Volume 64 - Number 3 - Fall 1998

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

64:30408 Andersson, Gunnar. The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1997. 109-45 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of children on divorce risks in 1971-1994 for first-married Swedish women. This impact is examined using two measures of family composition, namely the number of children and the age of the youngest child, and we find an independent effect from each of these factors on the propensity to divorce. There is an additional impact of births prior to marriage on the subsequent divorce risk....The general picture of Swedish divorce-risk trends shows a strong increase in 1974, mostly among childless women, in response to a reform of the divorce legislation. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the risks have increased steadily, mostly among mothers."
Correspondence: G. Andersson, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30409 Antoine, Philippe. An application of event history analysis of nuptiality to African data. [L'approche biographique de la nuptialité, application aux données africaines.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 1-27 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The author first reviews the general situation concerning nuptiality in Africa. Next, he describes the problems inherent in the study of nuptiality in Africa, and suggests that an event history analysis approach can solve some of these problems. An example is presented using the event histories of 1,557 individuals from a survey carried out in Dakar, Senegal, in 1989. These data are used to analyze trends in first marriage, divorce, and polygamy among men aged 25-59.
Correspondence: P. Antoine, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30410 Banerjee, Kakoli. Marriage change in rural India, 1921-1981. History of the Family, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1998. 63-94 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"In the early twentieth century, marriage age of both sexes in India was unusually low, even by the standards of other Asian societies of the era. Although early marriage in the form of child marriage occurred throughout the Indian subcontinent, there were regional differences in the extent of the practice. The article examines influences on the marriage market from the early through the late twentieth century and the changes that have occurred within that time frame. Early on, the peasant marriage regime was regulated more by social and demographic factors, while subsequent changes reflected the growing importance of economics and considerable regional diversity."
Correspondence: K. Banerjee, Lander University, Division of Behavioral Sciences, Greenwood, SC 29649. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30411 Barber, Jennifer S.; Axinn, William G. The impact of parental pressure for grandchildren on young people's entry into cohabitation and marriage. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1998. 129-44 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the influence of parental preferences for grandchildren on young adults' entry into cohabitation and marriage [in the United States]. We also consider the influence of young adults' own fertility preferences on their cohabitation and marriage behaviour. We develop a theoretical framework explaining why these childbearing attitudes influence young people's cohabitation and marriage behaviour. The results show that the childbearing preferences of young women and their mothers affect their choice between cohabitation and marriage, so that wanting many children increases the likelihood of choosing marriage. Young men whose mothers want them to have many children enter any type of co-residential union, either marriage or cohabitation, at a much higher rate than men whose mothers want them to have fewer children. Our results also provide insights into the childbearing behaviour of cohabitating couples."
Correspondence: J. S. Barber, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 426 Thompson Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. E-mail: jebarber@isr.umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30412 Blackwell, Debra L. Marital homogamy in the United States: the influence of individual and paternal education. Social Science Research, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jun 1998. 159-88 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
The author uses information on first marriages from wave one of the U.S. National Survey of Families and Households to examine to what extent paternal education affects marital homogamy. "I show that the effect of paternal education on homogamy and intermarriage varies by gender, in such a way that wives appear to benefit more from added inputs of paternal education than do husbands. I argue as a result that inherited educational status may play a more important role in determining daughters' eventual marital outcomes."
Correspondence: D. L. Blackwell, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 505 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30413 Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R. Who gets custody? Demography, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 147-57 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We examine physical-custody outcomes among recent Wisconsin divorces in an effort to understand the factors associated with shared custody as well as mother-sole custody and father-sole custody. Although mother-sole custody remains the dominant arrangement, shared custody has increased over a nine-year period. We find that the probability of shared custody increases with parent's income. Prior marital history, parents' ages, the age and gender of children, and the legal process also have an impact on the probability of shared custody."
Correspondence: M. Cancian, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. E-mail: cancian@lafollette.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30414 Davis, Anthony. Age differences in dating and marriage: reproductive strategies or social preferences? Current Anthropology, Vol. 39, No. 3, Jun 1998. 374-80 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The results of an analysis of two different data sets respecting mate selection and age preferences are presented here. The first is drawn from a study of personals advertisements and the second from an examination of records of mid-19th- and early-20th-century registered marriages in selected Nova Scotian coastal communities.... Analysis of male and female age preferences respecting either desired partners or spouses strongly suggests that the sociobiological approach to understanding apparent male-female age differences and preferences is, at best, incomplete."
Correspondence: A. Davis, Saint Francis Xavier University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, P.O. Box 5000, Antigonish, Nova Scotia B2G 2W5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30415 Fan, C. Cindy; Huang, Youqin. Waves of rural brides: female marriage migration in China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 88, No. 2, Jun 1998. 227-51 pp. Malden, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Data from the 1990 census of China are used to examine marriage as an economic strategy pursued by rural women. "We show that peasant women in poor areas are constrained by their institutional positions, rural origins, and low education and status, shutting them out from cities and the urban labor market. Yet in the face of these constraints, many women, in exchange for economic opportunities and agricultural work, pursue migration by marrying into rural areas in more developed regions and by moving over long distances. These rural brides in well-defined migration streams are testimony to the roles of social and kinship networks and of brokers in the marriage market.... We argue that a structural approach is necessary for understanding the complexities underlying female migration and for explaining the recent phenomenon of long-distance female marriage migration in China."
Correspondence: C. C. Fan, University of California, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA 90095. E-mail: fan@geog.ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30416 Fricke, Tom; Thornton, Arland; Dahal, Dilli R. Netting in Nepal: social change, the life course, and brideservice in Sangila. Human Ecology, Vol. 26, No. 2, Jun 1998. 213-37 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using survey and ethnographic data gathered in Nepal, this paper examines the implications of change in work, living experiences, and the marriage process for subsequent inter-familial relationships exemplified by cross-cousin marriage and the provision of brideservice. Hypotheses are developed which consider the impact of community context on these behaviors; these are tested in logistic regression analyses for the first marriages of all 430 ever-married women in the community. Cross-cousin marriage and brideservice are shown to be related to prior familial characteristics, life-course experience, and elements of the marriage process in ways that are significantly conditioned by community history and proximity to urban centers."
Correspondence: T. Fricke, University of Michigan, Department of Anthropology, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. E-mail: tomf@isr.umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30417 Friedberg, Leora. Did unilateral divorce raise divorce rates? Evidence from panel data. NBER Working Paper, No. 6398, Feb 1998. 19, [13] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper revisits the evidence on the impact of unilateral divorce laws on divorce rates in the United States. Most states switched from requiring mutual consent to allowing unilateral or no-fault divorce between 1970 and 1985, while the national divorce rate more than doubled after 1965.... This paper uses a panel of state-level divorce rates which includes virtually every divorce in the U.S. over the entire period of the law changes. Adding comprehensive controls--year and state fixed effects and state fixed trends--for changing unobservable divorce propensities reveals that the divorce rate would have been about 6% lower if states had not switched to unilateral divorce, accounting for 17% of the increase in the divorce rate between 1968 and 1988. Additional results in this paper demonstrate that the type of unilateral divorce law that states adopted matters. Weaker versions of unilateral divorce, which retain elements of mutual divorce, raised the divorce rate significantly, but by less than the strongest versions of unilateral divorce did."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: lfriedber@weber.ucsd.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30418 Friedberg, Leora. Did unilateral divorce raise divorce rates? Evidence from panel data. American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 3, Jun 1998. 608-27 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"Since early 1996, at least eight states have begun to consider rolling back unilateral and no-fault divorce--a major reversal of the liberalizing trend in divorce laws which began around 1970. The proponents of tightening the divorce regime often argue that making divorce more difficult will strengthen families. However, both theoretical and empirical evidence is decidedly mixed over whether the `no-fault revolution' actually contributed to the sharp increase in divorce rates in the United States observed over the last 30 years.... In this paper, I address the dispute by using a panel of state-level divorce rates.... Including state-specific trends allows unobserved state divorce propensities to trend linearly and even quadratically over time and reveals that unilateral divorce raised divorce rates significantly and strongly."
Correspondence: L. Friedberg, University of California--San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30419 Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H. The prevalence and demographic characteristics of consanguineous marriages in Pakistan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr 1998. 261-75 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of consanguineous unions in Pakistan using local and national data. Information from 1,011 ever-married women living in four multi-ethnic and multi-lingual squatter settlements of Karachi...are compared with data from the national 1990/91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), based on information provided by 6,611 women. Both sets of results indicate that approximately 60% of marriages were consanguineous, over 80% of which were between first cousins.... In both surveys the prevalence of consanguineous unions appeared to be unchanged over the past three to four decades. Consanguineous unions were more common among women who were illiterate or had only primary level education, were first or second generation migrants from rural areas of Pakistan or, in the PDHS, lived in rural areas, and whose parents were also consanguineously married."
Correspondence: R. Hussain, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30420 Joesch, Jutta M.; Smith, Ken R. Children's health and their mothers' risk of divorce or separation. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1997. 159-69 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to determine how [U.S.] children's health conditions are related to their mothers' risk of divorce or separation. The study is based on data from over 7,000 children born to once-married mothers identified in the 1988 Child Health Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey.... Controlling for demographic, marital, and reproductive measures, we find that mothers' prospects for divorce are affected both positively or negatively by their children's health status, depending on the type of childhood condition and, in the case of low birth weight children, timing within the marriage."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. M. Joesch, University of Washington, Department of Health Services, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30421 Kiernan, Kathleen E.; Cherlin, Andrew J. Parental divorce and partnership dissolution in adulthood: evidence from a British cohort study. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 98-03, Apr 1998. 27 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study, which uses information from a British cohort followed from birth to age 33 years (National Child Development Study), examines the association between the timing of first partnership and subsequent dissolution, alongside the effects of different partnership trajectories namely; marrying directly, marriage preceded by a period of cohabitation and cohabitations that did not convert into marriages, as well as the interaction between timing and type of first union. We also ascertain the extent to which the age at which children experience parental divorce affects their subsequent partnership behaviour."
Correspondence: A. J. Cherlin, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Sociology, Mergenthaler Hall, Baltimore, MD 21218. E-mail: cherlin@jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30422 Koball, Heather. Have African American men become less committed to marriage? Explaining the twentieth century racial cross-over in men's marriage timing. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 251-8 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Prior to World War II, the median age at marriage for [U.S.] white men was later than that for African American men. Since World War II, African American men have, on average, married later than white men. A discrete-time hazard model using data from the National Survey of Families and Households was analyzed to explain this racial cross-over in men's timing of marriage. Dramatic increases in the educational attainment of African American parents and the large movement of African Americans out of the South brought about the racial cross-over in the timing of marriage."
Correspondence: H. Koball, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516. E-mail: Heather_Koball@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30423 Lefebvre, Pierre; Merrigan, Philip. The impact of welfare benefits on the conjugal status of single mothers in Canada. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 33, No. 3, Summer 1998. 742-57 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the determinants of the likelihood of a remarriage (marriage) for female heads with children. Using retrospective data from Statistics Canada's 1990 Family History Survey, the study attempts to identify which socioeconomic characteristics of single mothers are conducive to conjugal union formation (formal or informal). Particular attention is given to external time-varying economic covariates, so as to disentangle the impact they exert on single mothers' propensity to start living with a (new) partner. The empirical analysis is carried out using a proportional hazards model which permits the estimation of the effects of various covariates on the hazard of exiting single parenthood. The most striking result is the strong effect of provincial welfare benefits on conjugal union formation. However, the analysis reveals that single motherhood, far from representing a final state, remains a transitory situation for a majority of women."
Correspondence: P. Lefebvre, Université du Québec, Département de Sciences Economiques, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:30424 Marcoux, Richard. Nuptiality and the persistence of polygamy in urban areas of Mali. [Nuptialité et maintien de la polygamie en milieu urbain au Mali.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 26, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 191-214, 340 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes reasons for and trends in polygamy in urban areas of Mali. "Although there have been major transformations in nuptiality patterns in urban areas in Mali (growing celibacy and an increase in the average age at marriage), the fact remains that the incidence of polygamy showed no significant change from 1960 to 1987. An examination of some of the economic characteristics of women in polygamous unions and of the households to which they belong seems to point to some interesting research approaches to increase our understanding of the persistence of this matrimonial institution in certain African cities."
Correspondence: R. Marcoux, Université Laval, Département de Sociologie, Bureau 2467, Pavillon Charles-De Koninck, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30425 Moffitt, Robert A. The effect of welfare on marriage and fertility. In: Welfare, the family, and reproductive behavior: research perspectives, edited by Robert A. Moffitt. 1998. 50-97 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"I review the large research literature on the issue of whether the [U.S.] welfare system, especially the AFDC program, has discouraged marriage and encouraged childbearing.... I argue that the consensus in the research community shifted over time from the 1970s, when it was generally believed that the welfare system had very little effect on marriage and childbearing, to the 1980s and 1990s, when most analysts came to believe that there is an effect.... The chapter also goes into considerable detail on the methodologies used by different researchers to measure the existence and magnitude of welfare effects and criticizes the research community for failing to reconcile differences in findings that are reported in different studies."
Correspondence: R. A. Moffitt, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Economics, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30426 Pache, Veronique. Marriage fairs among Maheshwaris: a new matrimonial strategy. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 17, Apr 25, 1998. 970-5 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The marriage fair organised by the maheshwaris, a caste belonging to the successful commercial and industrial community of the marwaris, gathers for two or three days hundreds of young men and women in the company of their parents and helps maheshwari families to select spouses for their children and strengthens caste endogamy. It is especially intended for poor or middle class maheshwaris, who face great difficulties in arranging the marriages of their children." The first of these marriage fairs was organized in Indore, India, in 1987, and the practice has spread to other places in the country.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30427 Parrado, Emilio A.; Tienda, Marta. Women's roles and family formation in Venezuela: new forms of consensual unions? Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1997. 1-24 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper assesses the effects of changes in women's education and labor force participation on nuptiality patterns and their implications for fertility decline in Venezuela. Results show that together with delays in union formation, changes in women's education and labor force participation produced a different, more `modern' type of consensual union, which coexists with `traditional' consensual unions. `Traditional' consensual unions remain a substitute for formal marriage among women from rural origins with low levels of education and higher levels of work experience. `Modern' consensual unions appear to be an option for well-educated women of urban origins.... `Modern' consensual unions are more unstable than `traditional' consensual unions and they are associated with lower fertility."
Correspondence: E. A. Parrado, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30428 Pollard, Michael S.; Wu, Zheng. Divergence of marriage patterns in Quebec and elsewhere in Canada. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 329-56, 423, 426 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This analysis examines the divergence of Canadian marriage patterns using ideational theory, which suggests that region itself, as a proxy for cultural setting and normative code, is a significant determinant of the marriage process. The effects of economic factors, in addition to region and other cultural markers, are examined using discrete time event history methods. The findings suggest that factors identified by standard economic models are insufficient but nonredundant in explaining the regional differentials. There was little decline in the effect of region after controlling for a wide range of background and other characteristics."
Correspondence: Z. Wu, University of Victoria, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 3050, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P5, Canada. E-mail: zwu@uvvm.uvic.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30429 Siddiqi, M. M. A preliminary report of incidence of divorce among Indian Muslims. ISBN 81-85220-29-8. 1996. viii, 672 pp. Institute of Objective Studies: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present study is an exploration of the facts related to divorce among Indian Muslims. It is expected to bring forward objective and non-personal information about the practices related to it.... The Muslims in India are spread all over the country and the divorce problems and, in many cases, the causes and consequences of divorce change with sect, region, conventions and traditions.... The incidence of divorce is to be studied with reference to the control group.... The socio-economic status, can also be one of the indicators of the frequency of incidence of divorce. If these variables are kept in mind, the present study will reveal much of the facts about divorce and remove many of the misunderstandings about it."
Correspondence: Institute of Objective Studies, 162 Jogabai Extension, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110 025, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30430 Simpson, Bob. On gifts, payments and disputes: divorce and changing family structures in contemporary Britain. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 1997. 731-45 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article considers ethnographic data collected among divorcing men and women in Britain and adopts a Maussian view of exchange in order to understand the cultural dimensions of divorce in more depth. I argue that divorcing men and women express discontinuities and continuities in their relationships by means of particular kinds of exchanges. What is of particular interest is the way that former husbands and wives place discrepant and conflicting constructions on the transfer of money and material goods between them and between themselves and their children. The article illustrates these points by examining the conflicts between fathers, mothers and their children over the emotional and economic significance of particular transactions."
Correspondence: B. Simpson, University of Durham, Department of Anthropology, 43 Old Elvet, Durham DH1 3HP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30431 Smeenk, Wilma; Ultee, Wout. "First marriages by age of bride and groom": The Netherlands, 1942-1994. ["Huwende jongmans en jongdochters naar leeftijd bruid en bruidegom": Leeftijdsverhoudingen binnen eerste huwelijken in Nederland, 1942-1994.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1997. 153-91 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article we examine trends in age homogamy in first marriages in the Netherlands since 1942.... We analyze population data collected by Statistics Netherlands. Controlling for the age distribution of first-marrying men and women, chances are greatest to have married a partner of the same age. These relative chances decrease with rising age at marriage, and increase over historical time. The association between spouses' ages in age-divergent marriages is greater when the husband is older than his wife. This asymmetry in the association decreased until 1970, but increased up until 1994."
Correspondence: W. Smeenk, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Vakgroep Sociologie, Postbus 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30432 Timæus, Ian M.; Reynar, Angela. Polygynists and their wives in Sub-Saharan Africa: an analysis of five Demographic and Health Surveys. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1998. 145-62 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Differential polygyny in Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia is investigated using individual-level Demographic and Health Surveys data. As well as contrasting polygynists' first wives with women in monogamous unions, the analysis distinguishes higher-order wives from first wives. This permits study of the determinants of the prevalence and intensity of polygyny respectively. Polygyny and other aspects of marriage interlock in very similar ways in all five countries. Individuals' experience of polygyny tends to reflect their luck in the marriage market rather than their socio-economic characteristics. While polygyny is less prevalent in urban areas, other socio-economic factors are important only in Kenya and Zambia, the two countries where less than 25 percent of married women are in polygynous unions. The prevalence and intensity of polygyny are negatively associated. Thus, any drop in the prevalence of polygyny in Africa may be accompanied by a rise in the number of wives per polygynist."
Correspondence: I. M. Timæus, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. E-mail: I.Timaeus@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30433 Tyagi, D. Looking at polyandry--a dying or dead social institution in India? Man in India, Vol. 77, No. 4, Dec 1997. 329-43 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
"The institution of polyandry has a long history in India. Having its origin in the remote past polyandry flourished through the ages; it witnessed change with the alteration of cultural perspectives, and gradually it started diminishing due to some obvious reasons. Polyandry has its own appeal...owing to which it has been discussed by [a] large number of social scientists from diversified angles. In the present paper the author has put forward a systematic review of the various observations made by the different authorities. Various factors relating to the emergence of polyandry and the related causes have been pin-pointed here. The study highlights that [the] once flourishing social institution [of] polyandry is now in a state of disappearance."
Correspondence: D. Tyagi, Anthropological Survey of India, 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Calcutta 700 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30434 Yamamoto, Chizuko; Kojima, Katsuhisa. Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1995. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1997. 45-66 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Trends in marriage and divorce in Japan in 1995 are analyzed using official data. Data are included on marriages by nationality of bride and groom, 1965-1995; marriages by marriage order of bride and groom, 1988-1995; marriages and marriage rates by age; first marriages and remarriages; total, first, and remarriage rates, 1980-1995; divorces by nationality of husband and wife, 1965-1995; and divorces and divorce rates by age.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30435 Zeng, Yi; Wu, Deqing. Changes in the divorce rate and age distribution in China since the 1980s. Social Sciences in China, Vol. 18, Spring 1997. 106-12 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"The divorce rate in China during the 1980s was much higher than before for a number of reasons. In order to understand this phenomenon, the authors will make a comparison between the divorce rates, and the age and duration of the marriage at the time of divorce in the early 1980s and in the late 1980s and early 1990s."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.

64:30436 Amin, Sajeda. Family structure and change in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1998. 201-13 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This analysis uses data from an intensive village study to investigate whether rising landlessness leads to increasing fragmentation and nucleation of families in rural Bangladesh. It was found that, even after rapid fertility decline, the elderly and women continue to rely extensively on family support. Although landlessness puts stress on intergenerational relations, a favourably low dependency ratio (elders to sons), brought about by the child-mortality decline of the 1950s and 1960s, has allowed the burden to be spread over larger numbers of sons than were previously available. A persistence of traditional living arrangements, in which sons form their own households in the homesteads of their fathers, also contributes to retarding the process of family disintegration that is likely to be caused when farm size decreases and the role of the farm economy in a traditional peasant society diminishes."
Correspondence: S. Amin, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30437 Argys, Laura M.; Peters, H. Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Smith, Judith R. The impact of child support on cognitive outcomes of young children. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 159-73 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We use the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child data to address three questions. First, does the receipt of child support have beneficial effects for children with absent fathers apart from increasing income? Second, do the effects of child support differ when child-support awards and payments are made cooperatively as opposed to being court ordered? Third, are any positive effects of child support solely a product of unmeasured differences among fathers and families? Controlling for the socioeconomic characteristics of the child and family, we find some evidence that receipt of child support has a positive impact on children's cognitive test scores over and above its contribution to total income."
Correspondence: L. M. Argys, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-3364. E-mail: largys@castle.cudenver.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30438 Bélanger, Danièle. Coresidence patterns and intergenerational relations in Viet Nam. [Modes de cohabitation et liens intergénérationnels au Vietnam.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 26, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 215-45, 340 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper studies the Vietnamese family by exploring family structures. A brief analysis of historical data from the colonial period is followed by a more detailed examination of data from the World Bank Living Standards Study 1992-93 including data on 4,800 households. In addition to presenting the first nationwide findings on the makeup of Vietnamese households, the paper analyzes the data from an individual viewpoint.... Overall, the findings show the complexity of the family environment, the importance of intergenerational relations and the lack of a significant increase in the nuclear family in Vietnam."
Correspondence: D. Bélanger, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30439 Bélanger, Danièle. Regional differences in household composition and family formation patterns in Vietnam. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 98-5, ISBN 0-7714-2100-1. Mar 1998. 27, [9] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"In this paper, we explore regional variations in household composition [in Viet Nam] by focusing on the living arrangements of young couples.... The analysis is based on data from the Vietnam Living Standards Survey conducted in 1992-1993 (VLSS 1992-93) on a nationally representative sample of 4,800 households.... Our results confirm that household composition is another area of Vietnamese society revealing regional variations, the stronger one being between the North and the South."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Author's E-mail: dbelang@julian.uwo.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30440 Casper, Lynne M.; O'Connell, Martin. Work, income, the economy, and married fathers as child-care providers. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 243-50 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1988, 1991, and 1993 panels of the [U.S.] Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine whether fathers' availability and the couple's economic resources are differentially related to child care by fathers over time.... Relative economic resources between husbands and wives help explain care by fathers only during the recession year, whereas family income is important only in the nonrecession years."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. M. Casper, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Fertility and Family Statistics Branch, Washington, D.C. 20233. E-mail: lcasper@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30441 Clarke, Lynda; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Verropoulou, Georgia. Fathers and absent fathers: sociodemographic similarities in Britain and the United States. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 217-28 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using data from the British Household Panel Survey and the National Survey of Families and Households in the United States, we present a sociodemographic profile of fathers and compare the determinants of absent fatherhood in each country. Although fatherhood has a younger profile in the United States, especially for blacks, predictors of fathers' residency with their children are remarkably similar in the two countries."
Correspondence: E. C. Cooksey, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: cooksey.1@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30442 Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Craig, Patricia H. Parenting from a distance: the effects of paternal characteristics on contact between nonresidential fathers and their children. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 187-200 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We use data from the first two waves of the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to examine various sociodemographic, situational, and attitudinal characteristics that might influence the degree of contact between nonresidential fathers and their minor children.... Some factors (the presence of multiple children in a household) predict visiting only, while others (child's age and gender) predict only verbal/written contact."
Correspondence: E. C. Cooksey, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: cooksey.1@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30443 Das Gupta, Monica. Kinship systems and demographic regimes. In: Anthropological demography: toward a new synthesis, edited by David I. Kertzer and Tom Fricke. 1997. 36-52 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This chapter attempts to push forward the analysis of kinship systems to develop our theoretical understanding of demographic processes. It begins by reviewing some of the existing theories linking kinship systems with fertility, and moves on to the curiously neglected field of the relationship between kinship systems and demographic regimes viewed as a whole.... I sketch out some examples of how we might study the interactions between kinship systems and fertility, health and mortality, as well as the implications for old age support and policies for providing such support. I focus throughout on the demographic literature and on the concerns of demographers...."
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, World Bank, Research Division, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:30444 Ditch, John; Barnes, Helen; Bradshaw, Jonathan; Kilkey, Majella. A synthesis of national family policies 1996. ISBN 92-828-1381-9. 1998. ix, 74 pp. University of York, Social Policy Research Unit: York, England; European Commission, European Observatory on National Family Policies: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
In this annual report, the authors discuss demographic trends affecting the family in the member countries of the European Community, review the circumstances and policies that concern children, and profile the structure and value of packages of financial support for children.
For a companion volume by the same authors, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: European Observatory on National Family Policies, European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Rue de la Loi 200, J-37 1/20, 1049 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30445 Ditch, John; Barnes, Helen; Bradshaw, Jonathan. Developments in national family policies in 1996. No. CE-33-97-002-EN-C, ISBN 92-828-1384-3. 1998. viii, 312 pp. University of York, Social Policy Research Unit: York, England; European Commission, European Observatory on National Family Policies: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
This annual report seeks to compare developments in the circumstances of families and the policies that affect them in the member countries of the European Community. There are 15 chapters that analyze the situation in each individual country. The overall picture suggests an increasing concern with the situation of families accompanied by a decline in the resources available to deliver the support families might require.
For a companion volume by the same authors, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: European Observatory on National Family Policies, European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Rue de la Loi 200, J-37 1/20, 1049 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30446 Ermisch, John; Di Salvo, Pamela. The economic determinants of young people's household formation. Economica, Vol. 64, No. 256, Nov 1997. 627-44 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The paper derives predictions about the impact of the price of housing, young adults' income and parental income on the probability that a young adult [in the United Kingdom] lives apart from his/her parents. It shows that the predicted effect of the price of housing is intimately related to the price elasticity of housing demand. It uses longitudinal data on a cohort of Britons born in 1958 (surveyed in the National Child Development Study) to estimate dynamic models of first departure from the parental home, and particularly to estimate the impact of housing price on the timing and destination of first departure."
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30447 Ermisch, John; Francesconi, Marco. The increasing complexity of family relationships: lifetime experience of single motherhood and stepfamilies in Great Britain. Working Papers of the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, No. 96-11, Jul 1996. 19 pp. University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change: Colchester, England. In Eng.
"We investigate the lifetime incidence of single motherhood and the stepfamily formation in Great Britain using both retrospective and panel information contained in the British Household Panel Study, 1991-94. Our analysis indicates that about 40 percent of mothers will spend some time as a single parent. The duration of single parenthood is often short, one-half remaining single mothers for 4 years or less. About three-fourths of these single mothers will form a stepfamily, with 80 percent of these stepfamilies being started by cohabitation and 85 percent following the dissolution of a union. Stepfamilies are not very stable: over one-quarter dissolve within one year. Thus, an increasing proportion of today's young children in Great Britain are likely to experience the changes, tensions, and strains which life in single-parent families and stepfamilies often entails. As a consequence, the increasing complexity of inter-household relationships between children and parents has serious implications for the relevance of theoretical views of the operation of the family put forward by social researchers."
Correspondence: University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30448 Gage, Anastasia J. Women's and men's status in African families: continuity, evolution and possible revolutions. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,113-37 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper examines the status of men and women in African families. It focuses on the manner in which relations between men and women were constructed in traditional society and the extent to which they have been altered by changing economic and social conditions." Aspects considered include marriage formation, children, conjugal relations, and the elderly.
Correspondence: A. J. Gage, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30449 Graefe, Deborah R.; Lichter, Daniel T. Life course transitions of American children: parental cohabitation, marriage, and single motherhood. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 97-08, Jul 1997. [34] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"We examine the life course transitions of American children into and from families headed by unmarried cohabiting couples. This is accomplished with event-history data from the merged child-mother supplements of the 1979-1992 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our life table estimates indicate that about 1 in 4 children will live in a family headed by a cohabiting couple at some point during childhood. Economic uncertainty (e.g., low income and low parental education) is an important factor determining whether children in single-parent families subsequently share a residence with their mother's unmarried partner rather than with married parents. Moreover, virtually all children in cohabiting couple families will experience rapid subsequent family status changes."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. The full text of this paper is available online in PostScript format at http://www.pop.psu.edu/info-core/library/wp_lists/psu.html.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411.

64:30450 Harris, Kathleen M.; Furstenberg, Frank F.; Marmer, Jeremy K. Paternal involvement with adolescents in intact families: the influence of fathers over the life course. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 201-16 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We measure the quality and quantity of fathers' involvement with adolescent children in intact families over time using longitudinal data from The [U.S.] National Survey of Children.... We find beneficial effects for children of father's involvement in three domains: educational and economic attainment, delinquent behavior, and psychological well-being."
Correspondence: K. M. Harris, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: kathie_harris@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30451 Hourriez, Jean-Michel; Olier, Lucile. Standard of living and household size: estimations of an equivalence scale. [Niveau de vie et taille du ménage: estimations d'une échelle d'équivalence.] Economie et Statistique, No. 308-310, 1997. 65-94, 264-70 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
The authors propose an equivalence scale to compare standards of living among households of different structures in France. "A scale is hence put forward for standard-of-living studies whereby the first adult counts for one consumption unit, each additional adult for 0.5 and each child for 0.3. This scale provides a better explanation for the economies of scale currently enjoyed by households than the Oxford scale typically used by statisticians, where each additional adult counts for 0.7 and each child for 0.5. However, its formula is still too general to satisfactorily handle certain issues such as the cost of children. Additional estimates made in this regard find that the cost of children has remained stable over the last ten years. The method used places this cost at 20% to 30% of a childless couple's budget."
Correspondence: J.-M. Hourriez, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Division Revenus et Patrimoine des Ménages, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30452 Hullen, Gert. Life histories in West and East Germany: longitudinal analyses of the German Family and Fertility Surveys. [Lebensverläufe in West- und Ostdeutschland: Längsschnittanalysen des deutschen Family and Fertility Surveys.] Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts für Bevölkerungsforschung, No. 26, ISBN 3-8100-1919-4. 1998. 185 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
The author examines the differences in life histories between West and East Germany in the past and today. Topics covered are gender relations, family formations, birth rates, education, women's status and labor force participation, and population and family policies. The author bases the analysis on data from the German part of the Family and Fertility Survey (FFS) conducted in 1992.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 4, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30453 Jensen, An-Magritt. Partnership and parenthood in contemporary Europe: a review of recent findings. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1998. 89-99 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this article I will give a cross-sectional presentation of differences by region and sex in the propensity of men and women [in Europe] to live with adults and to live with children. It is expected that an East-West divide, apparent at least until the end of the 1980s, will be reflected in the European Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS) data, since some surveys from Eastern European countries were carried out only a couple of years after the transition. First a review of the changes in fertility and family patterns over the last decades is given, and then we turn to findings from FFS."
Correspondence: A.-M. Jensen, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Sociology and Political Science, Trondheim, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30454 Joshi, Heather. The opportunity costs of childbearing: more than mothers' business. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1998. 161-83 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper is an argument about gender relations. It takes the entwined themes of men's interests in parenthood, the sex division of labour and its evolution, policy for gender equity and policy to support the level of social reproduction. The emphasis on women's employment as a determinant of low fertility has to be supplemented by an examination of the assumption that only women's time use is affected by child-rearing.... Descriptive evidence about the paid and unpaid work of couples and parents is presented, largely secondary material from the UK."
Correspondence: H. Joshi, City University, Social Statistics Research Unit, Northampton Square, London EC1V OHB, England. E-mail: hj@ssru.city.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30455 Miller, Andrew T. Child fosterage in the United States: signs of an African heritage. History of the Family, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1998. 35-62 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The presence of significant numbers of family and household structures among African Americans...[differs] from traditional Euro-American models.... The recently developed U.S. Census public use samples and measures oriented to the practices of informal child fosterage are used to examine and compare these different bases of family life. Data from the turn of the century provide some historical distance from previous explanations of difference centered on slavery, or explanations that focus on contemporary social issues such as urban problems or the welfare state. Comparisons with studies of the contemporary U.S., Africa, the Caribbean, and historical materials give broader scope to fosterage analysis and to the consideration of cultural family differences."
Correspondence: A. T. Miller, Union College, Department of African Studies, Social Sciences Building, Schenectady, NY 12308-2365. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30456 Moffitt, Robert A. Welfare, the family, and reproductive behavior: research perspectives. ISBN 0-309-06125-3. LC 98-9099. 1998. ix, 204 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Over the last decade, [U.S.] welfare reform has figured prominently in the policy agenda at both the state and the federal levels. One of the most important issues in the policy debate concerns the effect of welfare programs on individual demographic behavior.... In an attempt to clarify some of the issues both for the policy debate and for setting research priorities, the National Research Council organized a Workshop on The Effects of Welfare on the Family and Reproductive Behavior in May 1996, which brought together experts in demographic and family studies, along with researchers and policy makers familiar with income support programs. The chapters in this volume were first presented at that workshop and cover the lessons from available research and the implications for future research."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30457 Murray, Margaret S. Housing conditions of nuclear and extended households in the Miami-Fort Lauderdale area. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 1, Sep 1998. 55-76 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the nature, proportion and housing condition of nuclear and extended households in the Miami-Fort Lauderdale [Florida] area. The study also investigates how the incidence and housing situation of extended households has changed during the period from 1986 to 1990. This study illustrates that extended families in the Miami-Fort Lauderdale area are not uniformly worse off than nuclear families, given ethnicity and income level. While the area's housing problems require attention, some of that attention should be focused on removing institutional barriers to household extension and to providing broader housing choices for minority ethnic groups."
Correspondence: M. S. Murray, Florida Atlantic University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University Tower, 220 SE 2nd Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30458 Nelissen, Jan H. M. Modelling and forecasting institutional households using microsimulation. Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1997. 111-30 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"This paper describes the modelling of institutional households within the context of the microsimulation model NEDYMAS. This concerns (personnel excluded) about 250,000 persons in the Netherlands at the moment.... The results show a 20% increase between now and 2010 and a further growth from 2020 on.... The proportion of persons who live for medical reasons in an institutional household grows, whereas the `voluntary' residence decreases."
Correspondence: J. H. M. Nelissen, Tilburg University, FSW/SZW, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30459 Netherlands. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Voorburg, Netherlands). Population in households today and in the future. [Bevolking en huishoudens nu en in de toekomst.] ISBN 90-35716-05-1. 1994. 84 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut.
This is an analysis of probable future trends in household size and characteristics in the Netherlands up to the year 2010 based on official data. Topics covered include population projections as a whole, the increase in the number of households, the postponement of fertility by women, the impact of immigration on household trends, increased independence among young people, demographic aging, and the growth of one-person households.
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, Postbus 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30460 Ondrich, Jan; Spiess, C. Katharina. Care of children in a low fertility setting: transitions between home and market care for pre-school children in Germany. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 1, Mar 1998. 35-48 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Because it may affect a nation's fertility, child care policy is an important policy instrument for low-fertility countries.... This study uses a descriptive statistical approach to analyze the dynamics of demand for child care for pre-school children in Germany. Age-specific and duration-specific hazard rates for leaving home care and for leaving market care are calculated for various risk groups.... We examine household characteristics, the mother's employment status, and regional supply. We find that households with working mothers and fewer pre-school children have greater demand for market care. There also appears to be excess demand for market care. The hazard rates of subsequent children do not differ significantly from those of the first child."
Correspondence: J. Ondrich, Syracuse University, Maxwell School, Center for Policy Research, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30461 Perrenoud, Alfred. The coexistence of generations and the availability of kin in a rural community at the beginning of the nineteenth century. History of the Family, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1998. 1-15 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"To study the influence of the city on the demographic behavior of rural people, family genealogies extending back to the beginning of the eighteenth century were reconstructed for a community near the city of Geneva [Switzerland].... The article examines kinship relations and kin network in this community at different ages.... The findings reveal a small kinship group surrounding the stable family unit, with generations overlapping sufficiently to assure the transmission of landed property as well as social reproduction without discontinuity and without the need to appeal to collateral kin for help."
Correspondence: A. Perrenoud, University of Geneva, Department of Economic History, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30462 Pilon, Marc. Households and families in developing countries. [Ménages et familles dans les pays en développement.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 121-49 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The author addresses some general issues involved in the study of families and households in developing countries. He discusses the definition of "family" and "household"; theories on the evolution of the family; and the current state of knowledge about households and families in developing countries.
Correspondence: M. Pilon, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30463 Rangarajan, Anu; Gleason, Philip. Young unwed fathers of AFDC children: do they provide support? Demography, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 175-86 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We examine the support provided by fathers of children born to disadvantaged teenage mothers [in the United States].... These fathers provide little social and economic support to their children. Support declines as their children age from infants to toddlers and as fathers' relationships with the mothers grow more distant."
Correspondence: A. Rangarajan, Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393. E-mail: arangarajan@mathematica-mpr.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30464 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. Trends and variations in the early life courses of Canadian men. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 98-7, ISBN 0-7714-2102-8. Jun 1998. [31] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"We examine the changes in the timing, occurrence, and sequences of early life events of Canadian men born between 1916 [and] 1975 using the data provided through the 1995 General Social Survey of the Family. Through a life course framework, we look into six early life course events--school completion, work start, home-leaving, cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth--and explore the differences by social status, culture, and opportunity structures."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30465 Reher, David. The history of the family in Spain: past development, present realities, and future challenges. History of the Family, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1998. 125-36 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The article presents a brief overview of the historical study of the family in Spain, and deals with household work patterns, labor migration, adaptive strategies of households, and property devolution. From a belated and rater timid beginnings in the early part of the 1980s, the growth of this field in recent years has been noteworthy. The articles included in this volume are fitting testimony to the maturity achieved by this discipline in a very short amount of time. There are many important methodological and conceptual challenges facing family historians in Spain today. If they are able to respond to them successfully, the future of the discipline will be a bright one indeed."
Correspondence: D. Reher, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30466 Reher, David S. Family ties in Western Europe: persistent contrasts. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 203-34, 421, 424 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"In the Western world it is not difficult to identify areas where families and family ties are relatively `strong' and others where they are relatively `weak'.... The geography of these family systems suggests that the center and northern part of Europe, together with North American society, has been characterized by relatively weak family links, and the Mediterranean region by strong family ties. There are indications that these differences have deep historical roots and may well have characterized the European family for centuries. There is little to suggest that they are diminishing today in any fundamental manner. The way in which the relationship between the family group and its members manifests itself has implications for the way society itself functions."
Correspondence: D. S. Reher, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30467 Ritamies, Marketta. Family dynamics in the Baltic Sea area. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 114-26 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to describe family dynamics in 1970-1996 in the five Baltic Sea countries of Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. In addition, France, Italy, and Poland will be included in the examination as countries of comparison representing Western, Southern, and Eastern Europe. The development which has occurred in the family formation, childbirth, and dissolution of families in the Baltic Sea countries will be examined using available statistical and research data. They will be used to discuss whether family dynamics in the Baltic Sea area reflect pan-European development and how family formation in the Baltic countries has been affected by earlier cultural and religious traditions, in addition to the impact of the Soviet system."
Correspondence: M. Ritamies, Family Federation of Finland, Population Research Institute Väestöliitto, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30468 Seltzer, Judith A. Father by law: effects of joint legal custody on nonresident fathers' involvement with children. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 135-46 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I use prospective data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to examine the association between joint legal custody and two aspects of nonresident fathers' contributions to their children--the frequency of visits between fathers and children and child-support payments.... Controlling for socioeconomic status and the quality of family relationships before separation, fathers with joint legal custody see their children more frequently and have more overnight visits than do other fathers."
Correspondence: J. A. Seltzer, University of California, Department of Sociology, 264 Haines Hall, Box 951551, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1551. E-mail: seltzerj@ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30469 Skinner, G. William. Family systems and demographic processes. In: Anthropological demography: toward a new synthesis, edited by David I. Kertzer and Tom Fricke. 1997. 53-95 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this chapter I consider the ways in which family systems shape demographic processes. Decisions about marriage, reproduction, and migration are, more often than not, made in the context of families and in relation to family strategies. Decisions by family members may also affect the probability of death at various stages in the life course. And quite apart from conscious decision-making, structural features of family systems directly affect demographic processes, often in ways not recognized by family members. I argue here that the cluster of norms informing family processes may be usefully viewed as a system and that differently configured family systems affect fertility, mortality, and migration in distinctive ways."
Correspondence: G. W. Skinner, University of California, Center for Comparative Research in History, Society and Culture, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:30470 Stark, Oded. Equal bequests and parental altruism: compatibility or orthogonality? Department of Economics Working Paper Series, No. 89, Feb 1998. 8 pp. Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics: Hong Kong, China. In Eng.
"The large amount of equal division of bequests by parents who otherwise would have compensated the earning differences among their children is attributed to the cost associated with unequal bequests. This paper identifies a source of this cost and explains why equal bequests to children whose earnings differ, and parental altruism toward these children, are not mutually exclusive."
Correspondence: Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. E-mail: economics@cuhk.edu.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30471 Suzuki, Toru. Household formation in Japan: a life table analysis. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 2, 1997. 18-30 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Household formation behavior in Japan is analyzed using data from the Third National Survey on Household Changes conducted in October 1994. "The results showed that the age at which 50 percent leaves home decreased from 22.3 and 22.7 for the 1934-39 birth cohort to 19.7 and 21.7 for the 1949-54 cohort, males and females respectively. This trend reversed recently and the age at which 50 percent leaves increased to 22.4 and 23.8 for the 1964-69 cohort. Unlike other countries, males left parental home earlier than females for all the cohorts examined in this study. Reasons for leaving home were examined to explain the difference by sex and cohort. It was shown that the recent delay was mainly caused by the decrease in the proportion of leaving home before marriage. For males, the delay in the first job taking due to higher education was also an important factor. There was a huge difference by sex on reasons for leaving home. While more than 80 percent of males left home for education or occupation before marriage, approximately a half of females stayed in parental home until marriage."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30472 Tracuzzi, Tiziana; Pilon, Marc. Family structures, women's status, and demographic behavior: what interactions? The cases of Kenya and Senegal. [Structures familiales, statut des femmes et comportements démographiques: quelles interactions? Le cas du Kenya et du Sénégal.] In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,167-92 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Fre.
The relationships among family characteristics, the socioeconomic characteristics of households, and women's status and behavior in Africa are analyzed using two case studies, Kenya and Senegal, and data from the relevant Demographic and Health Surveys, which were carried out in 1993. The characteristics of households in the two countries are first described. The relevant relationships are then analyzed using multifactoral analysis and log-linear models. The results suggest that women who live in polygamous households are at a socioeconomic disadvantage and that women who are heads of households or who live on their own are the most economically advantaged. With regard to female status, it is female heads of households who are better off, and wives of household heads in Senegal and daughters of household heads in Kenya who are the worst off.
Correspondence: M. Pilon, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30473 Vignikin, Kokou. Development of family structures in Africa and demographic and socioeconomic consequences. [Evolution des structures familiales en Afrique et conséquences démographiques et socioéconomiques.] In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,139-65 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Fre.
Using the data available from recent censuses and surveys, the author attempts to identify the main changes in structure affecting the family in Africa. Some basic concepts concerning the family, households, and family characteristics are first discussed. Next, some of the approaches that have been taken in analyzing African family characteristics are described. The demographic factors that affect these characteristics are then analyzed, including nuptiality, fertility, and migration. The current status of and trends in family and household characteristics in Africa over time are also analyzed. Finally, the author examines some of the socioeconomic factors that have had the greatest impact on family characteristics in Africa, including urbanization, education, and the recent economic crisis.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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