Volume 64 - Number 3 - Fall 1998

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

64:30474 Barham, Bradford; Boucher, Stephen. Migration, remittances, and inequality: estimating the net effects of migration on income distribution. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 55, No. 2, Apr 1998. 307-31 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the net effects of migration and remittances on income distribution. Potential home earnings of migrants are imputed, as are the earnings of non-migrants in migrant households, in order to construct no-migration counterfactuals to compare with the observed income distribution including remittances. The earnings functions used to impute migrant home earnings are estimated from observations on non-migrants in a selection-corrected estimation framework which incorporates migration choice and labor-force participation decisions. For a sample of households in Bluefields, Nicaragua, migration and remittances increase income inequality when compared with the no-migration counterfactual."
Correspondence: B. Barham, University of Wisconsin, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: barham@aae.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:30475 Brisson, Maryse. Migrations: an unusual alternative? [Migraciones: ┐alternativa insolita?] ISBN 9977-83-100-9. LC 97-208818. 1997. 157 pp. Editorial Departamento Ecuménico de Investigaciones [DEI]: San José, Costa Rica. In Spa.
This book examines migration as a response of workers to a system that excludes them from the profits of the world's productivity. There are chapters on immigration from the viewpoint of rich and poor countries, the fallacy of trusting the market to provide for the common good, migration throughout history and in the present, the mobility of factors in economic production, and migration and its alternatives.
Correspondence: Editorial Departamento Ecuménico de Investigaciones, Apartado Postal 390-2070, Sabanilla, San José, Costa Rica. Location: Duke University Library, Durham, NC.

64:30476 De Jong, Gordon F. Temporary and more permanent rural-urban migration in Thailand. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 97-05, Mar 1997. [18] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Drawing on the theory of planned behavior from social psychology and micro-level empirical migration research, this study develops a general model of migration decision-making and tests this model using longitudinal data from the National Migration Survey of Thailand. Logistic regression model results show that migration intentions are significant decision-making predictors of more permanent but not temporary out-migration behavior. Supporting the theory of planned behavior, value-expectancy measures are important predictors of migration intentions but have no effect on migration behavior, net the effect of migration intentions.... Temporary migration is associated with household income needs, while more permanent out-migration is determined by social roles and community economic context."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. The full text of this paper is available online in PostScript format at http://www.pop.psu.edu/info-core/library/wp_lists/psu.html.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411.

64:30477 Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. Women and migration. In: Women in the third world: an encyclopedia of contemporary issues, edited by Nelly P. Stromquist. 1998. 202-9 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The first part of this essay focuses on women and how competing theoretical approaches view women and decision-making processes concerning migration; the second part examines some of the important empirical contributions to the study of migration and African, Asian, and Latin American women, briefly summarizing the demographic composition of particular migrations and paying particular attention to how migration affects women's participation in the labor market and gender inequality within the family and society."
Correspondence: P. Hondagneu-Sotelo, University of California, Department of Sociology, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30478 Miret, Naïk. The evolution of the migratory flows in South Catalonia, 1950-1975. [L'évolution du panorama migratoire en Catalogne Sud, 1950-1975.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1997. 47-69 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper retraces the history and the geography of the substitution in the migratory flows to Catalonia...during the last 30 years. After the huge movement of internal migration during the first half of the twentieth century, the first flow of foreign migrants appeared in the [1970s]. This substitution of migratory origin is related to a reconfiguration of the immigrants' geographic polarity of settlements and in their economic role. Based on various statistical indicators and bibliographic references, this paper provides some essential elements for the understanding of the migratory complexity of this space."
Correspondence: N. Miret, Université des Poitiers, UMR 6588, Maison des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société, 99 av. Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. E-mail: naik.miret@mshs.univ-poitiers.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30479 Münz, Rainer; Ulrich, Ralf. Germany and its immigrants: a socio-demographic analysis. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1998. 25-56 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Germany is today, along with the USA and Russia, one of the three most important immigration countries worldwide. The authors examine how the immigrant population of Germany has risen despite the fact that the German government has sought to restrict it. They analyse six major streams of migration: refugees and expellees who came immediately after World War II, German resettlers from Eastern Europe (`Aussiedler'), emigration of (West) Germans, migration between East and West Germany, foreign labour migrants and asylum seekers. The dynamics of immigration within each of these channels was remarkably different. As far as absorption and integration are concerned the authors argue that different groups of immigrants should be treated more equally."
Correspondence: R. Münz, Humboldt-University, Department of Social Sciences, Unter den Linden, 10099 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: rainer.muenz@sowi.hu-berlin.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

64:30480 Baganha, Maria I. Immigration in Southern Europe. ISBN 972-8027-86-9. 1997. x, 142 pp. Celta Editora: Oeiras, Portugal. In Eng.
This volume is a product of a meeting held in Coimbra, Portugal, in November 1994 to examine some aspects of current international migration trends affecting the countries of Europe. The focus of the meeting was on comparing the main features of immigration in the new countries of in-migration with those in traditional European receiving countries. Part I has four papers on migration determinants and political turmoil: South-North migration to Europe in the post 1980s, by Catherine Wihtol de Wenden; Trends in the 90's-- the Portuguese migratory experience, by Maria I. Baganha and João Peixoto; Current migration trends in Greece, by Ross Fakiolas; and An unexpected encounter--immigrant labour and economic structure in the North of Italy, by Maurizio Ambrosini. Part II has four papers focusing on whether these immigrants can be considered guests or residents and the related policy issues: Boundaries, margins and migrants--on paradigm shifts, heterogeneity and culture wars, by João A. Nunes; Immigration--the cultural and anthropological aspects of a case in European disintegration, by Guido Bolaffi; Discours integrationniste et société réelle [The integrationist debate and social realities], by Albano Cordeiro; and The Portuguese immigration policy and the new European order, by José Leitão. A final paper by Lydio F. Tomasi and Mark J. Miller discusses the need for developing a constructive alternative to containment with regard to this migration.
Correspondence: Celta Editora, Apartado 151, 2780 Oeiras, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30481 Baldwin-Edwards, Martin. The emerging European immigration regime: some reflections on implications for southern Europe. Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 35, No. 4, Dec 1997. 497-519 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Immigration is one of the more controversial areas in the history of European integration. Whilst northern European countries have been constructing elaborate compromises in the European Union (EU) Treaties and in the Schengen group, southern European countries have been trying to construct their own immigration policies. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the relationship between these two phenomena: it is suggested here that southern countries have found it expedient to fit in with EU and Schengen arrangements, even though these appear impossible to implement. This contradiction is seen as intrinsic to the overall relations of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece to the EU."
Correspondence: M. Baldwin-Edwards, European University Institute, Via dei Roccettini 9, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. E-mail: baldwin-edwards@usa.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30482 Bartram, David V. Foreign workers in Israel: history and theory. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 2, Summer 1998. 303-25 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Beginning in 1993, Israel began importing large numbers of foreign workers, replacing its traditional Palestinian labor force. This article presents a descriptive history and theoretical analysis of the migration, placing it in the context of Israel's reliance on noncitizen labor from the occupied territories. Dual labor market theory is particularly helpful in analyzing labor migration to Israel, but only by also analyzing the determinants of state policy can we understand how these recent flows began. The Israeli case thus suggests a cumulative model of the initiation of labor migration flows: structural factors create a predisposition toward use of foreign labor, and political factors determine whether and how that predisposition will be actualized."
Correspondence: D. V. Bartram, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: bartram@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30483 Bilsborrow, R. E.; Hugo, Graeme; Oberai, A. S.; Zlotnik, Hania. International migration statistics: guidelines for improving data collection systems. ISBN 92-2-109517-7. 1997. xii, 441 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The purpose of this book is to help countries generate relevant and more meaningful data on international migration. "The authors cover a wide range of conceptual and analytical issues related to the measurement of stock and flows of international migrants and problems concerning international comparability of migration data. They discuss the potentials and weaknesses of existing data collection systems [including censuses, population registers, border statistics, and residence and work permit systems], and provide guidance on how to develop and disseminate statistics on international migration. The book analyses the measurement of migrants' remittances and problems associated with this, as well as ways of gathering remittances data. Attention is also given to specially designed surveys for use in examining the determinants and consequences of international migration. Examination of these issues is crucial for developing realistic and cost-effective migration policies."
Correspondence: International Labour Office Publications, 4 Route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30484 Chau, Nancy H.; Stark, Oded. Human capital formation, asymmetric information, and the dynamics of international migration. Department of Economics Working Paper Series, No. 95, Apr 1998. 34 pp. Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics: Hong Kong, China. In Eng.
"We consider the case in which the opening up of an economy to migration results in departure of skilled workers. We point out that while the possibility of migration changes the set of employment opportunities, it also affects the structure of incentives: higher returns to skills in the foreign country influence decisions about skill acquisition at home. We combine the changing opportunities--changing incentive structure idea with an assumption concerning the information environment: employers in the foreign country are neither perfectly informed nor equally informed over time about the skill levels of individual migrant workers as employers' experience of employing migrant workers accumulates."
Correspondence: Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. E-mail: economics@cuhk.edu.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30485 Chen, Shyh-Jer. Characteristics and assimilation of Chinese immigrants in the U.S. labour market. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1998. 187-210 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Using U.S. Public Use Samples, this article examines differences in the quality and assimilation rate of different Chinese immigrant groups (immigrants from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China) in the U.S. labour market. The descriptive statistics show great differences among Chinese immigrants from the three areas in their ages, wage rates, years of schooling and industrial and occupational distributions. This article also finds that the three Chinese immigrant groups have much more dispersed wage distributions than U.S.-born workers have. The three Chinese immigrant groups also experienced substantial assimilation into the U.S. labour market during the 1980s."
Correspondence: S.-J. Chen, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Human Resource Management, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30486 Cooney, Jerry W. Paraguay: a bibliography of immigration and emigration. 1996. 71 pp. Jerry W. Cooney: Longview, Washington. In Eng.
This is a general bibliography of studies on international migration to and from Paraguay. It is organized by subject and is unannotated.
Source: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30487 DeSipio, Louis; de la Garza, Rodolfo O. Making Americans, remaking America: immigration and immigrant policy. Dilemmas in American Politics, ISBN 0-8133-1943-9. LC 98-10675. 1998. xii, 156 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
"In this book, we examine U.S. immigration and naturalization policy and the policy choices that the polity has made regarding immigration and the settlement of immigrants. We look at the numbers of immigrants, the types of immigration, and how the flow of immigrants has changed over time. We also examine what happens to immigrants once they arrive in the United States, both formally, in terms of joining the polity as naturalized citizens, and informally, in terms of interacting with other populations in the United States and receiving different types of benefits based on their immigration or naturalization status. Our goal is to pinpoint the dilemmas that the United States faces in being a nation of immigrants that sets as a national ideal the political incorporation of these immigrants."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30488 Devoto, Fernando J.; Llordén Miñambres, Moisés; Opatrny, Josef; Pajovic, Slobodan S.; Vázquez González, Alejandro; Da Orden, María Liliana; Fernández García, Ana M. Concerning migration from central Europe and the Mediterranean region to Latin America: social and cultural aspects. [Acerca de las migraciones centroeuropeas y mediterráneas a Iberoamérica: aspectos sociales y culturales.] Estudios Sociales Iberoamericanos, No. 2, ISBN 84-7468-867-1. 1995. 226 pp. Universidad de Oviedo, Servicio de Publicaciones: Oviedo, Spain. In Spa.
This is a selection of nine studies on aspects of the migration between Europe and Latin America from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. The focus is mainly on immigration from various parts of Spain; immigration from Italy, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia is also addressed.
Correspondence: Universidad de Oviedo, Calle San Francisco 3, 33003 Oviedo, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30489 Duleep, Harriet O.; Regets, Mark C. Immigrant entry earnings and human capital growth: evidence from the 1960-1990 censuses. Research in Labor Economics, Vol. 16, 1997. 297-317 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"We summarize several empirical efforts focussed on the relationship between the entry earnings and earnings growth of immigrant men [in the United States] in three ways. We examine the relationship between changes in the initial earnings of immigrant cohorts and changes in their earnings growth. Following that, we model the effect on the earnings profiles of immigrant men of...kinship admissions. Finally, we examine whether the earnings of immigrant men defined by another factor associated with changes in immigrant entry earnings--country of origin--diverge or converge with time in the United States."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, 4417 Yuma Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. E-mail: harriet.o.duleep@ssa.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30490 Durkin, John T. Immigration, assimilation and growth. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1998. 273-91 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the welfare effects of immigration and its subsequent effect on ethnic diversity in a model featuring human capital spillovers which depend on the degree of ethnic heterogeneity, variation rates of time preference across individuals and endogenous levels of immigration and assimilation. In the model, an increase in ethnic diversity reduces the spillovers effect for the majority. Nonetheless, immigration can be welfare improving for the majority ethnic group even if it increases the degree of diversity as long as it raises the average human capital level and/or growth rate by increasing the proportion of people with low rates of time preference."
Correspondence: J. T. Durkin, Wayne State University, Department of Economics, Detroit, MI 48202. E-mail: sdurkin@econ.wayne.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30491 Esenova, Saulesh. The outflow of minorities from the post-Soviet state: the case of Kazakhstan. Nationalities Papers, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1996. 691-707 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The author examines the flow of the non-Kazakh population from the territory of Kazakhstan since the country became independent in December 1991. "This study [analyzes] the ongoing migration process from...a Kazakh point-of-view--meaning, not from the position of a Kazakh `nationalist' but from a pragmatic stance, taking into consideration the specific elements of the situation in the country. In particular, it is suggested that the `nationalist' interpretation (which is not actively promoted in the country's internal politics, by the way) is less than ideal as a scientific explanation of this migration, and various other contributing factors will be presented."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:30492 Evtoukh, Volodymyr. Contemporary migrations in the Ukraine. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 243-7 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The author "looks at the Ukraine as an emigration and transit migration country." Aspects considered include causes of migration movements, destination countries of immigrants, and patterns of transit migration.
Correspondence: V. Evtoukh, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ethno-Sociology, Ul. Vladimirskaya 54, 252601 Kiev, Ukraine. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30493 Fassmann, Heinz; Münz, Rainer. Migration in Europe: historical development, current trends, and political reactions. [Migration in Europa: historische Entwicklung, aktuelle Trends und politische Reaktionen.] ISBN 3-593-35609-0. 1996. 438 pp. Campus Verlag: New York, New York/Frankfurt, Germany. In Ger.
This book, which contains chapters by various authors, deals with European migration, both international migration within Europe and immigration to Europe from non-European countries. Aspects considered include the geographical extent of immigration within Europe, past and present trends, and political and socioeconomic factors. The first chapter, written by the editors, provides a geographical, historical, and typological overview of European migration. The following 15 chapters are each dedicated to analyzing immigration as it occurs or has occurred in specific countries. Countries analyzed are the United Kingdom, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, the former Yugoslavia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, the former Soviet Union, and Israel.
Correspondence: Campus Verlag, Heerstraße 149, 6000 Frankfurt am Main 90, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30494 Feld, Serge. Immigration, demographic trends and the labour market. In: Mediterranean Conference on Population, Migration and Development. Proceedings: Palma de Mallorca, 15-17 October 1996. 1997. 259-99 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
"We are...concerned with the specific factors associated with the supply of, and demand for labour within certain countries of immigration. The purpose is to determine and measure the extent to which there is a declining population that could lead to a future labour shortage.... Many studies highlight the decline in the total population of the countries of immigration, the ageing of that population and their declining labour force. We therefore need to look at the major demographic trends at work in the majority of European countries of destination and their effects, firstly, on their working age population and then--a more complex task--on the various countries' working populations."
Correspondence: S. Feld, University of Liège, Department of Economics, 7 boulevard du Rectorat, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30495 Fergany, Nader. Dynamics of demography and development in the Mediterranean basin: implications to the potential for migration to Europe. In: Mediterranean Conference on Population, Migration and Development. Proceedings: Palma de Mallorca, 15-17 October 1996. 1997. 211-42 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
"This paper aims at exploring the dynamic interaction of demographic change and development as a determinant of the potential for emigration from the Arab countries of the Mediterranean basin and Turkey, with special reference to Europe. While the paper is concerned with imbalances in the Mediterranean basin, the emphasis is on countries south and east of the Mediterranean as current, as well as potential, senders of migrants to Europe." Sections are included on population growth and age structure, labor supply, underutilization of available labor, the welfare gap across the Mediterranean and prospects for development, and the potential for emigration to Europe and possible strategies.
Correspondence: N. Fergany, Centre for Research and Training (Almishkat), Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30496 Ferrie, Joseph P. Immigrants and natives: comparative economic performance in the United States, 1850-1860 and 1965-1980. Research in Labor Economics, Vol. 16, 1997. 319-41 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
This study "takes up the challenge offered by the lack of data on nineteenth century immigrant economic performance comparable to that on contemporary immigrants. I use two new samples of antebellum Americans that together provide information on the experience of more than six thousand immigrants and natives and document several of the same measures of economic performance as contemporary sources. I focus on two non-income dimensions of immigrant performance: geographic dispersion and occupational mobility. I compare immigrant performance in two eras, separated by just over a century (1850-1860 and 1965-1980). This makes it possible to consider the impact of a broad range of changes in the U.S. economy and in U.S. immigration policy."
Correspondence: J. P. Ferrie, Northwestern University, Department of Economics, Evanston, IL 06208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30497 Francois, Joseph F.; Nelson, Douglas. Population growth, trade policy, and migration incentives. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 1560, Jan 1997. 23, [3] pp. Centre for Economic and Policy Research: London, England. In Eng.
"Differences in the rate of population growth between developed and developing countries have potentially important implications for patterns of trade, migration, and the distribution of the gains from economic activity, both within and between nations. This paper focuses on migration-related effects. We offer a theoretical discussion of explicit theoretical linkages between population growth, trade policy and migration."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. E-mail: cepr@cepr.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30498 Gauthier, Catherine. Moroccan migratory mobilities: sociabilities and merchant exchanges. [Sociabilités et commercialisations des mobilités migratoires marocaines.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1997. 183-210 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Mobility of Moroccan migrants who use Spanish roads to travel back and forth from Morocco to the various European regions of settlement points out spatial continuities and social proximities on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar.... Important places of exchanges do not always coincide with large urban sites nor with a substantial concentration of fellow countrymen. In some places, which at first look insignificant but which are actually full of emotional, symbolical or cultural meaning, one single person can give birth to a convergence of migratory routes. Analysing the historical depth of those regions and of the urban shapes on which mobility is based, as well as their different strata, thus enables [us] to understand their sociological impact."
Correspondence: C. Gauthier, Université Toulouse-le-Murail, 4 rue des Tables Claudiennes, 69001 Lyon, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30499 Gelbard, Alene H.; Carter, Marion. Mexican immigration and the U.S. population. In: At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy, edited by Frank D. Bean et al. 1997. 117-44 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter looks at how Mexican immigration affects the demographic profile of the United States. It focuses on characteristics relevant to public policy and looks at the particular case of California to examine the implications of Mexican immigration at the sub-national level."
Correspondence: A. H. Gelbard, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30500 Ghosh, Partha S. Cross-border population movements and regional security in South Asia. Conflict Studies, No. 303, Oct 1997. 23 pp. Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism [RISCT]: London, England. In Eng.
"In South Asia the problem of cross-border population movement is acute.... The objective of this study is to highlight the interconnection of these population movements with the question of South Asian regional security.... The first [section] identifies the different types of movements of people, the second highlights the centrality of India from a geopolitical angle, the third puts the matter in its regional security milieu, and the fourth draws some concluding remarks."
Correspondence: Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, 136 Baker Street, London W1M 1FH, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:30501 Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Boyd, Monica. Women and migration: incorporating gender into international migration theory. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 98-139, [1998]. 35, [3] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to develop a gender sensitive approach to the study of international migration.... We argue that a gender sensitive approach requires asking how gender is involved in the seemingly gender-neutral migratory process.... Using a three stage model of the migration process, we show how gender relations, roles and hierarchies influence the migratory probabilities of women and men during each stage of the migration process and produce differential migration outcomes."
Correspondence: Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30502 Hagan, John; Palloni, Alberto. Immigration and crime in the United States. In: The immigration debate: studies on the economic, demographic, and fiscal effects of immigration, edited by James P. Smith and Barry Edmonston. 1998. 367-87 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors investigate the relationship between immigration and crime in the United States, with a focus on the turn of the century and on the end of the twentieth century. Aspects considered include a possible overreliance on prison statistics to assess crime among immigrants, the extent to which immigrants are responsible for drug-related crime, and differential treatment of immigrants in the criminal justice system.
Correspondence: J. Hagan, University of Toronto, Faculty of Law, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30503 Hamermesh, Daniel S.; Bean, Frank D. Help or hindrance? The economic implications of immigration for African Americans. ISBN 0-87154-387-7. LC 97-46611. 1998. x, 394 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of 14 studies by various authors on the economic implications of immigration in the United States for African Americans. "The first group [of papers] deals either directly or by implication with the impact of immigration on the labor-market outcomes experienced by African Americans and other minorities.... Immigration can affect the economic circumstances of African Americans in a variety of ways that are not directly part of the employment relationship. These include pre-labor-market effects, such as those that occur through the accumulation of knowledge in formal education; effects on non-labor-market activities, such as housing choices and criminal activities; and impacts on workers' choices of whether to enter employment or to become self-employed instead. Part two...provides economic analyses of these other activities.... Taken all together, the results of the various research projects indicate that recent immigration to the United States appears to have exerted small negative effects on the economic situations of African Americans.... In part [three] an invited group of commentators...remind us that it is one thing to try to estimate both the economic effects of immigration in general and those effects on African Americans in particular, but an altogether different thing to try to estimate the effects of immigration on the country's overall social welfare."
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30504 Hayfron, John E. The performance of immigrants in the Norwegian labor market. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1998. 293-303 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper tests the assimilation hypothesis with Norwegian data. Using both cross-section and cohort analyses, the results show that the 1970-1979 immigrant cohort experienced an earnings growth of about 11% between 1980 and 1990, when their earnings profile was compared to that of natives. This is lower than the 19% assimilation rate predicted by the cross-section method. On the contrary, the results reveal a rapid earnings divergence across cohorts, and between the 1960-1969 cohort and natives."
Correspondence: J. E. Hayfron, University of Bergen, Department of Economics, Fosswinckelsgt. 6, 5007 Bergen, Norway. E-mail: john.hayfron@econ.uib.no. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30505 Hönekopp, Elmar. The East-West migration in Europe: normalization after some years of growth. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 221-41 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"The aim of this article is to give an overview of aspects relevant to East-West migration. After presenting its dimensions as related to geographic units, various aspects of East-West migration will be outlined so that we may arrive at a better structural understanding of the issues under discussion. The changed legal situation regarding travel possibilities will be described, as well as the first steps toward migration policies in the Eastern European countries. Finally as a background, the economic and social questions of East-West migration will be discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30506 Hu, Wei-Yin. Elderly immigrants on welfare. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 33, No. 3, Summer 1998. 711-41 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The difference between immigrants' and natives' use of welfare programs [in the United States] is concentrated among the elderly. This paper examines the determinants of immigrants' welfare participation decisions to evaluate the consequences of changes in immigration and welfare policy. An important finding for immigration policy is that immigrants who arrive after age 55 are significantly more likely to use welfare than the typical immigrant who arrives during prime working years. Surprisingly, this age-at-arrival effect is not explained by differences in social security benefits between young-arrivers and old-arrivers. The problem of immigrant welfare use is not simply low incomes or poor labor market performance: decisions regarding take-up of benefits are an important explanation for the effect of age at arrival. Finally, the sharp rise in immigrants' use of welfare during the 1980s was due mostly to higher welfare participation rates of new immigrants."
Correspondence: W.-Y. Hu, University of California, Department of Economics, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1477. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:30507 Iontsev, Vladimir A. International population migration: Russia in the world today. [Mezhdunarodnaya migratsiya naseleniya: Rossiya i sovremennyi mir.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 6, 1998. 38-48 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
This article "discusses the place and the role of Russia in current international population migrations. Due to the appearance of [the] CIS, former inner-Soviet migration flows turned instantaneously into international ones, making Russia one of the leading...world immigration centers. In 1992 to 1996 [the] number of immigrants rose above 6 [million] people--a major factor for easing [the] demographic situation in Russia. Emigration grew as well, coming close to 3.5 [million people]. The changing picture requires new approaches to [the] country's migration policies."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30508 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Immigrant population from former USSR 1995: demographic trends. Central Bureau of Statistics Special Series, No. 1076, Mar 1998. lii, 143 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
This is the fourth in a series of publications analyzing demographic trends in the population that migrated to Israel from the former USSR after 1990. "This publication presents the 1995 data for a wide variety of demographic subjects: population movements (immigration, fertility, mortality, internal migration), the development of the population and its distribution by sex, age and geographical division, as well as updated information on marriage and divorce."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, P.O. Box 13015, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30509 Jones-Correa, Michael. Different paths: gender, immigration and political participation. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 2, Summer 1998. 326-49 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Building on arguments made by Grasmuck and Pessar (1991), Hardy-Fanta (1993), and Hondagneu-Sotelo (1994), among others, this article makes the case for a gendered understanding of immigrant political socialization. Looking at recent Latin American immigrants to New York City, the article argues that immigrant Latino men are more likely to favor continuity in patterns of socialization and organization, and immigrant Latinas are more likely to favor change. This finding helps bridge theoretical and empirical literatures in immigration studies, applying the logic of gender-differentiated decisionmaking to the area of immigrant political socialization and behavior."
Correspondence: M. Jones-Correa, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30510 Karppi, J. Ilari; Rantala, Heikki. Ethnic and social determinants of east-west migratory trends in the Baltic Sea area transition economies. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 87-101 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The article concentrates on social and ethnic background factors in the Baltic Sea area transition economies with special reference to Estonian-Russian relations in Estonia. The general framework of the study deals with the transition to a market economy and the effects this transition has on east-west migration.... A specific aspect discussed here is the connection between ethnically-based relative deprivation and willingness to emigrate."
Correspondence: J. I. Karppi, University of Tampere, Department of Regional Studies and Environmental Policy, Tampere, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30511 King, Russell; Patterson, Guy. Diverse paths: the elderly British in Tuscany. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jun 1998. 157-82 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the life, migration and retirement experiences of elderly British residents of Tuscany and its adjacent districts.... Many pathways have led the elderly British to Tuscany; only a minority have simply migrated from the UK on retirement.... Key themes explored include class background, reasons for migration to Tuscany, previous connections to Italy, post-retirement behaviour, integration and future plans. The findings challenge some commonly-held `expectations' about the nature of retirement migration."
Correspondence: R. King, University of Sussex, School of European Studies, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30512 King, Russell; Warnes, Anthony M.; Williams, Allan M. International retirement migration in Europe. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jun 1998. 87-209 pp. John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains a collection of articles on international retirement migration [IRM] in Europe. The papers "are a product of two interlinked research projects, one carried out by a British team and the other by a group of Spanish researchers.... The papers...do not resolve all the dilemmas and issues, but they do present a wealth of empirical evidence and, although diversity of experience is one of [the] key findings of the research, the evidence presented tends to uphold [a] positive interpretation of IRM rather than [a] negative view."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester PO19 1UD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30513 King, Russell; Warnes, Anthony M.; Williams, Allan M. International retirement migration in Europe. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jun 1998. 91-111 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents a review and prospectus of international retirement migration (IRM), dealing mainly with European evidence but also referring to some analogous trends in North America. The paper is in three main parts. It first makes the case for regarding IRM as a significant aspect of population geography and of migration studies; in certain areas of Mediterranean Europe, IRM also has effects on regional economic geography. The second section of the paper discusses some of the early findings from a comparative study of British elderly residents in Tuscany, Malta, the Costa del Sol and the Algarve.... The final part of the article offers further reflections on why IRM is important--for the individual migrants themselves, for the host communities, and for public policy."
Correspondence: R. King, University of Sussex, School of European Studies, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30514 Kyntäjä, Eve. Ethnic remigration from the former Soviet Union to Finland--patterns of ethnic identity and acculturation among the Ingrian Finns. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 102-13 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to examine the patterns of psychological acculturation and ethnic identity of Ingrian Finns--the remigrants from the former Soviet Union--in Finland. The article is based on a study that focused on finding out the relationship between objective criteria of ethnic identity (language, nationality, citizenship, religion) and subjective ethnic identity (self-identification, commitment) in a certain social context.... The results suggest that different age groups have different ethnic self-perceptions."
Correspondence: E. Kyntäjä, University of Helsinki, Aleksanteri Institute, Finnish Centre for Russian and East-European Studies, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30515 Li, F. L. N.; Findlay, A. M.; Jones, H. A cultural economy perspective on service sector migration in the global city: the case of Hong Kong. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1998. 131-57 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article argues that in order to fully understand the geography of labour migration to global cities, it is necessary to consider economic forces in conjunction with mediating socio-cultural influences. Support for this argument is based on an examination of the pattern of migration to Hong Kong, a city which plays a significant role in the world economy. Reported here are the results of an analysis of recently released 1996 by-census data, and the authors' interviews with foreign domestic workers in Hong Kong. These findings have shown that highly skilled immigrant workers were drawn largely from developed countries, the main sources of inward investment in this city, while less skilled immigrants were drawn from less developed neighbouring labour markets."
Correspondence: F. L. N. Li, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30516 Liaw, Kao-Lee; Frey, William H. Destination choices of the 1985-90 young adult immigrants to the United States: importance of race, educational attainment, and labour market forces. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1998. 49-61 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the relative roles of conventional labour market forces and proxies for ethnic ties in explaining the destination choices of 1985-90 young adult immigrants [to the United States], based on data from the 1990 census. We find that the destination choices of recent immigrants are more strongly influenced by the race-ethnic composition of a state than by more conventional labour market attributes. This is especially the case for blacks and Hispanics who showed the highest concentration in their destination selections, and least so for whites whose destinations were most dispersed. We also found that immigrants with less than high school education were most subject to the pull of race-ethnic similarity, were least attracted by the states with low unemployment, and had the most concentrated destination selections within each race-ethnic group."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K.-L. Liaw, McMaster University, Department of Geography, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30517 Light, Ivan; Isralowitz, Richard E. Immigrant entrepreneurs and immigrant absorption in the United States and Israel. Research in Ethnic Relations Series, ISBN 1-85972-467-1. 1997. xviii, 245 pp. Ashgate: Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"Israel and the United States are among the five nations of the world that encourage foreigners to migrate, to settle, and then to accept citizenship. This common policy causes common problems and experiences in both countries.... This book...opens the...discussion about how Israel and the USA deal with immigration and how they are transformed by it. Approaching the discussion from the point of view of contemporary immigration research, [it] prioritizes the economic processes of immigrant insertion in Israel and the USA, immigrant absorption and assimilation in both countries, policy debates, and women immigrants for extended treatment."
Correspondence: Ashgate Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30518 Lipshitz, Gabriel. Country on the move: migration to and within Israel, 1948-1995. ISBN 0-7923-4850-8. 1998. xi, 167 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The goal of the present book is to describe and analyze the spatial-economic-demographic results of immigration and internal migration in Israel between 1948 and 1995.... There were two peaks of immigration during this period: the wave of the 1950s, during which the Israeli government intervened vigorously (`planning from above') to disperse the immigrants geographically; and the wave of the 1990s, when the government adopted a policy of absorption by market forces (`planning from below') to disperse the immigrants. Between these two peaks, the main population flow determining the spatial makeup was internal migration."
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30519 Lobo, A. P.; Salvo, J. J. Resurgent Irish immigration to the U.S. in the 1980s and early 1990s: a socio-demographic profile. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1998. 257-80 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article uses U.S. immigration data to assess how the occupational characteristics of recent Irish immigrants compare with prior immigrant cohorts and also examines how Irish immigrants are incorporated into the U.S. economy. Recent Irish immigrants to the U.S. spanned the occupational spectrum.... While the number of entering Irish professionals increased, flows of the less skilled increased even more dramatically, resulting in an overall decline in the occupational selectivity of Irish immigrants."
Correspondence: A. P. Lobo, New York City Planning Commission, Population Division, 22 Reade Street, New York, NY 10007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30520 Makarova, Lydmila V.; Morozova, Galina F.; Borzunova, Tatyana I. Regional aspects of Russian immigration. [Regional'nye aspekty Rossiiskoi immigratsii.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 6, 1998. 48-55 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The article analyzes the immigration situation in Russia against the background of an all-out destabilization in the post-Soviet space during the first half of the 90s. Using the official statistical data the authors scrutinize the trends of immigration to the Russian Federation from the largest regions of the former USSR and other countries. Age and ethnic structure of the immigration flows are shown and positive as well as negative consequences of those processes for the internal development of Russia are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30521 Malpas, Nicole. Destination: Montreal. A study of emigration from Casacalenda (Molise). [Destination: Montréal. L'étude de l'émigration en provenance de Casacalenda (Molise).] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 26, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 155-89, 339 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Is Montréal as important on the map of emigration from Molise (Italy), especially from Casacalenda, as Molise and Casacalenda seem to be on the map of Italian immigration to Montréal? Whereas most earlier studies were based on aggregate data, the author examines this question here using passport records and conscription lists.... The result is a better understanding of the rates of migration from Casacalenda; of the relative importance of Canada, and especially Montréal, as a destination for migrants; and of the existence of two quite distinct migration contexts for men and women."
Correspondence: N. Malpas, NM Consultants 26, rue Wilmart, 4032 Chénée-Liège, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30522 Martin, Philip. Do Mexican agricultural policies stimulate emigration? In: At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy, edited by Frank D. Bean et al. 1997. 79-116 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes Mexican agricultural policies and practices since the early 1980s, and examines the relation between Mexican and U.S. agriculture. He then looks at Mexican farm-worker migration into the United States from 1917 to the 1990s and discusses the 1996 guest-worker proposal. Finally, he makes some policy recommendations aimed at minimizing the number of future farmworker migrants.
Correspondence: P. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30523 Mehlman, Ira. Reluctant observers: the American media take a wary look at immigration. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 343-55 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The author discusses "the attention that immigration as an issue has received in the American media, and how and in what way this attention has changed recently.... Immigration is an issue the American media will be forced to report on and analyze for many years to come. If the pattern that has emerged to this point holds true in the future, we can expect them to do it in a fairly predictable manner--they will be dragged reluctantly into the fray, but only after others have provided them with the necessary cover."
Correspondence: I. Mehlman, Federation for American Immigration Reform, 1666 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30524 Meier-Braun, Karl-Heinz. Migration, asylum and foreigners in the German media. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 337-42 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The author, who is "director of the Foreigners' Program at the Süddeutscher Rundfunk (radio station) in Stuttgart, describes his station's efforts in Germany to inform and entertain the immigrant populations, but also writes about efforts to educate German audiences concerning ongoing immigration processes."
Correspondence: K.-H. Meier-Braun, Süddeutscher Rundfunk, Migrants Broadcasting Service, Stuttgart, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30525 Mexico. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Mexico City, Mexico); United States. Commission on Immigration Reform (Washington, D.C.). Migration between Mexico and the United States: binational study. Volume 1. Thematic chapters. LC 98-65937. 1998. xiv, 509 pp. Mexico City, Mexico; Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the first book in a three-volume set of studies on Mexican-U.S. immigration produced by twenty scholars from the United States and Mexico who worked together in teams on five relevant subject areas. This volume contains the following thematic studies, the topics of which are addressed in more detail in the research reports contained in the other two volumes: The quantification of migration between Mexico and the United States, by Frank D. Bean, Rodolfo Corona, Rodolfo Tuirán, and Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield; Characteristics of migrants--Mexicans in the United States, by Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor, and Paz Trigueros Legarreta; Factors that influence migration, by Agustín Escobar Latapí, Philip Martin, Paul S. Davies, Gustavo López Castro, and Katharine Donato; Impacts of migration--U.S. impacts of Mexican immigration, by Michael J. Greenwood and Marta Tienda; Impacts of migration in Mexico, by Gustavo Verduzco and Kurt Unger; and Responses to migration issues, by Sidney Weintraub, Francisco Alba, Rafael Fernández de Castro, and Manuel García y Griego.
For the other volumes in this set, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30526 Mexico. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Mexico City, Mexico); United States. Commission on Immigration Reform (Washington, D.C.). Migration between Mexico and the United States: binational study. Volume 2. Research reports and background materials. LC 98-65937. 1998. xii, 511-867 pp. Mexico City, Mexico; Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the second book in a three-volume set of studies on Mexican-U.S. immigration. The studies in this volume are grouped under two headings: the quantification of migration, and the characteristics of migrants. The volume contains the following chapters: Estimating unauthorized Mexican migration to the United States--issues and results, by Jennifer Van Hook and Frank D. Bean; Estimating underenumeration among unauthorized Mexican migrants to the United States--applications of mortality analyses, by Jennifer Van Hook and Frank D. Bean; The Mexican-origin population of the United States in the twentieth century, by Jennifer E. Glick and Jennifer Van Hook; Emigration--implications for U.S. immigration policy research, by Ellen P. Kraly; Estimating authorized immigration, by Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield; Viewing emigration at century's end, by Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield; The process of acquiring citizenship and/or nationality at birth in Mexico and the United States, by Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor, and Paz Trigueros Legaretta; The selectivity of international labor migration and characteristics of Mexico-to-U.S. migrants--theoretical considerations, by Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor, and Paz Trigueros Legaretta; Data sources, by Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor, and Paz Trigueros Legaretta; Immigrant characteristics from U.S. data sources, by Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor, and Paz Trigueros Legaretta; Mexico-to-U.S. migrant characteristics from surveys involving samples drawn in Mexico, by Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor, and Paz Trigueros Legaretta; Mexico-to-U.S. migrant characteristics from Mexican data sources, by Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor, and Paz Trigueros Legaretta; and Some thoughts on perceptions and policies, by Jorge A. Bustamante.
For the other volumes in this set, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30527 Mexico. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Mexico City, Mexico); United States. Commission on Immigration Reform (Washington, D.C.). Migration between Mexico and the United States: binational study. Volume 3. Research reports and background materials. LC 98-65937. 1998. xiv, 869-1,250 pp. Mexico City, Mexico; Washington, D.C. In Eng; Spa.
This is the third book in a three-volume set of studies on Mexican-U.S. immigration. The studies in this volume are grouped under three headings: factors that influence migration, impacts of migration, and responses to migration. The volume contains the following chapters: U.S.-Mexican migration, by Philip Martin; Mexican immigrant workers and U.S. food expenditures, by Philip Martin; Guest workers--past and present, by Philip Martin; Proposition 187 in California, by Philip Martin; Mexican migration project data, by Katharine Donato; Coyotes and alien smuggling, by Gustavo López Castro; Factores de la migración y redes migratorias [Factors of migration and migration networks], by Jean Papail; The participation of Mexican-born households in means-tested U.S. welfare programs, by Paul S. Davies and Michael J. Greenwood; Labour market implications of Mexican migration--economies of scale, innovation, and entrepreneurship, by Michael J. Rosenfeld and Marta Tienda; The U.S. labor market impacts of low-skill migration from Mexico, by Paul S. Davies, Michael J. Greenwood, Gary L. Hunt, Ulrich Kohli, and Marta Tienda; Mexican immigrants and Mexican American political assimilation, by Michael J. Rosenfeld; Transferability of skills and the economic rewards to U.S. employment for return migrants in Mexico, by Steven S. Zahniser and Michael J. Greenwood; Impactos de las cambios económicos en el agro Mexicano y en la migración--un análysis micro-multisectorial [Impacts of economic changes on rural Mexico and on migration--a multi-sectorial analysis], by Antonio Yúnez Naude; Las remesas de los migrantes Mexicanos en Estados Unidos--estimaciones para 1995 [Remittances of Mexican migrants in the United States--estimates for 1995], by Fernando Lozano Ascencio; The Bracero Program, by Manuel García y Griego; Mexico's 1982 economic crisis, by Francisco Alba; IRCA and the facilitation of U.S.-Mexico migration dialogue, by Sidney Weintraub; The riverside incident, by Rafael Fernández de Castro; Selected court cases on immigration enforcement, U.S. court decisions; and On the unrenounceability of Mexican nationality, by Sidney Weintraub.
For the other volumes in this set, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30528 Münz, Rainer; Ohliger, Rainer. German minorities in Central and Eastern Europe, repatriates in Germany: an analysis of ethnically privileged migration. [Deutsche Minderheiten in Ostmittel- und Osteuropa, Aussiedler in Deutschland: eine Analyse ethnisch privilegierter Migration.] Demographie Aktuell, No. 9, 1997. 40 pp. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultät III, Institut für Sozialwissenschaften, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The authors examine the background and current status of the migration of ethnic Germans back to Germany. After an historical overview from 1918, there are sections on the German minorities in the Soviet Union and Russia, Romania, and Poland; legally privileged ethnic repatriation to Germany; the legal framework of immigration and integration; the integration of repatriates; political factors, social policy, and the potential for conflict; and current and future migration potential.
Correspondence: Humboldt-University, Department of Social Sciences, 10099 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: rohliger@sowi.hu-berlin.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30529 Münz, Rainer; Seifert, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Ralf. Immigration to Germany: structures, effects, prospects. [Zuwanderung nach Deutschland: Strukturen, Wirkungen, Perspektiven.] ISBN 3-593-35714-3. 1997. 204 pp. Campus Verlag: New York, New York/Frankfurt, Germany. In Ger.
The authors analyze the causes of migration to Germany. They portray different types of immigrants, including refugees, guest workers, and asylum seekers. The social structure within these different immigrant groups is described, and prospects of the integration of such immigrants into German society are explored. The authors also argue that it should be easier for long-term foreign residents to obtain German citizenship.
Correspondence: Campus Verlag, Heerstraße 149, 6000 Frankfurt am Main 90, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30530 Münz, Rainer; Seifert, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Ralf; Fassmann, Heinz. Migration patterns, integration and exclusion of foreigners. A comparison of Germany and Austria. [Migrationsmuster, Integration und Exklusion von Ausländern. Deutschland und Österreich im Vergleich.] Demographie Aktuell, No. 10, 1997. ii, 63 pp. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultät III, Institut für Sozialwissenschaften, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
On the basis of official statistics, the authors compare immigration to Germany and Austria as two "most similar cases" in order to analyze the effects of differences in societal openness to foreigners, particularly in the labor and housing markets. They conclude that socioeconomic integration is more difficult for foreigners in Austria, due mainly to the greater control exerted by the state, political parties, and labor unions over large segments of the labor market. On the other hand, access to citizenship is more restricted in Germany because of its ethnically based understanding of nationality.
Correspondence: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultät III, Institut für Sozialwissenschaften, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 10099 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: wolfgang=seifert@rz.hu-berlin.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30531 Nair, Shanti. Migrants in a maelstrom. World Today, Vol. 54, No. 3, Mar 1998. 66-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The first victims of Asia's economic crisis are the millions of migrant workers whose labour is no longer required by the region's erstwhile `tigers'. Their repatriation raises serious political, economic and social issues for citizens and states in both home and host countries.... The issue of economic migration needs to be assessed if the possible socio-economic consequences of the present crisis are to be fully understood."
Correspondence: S. Nair, London School of Economics and Political Science, Asia Research Centre, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30532 Netherlands. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Voorburg, Netherlands). Immigration from Netherlands Antilles and Aruba has strongly increased. [Immigratie uit de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba sterk toegenomen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 3, May 1998. 7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
This one-page article examines recent trends in migration from the Caribbean to the Netherlands. "The number of immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba has risen since 1994. This increase is probably due to the economic situation in these countries."
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, Postbus 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30533 Netherlands. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Voorburg, Netherlands). Less emigration of Dutch nationals. [Minder emigratie Nederlanders.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 4, Apr 1998. 7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
This one-page article discusses changes in the emigration of Dutch nationals. "The number of Dutch emigrants in 1997 was lower than in the preceding year, partly due to legal measures, aimed at reducing flight of capital."
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, Postbus 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30534 Obermeyer, Carla M. The social context of population transitions south and east of the Mediterranean. In: Mediterranean Conference on Population, Migration and Development. Proceedings: Palma de Mallorca, 15-17 October 1996. 1997. 243-57 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
"The goal of this presentation is to bring together recent findings of research on the social context of population issues in countries South and East of the Mediterranean in order to invite a reflection on the implications of these findings for patterns of migration and their consequences.... First, we review some of the trends in women's education and employment...; secondly, we explore the link between societal definitions of gender roles and the transitions that families are undergoing throughout the region; thirdly, we consider the extent to which the notions of individual rights and responsibilities that prevail in these societies are compatible with those that have developed in the West."
Correspondence: C. M. Obermeyer, Harvard University, Department of Population and International Health, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30535 Papail, Jean; Arroyo Alejandre, Jesús. Mexican migration to the United States and regional development in Jalisco. [Migración mexicana a Estados Unidos y desarrollo regional en Jalisco.] ISBN 968-895-727-5. 1996. 163 pp. Universidad de Guadalajara: Guadalajara, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors examine trends in migration from Mexico to the United States over the past 20 years. They analyze the size and characteristics of migration from cities in the Mexican state of Jalisco, an area with a long tradition of migration to the United States. They also discuss to what extent this type of migration is associated with polarized regional development in these urban centers. Chapters are included on migration from cities and regional development; the socio-demographic context; international migration; and return migration and the situation of migrants living in the United States in 1993.
Correspondence: Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico Administrativas, Instituto de Estudios Económicos y Regionales, Núcleo Los Belenes, Edificio B, Primer Piso, Apartado Postal 2-738, Guadalajara 45000, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30536 Perlmann, Joel; Waldinger, Roger. Are the children of today's immigrants making it? Public Interest, No. 132, Summer 1998. 73-96 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Comparing today's (post-1965) immigration with the immigration that occurred in the period 1890-1920, the authors assess how likely the children of recent immigrants to the U.S. are to achieve socioeconomic success. They suggest that "overall, the children of the post-1965 immigration begin with disadvantages no greater than those encountered by immigrant children before." They also point out that greater discrepancies exist among the immigrant pool of today than among that of the turn of the century: 22 percent of the foreign-born population was born in Mexico and is at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder, while the remaining 78 percent present a picture not unlike the native-born population, and are in fact more likely to have reached college.
Correspondence: J. Perlmann, Bard College, Annandale-On-Hudson, NY 12504. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:30537 Rambaut, Rubén G. Coming of age in immigrant America. Research Perspectives on Migration, Vol. 1, No. 6, Jan-Feb 1998. 1-7, 10-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author investigates academic achievements, identities, and English-language proficiency of different immigrant groups in the United States. The data are from "the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), [which]...followed the progress of a sample of teenage youths representing 77 nationalities in two key areas of immigrant settlement in the United States: Southern California (San Diego) and South Florida (Miami and Fort Lauderdale) from 1992 to 1996." Results indicate that "the children of immigrants outperform the native-born, work harder at schooling, are more engaged and motivated, and value education more."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30538 Rodríguez, Vicente; Fernández-Mayoralas, Gloria; Rojo, Fermina. European retirees on the Costa del Sol: a cross-national comparison. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jun 1998. 183-200 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper studies northern European retired immigrants, using data generated by a questionnaire survey of 300 respondents and in-depth interviews with 20 people in 13 municipalities. Reasons for moving to Spain, the advantages and disadvantages reported of living there, and the perceived impacts on the local region were analysed, paying particular attention to cross-national differences between British, German, Benelux and Nordic retirees. The results show that sociodemographic and economic features of the settlers tend to be quite similar, whilst reasons for moving, stated advantages and disadvantages, and consequences and impacts exhibit some cross-national differentiation."
Correspondence: V. Rodríguez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Economía y Geografía Aplicadas, Departamento de Geografía Humana y Regional, Pinar 25, Madrid 28006, Spain. E-mail: rodri@ieg.csic.es. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30539 Rodríguez Chávez, Ernesto. The migration crisis of the summer of 1994. Balance and perspectives of Cuban emigration flows: 1984-1996. [A crise migratória do verão de 1994. Balanço e perspectivas do fluxo emigratório cubano: 1984-1996.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de População, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 135-67 pp. Campinas, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The article argues that the rafters crisis of 1994 and the resulting migration agreements between the United States and Cuba in 1994 and 1995 were a radical turn in policies and migration flows between the two countries. The article also describes the general evolution of Cuban migration flows towards the U.S. from the 1984 bilateral agreement up to 1996. As a context, it describes the structural elements of recent Cuban emigration and the place Cubans occupy in the general immigration from Latin America and the Caribbean."
Correspondence: E. Rodríguez Chávez, Centro de Estudios sobre América, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30540 Sall, Babacar. Immigration in all its aspects. [L'immigration dans "tous" ses états.] Sociétés Africaines, No. 4, ISBN 2-7384-5615-4. Dec 1996. 207 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This special issue is devoted to problems concerning immigration to France from Black Africa. It is based on the needs and perceptions of the immigrants concerned. There are four substantive articles. The first, by Catherine Quiminal, examines French colonial history and shows how it laid the basis for the need of Africans to emigrate today in search of employment. The second, by Samba Yatera, looks at how emigrants can help their areas of origin to develop. The third, by Mahamet Timéra, discusses the difficulties associated with the integration of immigrants in France using an example of the Soninka community. The fourth, by Alain Morice, focuses on the pressures that can lead to illegal immigration. The rest of the issue consists of shorter articles on aspects of African immigration in contemporary France.
Correspondence: Editions l'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole Polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Northwestern University Library, Evanston, IL.

64:30541 Salt, John. Current trends in international migration in Europe. Pub. Order No. CDMG (97) 28. Nov 1997. 100 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
"This report seeks to present a balanced review of the current international migration across Europe as a whole.... It begins with a discussion of the demographic importance of migration as an agent of national population change. It then reviews the latest trends in Western Europe, as prelude to an extended discussion of the main patterns and trends in international migration in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. There follows a discussion of the main policy developments across Europe as a whole. Finally, some issues for the future are raised."
Correspondence: Council of Europe, Publications and Documents Division, 67006 Strasbourg Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30542 Schoorl, Jeannette J.; de Bruijn, Bart J.; Kuiper, Erwin J.; Heering, Liesbeth. Migration from African and eastern Mediterranean countries to western Europe. In: Mediterranean Conference on Population, Migration and Development. Proceedings: Palma de Mallorca, 15-17 October 1996. 1997. 123-210 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to provide statistics on recent trends in migration and future trends which will serve as a basis for [an] overall project on the demographic imbalances between the countries of the Mediterranean basin.... In addition to the measurement or estimation of recent migration flows and an assessment of the reliability and comparability of available statistics, the study will contain an analysis of trends, and will discuss prospects for the near future.... Primarily recent trends will be covered, that is, the period since 1985.... The geographical focus of the study is on migration from Africa and from countries east of the Mediterranean to countries north of the Mediterranean."
Correspondence: J. J. Schoorl, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30543 Schultz, T. Paul. Immigrant quality and assimilation: a review of the U.S. literature. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1998. 239-52 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Empirical research on U.S. immigrants is reviewed: their productivity and assimilation; their contribution and use of public services; and their impact on native Americans. I discuss the characteristics of cohorts of immigrants that enter the United States at different times, and then quantify the assimilation of immigrants, typically in terms of economic productivity of immigrants compared with natives."
Correspondence: T. P. Schultz, Yale University, Box 208269, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. E-mail: paul.schultz@yale.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30544 Schulz, Reiner. Socio-demographic aspects of international migration into the European Union from the Mediterranean area. [Soziodemographische Aspekte der internationalen Wanderungen aus dem mediterranen Raum in die EU.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1997. 511-36 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author investigates migration trends into European Union countries from the Mediterranean region. "In 1995 approximately 55% (217 million) of the population in the Mediterranean area lived in the southern and eastern countries, and around 45% (175 million) of the inhabitants lived in the countries to the north. By the year 2020 this proportion will have shifted to 2/3 (326 million) [and] to 1/3 (173 million).... If differences in demo-economic development continue to last, we can expect that more people will continue to migrate from the southern and eastern countries into the northern ones in order to work and earn incomes."
Correspondence: R. Schulz, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30545 Smith, James P.; Edmonston, Barry. The immigration debate: studies on the economic, demographic, and fiscal effects of immigration. ISBN 0-309-05998-4. LC 97-45468. 1998. xii, 458 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Most of the papers in this monograph were commissioned by the National Research Council's expert panel on immigration, a 12-member panel originally established by the bipartisan U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform. The panel, which consisted of demographers, economists, and sociologists, was asked to address the effect of immigration on (1) the future size and composition of the U.S. population, (2) the U.S. economy and its workers, and (3) the fiscal balances of federal, state, and local governments. The commissioned papers were presented and discussed at a conference held in September 1996 in Washington, D.C. "The topics addressed at that conference included the labor market role of female immigrants..., a historical perspective on immigration..., a theoretical framework for addressing fiscal impacts of immigration..., the association of immigration with criminal activity..., and the theoretical labor market impact of international immigration and trade...." The panel also conducted some original research, the results of which are presented in the remaining four papers. "For its work on the fiscal impact of immigration, we relied on an ongoing study of New Jersey...and started our own case study of California.... In addition...the panel conducted a study of the national longitudinal effects of immigration.... Finally, the panel heard a series of presentations from an ongoing study of the effects of immigration on internal migration...."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, P.O. Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30546 Smith, Robert C. Transnational migration, assimilation, and political community. In: The city and the world: New York's global future, edited by Margaret E. Crahan and Alberto Vourvoulias-Bush. 1997. 110-32 pp. Council on Foreign Relations: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes the growing trend whereby recent immigrants to the United States maintain dual nationality and retain political, cultural, and other ties with their countries of origin. "The next section of this chapter examines the broader context within which transnationalization of migrant life is occurring. The second compares Italian immigration to New York at the turn of the century with that of Mexican and other immigrants to New York today, focusing on both macro- and micro-level processes in order to put a more human face on the analysis. The third section focuses on the largest current immigrant group in New York, analyzing the case of the political participation of Dominicans in New York and in the Dominican Republic."
Correspondence: R. C. Smith, Columbia University, Institute of Latin American and Iberian Studies, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30547 Stark, Oded; Helmenstein, Christian; Prskawetz, Alexia. A brain gain with a brain drain. Economics Letters, No. 55, 1997. 227-34 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"We study human capital depletion and formation in an economy open to out-migration, as opposed to an economy which is closed. Under the assumption of asymmetric information, the enlarged opportunities and the associated different structure of incentives can give rise to a brain gain in conjunction with a brain drain. Migration by high-skill members of its workforce notwithstanding, the home country can end up with a higher average level of human capital per worker."
Correspondence: O. Stark, University of Oslo, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 1095, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30548 Suro, Roberto. Strangers among us: how Latino immigration is transforming America. ISBN 0-679-42092-4. LC 97-36676. Apr 10, 1998. viii, 349 pp. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, New York. Distributed by Random House, New York. In Eng.
"The aim here is to explore what has happened to Latinos now that they have been in the United States for several decades, and to look toward the future. It is important to describe some of the significant shapes and patterns that have emerged from this vast and varied demographic event, and to tell the stories of several different barrios--the Puerto Ricans in East Harlem...; the Cubans in Miami...; the Dominicans in Washington Heights...; and the newest Mexican and Central American arrivals in Los Angeles. Each depicts an aspect of how Latinos define their niches in an American city. It is important as well to focus on events in the first half of the 1990s, because this period marked a turning point--the time when Latinos began to realize the full price of their trip north and when the nation fully awoke to their presence."
Correspondence: Alfred A. Knopf, 201 East 50th Street, New York, NY 10022-7703. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30549 Tapinos, Georges. Development, cooperation and international migration: the European Union and the Maghreb. In: Mediterranean Conference on Population, Migration and Development. Proceedings: Palma de Mallorca, 15-17 October 1996. 1997. 301-45 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
"[The] first part [of this report] outlines the pattern of demographic and economic development in the Maghreb in the context of relations with the European Union, and as part of a world-wide development process." In the second part, the author reviews "the different ways in which the region is opening up internationally and the nature of the economic links uniting the two shores of the Mediterranean, i.e. remittances of funds by migrant workers, trade and flows of capital. In the third part, we shall take a quick look at the balance of payments of the Maghreb countries, in particular the components of foreign currency earnings which indicate how much leeway the Maghreb countries enjoy for considering realistic alternatives to migration."
Correspondence: G. Tapinos, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, 27 rue Saint-Guillaume, 75337 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30550 Trefler, Daniel. Immigrants and natives in general equilibrium trade models. NBER Working Paper, No. 6209, Oct 1997. 35, [3] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper makes three observations about international trade and immigration. (i) Borjas has argued that immigration may yield a net social benefit even though it hurts those less-skilled workers who directly compete with immigrants.... (ii) Following Wood and Feenstra-Hanson, I argue that within an industry those goods produced abroad use more unskilled labor than those goods produced in the United States.... After transparently incorporating this into a new factor content study I find that changes in U.S. trade patterns almost certainly battered wages of those at the very bottom of the skill ladder. (iii) Despite globalization pressures, I find little evidence of earnings convergence for a sample of 75 countries over the 1963-92 period. This holds true even after controlling for education, capital, and workers' industry of affiliation."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: trefler@chass.utoronto.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30551 United States. New York. Department of City Planning (New York, New York). The newest New Yorkers, 1990-1994: an analysis of immigration to NYC in the early 1990s. Pub. Order No. DCP 96-19. Dec 1996. xiv, 298 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is an analysis of immigration to New York City from 1990 to 1994, a period during which 563,000 documented immigrants settled in the city. There are chapters on recent flows and immigrant characteristics, immigration law and class of admission, settlement patterns of recent immigrants, amnestied immigrants, and the demographic impact of immigration flows and of proposed restrictionist legislation.
Correspondence: New York City Planning Commission, 22 Reade Street, New York, NY 10007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30552 Vargas, Juan R.; Montes, Segundo; Arene, Alberto; Buenrostro, Jorge; Nieto, Dolores. The economic and social impact of migration in Central America (1980-1989). [El impacto económico y social de las migraciones en Centroamérica (1980-1989).] Anuario de Estudios Centroamericanos, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, 1995. 39-81 pp. San José, Costa Rica. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This study evaluates the economic and social impact of the large migrations which took place in Central America during the 1980s.... The article analyses the effects of migrations from El Salvador, Nicaragua and Guatemala to Costa Rica, Mexico and Belize. It includes estimates of the impact on economic production, employment and the demand for goods and services, as well as resulting pressures on public expenditure and disbursements by non-governmental organizations and the international community. The article concludes with a consideration of the social effects of the migrations."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30553 Wagner, Helmut. Economic development in Eastern Europe and migration push. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 249-61 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper will attempt to provide some empirical and theoretical context to the debate over prospects for Eastern Europe and the consequences with respect to migration, by assessing where the economies of the region stood after [recent political and economic] revolutions, and where they seem to be going. As the resulting forecast is rather bleak, I shall also consider what measures can be taken--by the reform countries and by the Western countries--to accelerate the development process."
Correspondence: H. Wagner, Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Politik, Department of Economics, Hamburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30554 Warnes, Anthony M.; Patterson, Guy. British retirees in Malta: components of the cross-national relationship. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jun 1998. 113-33 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The paper focuses on three aspects of the retirement of British citizens to Malta and Gozo: the evolution of the British settlement, four pathways to the islands, and the formation of the current demographic and household characteristics.... The immigration of British retirees to Malta has fluctuated in volume and character over the last 35 years, partly in response to changes in Maltese fiscal and residence policies, and partly reflecting the changing demand for overseas retirement settlement in the UK. The substantial contribution of intercommunal married couples to the British retired resident population and the buoyancy of both tourist visits and new arrivals suggests that its size will at least be stable or will grow slowly for many decades to come."
Correspondence: A. M. Warnes, University of Sheffield, Centre for Ageing and Rehabilitation Studies, Sheffield S5 7AU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30555 Waxman, Dov. Immigration and identity: a new security perspective in Euro-Maghreb relations. Conflict Studies, No. 302, Sep 1997. 29 pp. Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism [RISCT]: London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the implications of current and potential immigration from the countries of Northern Africa to Europe both for the countries of Europe and for the future relations between those countries and the countries of North Africa.
Correspondence: Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, 136 Baker Street, London W1M 1FH, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:30556 Williams, Allan M.; Patterson, Guy. "An empire lost but a province gained": a cohort analysis of British international retirement in the Algarve. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jun 1998. 135-55 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The growth of international retirement in the Algarve has coincided with a number of changes in the international framework for population mobility as well as in the nature of the Algarve [Portugal] as a destination area. Tourism development, which is intimately linked to subsequent retirement migration, is particularly important in this. This paper considers the nature of the link between cycles of migration and of development in recipient areas, in the context of the remarkable and relatively late development of the Algarve as an area of tourism and retirement.... Cohort analysis...provides the basis for an examination of changes over time in the socio-demographic profiles of the migrants, their motivations, their residential patterns and their integration."
Correspondence: A. M. Williams, University of Exeter, Department of Geography, Exeter EX4 4RJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30557 Yeoh, Brenda S. A.; Khoo, Louisa-May. Home, work and community: skilled international migration and expatriate women in Singapore. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1998. 159-86 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In an attempt to reinstate women as active negotiators in the process of skilled international migration rather than truants from the web of transnational economic flows, this article explores the experiences of `expatriate women'...who have set up temporary home in Singapore.... [The authors analyze] women's role in household decision-making in moving across international borders; their negotiation of productive and reproductive responsibilities in a new environment; and the significance of social networks and community work in the adjustments and adaptations women have to make. The broad aim is to examine how women assert or redefine gender identities in the strategies they adopt in order to come to terms with transformations wrought by the move in the domains of home, work and community."
Correspondence: B. S. A. Yeoh, National University of Singapore, Department of Geography, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

64:30558 Bailey, Adrian J.; Cooke, Thomas J. Family migration and employment: the importance of migration history and gender. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1998. 99-118 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"This article uses event history data to specify a model of employment returns to initial migration, onward migration, and return migration among newly married persons in the U.S. Husbands are more likely to be full-time employed than wives, and being a parent reduces the employment odds among married women. Employment returns to repeated migration differ by gender, with more husbands full-time employed after onward migration and more wives full-time employed after return migration events. We interpret these empirical findings in the context of family migration theory, segmented labor market theory, and gender-based responsibilities." Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1979 to 1991.
Correspondence: A. J. Bailey, Dartmouth College, Department of Geography, 6017 Fairchild Hall, Hanover, NH 03755-3571. E-mail: Adrian.Bailey@dartmouth.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:30559 Baker, Alan R. H. Military service and migration in nineteenth-century France: some evidence from Loir-et-Cher. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1998. 193-206 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Military service in France during the nineteenth century removed many young men from their own localities for long periods. The widely accepted claim that few conscripts returned home after completing their period of service is based on little evidence. The paper examines the conscription classes of 1856 and 1891 in two cantons in the département of Loir-et-Cher. In those cases, there was not a significant relationship between conscription and migration, nor between literacy and migration. Instead, migration of youths in their twenties was linked partly to prior experiences of migration but principally to their occupations."
Correspondence: A. R. H. Baker, University of Cambridge, Department of Geography, Downing Place, Cambridge CB2 3EN, England. E-mail: arb1000@cam.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30560 Bell, Martin; Maher, Chris. Internal migration in Australia 1986-1991: the labour force. ISBN 0-644-35779-7. LC 96-202622. 1995. xxiv, 193 pp. Bureau of Immigration and Population Research: South Carlton, Australia. In Eng.
"Position in the labour force has a strong influence on whether people move. This study examines the migration of all categories of the labour force and how it relates to the nation's economy and changes occurring in society. The report examines: how mobility is affected by an individual's status in the labour force, his/her sex, occupation and the industry in which he/she works; the effects of labour migration on both State and regional growth and development--the spatial outcome; how migration composition differs between regions."
Correspondence: Australian Government Publishing Service, G.P.O. Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:30561 Bocquier, Philippe; Traore, Sadio. Consequences of measuring internal migration for projections of urban growth: comparison of direct and indirect measures for three countries in Western Africa. [Conséquence de la mesure des migrations internes sur les projections de la croissance urbaine: une comparaison des mesures directes et indirectes pour trois pays d'Afrique de l'Ouest.] In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,421-53 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper tries [to evaluate] the reliability of migration rates obtained by comparing current place of residence and birth or previous census or former places of residence. With only one data source, distortions between partial and complete migration matrices will be empirically evaluated [using data for Mali, Ivory Coast, and Burkina Faso]. Using the classical Markovian model for projection, urbanization dynamics induced from each migration [matrix] are compared."
Correspondence: P. Bocquier, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30562 Clark, Peter. China's floating population. Foreign Policy Document, No. 265, ISBN 0-903359-59-6. LC 97-137503. 1995. 20 pp. Her Majesty's Stationery Office: London, England. In Eng.
"Estimates of the current size of the floating population [in China] range from 60-80 million, with around 20 million of those crossing provincial borders to find work.... This Note looks at the development of measures to control internal migration and at the current condition of the floating population."
Correspondence: HMSO Publications Centre, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:30563 Cunha, José M. P. da. New trends in urban settlement and the role of intraurban migration: the case of São Paulo/Brazil. In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. 1998. 121-53 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Some aspects of recent internal migration trends in Brazil are analyzed, with the focus on trends affecting the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo. "Preliminary data derived from the 1991 census of Brazil show that the São Paulo metropolitan area experienced an important reduction in its rate of population growth in the 1980s, growing more slowly than the population of the state as a whole. Similar trends have been documented in Rio de Janeiro. Within the metropolitan area, however, the population of peripheral municipalities continued to grow, largely because of intrametropolitan migration. Such migration therefore was responsible for the geographic expansion of the São Paulo metropolitan area."
Correspondence: J. M. P. da Cunha, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de População, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30564 Fischer, Peter A.; Malmberg, Gunnar. Immobility in Sweden: are those born in the Baltic countries less mobile than those born in Sweden or Finland? Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 71-86 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to identify determinants of immobility among the Baltic and Finnish immigrants in Sweden, as compared to the native Swedish population.... Our data allow us to investigate mobility patterns by country of birth and socioeconomic characteristics. At first glance, people born in the Baltic countries seem to be distinctively less mobile than those born in Sweden.... Are there any cultural or group-specific explanations to the different (im)-mobility patterns? Or are these differences merely related to the socio-demographic composition?"
Correspondence: P. A. Fischer, University of the Bundeswehr, Institute for Economic Policy Research, Hamburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30565 Guest, Philip. Assessing the consequences of internal migration: methodological issues and a case study on Thailand based on longitudinal household survey data. In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. 1998. 275-318 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
In order to analyze the consequences of rural-urban migration in Thailand, the author uses data from the 1992 National Migration Survey, involving 7,537 households, and from a follow-up survey of some 600 individuals carried out two years later. "Section A gives an overview of the main methodological issues involved in analyzing the impacts of migration. In Section B, I describe the household surveys used in the analysis with a brief overview of Thai migration. The remainder of the chapter is organized around thematic areas. Within each there is a short review of pertinent literature, and where data are available, an analysis of Thai data from the household surveys. Even within the substantive sections, however, methodological issues are given priority. The focus is on rural-urban migration...."
Correspondence: P. Guest, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30566 Guilmoto, Christophe Z. Institutions and migration. Short-term versus long-term moves in rural West Africa. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 1, Mar 1998. 85-103 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this article, we use data from a region of Senegal to investigate the similarities and the differences between long-term and short-term migrations.... The first section develops a framework to analyse two migration forms that are very common in rural West Africa: short-term and long-term migration. The second section describes the region studied, the survey from which the data originates and the model used. The last section presents the results and offers several interpretations of the findings in relation to the social fabric of Senegalese rural society. The paper concludes with a synthesis."
Correspondence: C. Z. Guilmoto, French Institute, P.B. 33, Pondicherry 605 001, India. E-mail: instfran@giasmd01.vsni.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30567 Gyula, Jordán. The gap between town and country and internal migration in China. [A város és a vidék közötti szakadék és a belso migráció kínában.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 76, No. 4-5, Apr-May 1998. 407-17 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The author investigates the differences between town and the countryside and internal migration connected with it. He analyses the changes in China and the reasons [for] the changes...." The impact of the household registration system on the urbanization process is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30568 Harrison, Margaret E. Female physicians in Mexico: migration and mobility in the lifecourse. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 4, Aug 1998. 455-68 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"With the increased feminization of the Mexican health work force--an estimated 30 per cent of all physicians are female--there is an urgent need to study this group of workers in terms of their impact on the health service. In particular, the potential for female physicians to migrate could have a dramatic impact on the health service.... To this end this paper will analyse the migration and mobility of female physicians through the lifecourse in provincial Mexico. The paper examines the factors that control and structure female physician migration in childhood [and] during their training and career development.... Primary data were obtained from interviews with a sample of physicians in five study states. Material presented in this paper demonstrates that female physicians in provincial Mexico are not highly mobile. A lack of mobility is due to the constraining factors of education, gender, institutional structures and family and household imperatives."
Correspondence: M. E. Harrison, Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education, Department of Geography and Geology, Francis Close Hall, Swindon Road, Cheltenham, Gloucester GL50 4AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30569 Lu, M. Analyzing migration decisionmaking: relationships between residential satisfaction, mobility intentions, and moving behavior. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 30, No. 8, Aug 1998. 1,473-95 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The author examines the role of residential satisfaction and mobility intentions vis-à-vis structural variables in migration decisionmaking with the aid of data drawn from the 1985-1989 waves of the American Housing Survey. A conceptual model is derived which is based on behavioral theories developed in social psychology, namely the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. Several previously ignored links among structural variables, mobility predispositions and moving behavior are incorporated. Empirical analyses show that, although satisfaction and intentions are important predictors of mobility, most of the structural variables that are commonly known to be related to migration also have direct effects on subsequent moving behavior, independent of satisfaction and intentions."
Correspondence: M. Lu, Kansas State University, Department of Geography, Manhattan, KS 66506. E-mail: maxlu@ksu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:30570 Morrison, Andrew R.; Guo, Xin. Measuring the macroeconomic impact of internal migration: a production function approach with evidence from Peru. In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. 1998. 221-46 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
A framework is developed for evaluating the desirability of the migration process as a whole by measuring the gains in production and the losses associated with migration. The data concern migration to Lima, Peru, between 1988 and 1993. "The first section of this chapter surveys the literature on the consequences of migration and therefore on the desirability of continued migration flows. The second section provides a description of Lima's growth during recent decades, emphasizing the roles of industrial growth, the changing role of government in the economy, stabilization programs, and political violence. In the third section we describe the econometric technique used to estimate production gains and losses, and provide our estimates of them. The final section concludes by assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the approach and discusses several possible extensions of the methodology."
Correspondence: A. R. Morrison, Inter-American Development Bank, 1300 New York Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20577-0006. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30571 Nishioka, Hachiro; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Kojima, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Masato; Oe, Moriyuki; Wakabayashi, Keiko; Inoue, Takashi. General outcomes of the fourth migration survey. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1997. 1-30 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Results are presented from the fourth national migration survey carried out in Japan in 1996. The survey, which involved 40,400 individuals, covered a national sample of 14,083 households. The survey "was designed to gather information on various features of respondents' migration, such as time of in-migration to the present address, reasons for in-migration, location of the previous residence, life-time migration experiences, location of residence 1 and 5 years ago, and prospects of future migration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30572 Oucho, John O. Recent internal migration processes in Sub-Saharan Africa: determinants, consequences, and data adequacy issues. In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. 1998. 89-120 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The determinants and consequences of current trends in internal migration in Sub-Saharan Africa [SSA] are examined using the published data available. "Following [an] introductory section is one on types of data sources and methods of data collection, assessing their strengths and weaknesses; the third section highlights long-standing and more recent internal migration processes, particularly the two dominant ones (rural-rural and rural-urban); the fourth section analyzes determinants of internal migration processes; the fifth section reports evidence of the consequences of migration for sending and receiving areas from demographic, political, economic, and social perspectives, pointing out implications for SSA countries and donor agencies, and followed by a concluding section."
Correspondence: J. O. Oucho, University of Nairobi, Population Studies and Research Institute, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30573 Rogers, Andrei; Raymer, James. The spatial focus of U.S. interstate migration flows. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1998. 63-80 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Despite the widespread interest in the changing geographies of national migration regimes, it is somewhat remarkable that no widely accepted measure of the spatial concentration or focus exhibited by such geographies has emerged. We examine four of the most popular indices of inequality in this paper and contrast their performance as measures of spatial focus. Adopting the coefficient of variation as our preferred alternative, we go on to examine the spatial focus of aggregate interstate migration steams in the U.S. over time. Then we consider disaggregations of the migration streams by age, race and nativity, and examine the role of states as national redistributors of these same subpopulations."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30574 Serrano, José M. Changes in the interregional migratory pattern in Spain. Causes and reflections. Bulletin de la Société Belge d'Etudes Géographiques, Vol. 64, No. 1, 1995. 7-26 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author analyzes internal migration patterns in Spain since 1950. Causes, consequences, and directions of migratory flows are examined. The relation between unemployment and migration is discussed, and regional disparities in wealth are noted.
Correspondence: J. M. Serrano, Universidad de Murcia, Department of Geography, Avenida Teniente Flomesta s/n, Edificio Convalecencia, 30001 Murcia, Spain. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:30575 Sharma, Alakh N. People on the move: nature and implications of migration in a backward economy. ISBN 81-259-0287-2. LC 97-90273. 1997. 247 pp. Vikas Publishing: New Delhi, India. Distributed by UBS Publishers Distributors, 5 Ansari Road, New Delhi 110 002, India. In Eng.
"In a diverse country such as India, the pattern of migration differs widely among the regions and, therefore, it is essential to study the phenomenon at the regional level to find out these variations so that appropriate migration policies suited to the regional level may be formulated. The present study relates to Bihar which is one of the most backward states and a region of heavy out-migration in India. Based on a survey of around 4,000 sample households from two rural and two urban centres of the state, the study analyses the process of migration from several angles. It has attempted to examine a number of issues regarding the determinants of migration and the consequent implications for rural and urban development which have a direct impact on the policy design."
Correspondence: Vikas Publishing House, 576 Masjid Road, Jangpura, New Delhi 110 014, India. E-mail: chawlap@giasdl01.vsnl.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30576 Soewartoyo. Internal migration between Java-Bali and Eastern Indonesia. Indonesian Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1996. 303-22 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"There are two objectives of this study. The first is to describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of life-time migrants from Java-Bali and Eastern Indonesia. The second is to examine the employment and education characteristics of life-time migrants from Eastern Indonesia and Java-Bali in order to identify the net effect of inter-regional migration on each area. The study uses data on life-time interprovincial migration." Data for the study are from the 1985 Indonesian Intercensal Survey.
Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY.

64:30577 Sosa Portillo, Zulma C. The internal migration of women in Paraguay. [La migración interna feminina en el Paraguay.] 1996. 93 pp. Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos: Asunción, Paraguay. In Spa.
This analysis of internal migration by women in Paraguay is based primarily on data from a social science statistical data base, which in turn was developed using data from the 1992 census. There are three chapters, which deal with the impact of internal migration on the spatial distribution of the population, the characteristics of female migrants, and the entry of female migrants into the labor force.
Correspondence: Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos, Secretaría Técnica de Planificación, Miguel Torres 5313, Casilla Correos 1118, Asunción, Paraguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30578 Vilallonga, Mercedes A. Labor migration during the first phase of Basque industrialization: the labor market and family motivations. History of the Family, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1998. 199-219 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This article analyzes the migration strategies of those social groups making up the labor supply during the first phase of industrialization in the Basque Country (1877-1910), which was one of the most industrialized regions of the northern part of Spain. Migration is estimated by sex, marital status, and origin and interpreted within the context of family decision-making. The article also deals with the expectations among potential migrants by the areas of destination. The study of the labor market, from the standpoint of job specialization, will enable us to know more about the profile of a typical migrant, and the family as a protagonist in migratory flows."
Correspondence: M. A. Vilallonga, Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30579 Wei, Yehua. Interregional migration in socialist countries: the case of China. GeoJournal, Vol. 41, No. 3, Mar 1997. 205-14 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes changing interregional migration in China and reveals that the recent eastward migration reverses patterns of migration under Mao. It finds that investment variables are more important than the conventional variables of income and job opportunities in determining China's recent interregional migration. It suggests that both state policy and the global force influence interregional migration, challenging the popular view that the socialist state is the only critical determinant. This paper also criticizes Mao's approach to interregional migration and discusses the impact of migration on development."
Correspondence: Y. Wei, University of California, Department of Geography, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1524. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:30580 Zhu, Junming. Rural out-migration in China: a multilevel model. In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. 1998. 157-86 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
A multilevel, contextual model is developed in order to analyze the determinants of migration in China. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of spatial distribution policies and rural community development initiatives on rural-urban migration and the retention of the rural population. The data are from a 1994 survey conducted by the author in Meizhou prefecture, Guandong province, involving 289 migrants and 588 nonmigrants. The results show that the migration decision-making process is a function of individual, household, and community characteristics. The analysis clearly shows the benefits to individuals of rural-urban migration.
Correspondence: J. Zhu, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

64:30581 Akokpari, John K. The state, refugees and migration in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1998. 211-34 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the causes of migration and refugees in Africa, contending that state partisanship and its inability to enforce strict environmental regulations, along with global economic trends, are critical to an understanding of the conflicts that precipitate social displacements and migration. It also analyses some of the critical implications of refugee populations for host countries. Because refugees often become immigrants, it is important to show where these two phenomena converge and diverge."
Correspondence: J. K. Akokpari, National University of Lesotho, Department of Political and Administrative Studies, P.O. Roma 180, Lesotho. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30582 Legoux, Luc. The determinants of migration: political pressures. [Les déterminants de la migration: la pression politique.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 103-20 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The impact of political factors on international migration around the world is examined. The author notes that although the political events that influence people to flee their country of origin, such as political repression, civil war, ethnic cleansing, and attempted genocide, seem to be growing in frequency, the political pressures in potential recipient countries tend to make the task of entry by those seeking asylum harder. However, he notes that most developed countries do recognize the right of foreigners to seek political asylum in their countries, even if they are opposed to immigration for economic or social reasons. Recent trends in developed countries concerning attitudes and policies toward political refugees seeking entry are reviewed.
Correspondence: L. Legoux, Université de Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne, IDUP, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30583 Nolin Hanlon, Catherine L.; Lovell, W. George. Flight, exile, repatriation, and return: Guatemalan refugee scenarios, 1981-1997. [Huida, exilio, repatriación y retorno escenarios de los refugiados Guatemaltecos, 1981-1997.] Mesoamérica, Vol. 18, No. 34, Dec 1997. 559-82 pp. South Woodstock, Vermont. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Documentation pertaining to the Guatemalan refugee crisis between the years 1981 and 1997 is reviewed with the goal of establishing operational categories and furnishing statistics related to refugee flight, refugee life in exile, and refugee repatriation and return. The violent events and disruptive circumstances at the heart of the refugee question make record-keeping and record-gathering extremely difficult, so numerical indicators are of necessity more indicative than definitive. As well as synthesizing information contained in conventional printed sources, an attempt is made to indicate what E-mail addresses and Internet sites yield relevant data on the still unfolding refugee situation."
Correspondence: W. G. Lovell, Queen's University, Department of Geography, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30584 Reed, Holly; Haaga, John; Keely, Charles. The demography of forced migration: summary of a workshop. Compass Series, ISBN 0-309-06141-5. 1998. ix, 29 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"To explore a range of issues about internally displaced persons and refugees, the Committee on Population of the National Research Council organized a Workshop on the Demography of Forced Migration in Washington, D.C., in November 1997. The purpose of the workshop was to investigate the ways in which population and other social scientists can produce more useful demographic information about forced migrant populations and how they differ. This report summarizes the background papers prepared for the meeting, the presentations, and the general discussion."
Correspondence: National Research Council, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30585 Riddle, Liesl A.; Buckley, Cynthia. Forced migration and destination choice: Armenian forced settlers and refugees in the Russian Federation. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1998. 235-55 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article seeks to determine the extent to which the Russian Federal Migration Service (FMS) plays an active, systematic role in the placement of dislocated peoples, focusing on refugees (bezhentsii) and forced settlers (pereselentsii) in the Russian Federation arriving from the republic of Armenia.... Findings indicate that variables associated with models of individual choice best predict the resettlement pattern for forced settlers and refugees from the Armenian Republic in the Russian Federation."
Correspondence: L. A. Riddle, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

No citations in this issue.

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

64:30586 Afsar, Rita. Rural-urban migration and development: evidence from Bangladesh. In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. 1998. 319-56 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is an analysis of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh to the capital city, Dhaka, using data from a small survey of some 500 migrants living in Dhaka in the early 1990s. "In the first section, I describe the data sources and methods of data collection. In Section B, I describe the context in which population movements take place from rural areas to Dhaka city. It notes the primacy of Dhaka in Bangladesh's economy and society. An assessment of the motives of migrants and of the conditions in areas of origin which may influence rural-urban migration follows. The next section is concerned with the selectivity of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh and its implications for human resource development. In Section D, I examine whether migration is a bane or boon, that is, the socioeconomic and demographic consequences of rural-urban migration for migrants and their families. Finally, data gaps, future research needs, and policy implications are outlined...."
Correspondence: R. Afsar, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30587 Antoine, Philippe; Diop, Abdoulaye B. The city with no-entry signs? Itineraries, networks, and insertion in the urban setting. [La ville à guichets fermés? Itinéraires, réseaux et insertion urbaine.] ISBN 2-7099-1205-8. 1995. 360 pp. Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire [IFAN]: Dakar, Senegal; Institut Français de Recherche pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM]: Dakar, Senegal. In Fre.
This is a collection of 18 studies by various authors on aspects of urbanization in developing countries. The primary focus is on the situation in Africa. One general theme emerges from the studies: urbanization is continuing despite worsening economic conditions, and this is causing increasing problems for the poorer populations of urban societies who have to absorb most of the costs of rural-urban migration. The absence of available jobs and housing particularly affects the young, who have to postpone marriage and starting a family. The difficulties that migrants have in fitting into city life are noted.
Correspondence: Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, B.P. 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30588 Banerjee, Biswajit. Migration motivation, family links, and job search methods of rural-to-urban migrants in India. In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. 1998. 187-219 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Some aspects of migration selectivity and motivation are examined using data collected by the author in a 1975-1976 survey undertaken in Delhi, India. The survey included 1,615 migrant heads of households, most of whom originally migrated to the city from rural areas. Consideration is given to migration selectivity and motivation; social networks, information flows, and the search for jobs; and urban-rural family links, including conjugal separation. The results suggest that, in some cases, increasing rural incomes could increase the propensity to migrate to the city, as could better education; that such migration often does not involve the whole family; and that most people migrate to the city after lining up a specific job, which implies that rural-urban migration of this kind does not contribute significantly to increases in urban unemployment.
Correspondence: B. Banerjee, International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20431. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30589 Bilsborrow, Richard E. Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues. ISBN 0-7923-8033-9. LC 97-31606. 1998. x, 531 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This book presents the proceedings of the Symposium on Internal Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries held in New York, January 22-24, 1996. The 14 papers are organized under four topics: Old and new patterns of internal migration and urbanization in developing countries; Migration determinants and linkages with economic growth; The consequences of migration; and Migration, urbanization processes, and implications.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: HQ@unfpa.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30590 Bocquier, Philippe; Traoré, Sadio. Migration and urbanization in West Africa: methodological issues in data collection and inference. In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. 1998. 249-73 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This chapter focuses on some methodological issues that arose during a project that began in 1989. The project involved the simultaneous undertaking of migration surveys in several Western African countries, including Burkina Faso, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal. The focus is on issues of data collection and analysis. "The main goal of the surveys was to permit the measurement of various characteristics of the migration and urbanization processes in the network countries: levels and trends of migration; characteristics, attitudes, and aspirations of migrants; determinants and consequences of migration; and the pace of urban absorption." In addition to the methodological issues discussed, some preliminary results from the surveys are presented.
Correspondence: P. Bocquier, Center for Applied Research in Population and Development, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30591 Brambila Paz, Carlos. A reassessment of migration and urbanization in Mexico in the 20th century. In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. 1998. 393-433 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to describe and analyze the role of migration in the process of urbanization in Mexico between 1940 and 1990. The study is divided into four sections. Section A investigates interstate migration patterns and trends between 1940 and 1990.... Section B summarizes urbanization indicators from 1940-90 and discusses limitations in the traditional interpretation of urban growth in Mexico.... Section C relates the economic performance of migrants to the characteristics of destination cities, to test the hypothesis that the centrality of cities in the urban network affects the economic performance of migrants at their destination.... In the final section, I discuss policy and research implications of the approach used."
Correspondence: C. Brambila Paz, Population Council, Apartado Postal 105-152, 11560 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30592 Ghatak, Anita. Labour migration in the Indian states and the Todarian hypothesis. Asian Economic Review, Vol. 38, No. 2, Aug 1996. 212-28 pp. Hyderabad, India. In Eng.
The model of migration in developing countries developed by Todaro and others, in which the driving force behind rural-urban migration is the wage differential between urban and rural areas, is examined using 1971 and 1981 census data for the states of India. The results do not provide any evidence supporting this model, which the author suggests is not surprising, given the imperfect product and factor markets prevailing in India.
Correspondence: A. Ghatak, De Montfort University, Department of Economics, Leicester, England. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:30593 Hannan, Damian F. Irish rural-urban migration: post-1960 changes. In: Changing rural social systems: adaptation and survival, edited by Nan E. Johnson and Ching-li Wang. 1997. 189-200 pp. Michigan State University Press: East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
"The chapter...has four objectives: (1) it reviews the pattern and process of Irish rural-urban migration in the 1960s; (2) it briefly describes the extent and nature of change in the economic and social structure of Ireland since the mid-1960s; (3) it analyzes the labor market and migration experience of current rural second-level school leavers; and (4) finally, it evaluates the nature and causes of change in rural outmigration patterns from the 1960s to the 1980s."
Correspondence: D. F. Hannan, Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30594 Mears, Ronald. Rural-urban migration or urbanization in South Africa. South African Journal of Economics, Vol. 65, No. 4, Dec 1997. 595-614 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
"The objective of this article is to report on some of the main findings of an investigation into the causes and effects of migration and urbanization in South Africa. The alternative hypotheses of either an equilibrating or a disequilibrating effect of migration on the spatial distribution of the South African population and their income are examined. The initial discussion of the migration theories is followed by an analysis of the functional relationship between rural-urban migration and urbanization."
Correspondence: R. Mears, Vista University, Soweto Campus, Department of Economics, Private Bag X09, Bertsham 2013, Pretoria, South Africa. E-mail: MEARS-R@sorex.vista.ac.za. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30595 Papola, T. S. Extent and implications of rural-urban migration in India. In: Urbanization in large developing countries: China, Indonesia, Brazil, and India, edited by Gavin W. Jones and Pravin Visaria. 1997. 315-20 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"Increasing urbanization [in India], particularly rural-urban migration, is often viewed as a `problem'. This chapter represents a preliminary attempt to examine the nature and extent of this problem on the basis of available evidence from the population censuses and other sources of data and studies undertaken by other scholars on related aspects."
Correspondence: T. S. Papola, Government of India, Planning Commission, Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30596 Rao, M. Koteswara. Rural-urban migration and economic development. ISBN 81-7141-303-X. LC 95-911064. 1996. iv, 176 pp. Discovery Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The major objective of this study is to analyse the patterns, and correlative factors of rural-urban migration with reference to Andhra Pradesh [India]. The specific objectives of the study are as follows: (i) to analyse the trends in urbanization and urban growth for the period 1901-1991. (ii) to examine the character of the patterns of internal migration. (iii) to study the occupational structure of migrants; and (iv) to explore the determinants of rural-urban migration."
Correspondence: Discovery Publishing House, 4594/9 Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:30597 Su, Lin You. Migration and urbanization in China. In: Urbanization in large developing countries: China, Indonesia, Brazil, and India, edited by Gavin W. Jones and Pravin Visaria. 1997. 69-85 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author analyzes migration to urban areas of China, using registration and survey data from 1986. The employment status, occupation, and income of migrants and nonmigrants in cities of different sizes are examined. China's policy of controlling population movement and growth is assessed, particularly rural-urban migration and urban population growth.
Correspondence: L. Y. Su, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30598 Universidad de la Habana. Centro de Estudios Demográficos [CEDEM]. Grupo de Trabajo Nacional de la Encuesta de Migraciones Internas (Havana, Cuba). Results of the National Survey on Internal Migration according to levels in the system of settlements: the case of the city of Havana. [Resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Migraciones Internas según niveles del sistema de asentamientos: el caso de Ciudad de la Habana.] 1996. [vii], 121 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Some recent trends in internal migration in Cuba are analyzed using data from a national survey carried out in 1995. The primary focus is on migration to the capital city, Havana, the destination of most migrants. Emphasis is put on the different reasons given by migrants for migrating to Havana from various types of settlements. Following a description of the methodology used in the survey, a brief history of migration to Havana is provided. Topics discussed include the origin of migrants to the city, the characteristics of recent migrants, the way migration occurs, motives for migration, and the socio-demographic consequences of this migration. Attention is then given to probable future trends in migration to Havana and how they might be influenced by government policies.
Correspondence: Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Avenida 41 Número 2003, Playa 13, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.