Volume 64 - Number 3 - Fall 1998

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

64:30241 Adnan, Shapan. Fertility decline under absolute poverty. Paradoxical aspects of demographic change in Bangladesh. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 22, May-Jun 1998. 1,337-48 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"In this somewhat speculative paper the author puts forward several hypotheses regarding the factors shaping fertility trends in Bangladesh. The specific problem addressed is that of explaining fertility decline under conditions of persisting absolute poverty. The analysis is set in the context of broader socio-economic and demographic trends in Bangladesh during recent decades. It is evident that the complex dynamics of fertility decline cannot be simply deduced from rates of poverty incidence. In fact there does not appear to be any unique relationship between the incidence of poverty and the direction of fertility trends." The author suggests that trends in mortality, nuptiality, and migration, as well as patterns of inequality and rural-urban differentials, may influence fertility trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30242 Ahmed, Ashraf U.; Hill, Robert B. Differentials in the incidence of births while on welfare: evidence from Maryland. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1997. 91-100 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Births while on public assistance has been one of the central topics in the welfare debate in Maryland because the welfare grant increases with the number of children, and there is debate about whether or not to continue the increased income provision. Based on the quality Control (QC) data for the period from July 1991 to June 1992, this study examined differentials in the incidence of births conceived and borne while the mothers were on welfare. The results indicate that about one-quarter of recipient children were born on welfare and that higher incidences of these births occur among mothers with less than high-school education, never-married, young, Baltimore residents, and with fewer children at entry on welfare."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. U. Ahmed, Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239-9972. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30243 Ainsworth, Martha; Filmer, Deon; Semali, Innocent. The impact of AIDS mortality on individual fertility: evidence from Tanzania. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 138-81 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this chapter we review the channels through which we might expect both positive and negative fertility responses to the heightened mortality of the AIDS epidemic, summarize the evidence to date, and present new evidence of the response of individual fertility behavior to heightened mortality based on three data sets from Tanzania.... The results suggest that, although there is evidence of a positive effect of heightened child mortality on fertility, adult mortality at the household and community level tends to be associated with lower individual fertility."
Correspondence: M. Ainsworth, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30244 Alan Guttmacher Institute (New York, New York). Into a new world: young women's sexual and reproductive lives. ISBN 0-939253-45-3. 1998. 56 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Sexual relationships, marriage and childbearing have always been central areas of women's lives and the foundation of families and societies. But these intimate behaviors must adapt to modern life..., and as the timing and context of marriage and childbearing change, the impact will be felt by young women in particular. This report documents the conditions of young women's lives and the scope of their needs." Chapters are included on the context of young people's lives, the timing of sex and marriage, childbearing during adolescence, initiating contraceptive practice, exposure to reproductive risks, and easing entry into a new world.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. E-mail: info@agi-usa.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30245 Anderson, Michael. Fertility decline in Scotland, England and Wales, and Ireland: comparisons from the 1911 Census of Fertility. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 1, Mar 1998. 1-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Data on family size by year of marriage, age at marriage, and duration of marriage, from the 1911 Fertility Census, are compared between Scotland, England and Wales, Irish county boroughs, and the rest of Ireland. While means show significant inter-country differences, from the 1880s marked similarities are found across all the countries in the pattern of fertility decline, strongly suggesting significant fertility limitation in rural Ireland well before 1911.... Except in rural Ireland, little evidence is found for significant fertility limitation early in marriage among younger marrying couples, but many older marrying couples appear to have stopped childbearing at very low parities from an early date."
Correspondence: M. Anderson, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30246 Anderson, Michael. Highly restricted fertility: very small families in the British fertility decline. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1998. 177-99 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"From the earliest stages of the British fertility decline, falling mean family size was accompanied by marked rises in the proportion of married women who remained childless or who bore only a single child. This paper summarises those changes, their impact on average family size, and the implications for estimates of the proportions of couples who attempted to space their children in the early years of marriage. The explanatory power of some commonly cited interpretations of the general decline in marital fertility is then considered in the context of this growth in number of families of highly restricted fertility. The paper highlights a need for more emphasis on descriptive and analytical approaches that are sensitive to distributions within populations. Also emphasized is the importance of developing interpretations that allow for the possibility that different factors may operate on different sub-sets of families at different points in time."
Correspondence: M. Anderson, University of Edinburgh, Department of Economic and Social History, William Robertson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JY, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30247 Angin, Zeynep; Shorter, Frederic C. Negotiating reproduction and gender during the fertility decline in Turkey. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 5, Sep 1998. 555-64 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the cultural construction of reproduction and gender in Turkey as it relates to the remarkable decline from high levels of fertility to near-replacement levels. It critiques demographic transition theory and family systems theory as found in the Turkish demographic discourse.... The variety of experience shows that not only women, but also men, negotiate in favor of birth control or, in some instances, to birth more children. The changes in structural conditions that brought fertility from high levels to near-replacement levels in Turkey were effective without very much `empowerment' of women. The proposition that women's status, in terms of education and economic activity, must improve to bring about a fertility decline is questioned by the Turkish experience."
Correspondence: F. C. Shorter, P.O. Box 178, Gabriola Island, British Columbia V0R 1X0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30248 Arokiasamy, P. Poverty, nutrition, and fertility: a micro study. ISBN 81-7018-856-3. LC 97-901605. 1997. xiv, 322 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Tackling poverty and rapid population growth are two big challenges in the ongoing process of securing sustained economic growth in India.... Extensive poverty, malnutrition and illhealth on the one hand, and high fertility on the other, arise from the same social milieu. Whereas the consequences of these two issues remain crucial to reproductive and fertility transition, there is still [a] lack of detailed empirical investigation to understand the significance and extent of micro impacts on the interconnected fertility behaviour of the couples. In this context, the present study is an innovative scientific work on the subject of poverty, nutrition, fertility, and family planning based on a field survey carried out in Tamil Nadu.... The book provides an authentic account of methods available for poverty and nutritional status measurement, while discussing the relevant methods chosen for the analysis."
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, D. K. Publishers Distributors (P), A-6 Nimri Community Centre, Near Bharat Nagar, Ashok Vihar, Delhi 110 052, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30249 Beck-Gernsheim, Elisabeth. Declining birth rates and the wish to have children--experience in eastern Germany. [Geburtenrückgang und Kinderwunsch--die Erfahrung in Ostdeutschland.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1997. 59-71 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Demographic analyses cite a variety of causes in an attempt to explain the dramatic decline in fertility that began following the political turnabout in eastern Germany. This study begins with a reference to the rapid trend towards individualization...in a climate of radical social change and to the new options and demands now emerging. Against this background, it then examines in particular the life expectations of young women.... Under the new conditions determined by market economy it is becoming increasingly clear that having children represents a serious occupational, social and financial risk."
Correspondence: E. Beck-Gernsheim, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institut für Soziologie, Kochstraße 4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30250 Ben Amer, A. F. E. Forecasting general age-specific fertility rates in Hungary. [Az általános korspecifikus termékenységi arányszámok elorejelzése.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 76, No. 2, Feb 1998. 175-84 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"Recently several models have been suggested for the projection of age-specific fertility rates.... The author presents two functions: the Gamma and the Gompertz. Firstly the two functions are fitted to age-specific fertility rates [in Hungary] (hereafter GASFRs).... From [a] quadratic equation the values of the parameters for both functions were gained and then the author substituted these values in the original functions to obtain the predicted GASFRs."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30251 Bhat, P. N. Mari. Micro and macro effects of child mortality on fertility: the case of India. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 339-83 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this chapter I focus on three aspects of the mortality fertility relationship with respect to India. First, I investigate the changing relationship between child mortality and fertility in the context of large regional variations in fertility and mortality levels observed in India.... Second, I investigate the degree to which the fertility response is specific to the sex of the dead child.... Third, I investigate the implications for population policy of a family planning environment that emphasizes sterilization over reversible methods."
Correspondence: P. N. M. Bhat, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi University Enclave, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30252 Bongaarts, John; Feeney, Griffith. On the quantum and tempo of fertility. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 271-91, 422, 425 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Demographers have known since the 1940s that standard measures of period fertility, such as the widely used total fertility rate, are distorted by changes in the timing of childbearing.... This study proposes a method for removing the distortions caused by tempo changes from the total fertility rate. The key assumption of the method is that period effects, rather than cohort effects, are the primary force in fertility change, an assumption supported by past research. An application of the adjustment procedure to fertility trends in [the] United States shows that concern over below-replacement fertility in the past 25 years has been largely misplaced. Without the distortion induced by the rising age at childbearing, the underlying level of fertility was essentially constant at close to two children per woman throughout this period."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30253 Borowick, Kent S.; Moore, Kris K.; Trower, Jonathan K. Estimating birth order proportions in the U.S. population. Individual Psychology, Vol. 52, No. 3, Sep 1996. 217-23 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The authors propose a method for producing statistics on birth order for the U.S. population using official vital statistics data. Results are presented for cohorts from 1896-1900 to 1946-1950. The focus is on the data needed for studies on the role of birth order in the context of research on personality and physical development. Some problems concerning the resulting estimates of birth order are noted, including assumptions about constant mortality and the pooling of data.
Location: University of Rochester Library, Rochester, NY.

64:30254 Brockerhoff, Martin. Migration and the fertility transition in African cities. In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. 1998. 357-90 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"My first objective in this chapter is to propose a conceptual framework that illustrates how resettlement from less to more urbanized settings in developing countries influences each of the proximate determinants of pregnancy, and hence a woman's likelihood of conception. Second, I apply this model to nationally representative survey data from 14 countries representing five sub-Saharan African regions: Coastal West Africa, the Sahel, and Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa. Subsequent analysis based on these data will then (1) quantify the positive or negative impacts of recent female rural-urban migration on urban and national fertility levels in each country in the late 1980s and early 1990s; (2) identify the proximate determinants most influenced by residential change, and hence perhaps most responsible for migration's effects on fertility; and (3) assess whether the magnitude of these effects on fertility and on each of its proximate determinants differs from one region to another."
Correspondence: M. Brockerhoff, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30255 Callens, Marc. Labor force participation and having a third child in Flanders. NEGO V results. [Arbeidsmarktparticipatie en het derde kind in Vlaanderen. NEGO V resultaten.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1997. 97-119 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper contains an analysis of individual histories of labour-force participation and third births in the 1991 Family and Fertility Survey in Belgium. It [only partially] confirms the findings of...earlier `third birth' studies [conducted in Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom]. The positive relationship between educational attainment and third births reappears in Belgium as well, but in contrast to the earlier studies, we find considerable influence of the individual employment history on childbearing patterns."
Correspondence: M. Callens, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudië, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30256 Cho, Hyoung. Fertility control, reproductive rights, and women's empowerment in Korea. Asian Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1997. 103-32 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Eng.
"This paper considers some questions about the definition of reproductive rights from a feminist perspective. It further analyzes Korean data on fertility behavior to understand the manner in which women's rights are limited and [what] leads to their disempowerment. The Korean data suggest that...improved socioeconomic conditions, reproductive technology and administrative and clinical services are linked to the government's family planning policy and have greatly contributed to the changes in fertility rates and individuals' adoption of fertility control. However, the concept of reproductive rights is quite vague and reproduction is still taken to be a woman's responsibility rather than her right."
Correspondence: H. Cho, Ewha Woman's University, Department of Sociology, 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Sudaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea. E-mail: hcho@ewha.mm.ac.kr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30257 Curnow, Jill. Declining fertility--welcome wherever it occurs. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1998. 71-4 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
The author comments on an earlier article by Peter McDonald, in which he analyzed Australian fertility patterns using 1996 census data. "Fertility rates in developed countries are declining and many are fearful of a future in which populations will be older and less numerous. These fears are unfounded since future generations may have a better quality of life in older, smaller nations."
For the article by McDonald, also published in 1998, see 64:20275.
Correspondence: J. Curnow, Australians for an Ecologically Sustainable Population, P.O. Box 297, Civic Square, ACT 2608, Australia. E-mail: aespnat@canberra.teknet.net.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30258 Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero; Gavini, Stefano; Spinelli, Angela. The effect of changing sexual, marital and contraceptive behavior on conceptions, abortions, and births. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1998. 61-88 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A model is proposed to estimate the number of conceptions during a single year using few survey data, official data on births and abortions for the two years following the survey, and some parameters on contraception failure. The model is fitted for 1979, 1989, 1994 to Puglia [Italy].... The decrease in births is caused mainly by the decline in wanted births, whereas the decline in abortions is caused by diffusion of the pill, IUD, and condom. The rapid increase in the proportion of never-married women explains the slow decrease in unwanted births and conceptions, compared to the fast decline in wanted ones. This situation is different compared to other Western countries (e.g. France and UK) where the decline in TFR during the 1960s and 1970s was largely caused by the decline in unwanted fertility...."
Correspondence: G. Dalla Zuanna, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. E-mail: gianpi@dsd.sta.uniroma1.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30259 Das Gupta, Monica. Liberté, egalité, fraternité: exploring the role of governance in fertility decline. Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies Working Paper Series, No. 97.06, Dec 1997. 25, [4] pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A secular decline in fertility has taken place across the globe within a short span of human history. The timing and pace of this decline corresponds broadly with changes in socio-political institutions in different regions of the world.... We hypothesize that this shift in childbearing behaviour is related to cognitive changes wrought by the replacement of deeply hierarchical socio-political institutions by the more egalitarian institutions of modern governance." The geographical focus is on India.
Correspondence: Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. E-mail: cpds@hsph.harvard.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30260 Elhassan, Mohamed. Relations among Islam, family, matrimony, and fertility. [Vztah islámu k rodine, k manzelství a k plodnosti.] Demografie, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1998. 120-5 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article the author tries to determine to [what] extent the fertility of Moslems has been influenced by their religion and [what] is the position of Islam among other socio-economic and cultural factors...." Aspects considered include status as determined by number and sex of children, old-age family care, marital status, and marriage age.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30261 Ellison, Peter T. Ecological factors affecting human reproduction. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,519-32 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"New techniques for non-invasive sampling of human populations have broadened the scope of studies of human reproductive physiology to include the study of environmentally induced variation. These techniques promise to bring new insights into the natural regulation of human fecundity. They may also provide means for studying the effects of environmental degradation on human reproductive capacity, and for unravelling relationships between environment and lifestyle and reproductive pathologies."
Correspondence: P. T. Ellison, Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30262 Frankenberg, Elizabeth. The relationship between infant and child mortality and subsequent fertility in Indonesia: 1971-1991. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 316-38 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews the relationship between infant and child mortality and fertility in Indonesia.... A number of tentative findings emerge from this exercise. First, completed family sizes, in terms of number of children ever born have declined over time regardless of child survival experiences.... Second, the difference in fertility patterns by survival status of offspring appears to have widened over time.... Third, changes over time in parity progression ratios by the survival status of preceding offspring suggest that over time there has been a decline in the parity at which survival status of preceding children affects the decision to go on to the next parity."
Correspondence: E. Frankenberg, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30263 Galloway, Patrick R.; Lee, Ronald D.; Hammel, Eugene A. Infant mortality and the fertility transition: macro evidence from Europe and new findings from Prussia. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 182-226 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We estimate both the impact of infant mortality on fertility and the impact of fertility on infant mortality, using aggregate data from Prussia from 1875 to 1910 and fixed effects models with instrumental variables. This is followed by an extensive review of previous research on fertility and infant mortality within the historical European context. By comparing our findings for Prussia with earlier research looking at both level and change effects, we find considerable evidence for a positive association between the fertility level and the infant mortality level, as well as a positive association between fertility change and infant mortality change."
Correspondence: P. R. Galloway, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30264 Golini, Antonio. How low can fertility be? An empirical exploration. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1998. 59-73, 197, 199-200 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The author seeks to evaluate a possible minimum of both cohort and period fertility in a present-day population of large size. He argues that a fertility floor other than zero may be posited for several reasons. Based on European experiences he considered a situation in which 20 to 30 percent of women in a cohort remain childless and the remaining 70 to 80 percent have only one child. According to this empirically based hypothesis, a total fertility rate between 0.7 and 0.8 can be taken as the lower bound for cohort fertility. If the mean age at birth increases over time, the period total fertility rate could become temporarily about 9 percent less than the constant total fertility of cohorts that contribute to it."
Correspondence: A. Golini, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30265 Haines, Michael R. The relationship between infant and child mortality and fertility: some historical and contemporary evidence for the United States. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 227-53 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines the interaction between fertility and infant/child mortality in the United States over time. "Although the time series patterns did not tend to indicate that fertility and mortality were related in the nineteenth century, there is evidence that birth rates responded to changes in death rates by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Furthermore, the relationship strengthened over the early part of the twentieth century as the decline in infant mortality proceeded rapidly.... Some new estimates of both direct replacement and hoarding from the 1900 and 1910 public use micro samples of the United States census...indicate that the link from infant and child mortality to fertility was present, but was relatively modest and in line with what has been observed in a number of developing countries in recent decades."
Correspondence: M. R. Haines, Colgate University, Department of Economics, Hamilton, NY 13346. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30266 Holman, Darryl J.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Wood, James W. Age and female reproductive function: identifying the most important biological determinants. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 97-04, Jul 1997. [37] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this paper, we attempt to identify the basic biological mechanisms that account for most of the age-related variation in female reproductive capacity. Three factors appear to be of greatest importance: (1) age-related change in the GnRH pulse generator, a set of neurons, located in the hypothalamus of the brain, that regulates menstrual cycles, (2) follicular depletion, or the progressive exhaustion of the stock of primordial egg cells within the ovary, and (3) the accumulation of meiotic non-disjunction events in egg cells, which causes the risk of pregnancy loss to increase with maternal age. These three phenomena account for a surprisingly wide variety of age-dependent changes in female fecundity." The full text of this paper is available online in PostScript format at http://www.pop.psu.edu/info-core/library/wp_lists/psu.html.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411.

64:30267 Hoque, Md. Nazrul; Murdock, Steve H. Socioeconomic development, status of women, family planning, and fertility in Bangladesh: a district level analysis. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1997. 179-97 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine the effects of socioeconomic development, the status of women, and family planning on fertility and the extent to which these effects vary among the nineteen districts of Bangladesh. The 1983 and 1991 Bangladesh Contraceptive Prevalence Survey data are used to examine the effects of these factors on differences in contraceptive use among currently married women aged 15-49.... The analysis demonstrates clearly that socioeconomic development and women's status significantly impact the use of contraceptive methods in Bangladesh. The results also suggest that better-educated, employed women are more likely to use contraception than those who have little or no formal education and who are not employed."
Correspondence: Md. N. Hoque, Texas A&M University, Department of Rural Sociology, College Station, TX 77843-2125. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30268 Jayachandran, V.; Roy, T. K.; Pandey, Arvind. Estimates of fertility and mortality for major states of India: an assessment of NFHS data. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,259-76 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"The paper presents an alternative set of estimates of fertility and [infant and child] mortality for major states of India based on NFHS. The fertility estimates are based on household birth record.... The estimates suggest the possibility of underreporting of female children who died during infancy in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Punjab."
Correspondence: V. Jayachandran, Department of Population Policies and Programmes, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30269 Kallan, Jeffrey E. Reexamination of interpregnancy intervals and subsequent birth outcomes: evidence from U.S. linked birth/infant death records. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1997. 205-12 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study examines the net effects of the interpregnancy interval (time period from one birth to the next pregnancy) on the risks of preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, and infant mortality, for blacks and white separately, using data from 1991 U.S. Linked Birth-Infant Death Files. Results show that short (less than 7 months) and long (61+months) intervals between pregnancies raise the risk of preterm birth and intrauterine growth retardation for both race groups, though the increase in risk is generally less than 30 per cent. Short intervals also raise (slightly) the risk of infant mortality after controlling for birthweight and gestational age."
Correspondence: J. E. Kallan, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. E-mail: jeffrey.e.kallan@ccmail.census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30270 Katus, Kalev. Long-term fertility development in Baltoscandia. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 18-34 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The article is a short overview of some principal fertility trends in Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Sweden. Those countries, from the historical perspective, have been characterized by [a] relatively early start of [the] demographic transition...[and] have demonstrated rather similar developments and formed one of the most homogenous subregions in Europe in this respect. However, post-transitional fertility development has been rather desynchronized between the named countries...."
Correspondence: K. Katus, Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30271 Klerman, Lorraine V.; Cliver, Suzanne P.; Goldenberg, Robert L. The impact of short interpregnancy intervals on pregnancy outcomes in a low-income population. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 8, Aug 1998. 1,182-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to determine whether the length of the interval between pregnancies was associated with either preterm birth or intrauterine growth retardation in a low-income, largely Black population.... The study population consisted of 4,400 women who had received prenatal care in county clinics and had two consecutive singleton births between 1980 and 1990.... The percentage of preterm births increased as the length of interpregnancy interval decreased.... There was no significant relationship between intrauterine growth retardation and interpregnancy interval."
Correspondence: L. V. Klerman, University of Alabama, School of Public Health, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Ryals Building, Suite 320, Birmingham, AL 35294-0022. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30272 Kojima, Katsuhisa; Yamamoto, Chizuko. Fertility in Japan: 1995. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1997. 36-44 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Fertility trends in Japan in 1995 are analyzed using official data. Data are included on births by nationality, total and marital fertility rates from 1970 to 1995, the components of births and the birth rate from 1920 to 1995, and births and birth rates by age and sex for 1994 and 1995.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30273 Kuate Defo, Barthélémy. Fertility response to infant and child mortality in Africa with special reference to Cameroon. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 254-315 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study has two objectives: first, to provide an overview of the effects of infant and child mortality on fertility in African countries; and second, to assess the extent to which couples' reproductive behavior changes in response to child mortality using micro-data from Cameroon.... I formulate and estimate a system of hazard models as a reduced-form approach to dynamic models of fertility response to child loss. In both data sets used and for all estimated transitions, child deaths reduce the length of birth intervals and increase the probability of conceiving a subsequent child."
Correspondence: B. Kuate Defo, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30274 Lee, Maw L.; Loschky, David. Interdependency between fertility and real wages in England, 1541-1871. Journal of European Economic History, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1998. 107-31 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
The authors propose "a structural model which explores dynamic interdependence between vital rates and real income [in England from 1541 to 1871]. One distinctive feature of this structure is its incorporation of immediate links between vital rates and real income as well as intergenerational links between these same factors. The structure is then estimated using Wrigley and Schofield's English demographic data and Phelps Brown and Hopkins real wage data. These relations are explicitly based upon prior information which includes Malthus's writings, historical studies, and other obvious biological and cultural constraints."
Correspondence: M. L. Lee, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30275 Liang, Qiaozhuan; Zhu, Chuzhu. Women's status and fertility: study from individual and community aspects. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,305-23 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"Through a close multi-level observation [of the] relationship between women's status and fertility from individual and community aspects, the paper shows that different dimensions of women's status are determined by different socio-economic, socio-cultural and demographic factors in China's poor regions.... Community factors have roles in affecting women's status and indirectly affecting fertility. The study shows the effects of women's status on fertility and its policy implications."
Correspondence: Q. Liang, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Institute for Population and Economy Studies, 26 Xianning Road, Xian 710049, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30276 Lusyne, Patrick. The effect of the timing of the first birth on completed fertility. Does postponement have an effect on fertility? [Het effect van de timing van het eerste kind op de gerealiseerde vruchtbaarheid. Leidt uitstel tot afstel?] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1997. 121-51 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The effect of the timing of the first birth is known to bear a negative relationship to completed fertility. In this article this relationship is reanalysed [using] data from the fifth `National Fertility and Family Survey' in Flanders.... Two questions are being answered: (a) Is there a negative relationship from the first birth interval to completed fertility and (b) Does this relationship remain after controlling for several other factors?"
Correspondence: P. Lusyne, Rijksuniversiteit te Gent, Vakgroep Bevolkingswetenschappen en Sociaal-Weten-Schappelijke Methodologie, St.-Pietersnieuwstraat 49, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30277 Matulník, Jozef; Pastor, Karol. The birth rate decline in Slovakia as a deviance and research problem. [Pokles pôrodnosti na Slovensku ako deviácia a ako výskumný problém.] Sociológia/Sociology, Vol. 29, No. 5, 1997. 549-62 pp. Bratislava, Slovakia. In Slo. with sum. in Eng.
"The study provides a theoretical analysis of the problem of present birth rate decline in Slovakia.... The empirical data on recent demographic development in Slovakia are presented in the first part of the study. The second part of the study offers a brief overview of the theories of birth rate determinants. The factors of [the] second demographic revolution, its main dimensions (ideational, technological and practical) and its mechanisms are discussed in the third part.... The relationship between the second demographic revolution and the institutions of modern market and democratic societies is characterised in the fourth part of the study."
Correspondence: J. Matulník, Trnavská Univerzita, Fakulta Humanistiky, Katedra Sociólogie, Hornopotocná 23, Trnava 918 43, Slovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30278 Molnár, Attila. Births and fetal deaths in Hungary from 1980 through 1996. [Születések és magzati veszteségek Magyarországon 1980 és 1996 között.] Demográfia, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1998. 82-105 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Trends in fertility and stillbirths in Hungary are analyzed over the period 1980-1996. Data are also included on trends in births outside marriage, induced abortion, and age-specific fertility for the same period.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30279 Narayana, D. Asian fertility transition: is gender equity in formal occupations an explanatory factor? Centre for Development Studies Working Paper, No. 268, Oct 1996. 23 pp. Centre for Development Studies: Thiruvananthapuram, India. In Eng.
The author explores the relationship between female participation in such professions as teaching and health care and the decline of fertility in developing countries. The author identifies three countries, Thailand, Bangladesh, and India, in which significant levels of fertility reduction have been achieved in spite of relatively low levels of urbanization, industrialization, and secondary school enrollment of girls. However, all three countries have the common feature of high levels of female participation in the teaching profession. The author concludes that increasing female participation in the medical and teaching professions contributes to gender equity, provides role models for rural women, and plays a significant role in creating a favorable climate for the rapid spread and acceptance of family planning in the general population.
Correspondence: Centre for Development Studies, Prasanthnagar Road, Ulloor, Thiruvananthapuram 695 011, Kerala, India. E-mail: sscds@ren.nic.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30280 O'Gara, Chloe; Robey, Bryant. Fertility trends and factors affecting fertility. In: Women in the third world: an encyclopedia of contemporary issues, edited by Nelly P. Stromquist. 1998. 176-84 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"Since the mid-1960s, birthrates have shown a steady decline in most of Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near East, and North Africa. Fertility has declined not only in the cities and among more educated women, but also in rural areas and among the less educated. Behind these trends are important changes in Third World families and communities: rapid diffusion of new ideas and values, increasing education of girls, changing roles of women, and growing availability of family planning information and services. This essay examines recent fertility trends in Third World countries and discusses some of the origins and implications of those trends."
Correspondence: B. Robey, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30281 Oosthuizen, Kobus. Similarities and differences between the fertility decline in Europe and the emerging fertility decline in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,063-90 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to describe some similarities and differences between the emerging fertility decline in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Kenya, Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa, and the remarkable fertility decline in Europe. An important question that we will try to answer is whether the processes involved in the sub-Saharan African fertility declines are similar to the ones that caused the European fertility decline."
Correspondence: K. Oosthuizen, University of Pretoria, Centre for Population Studies, Pretoria, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30282 Rendall, Michael S.; Bahchieva, Raisa A. An old-age security motive for fertility in the United States? Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 293-307, 422, 425 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors investigate the old-age security motive for fertility, with a focus on its relevance for developed countries. "We first present estimates of the large poverty-alleviating contributions of financial and functional assistance of coresident family to the elderly in the United States. We then discuss what these results imply for the operation of an old-age security motive, and what this could imply both for the explanation of differential fertility within developed countries and for the design of public assistance programs for the elderly."
Correspondence: M. S. Rendall, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30283 Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Child mortality and the fertility transition: aggregated and multilevel evidence from Costa Rica. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 384-410 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines "the role of child mortality on the fertility transition [in Costa Rica] at the macro- and the micro-level. The analysis at each level looks first at bivariate associations and then moves into multivariate associations with the purpose of isolating net effects.... The analysis tests the hypothesis that contextual child mortality patterns influence the adoption of fertility control. This analysis focuses on the individual-level equivalent of fertility transition--the timing in the adoption of birth control--rather than on reproductive behavior in general, and it is restricted to the cohorts that lived through the fertility transition (i.e., women aged 15-34 in 1960)."
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa Centroamericano de Población/INISA, Apartado 833-2050, San José, Costa Rica. E-mail: lrosero@cariari.ucr.ac.cr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30284 Rosero-Bixby, Luis. The causal role of reduced child mortality on contemporary fertility transitions. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,091-106 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author investigates the impact of child mortality on fertility, with a focus on trends in Costa Rica. He considers the following questions: "To what extent does reduced child mortality explain the fertility transition in developing countries? Is decreasing child mortality a prerequisite--a necessary condition--for decreasing fertility? May decreasing child mortality trigger by itself--as a sufficient cause--the fertility transition?"
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa Centroamericano de Población e INISA, San José, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30285 Sánchez, Jesús J. Relationships between nuptiality and fertility: a case study on the Spanish province of Navarre, 1786-1991. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 1, Mar 1998. 105-15 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this article we analyse the influence of age at marriage and percentage of definitive celibacy on marital and total fertility over the past two hundred years in the Spanish province of Navarre. A considerable percentage of the fall in marital fertility in the first half of the twentieth century in rural Navarre was due to the postponement in women's age at marriage. On the other hand, Navarre offers many exceptions to the scenario often endorsed by researchers that sees marriage as the prime mechanism for regulating reproduction in traditional societies. While in the northern part of the province this mechanism did bring about the reduction of total fertility, in the southern part the fall was primarily a consequence of a fall in marital fertility."
Correspondence: J. J. Sánchez, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. E-mail: jjsanche@pse.lsa.umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30286 Sandron, Frédéric. The fertility decline in Tunisia. [La baisse de la fécondité en Tunisie.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 49, ISBN 2-87762-113-8. Jul 1998. 56 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis of the factors affecting the decline in fertility that has occurred in Tunisia since the 1960s. The author notes that, unlike the situation in other Muslim Arab countries, Tunisia carried out an effective national family planning policy and program, and that, in consequence, the country is well advanced along the path of a demographic transition. "This study is a period description of the transition of the Tunisian fertility, in light of numerous statistical documents and investigations, which is then analyzed using the institutional approach. This allows for a better understanding of the links between fertility decline and the changing familial and social environment since 1960."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Author's E-mail: frederic.sandron@orstom.intl.tn. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30287 Schwarz, Karl. One hundred years of fertility developments. [100 Jahre Geburtenentwicklung.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1997. 481-91 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The report summarises the results of many previous studies on the development of fertility in Germany in the past 100 years. This development is characterised by a rapid reduction in the average number of births by more than one half in the time up to the First World War, a relatively stable rate of not quite two children per woman up to approximately 1970, and a renewed decline to less than 1.5 children after this time. The relatively high fluctuations of the fertility rate by years, which repeatedly lead to misinterpretation of the development of reproductive behaviour, [are] explained here."
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstraße 14, 65187 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30288 Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P. M.; Zwertbroek, Werner M.; Huisjes, Anjoke J. M.; Kanhai, Humphrey H.; Bruinse, Hein W.; Merkus, Hans M. W. M. Multiple birth prevalence in the Netherlands: impact of maternal age and assisted reproductive techniques. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 3, Mar 1998. 173-9 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
The authors "evaluate the impact of maternal age and use of fertility drugs on multiple birth prevalence from 1970 to 1995 in the Netherlands...[using data from] the Centraal Bureau voor Statistiek, the Institute of Medical Statistics and from all clinics for in vitro fertilization.... In the last two decades, the prevalence of multiple births, especially of twin and triplet births, has increased significantly. Three possible explanations for this phenomenon are: (1) introduction of assisted reproductive techniques in combination with fertility drugs; (2) increasing maternal age; and (3) decreasing fecundity with increasing maternal age, resulting in more fertility treatments."
Correspondence: H. M. W. M. Merkus, University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Gynecology, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30289 Townsend, Nicholas. Reproduction in anthropology and demography. In: Anthropological demography: toward a new synthesis, edited by David I. Kertzer and Tom Fricke. 1997. 96-114 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the features of social parenthood, and applies a social analysis to the concept of fertility. It contributes to the socialization of demography by making fertility itself a subject for theorizing rather than an unproblematic biological event. Anthropology not only contributes to the study of the determinants of fertility, it also contributes a revised vision of what fertility is."
Correspondence: N. Townsend, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:30290 Ventisette, Moreno. The generations of Italian women from 1863 to 1962 and their descendants. [Le generazioni femminili italiane del 1863-1962 e le loro discendenti.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 24-25, 1996. 167-81 pp. Florence, Italy. In Ita.
In the context of concern over Italy's low fertility rates, the author analyzes the rates at which Italian women have been generating female offspring from 1870 to 1990. He discusses the factors influencing these trends, such as mortality, life expectancy, and total fertility rates, and compares potential fertility at birth with actual fertility over a lifetime for various cohorts of women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30291 Wang, Haito; van Arsdol, Maurice D.; Heer, David M.; Wang, Yuhai. Socio-economic determinants of fertility in rural China. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,387-403 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"Noting that regional socio-economic differences in China not only influence fertility itself, but may also condition the effect of micro-socio-economic factors on fertility, we describe two models of socio-economic determinants of fertility for contemporary rural China. We ask three questions. First, what are the major socio-economic determinants of fertility in rural China? Second, do these determinants have different effects in rural regions at different levels of development? Third, what are the implications of these findings for fertility policy?"
Correspondence: H. Wang, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xian 710049, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30292 Wrigley, E. A. Explaining the rise in marital fertility in England in the "long" eighteenth century. Economic History Review, Vol. 51, No. 3, Aug 1998. 435-64 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article explores a possible explanation of...the rise in marital fertility which took place [in England] during the eighteenth century, for which no satisfactory explanation [has been] offered.... Most of the text of this article is given over to the proximate reasons for the fertility rise, but in the concluding section the possible links between economic circumstances and population growth are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

64:30293 Bettio, Francesca; Villa, Paola. A Mediterranean perspective on the breakdown of the relationship between participation and fertility. Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 22, No. 2, Mar 1998. 137-71 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we address two related questions: first, why does the inverse relationship between female participation and fertility appear to have broken down on a cross-country basis in the Western industrialised nations and, second, why has Mediterranean Europe contributed to this breakdown with its combination of record low fertility and low participation? We re-examine the cross-country fertility-participation nexus from a long-term perspective and verify that there are no longer reasons to expect a systematic inverse relationship to hold for developed countries. We argue further that differences in participation and fertility reflect differences in the `economics of the family' across countries. In Mediterranean countries, the combination of low fertility and low participation is favoured by a family-centred welfare system, a family-biased production system and a family-oriented value system. And, contrary to widespread expectations, a very cohesive family has encouraged very low fertility."
Correspondence: F. Bettio, Università di Siena, Dipartimento di Economia Politica, Piazza S. Francesco 7, 53100 Siena, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30294 Bongaarts, John; Cohen, Barney. Adolescent reproductive behavior in the developing world. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, Jun 1998. 99-253 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The articles in this special issue of Studies in Family Planning summarize available evidence concerning reproductive behavior among adolescents in the developing world, analyze its causes and consequences, and initiate a debate on how best to design policies and programs to address the urgent needs of adolescents. Before a discussion of the significance of the research in this volume, a brief overview of research findings on the timing and prevalence of key demographic events and experiences affecting adolescents is provided...."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30295 Gandotra, M. M.; Retherford, Robert D.; Pandey, Arvind; Luther, Norman Y.; Mishra, Vinod K. Fertility in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 9, May 1998. 70 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This Subject Report analyzes fertility differentials by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics for all India and for individual states, based on data from India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey. The findings indicate a wide diversity among Indian states in the total fertility rate, which ranges from about two children per woman in Goa and Kerala to about five children per woman in Uttar Pradesh. By socioeconomic characteristics, the total fertility rate tends to be higher among rural women than among urban women, higher among women with less education, higher among Muslim than among Hindu women, and higher among scheduled-caste (SC) women and scheduled-tribe (ST) women than among non-SC/ST women."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30296 Garssen, M. J.; Sprangers, A. H. Strong decrease in teenage fertility. [Sterke daling aantal tienermoeders.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 3, May 1998. 12-3 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In 1996 almost two thousand children were born in the Netherlands [to teenage mothers]. The share of these teenage births in total fertility is about one percent. The corresponding number was four to five times as high in the early 1970s. The decrease is due to a decline in marital fertility in this age group, largely related to the strong decrease in the number of `shotgun marriages' during the 1970s and 1980s."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30297 Gould, Jeffrey; Blackwell, Terri; Heilig, Chad; Axley, Mike. Utility of percentage of births to teenagers as a surrogate for the teen birth rate. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 6, Jun 1998. 908-12 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Rank correlation and sensitivity and specificity analyses were used in this study to evaluate to what extent the percentage of all births that are to teens can be used as a surrogate for the teen birth rate. The data used were from California, and the goal was to identify zip codes with particularly high teen birth rates by using the percentage of births to teens. The results showed that "the percentage of births to teens is a useful surrogate for teen birth rate in California, especially among younger teenagers."
Correspondence: J. Gould, University of California, School of Public Health, Maternal and Child Health Program, 309 Warren Hall #7360, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360. E-mail: jgould@uclink4.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30298 Heath, Kathleen M.; Hadley, Craig. Dichotomous male reproductive strategies in a polygynous human society: mating versus parental effort. Current Anthropology, Vol. 39, No. 3, Jun 1998. 369-74 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
A population of 90 Mormon males living in the Utah territory in the nineteenth century and practicing polygyny was studied to examine the question of mating strategies and to test the hypothesis that wealthier males can gain access to more females and therefore maximize their reproductive success through maximizing mating rather than parental involvement. Results show that wealthier males did have more wives and sire more children. Poorer males, on the other hand, seemed to maximize their reproductive success through parental involvement to ensure the survival of the children they sired. The authors suggest that "monogamy is the outcome of a male's inability to succeed at a pure mating strategy."
Correspondence: K. M. Heath, University of Utah, Department of Anthropology, Stewart Building 102, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. E-mail: kmheath@aol.com. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30299 Kiernan, Kathleen E. Becoming a young parent: a longitudinal study of associated factors. British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 48, No. 3, Sep 1997. 406-28 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Teenage fertility rates in the UK are amongst the highest in Europe and have not altered significantly in the last 15 years, but the proportion of births outside marriage has risen rapidly. In this study we used longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study (NCDS) to investigate the social, economic and educational background of young parents. The analysis showed there to be striking variations in the probabilities of becoming young parents but not with respect to whether the child was born within or outside marriage." Other factors considered include young parents' family background, educational status, and fertility intentions.
Correspondence: K. E. Kiernan, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Social Policy, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30300 Lindberg, Laura D.; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Martinez, Gladys; Marcotte, John. Completeness of young fathers' reports of fertility. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1998. 15-23 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Repeated findings that men underreport their fertility in social surveys raise concerns about the usefulness of survey data collected from men. We calculate the birth rate reported by unmarried males ages 15-19 in the [U.S.] National Survey of Adolescent Males. We also calculate the rate of fatherhood among adolescent males from maternal reports in the [U.S.] National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Comparisons of birth rates to unmarried adolescent males, as measured by these maternal and paternal reports, show no statistically significant differences between the two sources of information. We conclude that it is possible to collect accurate fertility information from young men."
Correspondence: L. D. Lindberg, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. E-mail: lduberst@ui.urban.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

64:30301 Lynch, Michael W. Enforcing "statutory rape"? Public Interest, No. 132, Summer 1998. 3-16 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author argues that stronger enforcement of U.S. statutory-rape laws would contribute to decreasing the teen pregnancy rate, especially in cases involving the youngest mothers. He cites studies showing that a significant proportion of teen births involve adult fathers, and that the younger the girl is, the older her sexual partner is likely to be.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:30302 Makiwane, Monde B. Adolescent pregnancy and reproductive health in Transkei (rural South Africa). African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 1, Apr 1998. 41-8 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A study of adolescent unmarried pregnancy was conducted in 1994 in Transkei, Eastern Cape (South Africa). Data included a survey of 2,290 married and unmarried women, ages 15 to 49 years, and qualitative data collected from adolescents, parents and family planning officials. While only 11 percent of women were ever-married by age 19 years, 43 percent have had children. Marriage is late, with 64 percent of women 20-24 years never-married.... The recent South African political economy has contributed to the predominance of unmarried child-bearing in South Africa."
Correspondence: M. B. Makiwane, University of Transkei, Department of Sociology, Eastern Cape, South Africa. E-mail: makiwane.acd.UTT.UTR@getafix.utr.ac.za. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30303 Moore, Trent W. Fertility in China 1982-1990: gender equality as a complement to wealth flows theory. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, Apr 1998. 197-222 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Some scholars claim there is little variation in Chinese fertility because of `coercive' family planning policies. This research, however, demonstrates that other factors contribute to significant variation in fertility rates among China's 30 provinces/administrative divisions. Although family planning and socioeconomic development are found to explain significant amounts of variation in fertility for both the 1982 and 1990 census cross-sections, it was also found that gender equality in education had become significant by 1990. Path model results that lag the effects of 1982 socioeconomic development and gender equality in education also indicate that they both have sizable direct effects and moderate indirect effects through family planning behavior on 1990 fertility rates."
Correspondence: T. W. Moore, University of Texas, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Box 19599, Arlington, TX 76019. E-mail: trent.moore@mci2000.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30304 Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko. Ethnicity, education, and fertility in Kinshasa, Zaire. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 97-06, Feb 1997. [31] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper updates the evidence on fertility differentials by ethnic group in Kinshasa, using a 1990 survey of 2,400 reproductive-age women. The focus is on six ethnic groups that are well-represented in Kinshasa. The changes that have occurred between 1955 and 1990 in ethnic fertility differentials took place within a context of increasing educational attainment of women. We examine the impact of schooling on fertility differentials by ethnic group. We argue that, for the most part, educational attainment has replaced ethnicity as a key factor associated with fertility differences among women. In addition, we analyze differences by ethnic group in the proximate determinants of fertility and how these differences contribute to the observed differentials in childbearing."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. The full text of this paper is available online in PostScript format at http://www.pop.psu.edu/info-core/library/wp_lists/psu.html.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411.

64:30305 Singh, Susheela. Adolescent childbearing in developing countries: a global review. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, Jun 1998. 117-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article discusses the current levels and recent trends in the rate of adolescent childbearing, the timing of the first birth, and births to unmarried women for 43 developing countries. Differences in rates of adolescent childbearing by residence and level of education are also examined. The analysis is based on nationally representative fertility surveys. Substantial declines in adolescent fertility have occurred in North Africa and Asia, but levels are still high in some countries. Declines are beginning to occur in sub-Saharan Africa, but current levels are still high in most countries of this region, and the proportion of births to unmarried adolescents is increasing in some countries. In Latin America, where the level of teenage childbearing is moderate, declines are less prevalent and some small increases have occurred."
Correspondence: S. Singh, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30306 Singley, Susan G.; Landale, Nancy S. Incorporating origin and process in migration-fertility frameworks: the case of Puerto Rican women. Social Forces, Vol. 76, No. 4, Jun 1998. 1,437-64 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Using life history data from both origin and destination areas, we examine the relationship between migration and fertility among Puerto Rican women. Our analysis extends previous research by including origin data; by measuring precisely the timing of migration, fertility, and time-varying covariates; and by including single women in the analysis. Results reveal that single U.S.-born nonmigrants have significantly higher rates of transition to first birth than nonmigrants in Puerto Rico, while married and cohabiting U.S.-born nonmigrants have significantly lower rates. Selection effects for both single and married/cohabiting women indicate that migration to the U.S. is an integral part of the family formation process."
Correspondence: S. G. Singley, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: singley@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30307 Ventura, Stephanie J.; Curtin, Sally C.; Mathews, T. J. Teenage births in the United States: national and state trends, 1990-96. NCHS National Vital Statistics System, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 98-1019. 1998. 10 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This publication presents the latest statistics as well as trends on the important topic of teenage childbearing in the United States. Data are from the National Center for Health Statistics' (NCHS) National Vital Statistics System." Data are presented by mother's age and race.
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

64:30308 Philippov, O. S.; Radionchenko, A. A.; Bolotova, V. P.; Voronovskaya, N. I.; Potemkina, T. V. Estimation of the prevalence and causes of infertility in Western Siberia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Vol. 76, No. 2, 1998. 183-7 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The study examined the epidemiology and causes of infertility in Tomsk, Western Siberia, using methodological approaches recommended by WHO and was based on the findings for a randomly selected sample of 2,000 married women aged 18-45 years.... The infertility rate in Tomsk was 16.7%, being caused by diseases of the female reproduction system in 52.7% of the couples and by male reproductive diseases in 6.4%.... The most frequent causes of female infertility were disturbances to tubal patency (36.5%) and pelvic adhesions (23.6%).... The most frequent cause of male infertility was inflammatory disease of male accessory glands (12.9%)."
Correspondence: O. S. Philippov, Siberian Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk 50, 534050 Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

64:30309 Agadjanian, Victor. Economic security, informational resources, and women's reproductive choices in urban Mozambique. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1998. 60-79 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study focuses on socioeconomic and cultural determinants and correlates of the intention to stop childbearing and of contraceptive use among urban women in Mozambique. It uses data from a survey of 1,585 married women conducted in Greater Maputo in 1993, and it employs logistic regression for multivariate analysis. The results of the analysis indicate that although the stopping intention and contraceptive use are interrelated and similarly affected by such factors as education or the area of residence, the intention to stop childbearing is mainly driven by women's perception of their material conditions and socioeconomic security, while contraceptive use is largely a product of social diffusion and the legitimization of innovative, Western-origin information and technologies."
Correspondence: V. Agadjanian, Arizona State University, Department of Sociology, Tempe, AZ 85287-2101. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30310 Beksinska, M. E.; Rees, V. H.; Nkonyane, T.; McIntyre, J. A. Compliance and use behaviour, an issue in injectable as well as oral contraceptive use? A study of injectable and oral contraceptive use in Johannesburg. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1, Apr 1998. 21-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the compliance, use behaviour and knowledge of method of women using injectable and oral contraceptives in two clinic sites in the Johannesburg area, South Africa.... Of the clients not wanting to get pregnant, 30.4 per cent of injectable users and 18.4 per cent of oral contraceptive (OC) users had stopped using their method temporarily before returning to the same method (called the nonuse segment) and had not used any other form of contraception during this time.... The majority of OC users lacked information on how to use their method correctly."
Correspondence: M. E. Beksinska, Baragwanath Hospital, Reproductive Health Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Bertsham 2013, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30311 Biddlecom, Ann E.; Fapohunda, Bolaji M. Covert contraceptive use: prevalence, motivations, and consequences. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 108, 1998. 37 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines women's covert use of contraceptives [in Zambia] that is, use without the knowledge of their husbands.... This study addresses three questions: (1) How is covert use measured in different settings? (2) How prevalent is it? and (3) What are the factors underlying covert use?"
This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Author's E-mail: abiddlecom@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30312 Bledsoe, Caroline; Banja, Fatoumatta; Hill, Allan G. Reproductive mishaps and Western contraception: an African challenge to fertility theory. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1998. 15-57, 197, 199 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines findings from rural Gambia that contradict Western views of the behavioral dynamics of high-fertility regimes. Findings on contraceptive use following miscarriages, stillbirths, and child deaths in rural Gambia contradict conventional child spacing explanations of contraceptive use in Africa. Examining these and other anomalies that challenge Western views of the dynamics of high-fertility regimes, this article demonstrates that rural Gambians do not perceive female reproductivity to be limited by chronological age or time. Instead, they view reproductive potential as a finite bodily capacity that can be exhausted well before menopause."
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30313 Brindis, Claire; Boggess, Jane; Katsuranis, Frances; Mantell, Maxine; McCarter, Virginia; Wolfe, Amy. A profile of the adolescent male family planning client. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1998. 63-6, 88 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using self-administered questionnaires, 1,540 sexually active males aged 19 and younger who attended family planning clinics in California provided information about their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, pregnancy and parenting history, and psychosocial characteristics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors that contributed to effective contraceptive use.... Although 73% of participants reported having used a birth control method at first intercourse, only 59% said that they or their partner had used an effective method at last intercourse, and 35% had used no method. If the client was uncomfortable with his method, the odds that he had used an effective method at last intercourse were reduced...."
Correspondence: C. Brindis, University of California, Institute for Health Policy Studies, Center for Reproductive Health Policy Research, San Francisco, CA 94143. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30314 Bullough, Vern L.; Bullough, Bonnie. Contraception: a guide to birth control methods. Condoms, spermicides, diaphragms, sterilization, natural family planning, the pill. 2nd ed. ISBN 1-57392-159-9. LC 97-23707. 1997. 216 pp. Prometheus Books: Amherst, New York. In Eng.
This is an introduction to contraception for the general reader. "Beginning with [an]...historical overview of birth control practices and essential aspects of human reproductive anatomy, this illustrated volume provides the most recent information on the pill, diaphragms, cervical caps, IUDs, male and female condoms, natural family planning, hormonal inserts, `morning after' techniques, and much more. Each method is evaluated in terms of its success rate, safety, advantages and disadvantages, medical and psychological consequences, and relevant legal concerns. A section on the future of birth control, which contains both a review of ongoing research and recommendations for what still needs to be done, is also included."
Correspondence: Prometheus Books, 59 John Glenn Drive, Amherst, NY 14228-2197. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30315 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo. Men matter: additive and interactive gendered preferences and reproductive behavior in Kenya. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 2, May 1998. 229-42 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I employ 1989 and 1993 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys to examine the relative roles of the reproductive preferences of males and females on contraceptive use. Additive and interactive measures of preferences document a significant effect of men's preferences, which may eclipse women's preferences. The implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Population Council, International Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: dodoof@Ctrvax. Vanderbilt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30316 Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne E. From awareness to adoption: the effect of AIDS education and condom social marketing on condom use in Tanzania (1993-1996). PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 17, 1998. 21, [8] pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses retrospective event-history data covering a four-year period to examine the timing of exposure to HIV/AIDS education and social marketing condom promotion campaigns, relative to the timing of changes in sexual risk behavior in Tanzania. Analysis of the event-history data shows that the process of exposure to AIDS education messages and exposure to brand advertising for Salama brand condoms was very different.... During the study period, condom use increased from 15% at the beginning of 1993 to 42% at the end of 1996. Increases in condom use were driven both by men who became sexually active, and by men who were not yet protected, or not fully protected. The results further show that it is uncommon for men who adopted condom use to return to more risky behavior, which suggests that behavior change is permanent."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30317 Forste, Renata; Morgan, Julie. How relationships of U.S. men affect contraceptive use and efforts to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1998. 56-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Attitudinal and background data on 1,595 men from the 1991 and 1993 waves of the National Survey of Men (NSM) were used, through logistic regression techniques, to predict the likelihood of current contraceptive use to prevent pregnancy and recent efforts to avoid STD infection among [U.S.] men in three types of sexual relationships--marriage, cohabitation and dating.... At the 1993 interview, 58% of men were using contraceptives to prevent pregnancy and 22% had recently taken actions to protect themselves from STDs. Men's concern about how easy a method was to use reduced the likelihood of STD protection, but had no influence on contraceptive use to prevent pregnancy; however, concerns about a method's risks to the female partner increased the likelihood of both outcomes."
Correspondence: R. Forste, Brigham Young University, Department of Sociology, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30318 Hardee, Karen; Janowitz, Barbara; Stanback, John; Villinski, Michele T. What have we learned from studying changes in service guidelines and practices? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 84-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
The authors discuss the debate over medical barriers that reduce clients' access to contraception, with a focus on the impact of changes in service guidelines and practices. "We address two issues facing service practices research: advances in defining what constitutes appropriate practices, and the dilemma of program managers who must design service guidelines and change service practices. To evaluate how research can aid program decision-makers, we examine the methodologies used in service practice research and recommend directions for future research on the subject."
Correspondence: K. Hardee, Futures Group International, POLICY Project, Durham, NC. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30319 Hartmann, Betsy. Population control I: birth of an ideology. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1997. 523-40 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
The historical antecedents of the current international population control movement are explored. Its origins are identified with the growth of the birth control movement that developed in Europe and the United States in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The important influence of radical feminism and eugenics on the development of the movement is noted. The author describes the major role that the U.S. government played following World War II in funding efforts to control global population growth, either directly or by funding both international and private agencies, as well as the role played by private foundations and organizations, primarily in the United States. The story is followed up to the Bucharest Conference of 1974, at which many third-world governments challenged this primary focus on population, and following which more emphasis was placed on tackling the population problem in the context of development issues as a whole.
For a related article by the same author, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: B. Hartmann, Hampshire College, Social Sciences Population and Development Program, Amherst, MA 01002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30320 Hartmann, Betsy. Population control II: the population establishment today. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1997. 541-57 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
This is the second of two papers describing the history of the international population control movement. This paper focuses on what the author identifies as the international population establishment. The major agencies involved in population activities are first described. Next, the author relates how the pressures to reduce rates of population growth are converted by these agencies into specific policies. The story is continued up to the Mexico Conference of 1984, for which she suggests that the population establishment had done its homework well to avoid confrontation between the rich and poor worlds, but at which major changes in U.S. policy were announced involving a rejection of the population control approach, which further complicated the issue.
Correspondence: B. Hartmann, Hampshire College, Social Sciences Population and Development Program, Amherst, MA 01002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30321 Hatcher, Robert A.; Trussell, James; Stewart, Felicia; Cates, Willard; Stewart, Gary K.; Guest, Felicia; Kowal, Deborah. Contraceptive technology. 17th rev. ed. ISBN 0-9664902-1-5. LC 78-641585. 1998. xiii, 851 pp. Ardent Media: New York, New York. In Eng.
This edition of a standard textbook on contraception and related topics has the following chapters: Expanding perspectives on reproductive health; Sexuality and reproductive health; Female genital cancer tract screening; The menstrual cycle; Menopause; Menstrual problems and common gynecologic concerns; HIV/AIDS and reproductive health; Reproductive tract infections; The essentials of contraception; Education and counseling; Selected reproductive health resources; Emergency contraception; Abstinence and the range of sexual expression; Coitus interruptus (withdrawal); Fertility awareness methods; Male condoms; Vaginal spermicides; Vaginal barriers; The pill: combined oral contraceptives; Depo-Provera, Norplant, and progestin-only pills (minipills); Intrauterine devices (IUDs); Female and male sterilization; Postpartum contraception and lactation; Future methods; Preconception care; Pregnancy testing and management of early pregnancy; Impaired fertility; Abortion; Adolescent sexual behavior, pregnancy, and childbearing; Dynamics of reproductive behavior and population change; and Contraceptive efficacy.
For the previous edition, published in 1994, see 60:20277.
Correspondence: Ardent Media, P.O. Box 286, Cooper Station, New York, NY 10276-0286. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30322 Hionidou, Violetta. The adoption of fertility control on Mykonos, 1879-1959: stopping, spacing or both? Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 1, Mar 1998. 67-83 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the timing and means of the fertility transition on the Greek island of Mykonos in the period 1879 to 1959. By combining the results of family reconstitution with oral evidence, an unusual insight into the pathways of the fertility transition of this island population is offered. The paper concludes by outlining a model of the adoption of fertility control, a model which sees the transition from high to low fertility as a transition from spacing to stopping, and from innovation of methods to innovation of ideas."
Correspondence: V. Hionidou, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30323 Izmirlian, Grant; Adewuyi, Alfred A.; Suchindran, C. M. Analysis of contraceptive discontinuation in six developing countries from durations of use at survey. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1997. 124-35 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"We conduct a cross-national study of contraceptive discontinuation among currently married nonsterilized contracepting women in Bolivia, Egypt, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Zimbabwe using the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Since the DHS contains no true completed epochs of contraceptive use, the distribution of use times at survey is used to approximate the distribution of the completed epochs using the renewal theorem.... Pill discontinuation probabilities range from 0.12 to 0.47 in the first year. IUD discontinuation probabilities range from 0.18 to 0.53 in the first year."
Correspondence: G. Izmirlian, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30324 Kannae, Lawrence; Pendleton, Brian F. Socioeconomic status and use of family planning among Ghanaian government workers. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1998. 113-33 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The low utilization of family planning methods in Ghana, and by inference in much of Africa, is explained by reference to traditional sociocultural values held by males. A LISREL model is tested using data collected from educated males working in the Ghanaian government. Among the findings are that lack of couple communication, segregated conjugal role relationships, and male-dominated decision-making are all significant predictors of non-use of family planning methods (pronatalist attitude is not). Possession of knowledge of family planning among Ghanaian males alone is unlikely to initiate use of family planning methods. Additional sociodemographic and modernization findings are reported."
Correspondence: L. Kannae, University of Akron, Department of Sociology, Akron, OH 44325-1905. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30325 Marriott, Alan; Sanchez, John. The integration of family planning and development activities in India. Geography, Vol. 83, No. 3, Jul 1998. 237-45 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
"Population issues have been an important, and often controversial, aspect of the development policies of the Government of India (GOI) since independence. Current strategies include integrating health and development progammes with family planning programmes and expanding the role of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) like the Family Planning Association of India (FPAI). The two FPAI organisations in Shimoga District, Karnataka (the Shimoga Branch and the Santhebennur Project), promote health, development and environmental awareness as well as family planning. The NGO structure facilitates innovation in the introduction of new programmes and in the way in which public attitudes are shaped."
Correspondence: A. Marriott, University of Lincolnshire and Humberside, Department of Environmental Studies, 61 Bargate, Grimsby DN34 5AA, England. E-mail: amarriott@humber.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30326 Muganzi, Zibeon S. The factors that influence use and non-use of condoms by men. A case study of western province, Kenya. African Anthropology/Anthropologie Africaine, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, 1994. 59-68 pp. Yaoundé, Cameroon. In Eng.
"The main objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To determine the factors that influence the use and non-use of condoms by men [in western Kenya]. (2) To examine the factors that influence men to allow their wives [to] accept and use contraception. (3) [To] make suggestions how these factors could be improved to promote a family-planning programme within the national population policy of reducing rapid population growth through reduced fertility."
Correspondence: Z. S. Muganzi, University of Nairobi, Population Institute, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

64:30327 Özvaris, Sevkat B.; Dogan, Bahar G.; Akin, Ayse. Male involvement in family planning in Turkey. World Health Forum, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1998. 76-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Many men in Turkey are motivated to use contraception and to share responsibility for family planning with their wives. About half the couples practicing family planning use male-dependent methods. Men commonly use traditional methods, predominantly withdrawal, and should be treated as a specific target group in family planning programmes in order to motivate them to use modern methods."
Correspondence: S. B. Özvaris, Hacettepe University, Department of Public Health, 06100 Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30328 Pathak, K. B.; Feeney, Griffith; Luther, Norman Y. Accelerating India's fertility decline: the role of temporary contraceptive methods. National Family Health Survey Bulletin, No. 9, Feb 1998. 4 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The authors discuss the use of temporary contraceptive methods in India's fertility decline. The dominant role of sterilization in the country's family welfare program is noted.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30329 Razzaque, Abdur; Islam, M. Mazharul; Alam, Nurul. Contraception among limiters and spacers in Matlab, Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1998. 65-78 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is an analysis of contraception in Matlab, Bangladesh. The authors compare contraceptive practices between those attempting to space births and those trying to limit fertility. "This study lends support to the recommendation of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development: needs-based rather than target-based family planning services should be provided to clients. This means that couples should be provided with reproductive health services in order to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children. The study also suggests that, until reasons for non-use and discontinuation--particularly among the limiters--are adequately addressed, a dramatic decline in fertility cannot be fully achieved."
Correspondence: A. Razzaque, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Population Studies Centre, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30330 Ross, John A.; Pham, San Bich. Unmet need for contraception in Vietnam: who needs what and when. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1997. 111-23 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Unmet need for contraception has been extensively documented for much of the developing world, but its structure is not yet well understood. This study differentiates unmet-need couples [in Viet Nam] by several demographic characteristics, by time since the last birth, and by features identified through a computer search program.... Most unmet-need couples are younger than users, have fewer children and, especially, are closer to their last birth. Surprisingly, most have never used a contraceptive method before, even though Vietnam has had a vigorous family planning program and 49 per cent of all couples in the survey reported some experience with a modern contraceptive method."
Correspondence: J. A. Ross, Futures Group International, 80 Glastonbury Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30331 Sonenstein, Freya L.; Ku, Leighton; Lindberg, Laura D.; Turner, Charles F.; Pleck, Joseph H. Changes in sexual behavior and condom use among teenaged males: 1988 to 1995. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 6, Jun 1998. 956-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines shifts in sexual experience and condom use among U.S. teenaged males [by comparing] results from the 1988 and 1995 National Surveys of Adolescent Males.... The proportion of never-married 15- to 19-year-old males who had had sex with a female declined from 60% to 55%.... The share of those sexually active using a condom at last intercourse rose from 57% to 67%.... Overall, the proportion of males who had sex without condoms last year declined from 37% to 27%...."
Correspondence: F. L. Sonenstein, Urban Institute, Population Studies Center, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. E-mail: fsonenst@ui.urban.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30332 Steiner, Markus J.; Attafuah, John D.; Stanback, John; Nutley, Tara. Where have all the vaginal foaming tablets gone? Program statistics and user dynamics in Ghana. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 91-2 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss the "tablet gap" in Ghana, in which program statistics suggest a much higher level of use of vaginal foaming tablet contraceptives than do national survey data. "We agree that some attempts should be made to improve data collection. We also believe, though, that researchers are apt to expend considerable time and resources by conducting large-scale surveys to evaluate the various possible explanations for such divergences between program statistics and survey data, without drawing any clear programmatic implications."
Correspondence: M. J. Steiner, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30333 Thapa, Shyam; Friedman, Matthew. Female sterilization in Nepal: a comparison of two types of service delivery. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 78-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"From a nationally representative sample of 8,429 ever-married women aged 15-49 who participated in the 1996 Nepal Family Health Survey, samples of 445 women who had been contraceptively sterilized in hospitals and 372 in camps were compared for their social and demographic characteristics, awareness of alternative contraceptive methods, first contraceptive method used and regret over having undergone the procedure.... Women who were sterilized in camp settings and those sterilized in hospitals differed in their place and region of residence, although both groups were similar in age and parity at the time of sterilization.... Camps do not imply less careful screening of sterilization clients or the provision of inferior quality services...."
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30334 Thomas, B. Helen; DiCenso, Alba; Griffith, Lauren. Adolescent sexual behaviour: results from an Ontario sample. Part II: adolescent use of protection. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique, Vol. 89, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1998. 94-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper reports the frequency of use of protection and rates of birth control pill/condom use by age and gender among a large, sexually active group of Ontario [Canada] adolescents who were followed from 12 to 17 years of age.... Significantly more females aged 15-17 years reported always using a method of protection, and using the birth control pill. Condom use was more frequent among males at all ages, but reached statistical significance at ages 12, 13 and 17 years. Although the numbers reporting no use of protection decreased with age, by 17 years 36% of males and 33% of females continued to report no use of protection."
Correspondence: B. H. Thomas, McMaster University, School of Nursing, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada. E-mail: thomash@fhs.csu.mcmaster.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30335 Toulemon, Laurent; Leridon, Henri. Contraceptive practices and trends in France. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 114-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we describe current contraceptive practices in France, using results of a 1994 demographic survey, and focus on the impact, if any, of changes in family formation and dissolution.... We also analyze the main trends in contraceptive use during the last three decades, using results of comparable surveys conducted in 1978 and 1988.... In the second half of this article, we review contraceptive behavior that may have changed in response to the fear of AIDS, focusing on the contraceptive behavior of single men and women. We also analyze recent trends in condom use that may have been influenced by increasing fear of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as by contraceptive needs."
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30336 Vlassoff, Carol. Women and contraception. In: Women in the third world: an encyclopedia of contemporary issues, edited by Nelly P. Stromquist. 1998. 185-93 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This essay begins with a historical review of birth control practices and their relationship to gender roles and responsibilities. Modern contraceptive methods, which are becoming increasingly sophisticated and effective, are then discussed, as well as their implications for women's autonomy and control over their reproductive behavior. Against this background, population policies in developing countries are considered, and the challenges they have posed for women, the major clients of family planning programs. A central premise of this review is that women's perspectives have been neglected in the design of contraceptive technology and family planning programs, despite the fact that so many programs have exclusively targeted women. The result is that many such programs have had limited success. Improved quality of health care to women and female-controlled contraceptive methods will not only improve family planning outcomes but will also empower women to protect themselves from sexually transmitted diseases."
Correspondence: C. Vlassoff, World Health Organization, Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30337 Westoff, Charles F.; Sharmanov, Almaz T.; Sullivan, Jeremiah M. The replacement of abortion by contraception in three Central Asian republics. Apr 1998. [4] pp. Population Resource Center: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This is a documentation of the substitution of contraception for abortion in three newly independent states of the former Soviet Union--Kazakstan, Uzbekistan and the Kyrgyz Republic.... There is ample evidence that the reliance on abortion is diminishing in these countries as contraception is substituted. However, there is no doubt that further significant declines in these abortion rates can occur with an increase in contraceptive use especially by women currently classified as having an unmet need for family planning. It is also critical to understand that the failure rate of contraception has to be reduced by the use of more effective modern methods in order to achieve major reductions in abortion."
Correspondence: Population Resource Center, 15 Roszel Road, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30338 Yinger, Nancy V. Unmet need for family planning: reflecting women's perceptions. Apr 1998. 32 pp. International Center for Research on Women: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This paper presents the results of a three-year research program that used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to examine how the current definitions of the unmet need for contraception could be improved. It presents nine policy questions that arose during the course of the study, which was carried out in Guatemala, India, and Zambia. Comparisons are made with the definitions of "unmet need" used in the Demographic and Health Surveys. The policy questions concern topics such as informed choice, addressing fears and rumors, factoring in sexual behavior, going beyond access, the best possible service, measuring success, casting a wider net, beyond limiters and spacers, and a tailored definition. A concept of unmet need is developed based on people expressing preferences or needs for services they do not or cannot act on.
Correspondence: International Center for Research on Women, 1717 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 302, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: icrw@igc.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

64:30339 Clarke, Leslie L.; Schmitt, Karla; Bono, Christine A.; Steele, JoAnn; Miller, Michael K. Norplant selection and satisfaction among low-income women. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 8, Aug 1998. 1,175-81 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined correlates of Norplant selection and satisfaction among low-income women.... Interviews were completed in family planning clinics in 4 Florida counties with 1,152 Norplant users and 1,268 nonusers, with follow-up interviews with a subsample up to 1 year later. Logistic regression models estimated the associations of socio-demographic and medical characteristics with Norplant selection and method satisfaction.... [Results indicate that] odds ratios for Norplant selection were significantly greater among women who planned to have children in 5 or more years, those who were `offered' Norplant, those who lived in Palm Beach County, those who were using drugs, and those who were Medicaid clients.... Ninety-two percent of Norplant users were satisfied with the method; women with side effects and those who felt pressure to select a method were significantly less likely than others to be satisfied."
Correspondence: L. L. Clarke, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100177, Gainesville, FL 32610-0177. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30340 Harrison, Polly F.; Rosenfield, Allan. Contraceptive research, introduction, and use: lessons from Norplant. ISBN 0-309-05985-2. 1998. viii, 120 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report is the product of a workshop set up by the Committee on Contraceptive Research and Development of the National Research Council's Institute of Medicine. "Its objectives were to: (1) review newly available data on Norplant's efficacy, safety, and use; (2) extract lessons from presentations on diverse aspects of the method's development, introduction, use, and market experience; and, (3) explore approaches to developing and introducing new contraceptives based on learning from that experience."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, P.O. Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30341 McNeill, Erin T.; Gilmore, Caroline E.; Finger, William R.; Lewis, JoAnn H.; Schellstede, William P. The latex condom: recent advances, future directions. ISBN 0-939704-43-9. LC 97-78005. 1998. 80 pp. Family Health International: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The aim of this monograph is to draw together the wealth of information that now exists on multiple aspects of latex condom manufacturing, quality assurance, performance in human use, acceptability and user behaviors--and the interrelationships among these issues. The monograph focuses on the product, its attributes and how attributes affect human use.... We briefly review the major issues regarding behavior change and condom acceptability, focusing on the interaction between people and product. We explore the remaining gaps in knowledge about latex condoms, describe several non-latex alternatives for men and women that are in development or have recently become available, and propose research priorities for the future."
Correspondence: Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30342 Trussell, James; Rodríguez, Germán; Ellertson, Charlotte. New estimates of the effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception. Contraception, Vol. 57, No. 6, Jun 1998. 363-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to provide new estimates of the effectiveness of the Yuzpe method of emergency contraception and to offer correctly computed estimates of the confidence intervals for estimated effectiveness rates.... [Forty] estimates of effectiveness...ranged from a low of 44.2% to a high of 88.7%. The preferred point estimate is that emergency contraceptive pills reduce the risk of pregnancy by 75.4%, with a 95% confidence interval extending from 65.6% to 82.4%." Data are from studies conducted in the United States.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. E-mail: trussell@opr.princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30343 Wang, Duolao; Diamond, Ian; Curtis, Siân L. Contraceptive failure and its subsequent effects in China: a two-stage event history analysis. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1998. 45-64 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study examines the determinants of contraceptive failure [in China] and its consequences. It identifies various differences in the occurrence of contraceptive failure and the ways such pregnancies are resolved, i.e. whether the failure ends in abortion or a live birth. The article concludes by drawing out the implications of the research for policy and programme purposes."
Correspondence: D. Wang, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. E-mail: D.Wang@lse.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

64:30344 Adewuyi, Alfred A. Community based family planning services as an innovation in Africa: evidence from operations research. Environment and Social Policy Working Paper Series, No. 26, May 1998. ii, 35 pp. African Development Bank: Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Eng.
"The concern of this paper is to assess the performance of the community based family planning services as evidenced from operations research in Africa. We shall be concerned with its definition, its origin and its adoption in Africa, its performance in a number of African countries, problems facing CBD [community based distribution] in Africa, the evaluation design for CBD and its future prospects on family planning delivery in Africa."
Correspondence: African Development Bank, B.P. 1387, Abidjan 01, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30345 Buckner, Bates C.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hermalin, Albert I.; McKaig, Catherine. A guide to methods of family planning program evaluation, 1965-1990, with selective bibliography. Jan 1995. 143 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This volume grew out of a literature review and other work undertaken by the EVALUATION Project to establish a `baseline status measure' for family planning evaluation as practiced prior to the Project's implementation in October of 1991. Its purpose is to guide the reader through a voluminous literature and to provide a `state of the art' description of family planning program evaluation as practiced from 1965-1990. The Guide reviews and describes the data sources and evaluation methods in common use during this twenty-five year period."
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, Evaluation Project, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30346 Dao, Xingyi. Woman empowerment and community based development: demographic implications. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,293-303 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author investigates the impact on China's population dynamics of women's empowerment and community-based development. The experiences of the Network for Community Based Development and Family Planning are described, with a focus on activities in two counties in China.
Correspondence: X. Dao, Fudan University, Institute of Population Research, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30347 Dobie, Sharon A.; Gober, Lorna; Rosenblatt, Roger A. Family planning service provision in rural areas: a survey in Washington State. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 139-42, 147 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Women in rural areas are highly dependent on public clinics for family planning services.... All 31 family planning clinic sites in rural Washington State were surveyed about their sponsorship, staffing, service provision and population coverage.... Family planning clinics in rural Washington State offer an important but limited number of services. Many rural areas have no local family planning clinic. Given these clinics' reliance on federal and state funding, decreased public support might seriously impair family planning provision in rural areas."
Correspondence: S. A. Dobie, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30348 Fiedler, John L.; Day, Laurence M. A cost analysis of family planning in Bangladesh. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, Vol. 12, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1997. 251-77 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This article presents a step-down cost analysis using secondary data sources from 26 Bangladesh non-government organizations (NGOs) providing family planning services under a U.S. Agency for International Development-funded umbrella organization. The unit costs of the NGOs' Maternal-Child Health (MCH) clinics and community-based distribution (CBD) systems were calculated and found to be minimally different. Several simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of alternative cost-reduction measures."
Correspondence: J. L. Fiedler, Social Sectors Development Strategies, 229 North 10th Place, Sturgeon Bay, WI 54235. E-mail: jfiedler@mail.wiscnet.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30349 Lee, Kelley; Lush, Louisiana; Walt, Gill; Cleland, John. Family planning policies and programmes in eight low-income countries: a comparative policy analysis. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 7, Oct 1998. 949-59 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"The extent to which family planning programmes are successful at reducing fertility remains a major debate among population scholars. A comparative policy analysis of four pairs of low-income countries (Bangladesh/Pakistan, Thailand/Philippines, Tunisia/Algeria and Zimbabwe/Zambia) was carried out to understand why some countries develop appropriate and effective programmes, while other countries do not. The study found that the formation of coalitions among policy elites, spread of policy risk, and institutional and financial stability were factors which supported or inhibited the adoption of strong population policies and family planning programmes."
Correspondence: K. Lee, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Health Policy Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30350 Olowu, Folarin. Quality and costs of family planning as elicited by an adolescent mystery client trial in Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 1, Apr 1998. 49-60 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Results are presented from a rural reproductive health project in Delta State of Nigeria.... Four adolescents, two males and two females posing as two couples, were used as mystery clients to assess providers' response to adolescents, as well as the adolescent perspectives on the quality and costs of the family planning services in the clinics they visited.... The adolescent mystery clients reported that some providers were surprised to see them, were judgemental, and engaged them in religious counselling. The adolescents found the services unsatisfactory, but the costs were affordable."
Correspondence: F. Olowu, Ministry of Health, Department of Primary Health Care, Women in Health Unit, Plateau State Jos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30351 Pathak, K. B.; Feeney, Griffith; Luther, Norman Y. Alternative contraceptive methods and fertility decline in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 7, Mar 1998. 28 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This report uses NFHS data to analyze the relative effects of sterilization and temporary methods on Indian fertility. The analysis includes comparisons between India and other developing countries, based on comparable data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), and between India and selected developed countries.... The result suggests that sterilization will not be as effective in reducing fertility below the current level of 3.4 children per woman as it has been in reducing fertility from higher levels in the past."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30352 Peng, Xizhe. Demographic implications of women's empowerment, poverty alleviation and community development in China: an introduction. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,279-91 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses the integration of China's family planning effort with community development, women's empowerment, and poverty alleviation. Aspects considered include community as the basic unit for program implementation; gender awareness; the relations among poverty alleviation, economic growth, and fertility; and voluntary public participation.
Correspondence: X. Peng, Fudan University, Institute of Population Research, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30353 Rosen, James E.; Conly, Shanti R. Africa's population challenge: accelerating progress in reproductive health. Country Study Series, No. 4, LC 98-065400. 1998. vi, 82 pp. Population Action International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report is the fourth in a series, including studies on China, India and Pakistan, which examines family planning and other reproductive health services in the developing world. The report highlights the progress countries in sub-Saharan Africa have made towards expanding access to these services and the key challenges they face, drawing on research by and interviews with experts on Africa, and information the authors gathered during visits to African countries."
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30354 Samara, Renee; Buckner, Bates; Tsui, Amy O. Understanding how family planning programs work: findings from five years of evaluation research. Dec 1996. vi, 72 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Since its inception in late 1991, the EVALUATION (Evaluation of Family Planning Program Impact) Project has supported a broad, yet focused research agenda designed to improve the understanding of how family planning program inputs contribute to fertility change and to test improved ways of measuring this contribution. In order to present the range of findings in a unified and coherent piece, this synthesis has been prepared with the expectation that the compilation of results will answer a number of questions regarding program impacts and measurement challenges."
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, Evaluation Project, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: EVAL.CPC@UNC.EDU. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30355 Schuster, Mark A.; Bell, Robert M.; Berry, Sandra H.; Kanouse, David E. Impact of a high school condom availability program on sexual attitudes and behaviors. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1998. 67-72, 88 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we report the results of a pretest-posttest evaluation of a school-based condom availability program that provided unrestricted access to condoms. We report on changes in sexual behavior and condom use, and on changes in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to sexual activity." Results indicate that "the condom availability program appears not to have produced an increase in sexual activity among high school students, and it appears to have led to improved condom use among males."
Correspondence: M. A. Schuster, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

64:30356 Arnold, Fred. Gender preferences for children: findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 989-1,003 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper compares patterns of gender preference cross-nationally based on results from DHS surveys carried out in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean between 1986 and 1995.... In particular, three types of measures are used in the following sections to describe the magnitude and effects of gender preferences--attitude measures, measures of demographic behaviour, and measures of the differential treatment of daughters and sons."
Correspondence: F. Arnold, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30357 Bairagi, Radheshyam. Gender preference of children and its consequences: overview. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 981-8 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews the literature on gender preference for children worldwide. The impact of preference on fertility and mortality is considered.
Correspondence: R. Bairagi, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30358 Douthwaite, Megan. Male involvement in family planning and reproductive health in Pakistan: a review of the literature. Population Council Research Report, No. 7, Mar 1998. viii, 54 pp. Population Council: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the literature on men and reproductive health in Pakistan over the last ten years." Chapters are included on fertility preferences; knowledge of family planning, reproductive health, and physiology; attitudes toward family planning and reproductive health issues; contraceptive practice; male contraceptive methods, decision making, and spousal communication; male reproductive health; and efforts to involve men in family planning and reproductive health.
Correspondence: Population Council, 55 Street 1, F-6/3, Islamabad, Pakistan. E-mail: Info@pcpak.sdnpk.undp.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30359 Gage, Anastasia J. Sexual activity and contraceptive use: the components of the decisionmaking process. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, Jun 1998. 154-66 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In light of the social consequences of early childbearing, unplanned pregnancy, and the transmission of AIDS, a great need exists to understand how adolescents make sexual and reproductive decisions. Drawing primarily on literature from sub-Saharan Africa, this article focuses on three behavioral outcomes: nonmarital sexual activity, contraceptive use, and condom use. It explores adolescents' perceptions of the costs and benefits of engaging in these behaviors, their assessment of their susceptibility to the potential consequences of their actions, and the role of family, peer, and dyadic factors in shaping their reproductive decisions."
Correspondence: A. J. Gage, U.S. Agency for International Development, G/PHN/POP/P&E, Room 3.06-046, Washington, D.C. 20523-3601. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30360 Gensler, Howard. Welfare and the family size decision of low-income, two-parent families. Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 4, No. 10, Oct 1997. 607-10 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The effect of welfare on family size is estimated by means of an ordered probit analysis on low-income, two-parent families. A multiyear cross-sectional pooled data set derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey over the period 1979-1990 is analysed. Behavioural impacts from a range of economic variables are consistent in sign with theoretical predictions and are reasonable in magnitude."
Correspondence: H. Gensler, 496 Traverse Drive, Costa Mesa, CA 92626. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30361 Görgen, Regina; Yansané, Mohamed L.; Marx, Michael; Millimounou, Dominique. Sexual behavior and attitudes among unmarried urban youths in Guinea. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 65-71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In 1995, 3,603 unmarried men and women aged 15-24 in three towns [in Guinea] were surveyed, and 25 focus groups were conducted, to explore young people's sexual behavior and related attitudes.... The average age at first intercourse is 16.3 years for young women and 15.6 for young men. While the first sexual partner typically is a peer, the majority of young women later become involved with older, wealthy partners.... Young males, who feel they cannot compete with older, wealthy men, have sex with much younger females. More than half of sexually active respondents have never used a contraceptive; 29% have used a condom. A quarter of the young women have been pregnant, and 22% of these have had an abortion."
Correspondence: R. Görgen, Heidelberg University, Institute of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, Heidelberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30362 Graham, Maureen J.; Larsen, Ulla; Xu, Xiping. Son preference in Anhui Province, China. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 72-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
The authors explore son preference in Anhui Province, China, using data from a 1993 survey. "Responses from 5,779 women of reproductive age who had had at least one birth yielded data on sex ratios, duration of breastfeeding and childbearing patterns.... The overall sex ratio was 1.18 male births per female birth, significantly higher than the expected ratio of 1.06; for first, second and third or higher order births, ratios were 1.17, 1.12 and 1.16 respectively. The sex ratio was low in 1980-1986, when the national one-child policy was strictly enforced, and was significantly elevated before 1980 (1.18) and in 1987-1993 (1.22). Last-born children, regardless of family size, had the highest sex ratio. Girls were breastfed for a significantly shorter duration than boys, particularly if they had an older sister and no brothers."
Correspondence: M. J. Graham, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Environmental Epidemiology Program, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30363 Hussain, R.; Fikree, F.; D'Souza, R.; Midhet, F.; Berendes, H. W. Unwanted pregnancy, son preference and contraceptive use in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,045-60 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This longitudinal study looks at the [impact] of sex composition on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour in urban slums in Karachi, Pakistan.... Results show that pregnancies become increasingly unwanted as the number of surviving sons increases. However, rather than an exclusive son preference, couples strive to have a composition that allows for one or more sons and at least one surviving daughter. Both reproductive intentions and sex composition were strongly correlated with subsequent fertility and contraceptive behaviour."
Correspondence: R. Hussain, Aga Khan University, Department of Community Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30364 Lee, Sam-Sik. Son preference under low fertility in Korea. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,025-43 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This study examines the extent to which the fertility decline has affected the imbalance in sex ratio at birth and how socio-economic factors are associated with imbalance in sex ratio at birth in [the Republic of] Korea.... It is evident that under high fertility, the son preference does not affect the sex ratio at birth; most individuals may attain an acceptable composition of children through a random biological process by the time they reach their total family size. However, as the fertility declines, the son preference appears to distort the natural sex ratio at birth...."
Correspondence: S.-S. Lee, National Statistical Office, 90 Gyeongun-dong, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30365 Little, Paul; Griffin, Simon; Kelly, Joanne; Dickson, Nigel; Sadler, Carolyn. Effect of educational leaflets and questions on knowledge of contraception in women taking the combined contraceptive pill: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, Vol. 316, No. 7149, Jun 1998. 1,948-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"To assess whether provision of educational leaflets or questions on contraception improves knowledge of contraception in women taking the combined contraceptive pill," 523 women in the south and west of England attending checkup appointments for repeat prescriptions of the pill were given various types of contraceptive information and then assessed regarding their level of contraceptive knowledge. Results showed that "educational intervention had a highly significant effect on knowledge.... Asking questions in addition to provision of leaflets improved knowledge of contraception further...."
Correspondence: P. Little, Aldermoor Health Centre, Faculty of Health Medicine and Biological Sciences, Primary Medical Care, Southampton SO16 5ST, England. E-mail: pmcl@soton.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30366 Papp, Krista; Kontula, Osmo; Kosunen, Elise. Teenagers' sexuality in Estonia and Finland in the 1990s. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 161-72 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The present study assessed adolescent knowledge of sexual issues and sexual behavior in Estonia and Finland.... Estonian adolescents were found to have significantly less sexual [experience] than their Finnish counterparts. At the same time quite a large proportion of the Estonian adolescents were attitudinally ready to start sexual intercourse.... Knowledge of sexual issues was poor among Estonian adolescents.... A good level of knowledge was five times more common among Finnish boys compared to Estonian boys. Among girls the difference was eightfold, respectively."
Correspondence: K. Papp, University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, Haartmaninkatu 3, 00290, Helsinki 29, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30367 Park, Chai Bin. What do we know about fertility impact of gender preference for children? In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,005-23 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"In [this paper], based on empirical evidences, a series of propositions is presented as the current knowledge related to the fertility impacts of gender preference." The author proposes particular effects of gender preference on contraception and family size, sex ratio at birth, and family composition. The relation of gender preference to the fertility transition, its impact on sequential decision making for family size, the extent of impact of gender preference, and possible future developments are also discussed. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: C. B. Park, University of Hawaii, School of Public Health, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30368 Podhisita, Chai. Gender decision making in family formation and planning: achievement and future direction. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1-2, Jul-Jan 1997-1998. 1-27 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper reviews existing information related to inter-spousal communication and gender influences in fertility decision-making. Based on past research findings, the paper examines assumptions and propositions about fertility decision-making, and the role that men and women in marital union play in deciding family size and fertility regulation. The goal of the paper is to understand the extent of couple's communication and to examine relative influence (power) of husband and wife in inter-spousal communication on the family formation. Issues related to future challenges of small family are discussed in the final section of the paper." The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: C. Podhisita, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30369 Poston, Dudley L. Cultural, social and economic determinants of family size norms in China, with special attention to son preference. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,373-86 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper I examine empirically the relationships between a few factors of cultural, social, and economic development and several measures of son preference among the twenty-eight provinces of China. I first review some of the literature on the family size norm of son preference, and its determinants and consequences. I consider also various ways to measure son preference. Then for each of the provinces of China in the late 1980s, I construct a series of measures of son preference, as well as measures of several of its cultural, social, and economic determinants."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Texas A & M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30370 Rosenberg, Michael J.; Waugh, Michael S.; Burnhill, Michael S. Compliance, counseling and satisfaction with oral contraceptives: a prospective evaluation. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1998. 89-92, 104 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To improve our understanding of women's experiences with oral contraceptives in everyday use, we conducted a nationwide, prospective cohort study of women initiating contraceptive use or switching to a new method. This article focuses on pill users' compliance with instructions for using the method, their satisfaction with the counseling they received about oral contraceptives and with the method itself, and the frequency and costs of pill users' return visits or calls to providers resulting from method-related side effects." Results indicate that "method satisfaction was most likely among women who were aware of the pill's noncontraceptive benefits, were satisfied with their relationship with their provider, had used the pill in the past and experienced few side effects."
Correspondence: M. J. Rosenberg, University of North Carolina, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30371 Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Assessing and interpreting birth spacing goals in Costa Rica. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr 1998. 181-91 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A procedure for assessing birth spacing goals, an important component of fertility preferences, is proposed and applied to 1993 Costa Rican data. Based on a reverse or backward survival analysis, preferred birth intervals are estimated to range between 3.5 and 4.5 years (1.5 years for the interval union to first birth). These intervals are 2 or 3 years shorter than crude estimates from data on open or last closed intervals, which are upwardly biased by selection and left censoring effects. To achieve these spacing preferences, a cohort must spend about two-thirds of the time using contraception (one-third in the interval union to first birth). An inverse association between desired family size and desired birth interval is evident only in parity-specific analyses."
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30372 Taris, Toon W. Fertility in the Netherlands as an expected value process and developmental readiness. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, Vol. 132, No. 1, Jan 1998. 61-77 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this 2-wave panel study, the decision to have children was examined in the context of Feather's (1982) expectancy-value model among a representative sample of 288 childless Dutch adults aged 18-30 years. The effects of 2 indicators of developmental readiness (age and duration of relationship) were also explored. It was expected that (a) the likelihood of having a baby would increase as a function of intentions, evaluations of being childless, and expected rewards of having children and (b) developmental readiness would be positively related to whether respondents had children at the 2nd wave of the study.... The results largely supported expectations."
Correspondence: T. W. Taris, Free University of Amsterdam, Kurt Lewin Institute, Department of Social Psychology, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: AW.Taris@psy.vu.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30373 Wu, Zheng; Wang, Hui. Third birth intentions and uncertainty in Canada. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1998. 96-112 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1995 Canadian General Society Survey (GSS-95), we study the intention to have a third child among a sample of women and men who have already had two children (N=505). Our results show that 15 per cent of the respondents intend to have a third child. Nearly 20 per cent of the respondents are uncertain about their fertility intentions. We found that the same factors that predict intentions also predict uncertainty, and that the effects of these predictors are remarkably similar. In particular, intentions and uncertainty generally decline with age, but increase with regular church attendance, remarriage, and being Catholic. Unlike earlier studies, we found that the sex of previous children has virtually no impact on third-birth intentions or uncertainty."
Correspondence: Z. Wu, University of Victoria, Department of Sociology, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30374 Zeng, Yi. Dilemmas of family size norms in China. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,405-18 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper...will try to [shed] some light on the issues of dilemmas of family size norms in China. In the following sections, we will analyse and discuss the contradictions of family size norms from individual and national points of view, trade-offs between future population size and ageing, policy ideal and reality of the family size norms, and the connections between changing family size norms and recent increase in sex ratio at birth."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, 1 Loudouqiao, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

64:30375 Alvarez Vázquez, Luisa; García, Caridad T.; Catasús Cervera, Sonia; Benítez, María E.; Martínez, María T. Abortion in Cuba. [El aborto en Cuba.] ISBN 959-06-0195-2. 1994. viii, 118 pp. Editorial de Ciencias Sociales: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
This is a general analysis of abortion in Cuba, where abortion is legal and there is a policy to attempt to reduce levels of abortion through the promotion of more effective use of contraception. There are chapters on abortion levels and determinants; the social and demographic characteristics of abortion, including the characteristics of women seeking abortion and abortion differentials; family and household characteristics and the practice of abortion; the relationship between contraception and abortion; and psychosocial factors and abortion.
Correspondence: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, Calle 14 No. 4104, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30376 Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero. Induced abortion. [L'aborto procurato.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 29-43 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Ita.
This is a general study of induced abortion based on the published literature. The author analyzes the role of abortion in the demographic transition, and presents some estimates on the current levels of abortion around the world. He concludes by describing two approaches to the study of the causes of abortion, one quantitative and the other anthropological.
Correspondence: G. Dalla Zuanna, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30377 Epner, Janet E. G.; Jonas, Harry S.; Seckinger, Daniel L. Late-term abortion. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 280, No. 8, Aug 26, 1998. 724-9 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This article is concerned with the implications of proposed U.S. legislation on late-term abortions. It "presents scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques. A discussion of the prevalence of induced abortion and limitations of data on abortion is followed by a description of reasons for late-term abortion. Procedures used to induce abortion at earlier and later stages of pregnancy are described, abortion-related mortality and morbidity are discussed, Supreme Court decisions on abortion are summarized, and policies of major medical societies on late-term abortion are presented."
Correspondence: H. S. Jonas, American Medical Association, 515 North State Street, Chicago, IL 60610. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30378 Ferris, Lorraine E.; McMain-Klein, Margot; Iron, Karey. Factors influencing the delivery of abortion services in Ontario: a descriptive study. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 134-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Although Canadian women have had the right to obtain legal induced abortions for the past decade, access to the procedure is still limited and controversial in many areas.... Chiefs of obstetrics and gynecology, chiefs of staff, directors of nursing and other health professionals at 163 general hospitals in Ontario, Canada, were asked to provide information on issues concerning the availability of abortion services at their facility.... Based upon the provision of obstetric care, many hospitals in Ontario that are capable of offering abortion services do not. Some of the reasons for this failure are related to the procedure itself, while others may be related to resource issues that affect the delivery of other medical services as well."
Correspondence: L. E. Ferris, University of Toronto, Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30379 Fu, Haishan; Darroch, Jacqueline E.; Henshaw, Stanley K.; Kolb, Elizabeth. Measuring the extent of abortion underreporting in the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 128-33, 138 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To improve the level of abortion reporting, the 1995 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) incorporated new interview and self-report procedures, as well as a monetary incentive to respondents.... The self-report produces better reporting than the main interview, but combining data from the two procedures yields the highest count of abortions. For the period 1991-1994, the level of reporting is 45% in the main interview, 52% in the self-report and 59% when the two methods are combined. The level of abortion reporting in the combined data ranges from 40% for women with an income less than the federal poverty level to more than 75% among women who were older than 35, those who were married at the time of their abortion and those with an income above 200% of the poverty level."
Correspondence: H. Fu, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30380 Joyce, Theodore; Kaestner, Robert; Kwan, Florence. Is Medicaid pronatalist? The effect of eligibility expansions on abortions and births. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 108-13, 127 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Pooled time-series cross-section regressions were used to examine the effects of the Medicaid eligibility expansions in 15 [U.S.] states on rates of abortions and births among unmarried women aged 19-27 with 12 or fewer years of schooling. Abortion data came from the National Center for Health Statistics or state health departments and were aggregated by women's age, race, marital status and schooling; data on births were from national natality tapes.... The Medicaid expansions were associated with a 5% increase in the birthrate among white women, but did not influence the rate among black women. Overall, no effect on the abortion rate was evident, but in analyses restricted to a subsample of eight states with the most complete abortion data, the rate among white women showed a significant decline after the second phase of expansions."
Correspondence: T. Joyce, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30381 Klerman, Jacob A. Welfare reform and abortion. In: Welfare, the family, and reproductive behavior: research perspectives, edited by Robert A. Moffitt. 1998. 98-133 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter attempts to draw together what we know today about the likely effects of [U.S.] welfare reform on abortion and to outline promising strategies for evaluating the actual effects of the limited reforms to date and the wider reforms that are likely to follow.... [The author] presents a simple rational choice model of a woman's choice of contraception, abortion, or fertility. The model focuses on the effect of welfare policy.... [He] reviews possible data sources for analyses of effects on abortion...[and then discusses] the methodological issues in evaluating the causal effects of welfare reform on the number of abortions.... [He explores] the issues of whether welfare policy affects fertility and abortion and whether abortion policy affects contraceptive behavior, abortion, and fertility."
Correspondence: J. A. Klerman, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30382 Koonin, Lisa M.; Smith, Jack C.; Ramick, Merrell; Strauss, Lilo T. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 47, No. SS-2, Jul 3, 1998. 31-40 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes and reviews information reported to CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States during 1995.... In 1995, a total of 1,210,883 legal abortions were reported to CDC, representing a 4.5% decrease from the number reported for 1994. The abortion ratio was 311 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 20 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, the lowest ratio and rate recorded since 1975. Women who were undergoing an abortion were more likely to be young, white and unmarried; most were obtaining an abortion for the first time."
Correspondence: L. M. Koonin, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30383 Koster-Oyekan, Winny. Why resort to illegal abortion in Zambia? Findings of a community-based study in Western Province. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 10, May 1998. 1,303-12 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article presents part of the findings of a community-based study on the causes and effects of unplanned pregnancies in four districts of Western Province, Zambia. The study broke the silence around abortion in Western Province and revealed that induced abortion poses a public health problem. Using innovative methodology of recording and analyzing histories of deaths from induced abortion, the abortion mortality ratio was calculated for the study districts. Findings reveal an extremely high induced abortion mortality ratio of 120 induced abortion-related deaths per 100,000 live births. More than half the deaths were of schoolgirls. Although abortion in Zambia is legal on medical and social grounds, most women in Western Province resort to illegal abortions because legal abortion services are inaccessible and unacceptable."
Correspondence: W. Koster-Oyekan, P.O. Box 51126, Falomo-Ikoyi, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30384 Ladd, Everett C.; Bowman, Karlyn H. Public opinion about abortion: twenty-five years after Roe v. Wade. ISBN 0-8447-7098-1. LC 97-37537. 1997. v, 54 pp. AEI Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"For a quarter century, abortion has been a subject of intense controversy [in the United States]. The activists in the pro-life and pro-choice camps both claim to have public opinion on their side. In this monograph...[the authors] look at where the public stands. They illuminate the complexity of people's views about abortion, and they show that opinion has been remarkably stable since the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. This monograph includes...[a] comprehensive and current collection of polls and trends on abortion...."
Correspondence: AEI Press, 1150 Seventeenth Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30385 Lichter, Daniel T.; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Ribar, David C. State abortion policy, geographic access to abortion providers, and changing family formation. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 98-03, Feb 1998. 24 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this study, we estimate [U.S.] state and county fixed effects models of the effects of geographic access to abortion providers, parental notification requirements, and Medicaid funding restrictions on the county-level incidence of female headship. Our results indicate that the decline in geographic access to abortion providers during the 1980s contributed significantly to the rise in the percentage of females heading families.... The results also link new state parental notification requirements to the rise in single-parent family formation among white females, but not among blacks or Hispanics."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30386 Norgren, Tiana. Abortion before birth control: the interest group politics behind postwar Japanese reproduction policy. Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, Winter 1998. 59-94 pp. Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"Why is Japanese abortion policy liberal, whereas contraception policy is conservative? The government legalized late-term abortions in 1948 but has not yet approved oral contraception (the pill). This paper argues that the contradictory policies are products of very different interest group configurations and historical circumstances. Doctors and family planners used a small window of opportunity to legalize abortion; afterward, doctors and women battled religious groups to uphold the law. The pill first appeared at a historically inauspicious time, and the pharmaceutical industry was its lone champion: until recently, doctors, midwives, family planners, and women opposed the pill as a threat to their livelihoods, abortion rights, and women's health."
Correspondence: T. Norgren, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30387 Rahman, Anika; Katzive, Laura; Henshaw, Stanley K. A global review of laws on induced abortion, 1985-1997. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 56-64 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Abortion-related laws in 152 nations and dependent territories with populations of one million or more were reviewed, and changes in these laws since 1985 were documented.... Currently, 61% of the world's people live in countries where induced abortion is permitted either for a wide range of reasons or without restriction as to reason; in contrast, 25% reside in nations where abortion is generally prohibited. However, even in countries with highly restrictive laws, induced abortion is usually permitted when the woman's life is endangered; in contrast, even in nations with very liberal laws, access may be limited by gestational age restrictions, requirements that third parties authorize an abortion or limitations on the types of facilities that perform induced abortions. Since 1985, 19 nations have significantly liberalized their abortion laws; only one country has substantially curtailed legal access to abortion."
Correspondence: A. Rahman, Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, International Program, 120 Wall Street, 18th floor, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30388 Raleigh, Veena S. Abortion rates in England in 1995: comparative study of data from district health authorities. British Medical Journal, Vol. 316, No. 7146, Jun 6, 1998. 1,711-2 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author "analysed data on births and legal abortions during 1995 by district health authority as compiled by the Office for National Statistics". Her results show that "one in five pregnancies in England results in a termination, giving a mean lifetime abortion rate of 0.44 per woman, which is higher than a decade ago. Most women having abortions are young (under 30), single, and childless. More women (26.9%) are having repeat abortions. Not practising safe sexual intercourse is associated with abortion, testing for HIV, and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. Contraceptive use is associated with social class, and abortion rates rise with deprivation."
Correspondence: V. S. Raleigh, University of Surrey, National Institute of Epidemiology, Surrey Research Park, Guilford GU2 5YD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30389 Simonds, Wendy; Ellertson, Charlotte; Springer, Kimberly; Winikoff, Beverly. Abortion, revised: participants in the U.S. clinical trials evaluate mifepristone. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 10, May 1998. 1,313-23 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper centers on the questions: How do non-surgical abortion methods affect private experiences of abortion? How might they influence public conceptions about abortion? Drawing on interviews with clients who participated in the 1994-95 U.S. clinical trials of mifepristone at one trial site..., and focus group interviews conducted with health care workers at all 17 trial sites..., we examine participants' evaluations of this method of abortion."
Correspondence: W. Simonds, Georgia State University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30303. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30390 Söderberg, Hanna; Andersson, Christina; Janzon, Lars; Sjöberg, Niels-Otto. Continued pregnancy among abortion applicants: a study of women having a change of mind. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 76, No. 10, Nov 1997. 942-7 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"A certain proportion of women applying for legal abortion later change their minds. The present study was designed to ascertain whether such women differ from those who choose to terminate their pregnancy, with regard to age, civil status, other demographic characteristics, or reproductive history.... [Data are from] all 1,446 abortion applicants attending the abortion clinic at University Hospital Malmö, in 1989.... Almost one in ten underwent a change of mind. Women who chose to continue their pregnancy differed from those who held fast to their initial decision above all with regard to age and family situation. Less important was education, reproductive history, and stated reasons for abortion."
Correspondence: H. Söderberg, University of Lund, University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30391 Stloukal, Libor. Induced abortions in the Czech Republic from a cohort perspective. [Umelá potratovost v Ceské Republice v kohortním pohledu.] Demografie, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1998. 81-92 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes trends in induced abortion in the Czech Republic, with a focus on age-specific rates for women born between 1925 and 1975. The impact of changes in the country's population policy over time is considered. The role of factors such as changes in sex behavior, union formation, and attitudes toward parenthood and family planning is also examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

64:30392 Bender, Deborah E.; Dusch, Erin; McCann, Margaret F. From efficacy to effectiveness: selecting indicators for a community-based lactational amenorrhoea method promotion programme. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr 1998. 193-225 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the results of clinical trials and community studies of lactational amenorrhoea and its role as a contraceptive method (LAM)." The studies, focusing on middle-class women in urban areas, were conducted in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Philippines, Mexico, Egypt, Thailand, and Chile. "Indicators which are used in efficacy trials and effectiveness interventions are compared and sets of indicators of effectiveness appropriate to community-based LAM programmes are recommended. A five-tiered ecological framework is used to facilitate selection of indicators which range from individual to policy level outcomes. The indicator framework is intended as a tool for health practitioners in family planning and maternal and child health service delivery settings who are interested in designing programmatic interventions for the promotion of LAM, particularly among less well-educated women of lower socioeconomic communities."
Correspondence: D. E. Bender, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30393 Berhanu, Betemariam; Hogan, Dennis. Postpartum amenorrhoea in Ethiopia: the role of weaning, child death, and socioeconomic factors. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1998. 80-95 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey (NFFS) and employing discrete-time hazards models, we examine the effect of weaning, child death, and socioeconomic factors on postpartum amenorrhoea in Ethiopia. The results show that 91 in every 100 mothers breastfed their child for at least 6 months. The median duration of breastfeeding stands at 18 months, and amenorrhoea lasts for a median duration of 12 months.... Discrete-time hazard models reveal that child death has the strongest effect on the resumption of menses."
Correspondence: B. Berhanu, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30394 Bozon, Michel. Demography and sexuality. [Démographie et sexualité.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 45-61 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The author examines the reasons why demography to date has paid relatively little attention to the study of sexuality, and notes that this situation has changed in recent times as interest has grown in the study of contraception and, even more recently, AIDS. The reasons for this lack of interest are explored. The author makes the case that demographic methodology is well suited to the study of sexuality, and suggests three areas in which demography could play a particularly useful role. These are the analysis of sexual life histories, which would throw more light on contemporary changes in morals and in family and marital behavior; the analysis of differences in attitudes, behaviors, and experiences between men and women concerning sex, particularly regarding the impact of the contraceptive revolution and the fertility decline on women's lives; and the investigation of differences in sexual behavior among cultures.
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30395 Brewster, Karin L.; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Guilkey, David K.; Rindfuss, Ronald R. The changing impact of religion on the sexual and contraceptive behavior of adolescent women in the United States. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 2, May 1998. 493-504 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study addresses the impact of religious affiliation on intercourse risk and contraceptive use among adolescent women during the 1980s when church-based groups were increasingly involved in debates over reproductive and family issues. However, adolescent nonmarital intercourse and birth rates were rising, suggesting that religious organizations, even as their visibility increased, became less effective at transmitting their values. We pooled data from two national surveys conducted in 1982 and 1988 and found that affiliation has modest, but stable, effects among Black teens. Among Whites, the impact of a fundamentalist Protestant affiliation increased. White fundamentalists were less likely to be sexually active in 1988 than in 1982."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. L. Brewster, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 654 Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30396 James, William H. Martin's treatment of the human sex ratio at birth. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1997. 276-88 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
The author critically examines research by John F. Martin that "described the demography of the Havasupai Indians of North Western Arizona 1896-1988.... [Martin has] suggested that cervical mucus is a powerful determinant of offspring sex ratio.... The point of the present note is to indicate the limitations of Martin's hypothesis. I suggest that though coital rate and cervical mucus may play a part, other variables play a more decisive role." A reply by Martin is included (pp. 283-8).
Correspondence: W. H. James, University College London, Galton Laboratory, Wolfson House, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30397 Jensen, Tina K.; Hjollund, Niels H. I.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Scheike, Thomas; Kolstad, Henrik; Giwercman, Aleksander; Ernst, Erik; Bonde, Jens P.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Olsen, Jørn. Does moderate alcohol consumption affect fertility? Follow up study among couples planning first pregnancy. British Medical Journal, Vol. 317, No. 7157, Aug 22, 1998. 505-10 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The effect of alcohol consumption on the probability of conception is explored using data on 430 Danish couples trying to conceive for the first time. The data were collected between 1992 and 1995. The results suggest that "a woman's alcohol intake is associated with decreased fecundability even among women with a weekly alcohol intake corresponding to five or fewer drinks."
Correspondence: T. K. Jensen, National University Hospital, Department of Growth and Reproduction. Rigshospitalet, Section GR 5064, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. E-mail: tk.jensen@winsloew.ou.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30398 Miller, Edward M. Fertility and a mate's signals of continued presence. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 3, Spring 1998. 237-78 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper presents evidence that regular copulation promotes fertility, even when done at times when the woman is not fertile. It also presents evidence that suggests that male pheromones promote fertility in human females. These will be argued to be adaptations by which females adjust their fertility to the continued presence of a male (implying likely assistance in rearing offspring)."
Correspondence: E. M. Miller, University of New Orleans, Lakefront, New Orleans, LA 70148. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30399 Pinto Aguirre, Guido; Palloni, Alberto; Jones, Robert E. Effects of lactation on post-partum amenorrhoea: re-estimation using data from a longitudinal study in Guatemala. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1998. 231-48 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we re-estimate the effects of breastfeeding patterns on the timing of resumption of menses after controlling for maternal nutrition and maternal stressor variables. The analysis shows that simple hazard models, used on data from a longitudinal study in Guatemala, provide estimates of effects on timing of resumption of menstruation that are (a) comparable to others discussed in the recent literature and (b) generally consistent with hypotheses relating to patterns of lactation, maternal nutritional status, and maternal stressors to processes that accelerate (decelerate) resumption of anovulatory cycles."
Correspondence: G. Pinto Aguirre, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30400 Salway, Sarah; Nurani, Sufia. Uptake of contraception during postpartum amenorrhoea: understandings and preferences of poor, urban women in Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 7, Oct 1998. 899-909 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"In urban Bangladesh, as in many other settings, an immediate postpartum family planning strategy prevails, where providers seek to promote and provide contraception at 40-45 days following birth to women regardless of their breastfeeding or menstrual status. Despite such practices, the majority of women choose to delay the initiation of contraception until menses resumes, often several months after birth. The present paper seeks to explain this discrepancy by describing poor, urban women's understandings regarding the chances of conception and the risks associated with contraceptive use in the postpartum period. Findings from in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of women perceive no personal risk of pregnancy during amenorrhoea, though most do not recognise an association between this diminished risk of conception and breastfeeding.... The paper advocates that, since breastfeeding affords good protection against pregnancy for six to nine months following birth, efforts should be made to actively incorporate lactational amenorrhoea into postpartum family planning strategies in Bangladesh."
Correspondence: S. Salway, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30401 Thomas, B. Helen; DiCenso, Alba; Griffith, Lauren. Adolescent sexual behaviour: results from an Ontario sample. Part I: adolescent sexual activity. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique, Vol. 89, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1998. 90-3 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Using data from a large longitudinal study, this paper provides empirical evidence of Canadian adolescent sexual activity rates by age and gender. The incidence of first sexual intercourse among those 13-15 years was higher among males than females; by ages 16-17 years, rates were the same for both genders (25%). Prevalence of sexual intercourse increased with age.... Analysis of data over a three-year period indicated that at each age, over 80% of adolescents reported intermittent or no sexual intercourse. Different factors predicted the absence of early sexual intercourse for the two genders."
Correspondence: B. H. Thomas, McMaster University, School of Nursing, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada. E-mail: thomash@fhs.csu.mcmaster.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30402 Upchurch, Dawn M.; Levy-Storms, Lené; Sucoff, Clea A.; Aneshensel, Carol S. Gender and ethnic differences in the timing of first sexual intercourse. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 121-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Life-table analysis using data from a population-based, ethnically diverse sample of 877 Los Angeles County youths was employed to estimate the median age at first sex for each gender-and-ethnicity group. Multivariate analysis using proportional hazards techniques was conducted to determine the relative risk of sexual activity among teenagers in each group.... Overall, the teenagers in the sample had a median age at first sex of 16.9 years. Black males had the lowest observed median (15.0), and Asian American males the highest (18.1); white and Hispanic males, and white and black females, reported similar ages (about 16.5 years).... Even after controlling for background characteristics, black males had rates of first sex that were about 3-5 times the rates of the other gender-and-ethnicity groups."
Correspondence: D. M. Upchurch, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30403 Yadava, K. N. S.; Jain, S. K. Postpartum amenorrhoea in rural eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr 1998. 227-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper calculates the mean duration of the postpartum amenorrhoea (PPA) and examines its demographic and socioeconomic correlates in rural north India, using data collected through `retrospective' (last but one child) as well as `current status' (last child) reporting of the duration of PPA.... A positive relationship of the mean duration of PPA was found with longer breast-feeding, higher parity and age of mother at the birth of the child, and the survival status of the child. An inverse relationship was found with higher education of a woman, higher education of her husband and higher socioeconomic status of her household, these variables possibly acting as proxies for women's better nutritional status."
Correspondence: K. N. S. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

64:30404 Bachrach, Christine A. The changing circumstances of marriage and fertility in the United States. In: Welfare, the family, and reproductive behavior: research perspectives, edited by Robert A. Moffitt. 1998. 9-32 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter provides an overview of trends in fertility, marriage, and out-of-wedlock childbearing in the United States, focusing mainly on the period since 1970. It also examines trends in the proximate factors that affect fertility, such as sexual behavior, contraception and abortion, because if welfare programs have affected fertility among unmarried women, the effects would have to be channeled through one or more of these factors. The paper concludes with a brief look at trends in out-of-wedlock childbearing among populations that vary in their reliance on welfare programs."
Correspondence: C. A. Bachrach, U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Center for Population Research, Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30405 Blanc, Ann K.; Way, Ann A. Sexual behavior and contraceptive knowledge and use among adolescents in developing countries. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, Jun 1998. 106-16 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article offers an overview of sexual behavior and contraceptive knowledge and use among adolescent women across a large number of developing countries. The results demonstrate that almost universally in sub-Saharan Africa and in the majority of countries in other regions, the gap between age at first sexual intercourse and age at first marriage has increased across age cohorts. The predominant pattern is one in which both age at marriage and age at first intercourse have risen, but the increase in age at marriage is greater, resulting in a widening gap. In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, current contraceptive use is higher among sexually active, unmarried teens than it is among married teens, whereas in Latin America and the Caribbean, current-use levels are higher among married teens."
Correspondence: A. K. Blanc, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30406 Gage, Anastasia J. Premarital childbearing, unwanted fertility and maternity care in Kenya and Namibia. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 1, Mar 1998. 21-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Analysis of data from the 1993 Kenya and 1992 Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys shows that premarital childbearing is an important risk factor for the underutilization of maternity care. In both countries, women with premarital births are significantly less likely than those with marital births to seek prenatal care in the first trimester. This relationship is not explained by wantedness or maternal age.... Ethnicity plays an important role in conditioning the premarital birth effect on prenatal and delivery care. This finding suggests that cultural attitudes may shape the level of kin and social support for unwed mothers and, in so doing, have a direct impact on their perceived barriers to care."
Correspondence: A. J. Gage, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30407 Nock, Steven L. The consequences of premarital fatherhood. American Sociological Review, Vol. 63, No. 2, Apr 1998. 250-63 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"I use the first 15 years of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the socioeconomic consequences of premarital fatherhood. Results based on hazards models and fixed-effects analyses suggest that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier, have lower earnings, work fewer weeks per year, and are more likely to live in poverty than comparable men who did not father children before marriage. These consequences of premarital fatherhood are partially the result of self selection effects, although many such effects appear to be caused by delayed marriages and/or higher rates of cohabitation."
Correspondence: S. L. Nock, University of Virginia, Department of Sociology, 539 Cabell Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903. E-mail: nock@virginia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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