis proved generally to be true, but with several important modifications."
Correspondence: E. Haavio-Mannila, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Hameentie 68B, 00550 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30738 Hayward, Mark D.; Heron, Melonie. Racial inequality in active life among adult Americans. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 98-01, Feb 1998. 34 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Based on the 1990 5% PUMS [Public Use Microdata Sample], we develop life table models of healthy (or active) life for the major race-sex groups in the United States.... Racial inequality in life cycle health is examined in greater detail than in prior research in that active life table models are developed for Native Americans, Asians, blacks, Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites.... Race/ethnic comparisons by sex are done to evaluate men's and women's life cycle differences in healthy life."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30739 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. Adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior: a review of the evidence from India. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 10, May 1998. 1,275-90 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper documents the existing research on sexual and reproductive health [among Indian adolescents], explores the knowledge and attitudes among this population in India, and highlights limitations of methodologies currently employed in research on adolescent reproductive health in India."
Correspondence: S. J. Jejeebhoy, 16-A G. Deshmukh Marg, Mumbai 400 026, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30740 Karro, Helle. Reproductive health in the Baltic Sea area. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 5-17 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This paper aims to compare the reproductive health situation in...selected Baltic area countries--Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Sweden, and in St. Petersburg. The analyses focus on the trends and incidence of induced abortions, family planning, contraception, and STDs.... The different reproductive health situations...prove that the cornerstones for improved reproductive health...are comprehensive family planning and sex education programs, new health promotion strategies, and openness in society concerning sexuality."
Correspondence: H. Karro, University of Tartu, Women's Clinic, Tartu, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30741 Kost, Kathryn; Landry, David J.; Darroch, Jacqueline E. Predicting maternal behaviors during pregnancy: does intention status matter? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1998. 79-88 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Multivariate analyses of data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey and the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth were conducted to investigate whether [U.S.] women with unplanned births differ from other women in their pregnancy behavior, independent of their social and demographic characteristics.... Women with intended conceptions are more likely than similar women with unintended pregnancies to recognize early signs of pregnancy and to seek out early prenatal care, and somewhat more likely to quit smoking, but they are not more likely than women with comparable social and demographic characteristics to adhere to a recommended schedule of prenatal visits once they begin care, to reduce alcohol intake, or to follow their clinician's advice about taking vitamins and gaining weight."
Correspondence: K. Kost, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30742 Loaiza, Edilberto. Maternal nutritional status. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 24, Dec 1997. viii, 49 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"Nutritional status based on the measurement of maternal height and weight is one of the important outcome measures of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program.... This report presents information on the nutritional status of women [in developing countries] who have children born in the five years preceding the survey. It also analyzes the differentials in nutritional status levels by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related characteristics."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30743 Neas, Lucas M.; Schwartz, Joel. Pulmonary function levels as predictors of mortality in a national sample of U.S. adults. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 147, No. 11, Jun 1, 1998. 1,011-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide...was examined as a predictor of all-cause mortality among 4,333 subjects who were aged 25-74 years at baseline in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) conducted from 1971 to 1975.... Pulmonary diffusing capacity below 85% of predicted levels is a significant predictor of the all-cause mortality rate within the general U.S. population independent of standard spirometry measures and even in the absence of apparent clinical respiratory disease."
Correspondence: L. M. Neas, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30744 Samuelsson, Sven-Marten; Alfredson, B. Bauer; Hagberg, B.; Samuelsson, G.; Nordbeck, B.; Brun, A.; Gustafson, L.; Risberg, J. The Swedish centenarian study: a multidisciplinary study of five consecutive cohorts at the age of 100. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1997. 223-53 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
The purpose of this paper "was to describe the population [of centenarians in Sweden] from physical, social, and psychological points of view; to characterize centenarians with various health conditions and diverse degrees of autonomy and life satisfaction; and to identify factors at 100 years that predict future survival.... The incidence of severe diseases was low.... Results suggest that centenarians are a special group genetically. A causal structure model emphasized body constitution, marital status, cognition and blood pressure as particularly important determinants for survival after 100 years."
Correspondence: S.-M. Samuelsson, Malmö University Hospital, Department of Community Medicine, 20502 Malmö, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30745 Scrimshaw, Nevin S.; Guzmán, Miguel A. A comparison of supplementary feeding and medical care of preschool children in Guatemala, 1959-1964. In: Prospective community studies in developing countries, edited by Monica Das Gupta et al. 1997. 133-56 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This chapter summarizes results of a study carried out in selected villages of Guatemala between 1959 and 1964. The study was designed to test two basic assumptions: "1. That improved nutritional status of preschool children resulting from daily supplementation would reduce the incidence, severity, and duration of diarrhoeal, respiratory disease and other complications of the common communicable diseases of childhood, and improve growth and development; [and] 2. That good medical care would reduce morbidity and mortality from infectious disease and thereby improve preschool child growth and development." The authors emphasize the significant beneficial effects of nutrition supplementation on child health and development, compared to the almost total lack of benefits to preschool children of high-cost medical care.
Correspondence: N. S. Scrimshaw, Harvard University, Center of Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30746 Shane, Barbara; Chalkley, Kate. From research to action: how operations research is improving reproductive health services. Mar 1998. 40 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This publication highlights the contributions of operations research to improving the delivery of family planning and reproductive health services. The booklet provides an overview of USAID-funded operations research and presents selected research findings since the late 1980s. The research is organized in four themes: Improving Quality of Care; Reaching Special Populations; Integrating Reproductive Health Services; and Increasing Sustainability.... [The publication] demonstrates how OR is helping policymakers and program managers address the goals and objectives agreed upon in Cairo at the International Conference on Population and Development." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: prborders@prb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30747 Taylor, Carl E.; De Sweemer, Cecile. Lessons from Narangwal about primary health care, family planning, and nutrition. In: Prospective community studies in developing countries, edited by Monica Das Gupta et al. 1997. 101-29 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors describe two projects that were carried out between 1969 and 1973 in Norangwal, located in Punjab, India. "Two parallel sets of objectives were defined: (i) to test in a controlled experimental design, the impact of various combinations of health, family planning, and nutrition interventions in total village populations; and (ii) to understand how health, family planning, and nutrition interventions can be integrated in practical packages for national programmes." The findings concern family planning utilization, changes in fertility, changes in attitudes and beliefs, health services utilization, health benefits for service programs, and services and resources required to achieve program effects. The authors attempt to identify both the factors that contributed to the success of the program and those that did not. The premature ending of the project due to U.S.-Indian political conflicts is noted.
Correspondence: C. E. Taylor, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of International Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30748 Timæus, Ian M.; Lush, Louisiana. Intra-urban differentials in child health. Health Transition Review, Vol. 5, No. 2, Oct 1995. 163-90 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper uses DHS data on the urban populations of Ghana, Egypt, Brazil and Thailand to investigate the effect of poverty and environmental conditions on diarrhoeal disease, nutritional status and survival among children. Differentials in health are moderate in urban Ghana, whereas in Egypt and Brazil reductions in morbidity and, above all, mortality have accrued largely to the better off. In Thailand, the poor fare better and inequalities in mortality are no larger than those in morbidity. Children's health is affected by environmental conditions as well as by their family's socioeconomic status."
Correspondence: I. M. Timæus, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30749 Tollman, Stephen M.; Kark, Sidney L.; Kark, Emily. The Pholela Health Centre: understanding health and disease in South Africa through community-oriented primary care (COPC). In: Prospective community studies in developing countries, edited by Monica Das Gupta et al. 1997. 213-32 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors first describe the setting up of the Pholela Health Centre in rural Natal, South Africa, in 1940 and the health care practices it pioneered. "A comparative study of infant mortality among Zulu and Hindu communities (located in five of the Institute's COPC practice sites) is the subject of the next part of this chapter, and demonstrates the profound role of culture and family behaviour when differences in infant mortality rate are assessed. The final section, addressing the transmission of syphilis among rural Africans at Pholela, analyses the impact that socio-economic imperatives can impose on a segment of the community."
Correspondence: S. M. Tollman, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Community Health, Health Systems Development Unit, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30750 van Ginneken, Jeroen K.; Muller, Alex S.; Omondi-Odhiambo. Design, results, and comments on the Machakos Project in Kenya. In: Prospective community studies in developing countries, edited by Monica Das Gupta et al. 1997. 189-212 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors first describe the study design and methodology of the Machakos Project, which took place in Kenya from 1971 to 1981 and involved a rural population of around 18,600 persons. Next, the demographic concepts and definitions used in the project are described. The results of the demographic studies and the maternal and child health studies are presented separately. "The Machakos Project produced high-quality information relevant to health care. It produced age-specific figures on the incidence of measles, which yielded a recommendation of the optimal age to immunize children for measles; it studied the adequacy of two pertussis immunizations during infancy; and it analysed the impact of a pregnant woman's nutritional status and of the delivery care received on the outcome of pregnancy. All of these contributions were made possible by the epidemiological and demographic surveillance system, which provided regular follow-up for a number of years."
Correspondence: J. K. van Ginneken, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30751 World Bank (Washington, D.C.). Confronting AIDS: public priorities in a global epidemic. World Bank Policy Research Report, ISBN 0-19-521117-0. LC 97-17434. 1997. xxv, 353 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book "provides information and analysis to help policymakers, development specialists, public health experts, and others who shape the public response to HIV/AIDS to design an effective strategy for confronting the epidemic. It draws upon three bodies of knowledge: the epidemiology of HIV; public health insights into disease control; and especially public economics, which focuses on assessing tradeoffs in the allocation of scarce public resources. The report offers persuasive evidence that, for the 2.3 billion people living in parts of the world where the epidemic is still nascent, an early, active government response encouraging safer behavior among those most likely to contract and spread the virus has the potential to avert untold suffering and save millions of lives. Even where the virus has spread widely in the general population, prevention among those most likely to contract and spread it is still likely to be the most cost-effective way to reduce infection rates."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

64:30752 Cliquet, Robert. Population change and genetic diversity. In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 183-219 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter aims to deal with the effects demographic mechanisms and processes may have on the genetic composition and structure of populations.... Two major issues will be dealt with. First, a brief overview will be given of the effects the basic demographic variables may have on the genetic composition and structure of populations in general. Thereupon, the effects the modern demographic transition has or might have on the genetics of populations will be discussed."
Correspondence: R. Cliquet, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30753 Lucchetti, Enzo; Soliani, Lamberto. Genetics and demography. [Genetica e demografia.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 159-82 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Ita.
This is a general introduction to the study of population genetics. There are sections on the structure of the genetic makeup of a population, models of population genetics, the mechanisms of variations in genetic structure, analysis and applications, and studies on family names.
Correspondence: E. Lucchetti, Università degli Studi di Parma, Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, Via Università 12, 43100 Parma, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30754 Soliani, Lamberto; Lucchetti, Enzo. Genetic factors affecting mortality. [I fattori genetici della mortalità.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 71-83 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Ita.
This is a general review of the impact of genetic factors on mortality. There are sections on the methods and problems involved in the study of human genetics, genetic illnesses, theories of biological aging and the length of human life, sex factors in genetics, and biometric modeling.
Correspondence: L. Soliani, Università degli Studi di Parma, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Via Università 12, 43100 Parma, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.