Volume 64 - Number 3 - Fall 1998

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications.

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

64:30123 Banister, Judith. Perspectives on China's mortality trends. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,335-51 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper discusses reported recent trends in mortality in the [People's Republic of China] based on the best available life tables. Rural and urban mortality trends are addressed separately to see if their paths have diverged during the economic reform period. We then assess the ages at which mortality reporting is incomplete, and discuss to what extent mortality underreporting changes our conclusions. Explanations are sought for the trends seen."
Correspondence: J. Banister, U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30124 Berlinguer, Giovanni. Endogenous and exogenous mortality. [Mortalità endogena ed esogena.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 63-70 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Ita.
Some of the problems inherent in the study of mortality in the modern world are explored, with a focus on the traditional distinction that is generally made between exogenous and endogenous causes of death. Consideration is also given to the difficulties that can arise in distinguishing between spontaneous and induced abortion.
Correspondence: G. Berlinguer, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30125 Burnett, Richard T.; Cakmak, Sabit; Brook, Jeffrey R. The effect of the urban ambient air pollution mix on daily mortality rates in 11 Canadian cities. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique, Vol. 89, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 152-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors investigate "the risk of premature mortality due to the urban ambient air pollution mix in Canada.... Nitrogen dioxide had the largest effect on mortality with a 4.1% increased risk (p<0.01), followed by ozone at 1.8% (p<0.01), sulphur dioxide at 1.4% (p<0.01), and carbon monoxide at 0.9% (p=0.04) in multiple pollutant regression models. A 0.4% reduction in premature mortality was attributed to achieving a sulphur content of gasoline of 30 ppm in five Canadian cities, a risk reduction 12 times greater than previously reported."
Correspondence: R. T. Burnett, Health Canada, 203 Environmental Health Centre, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. E-mail: rick_burnett@hc-sc.gc.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30126 Capocaccia, Riccardo; Farchi, Gino; Barcherini, Sabrina; Verdecchia, Arduino; Mariotti, Sergio; Scipione, Riccardo; Feola, Giuseppe; Cariani, Giovanni. Mortality in Italy in 1993. [La mortalità in Italia nell'anno 1993.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 97-33, 1997. ii, 60 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanità [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Data for mortality in Italy in 1993 are presented by age group and cause of death. Regional totals are also included. The data are taken from official sources.
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30127 Cohen, Barney; Montgomery, Mark R. Introduction. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 1-38 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We offer our views as to why the relationship linking mortality decline to fertility is likely to resist simplification and easy generalization. We then document the astonishing diversity of mortality and fertility transitions that have taken place in developing countries over the past 40 years. The penultimate section of this chapter previews the contribution of the remaining chapters in the volume. The final section offers brief conclusions and draws out some implications for policy."
Correspondence: B. Cohen, National Research Council, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30128 Das Gupta, Monica; Adetunji, Jacob. Women and mortality trends. In: Women in the third world: an encyclopedia of contemporary issues, edited by Nelly P. Stromquist. 1998. 148-56 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"Females have a biological advantage in survival from the time of conception until old age. This advantage can be reversed by active discrimination against females, as is the case in much of South and East Asia. It can also be reversed under conditions of poor nutrition, high fertility, and high levels of maternal mortality. Under these conditions, the stresses of reproduction can tilt the balance of survival advantage in favor of males in the age groups of peak child-bearing. In some situations, there also may be a pattern of disease that affects females more than males. These deviations from the norm of female survival advantage are discussed below, following a description of the basic advantage." The primary geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, World Bank, Research Division, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30129 Gavrilova, N. S.; Ermakov, S. P.; Evdokushkina, G. N.; Gavrilov, L. A. An analysis of the health and mortality data for the provinces of Russia. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,245-57 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to present the methods of data collection and analysis to study the levels, trends and patterns of mortality in Russia and its provinces.... An in-depth analysis...[has] been carried out for one province (Sverdlovsk in Ural) utilising a software called POTENTIAL-2. This paper presents the findings of this study, and its relevance for study of mortality and health conditions in the different regions of Russia, and their application for health planning in the different regions."
Correspondence: N. S. Gavrilova, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Systems Analysis, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30130 Heuveline, Patrick. "Between one and three million": towards the demographic reconstruction of a decade of Cambodian history (1970-79). Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 1, Mar 1998. 49-65 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Estimates of mortality in Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge regime (1975-79) range from 20,000 deaths according to former Khmer Rouge sources, to over three million victims according to Vietnamese government sources. This paper uses an unusual data source--the 1992 electoral lists registered by the United Nations--to estimate the population size after the Khmer Rouge regime and the extent of `excess' mortality in the 1970s.... The analysis of likely causes of death that could have generated the age pattern of `excess' mortality clearly shows a larger contribution of direct or violent mortality than has been previously recognized."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: P. Heuveline, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30131 Jerrett, Michael; Eyles, John; Cole, Donald. Socioeconomic and environmental covariates of premature mortality in Ontario. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jul 1998. 33-49 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine some covariates of premature mortality by performing "a multiple regression analysis of ecologic data from the 49 counties of Ontario.... Educational levels were a strong predictor of population health, showing a consistent inverse relationship with premature mortality ratios for both sexes and it was the strongest predictor for females. A low income variable supplied the strongest prediction for male mortality. This variable displayed a positive association with male mortality. Municipal expenditures on environmental protection exerted a negative effect on male mortality."
Correspondence: M. Jerrett, San Diego State University, Department of Geography, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-4493. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30132 Kedelski, Mieczyslaw. The age pyramid and life tables for the population of Silesia in 1864. [Piramida wieku i tablice trwania zycia ludnosci Slaska w 1864 roku.] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski: Materialy i Studia, No. 20, 1997. 49-71 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Data from historical Prussian sources are used to produce an age pyramid and life tables for the population of Silesia in 1864, and to provide a picture of mortality trends in the province during the second half of the nineteenth century.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30133 Paccaud, Fred; Pinto, Claudio S.; Marazzi, Alfio; Mili, Judith. Age at death and rectangularisation of the survival curve: trends in Switzerland, 1969-1994. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 7, Jul 1998. 412-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The objective of this article is "to check if signs of rectangularisation of the survival curve appeared during recent decades in Switzerland--that is, if life expectancy is approaching a maximum with a clustering of age at death around an average value (the so called `compression of mortality')." The data used are from death certificates recording all deaths of Swiss residents during the period 1969-1994. The results indicate that "age at death is increasing at a sustained rate at all percentiles equal or greater than 50, without any slow down in the trend during this period. The increase is more marked among women. Rates of increase are diminishing as the percentiles of age at death are higher, suggesting some clustering of deaths beyond the median value. However, the maximum age at death, if any, seems to be far from the current median values, even for women who enjoy a relatively high median age at death."
Correspondence: F. Paccaud, University of Lausanne, School of Medicine, Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine, Bugnon 17, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30134 Turpeinen, Oiva. Mortality and causes of death in Helsinki in 1750-1865 with a comparison with Tallinn. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 47-70 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"It is interesting to study the changes in mortality and causes of death in Helsinki during the period 1750-1865.... In addition to...chronological comparisons, the existing data allow us to make a limited regional analysis.... A parallel comparison will be made of mortality and, as far as is possible, the causes of death in Helsinki [Finland] and Tallinn [Estonia]."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30135 van Doorn, Carol. Spouse-rated limitations and spouse-rated life expectancy as mortality predictors. Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 3, May 1998. 137-43 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Survival analyses are used to examine the predictive value of spouse-rated limitations due to health problems and spouse-rated life expectancy for 3-year mortality in a community sample of elderly Australian married couples, net of health status indicators, health behaviors, and sociodemographic factors. Tests for gender differences in the effects and for empirical overlap with self-ratings of health and life expectancy were also done. Findings show that both spouse-ratings are predictive of husbands' mortality, while for wives' mortality the parallel measures are not predictive in the adjusted model.... The independent effect suggests that wives are more astute reporters or judges of their husbands' mortality risk or that wives' perceptions indicate tangible influences on husbands' health and mortality risks."
Correspondence: C. van Doorn, Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 60 College Street, P.O. Box 208034, New Haven, CT 06510-8034. E-mail: carol.vandoorn@yale.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

64:30136 van Hoorn, W. D.; de Beer, J. Analysis and projection of national and regional mortality for countries of the European Economic Area. Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 98, No. 6, Jun 1998. 8-16 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Three scenarios of future mortality trends are presented for all countries of the European Economic Area. The high scenario assumes a considerable decline in mortality rates. Consequently life expectancy at birth will continue to increase at about the same rate as during the last decades.... In the low scenario only a small decline in death rates is assumed. This scenario assumes that there will be no convergence between countries. Moreover the current differences between male and female mortality are assumed to persist."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30137 Walberg, Peder; McKee, Martin; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Chenet, Laurent; Leon, David A. Economic change, crime, and mortality crisis in Russia: regional analysis. British Medical Journal, Vol. 317, No. 7154, Aug 1, 1998. 312-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
An attempt is made to identify which aspects of socioeconomic change were associated with the steep decline in life expectancy that occurred in Russia between 1990 and 1994. The authors present a "regression analysis of regional data, with percentage fall in male life expectancy as dependent variable and a range of socioeconomic measures reflecting transition, change in income, inequity, and social cohesion as independent variables. [They attempt to determine the] contribution of deaths from major causes and in each age group to changes in both male and female life expectancy at birth in regions with the smallest and largest decline.... [Results indicate that] the fall in life expectancy at birth varied widely between regions, with declines for men and women highly correlated. The regions with the largest falls were predominantly urban, with high rates of labour turnover, large increases in recorded crime, and a higher average but unequal distribution of household income."
Correspondence: M. McKee, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, European Centre on Health of Socieities in Transition, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. E-mail: m.mckee@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30138 Wnek, Konrad. Methods of analyzing the relationship between seasonal variations in mortality and climatic phenomena. [Metody badania korelacji sezonowosci zgonów ze zjawiskami klimatycznymi.] Przeszlosc Demograficzna Polski: Materialy i Studia, No. 20, 1997. 35-48 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Data concerning the Polish town of Lvov over the course of the nineteenth century and the twentieth century up to 1938 are used to analyze the relationship of climatic factors such as variations in barometric pressure and temperature on mortality. The results suggest that this relationship became stronger over time as excess mortality from famine and epidemic diseases declined, and the natural seasonal variations in mortality became more evident.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30139 Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Judith H.; van Poppel, Frans W. A.; Tabeau, Ewa; Mackenbach, Johan P. Mortality decline in the Netherlands in the period 1850-1992: a turning point analysis. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 4, Aug 1998. 429-43 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to give a detailed and fairly objective description of rapid mortality decline in the Netherlands between 1850 and 1992 with respect to the start, end, and phases of the decline. Turning points were estimated for the standardized mortality trend, and for age and sex-specific trends between 1850-1992. The technique used was derived from spline functions. The turning points divided the trends into phases with different paces of decline. Standardized mortality started to decline rapidly in the Netherlands around 1880. Four phases in the period of decline could be distinguished: 1880-1917 (1.2% annually), 1917-1955 (1.6%), 1955-1970 (0.4%), 1970-1992 (1.1%). For nearly all age groups, the most rapid decline occurred in a period comparable to 1917-1955. Causes of death which might have shaped the standardized mortality trend are, among others, respiratory tuberculosis (1917), heart disease (except ischemic) (1955), and ischemic heart disease (1970). Causes of death that shaped the mortality trend are related to trends of determinants of mortality decline. The technique used in this paper can also be applied to other trends e.g. fertility decline."
Correspondence: J. H. Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30140 Zhang, Weimin; Li, Xiru. Analysis on mortality level of Chinese population. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,327-34 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"After the 1990 Population Census, [China's] State Statistical Bureau [SSB]...compiled and published [a] national life-table and life-tables of 30 provinces (including autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government) by sex.... This paper will introduce the evaluations and adjustments [the] SSB made over the 1990 data of population death rates, and analysis will be made on the level, pattern and regional differences of mortality rates of China in [the] early 1990s."
Correspondence: W. Zhang, State Statistical Bureau, Department of Population and Employment Statistics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology, and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion. Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

64:30141 Chen, Li-Mei; Sun, Chien-An; Wu, Der-Min; Shen, Muh-Han; Lee, Wen-Chung. Underregistration of neonatal deaths: an empirical study of the accuracy of infantile vital statistics in Taiwan. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 5, May 1998. 289-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study aimed to survey infant deaths [in Taiwan], to measure associated vital statistics, and compare them with the official statistics to assess accuracy.... A nationwide [1989] survey...was conducted to collect data from 23 counties and cities nationwide.... The survey derived infant death rate was 9.72 per 1,000 live births, which was higher than the reported official statistics of 5.71 per 1,000 live births. A more detailed examination of data on infant deaths showed that the estimated neonatal death rate of 6.68 per 1,000 live births...was significantly higher than the published official statistics of 1.94 per 1,000 live births, while the postneonatal mortality of 3.04 per 1,000 live births was comparable to the reported statistics of 3.37 per 1,000 live births."
Correspondence: L.-M. Chen, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Taipei County, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30142 Hart, Nicky. Beyond infant mortality: gender and stillbirth in reproductive mortality before the twentieth century. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1998. 215-29 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Though it has been the largest component of reproductive mortality since its statutory registration [in England and Wales] in 1928, stillbirth has received little attention from historical demographers, who have relied on the more orthodox indicator of early human survival changes--`infant mortality'. The exclusion of stillbirth hampers demographic analysis, underestimates progress in newborn vitality, and over-privileges post-natal causes in theoretical explanation. A case is made for estimating stillbirth before 1928 as a ratio of early neonatal death, and for employing perinatal mortality as an historical indicator of female health status. The long-run trend of reproductive mortality (encompassing mature foetal and live born infant death during the first eleven months) reveals a substantial decline in perinatal causes in the first industrial century (1750-1850), implying a major concurrent improvement in the nutritional status of child bearers."
Correspondence: N. Hart, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30143 Koschin, Felix. What is the height of the force of mortality on the beginning of human life? [Jak vysoká je intenzita úmrtnosti na pocátku lidského zivota?] Demografie, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1998. 103-12 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes trends in perinatal mortality in the Czech Republic during the period 1990-1995. The impact of errors in estimation techniques on death rates is assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30144 Xu, Baizhuang; Rantakallio, Paula; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Fang, Xiou Ling. Sex differentials in perinatal mortality in China and Finland. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1997. 170-8 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This study describes patterns of sex differentials in perinatal mortality in China and Finland. The analysis is based on three population-based one-year birth cohorts, one from Qingdao, China, in 1992 and two from Northern Finland in 1966 and 1985-86.... Both Finnish cohorts had an excess of male over female perinatal deaths, but in the Chinese cohort girls were more likely to die than boys.... Our results suggest that the role of different social and cultural environments on the existing sex differentials in perinatal mortality between the countries needs further evaluation."
Correspondence: B. Xu, Oulu University, Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, Oulu, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

64:30145 Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Arifeen, S. E.; Hill, K.; Mitra, S. N.; Al Sabir, A. Causes of childhood deaths in Bangladesh: results of a nationwide verbal autopsy study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Vol. 76, No. 2, 1998. 161-71 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The present study was undertaken to update the information available on causes of deaths among under-5-year-olds, taking advantage of advances in verbal autopsy methodology and of the national Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1993-94. About 25% of the deaths were associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and about 20% with diarrhoea. Neonatal tetanus and measles remained important causes of death, and drowning was a major cause for 1-4-year-olds."
Correspondence: A. H. Baqui, G.P.O Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30146 Bourdelais, Patrice; Demonet, Michel. Infant mortality in French cities in the mid-nineteenth century. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 95-108 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Urban mortality was a fundamental variable essential to understanding the dynamics of the epidemiological and health transition in France during the nineteenth century.... Our objective is to disaggregate the effects of factors that indicate the level and patterns of urban [infant and child] mortality and to use multivariate analysis to rank them hierarchically. This will allow us to assess, for example, the effect on mortality of geographical location, size and the rate of growth, as well as socio-economic factors."
Correspondence: P. Bourdelais, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30147 Brockerhoff, Martin; Hewett, Paul. Ethnicity and child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 107, 1998. 45 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper uses survey data from 12 countries to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality is indeed pervasive throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. The focus is on child mortality since the early 1980s.... Of special interest to this study is the relationship between child survival and the dominance of certain ethnic groups in the national political economy."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30148 Collins, James W.; Hawkes, Elizabeth K. Racial differences in post-neonatal mortality in Chicago: what risk factors explain the black infant's disadvantage? Ethnicity and Health, Vol. 2, No. 1-2, Mar-Jun 1997. 117-25 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"To investigate the extent to which the place of residence affects the black to white differential in post-neonatal (28-365 days) mortality, we performed a univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression of the 1982-1983 Illinois vital records, Chicago Police violent crime information and 1980 U.S. Census income data.... Four environmental predictors of post-neonatal death were examined: a median family income of <$10,000 per year, a poverty prevalence of >50%, violent crime rates of >11/1000 and limited community access to primary medical care.... The post-neonatal mortality rate of black (n=50,765) infants was three times that of white (n=50,690) infants.... When the...environmental risk factors were taken into account, the OR [odds ratio] for black infants declined from 3.0...to 1.7...."
Correspondence: J. W. Collins, Children's Memorial Hospital, Division of Neonatology, #45, Chicago, IL 60614. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30149 Corsini, Carlo A.; Viazzo, Pier P. The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990. ISBN 90-411-0466-6. 1997. xxxi, 258 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This volume contains revised versions of the papers presented at the Second Innocenti Seminar on the Decline of Infant and Child Mortality in Europe, held in Florence on 5-6 December 1994...." The book "makes a very important contribution to the literature...by showing that an understanding of infant and child mortality trends requires the simultaneous use of diverse techniques and an analytical effort that is multidisciplinary in nature. This is a crucial point not just because it will help policy makers to avoid supporting decisions that are based on simplistic analyses, but also because we have here the proof that infant and child mortality is an essential entry point in attempts to set different processes in motion to promote systemic changes in a society."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Kluwer Law International, P.O. Box 85889, 2508 CN, The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30150 Das Gupta, Monica. Methodology and main findings on child survival of the Khanna restudy, 1984-1988. In: Prospective community studies in developing countries, edited by Monica Das Gupta et al. 1997. 81-100 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter describes the restudy carried out in the eleven villages of Ludhiana District of Punjab State, India, which were originally studied in the Khanna Study by John Gordon and John Wyon in the 1950s.... The main objective of this restudy was to study the demographic transition taking place in this society, with a focus on the interrelationships between social and demographic change in this society in the process of transition." The focus is on the findings of the restudy relevant to infant and child mortality, specifically "the concentration of excess female child mortality on girls of higher birth order, and the tendency for child deaths to cluster disproportionately amongst a small proportion of families."
For a related study by Wyon, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, World Bank, Research Division, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30151 Ferreira, Carlos E. de C.; Flores, Luís P. O. The dimensions of infant mortality in São Paulo. Brazilian Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 1, 1997-1998. 145-64 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Eng.
The authors analyze trends and patterns in infant mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, in the twentieth century. Aspects considered include the dimensions of infant mortality, causes of death, and rates by age and sex. The quality of data on differential infant mortality is assessed.
Correspondence: C. E. de C. Ferreira, Fundação Sistema Estadual de Analise de Dados, Avenida Casper Libero 464, Caixa Postal 8223, 01033 SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30152 Gomes, Jaime de O.; Santo, Augusto H. Infant mortality in a midwestern city of southeastern Brazil, 1990 to 1992. [Mortalidade infantil em município da região Centro-Oeste Paulista, Brasil, 1990 a 1992.] Revista de Saúde Pública/Journal of Public Health, Vol. 31, No. 4, Aug 1997. 330-41 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"Infant mortality was studied in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil in the period from 1990 to 1992 using data from death certificates collected at the registry office.... The analysis using multiple causes statistics shows that 76.05% of the deaths have underlying causes related to neonatal disorders and confirms the relationship with the weight deficiencies of the newborn. The maternal complications were also related to weight deficiencies. Great differences were identified in infant mortality rates in urban zones not only restricted to the value of the rates but also to the diseases responsible for the occurrence of deaths."
Correspondence: J. de O. Gomes, Caixa Postal 957, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. E-mail: jogomes@prudenet.com.br. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30153 Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.; Stupp, Paul W.; Mei, Zuguo. Effect of a child's death on birth spacing: a cross-national analysis. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 39-73 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Our purpose in this chapter is to examine the potential pathways through which infant and child mortality can affect the interval between births. Specifically, we examine the extent to which the death of a child tends to shorten the time until the birth of the next child.... By teasing out the mechanisms for the linkage, we will better understand the future course of fertility and mortality in developing countries. The analysis uses data from phases 1 and 2 of the Demographic and Health Surveys.... We first present evidence of the magnitude of the effects on the birth interval for a variety of countries and then address the mechanisms through which these effects may operate."
Correspondence: L. M. Grummer-Strawn, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30154 Hionidou, Violetta. Infant mortality in Greece, 1859-1959: problems and research perspectives. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 155-72 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author analyzes infant mortality in Mykonos, Greece, from 1859 to 1959. "In the first [part], the sources and the methodology that were used are briefly presented, together with an assessment of the data quality. In the second part, the changes over time are examined, and in particular the timing of infant mortality decline and its possible causes. In the final part, a comparison between infant mortality for the island population of Mykonos and that for the whole of Greece is made and an agenda for future research is set."
Correspondence: V. Hionidou, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30155 Kishor, Sunita; Parasuraman, Sulabha. Mother's employment and infant and child mortality in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 8, Apr 1998. 40 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"Despite its many advantages, the employment of women in economic activity in India has been associated with increased mortality for infants and young children. Simultaneously, narrower gender differentials in child mortality among employed women have been noted. This report examines whether these conclusions are upheld at the level of the typical Indian mother.... [Results indicate that] mothers who are employed have a 10 percent higher infant-mortality rate and a 36 percent higher child-mortality rate than mothers who are not employed. Male mortality increases more than female mortality if mothers work."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30156 Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Källén, A. J. Bengt. Infant mortality in Denmark and Sweden: a comparison based on data in two national registries. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Vol. 75, No. 1, Dec 1997. 85-90 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The authors "study in detail the differences in infant mortality between Denmark and Sweden.... Even after stratification for maternal age, parity, and socio-economic group, the Danish mortality rate was higher in all age-at-death intervals except for stillbirths. Maternal age-parity distribution was more favourable in Denmark, the socio-economic distribution [was more favorable] in Sweden. The most marked country difference was seen in young women. The difference in the rate of perinatal deaths but not of later death is explainable by a more favourable birth weight distribution in Sweden than in Denmark."
Correspondence: A. J. B. Källén, University of Lund, Tornblad Institute, Lund, Sweden. E-mail: embryol@embryol.lu.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30157 Koupilová, Ilona; Bobák, Martin; Holcík, Jan; Pikhart, Hynek; Leon, David A. Increasing social variation in birth outcomes in the Czech Republic after 1989. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 9, Sep 1998. 1,343-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impact of the political changes that have occurred in the Czech Republic since 1989 on birth outcomes is assessed. The data concern all singleton births reported for the years 1989-1991 and 1994-1996, which were individually linked to death records. The results indicate that "despite general improvement in the indices of fetal growth and infant survival in the most recent years, social variation in birth outcome in the Czech Republic has increased."
Correspondence: I. Koupilová, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30158 Luther, Norman Y. Mother's tetanus immunisation is associated not only with lower neonatal mortality but also with lower early-childhood mortality. National Family Health Survey Bulletin, No. 10, Apr 1998. 4 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The author "uses data from the survey to examine how neonatal (first month) and early-childhood (1-47 months) mortality [in India] vary according to mother's tetanus immunisation. Controlling for the effects of 13 potentially confounding demographic and socioeconomic variables, the analysis shows that mother's tetanus immunisation is associated not only with reduced neonatal mortality, which is expected, but also with substantially reduced early-childhood mortality, which is a surprising result."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30159 Masuy-Stroobant, Godelieve. Infant health and infant mortality in Europe: lessons from the past and challenges for the future. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 1-34 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Since 1900, the evolution of infant mortality in European countries has been accompanied by very significant shifts in the age-at-death distribution and in the pattern of its medical causes. With these similarities in secular tendencies, we contrast the persistence of differences in the level of mortality between countries and even a surprising stability in the geographical pattern of European infant mortality during the twentieth century. The comparative analysis of the evolution of risks of infant mortality by age should allow for the identification of the modalities for different countries and possibly lead to better understanding of the inequalities between countries that still remain."
Correspondence: G. Masuy-Stroobant, Catholic University of Louvain, Institute of Demography, Place de l'Université 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30160 Mexico. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática [INEGI] (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Infant mortality in Mexico, 1990. Estimates by federal entity and municipality. [La mortalidad infantil en México, 1990. Estimaciones por entidad federativa y municipio.] ISBN 970-13-1128-0. 1996. viii, 96 pp. Aguascalientes, Mexico. In Spa.
Estimates of infant mortality in Mexico are presented by federal administrative division and municipality, using data from the 1990 census. A brief discussion is included on trends in infant mortality and on differences among the districts and municipalities.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, Edificio Sede, Avenida Héroe de Nacozari No. 2301 Sur, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, C.P. 20270, Aguascalientes, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30161 Montgomery, Mark R.; Cohen, Barney. From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change. ISBN 0-309-05896-1. LC 97-33802. 1998. x, 426 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The papers in this volume were first presented at...a workshop, held in November 1995, which was designed to bring together researchers from a variety of different disciplines to discuss what is known about how changes in infant and child mortality risk affect reproductive outcomes....The chapters in this volume contribute to the theoretical, methodological, and empirical literature on three broad fronts: by refining the mechanisms through which mortality decline can affect fertility; by providing a reassessment of the historical record; and by supplying new evidence from detailed case studies in developing countries."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30162 Montgomery, Mark R. Learning and lags in mortality perceptions. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 112-37 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In the first section I consider a model of Bayesian learning about child survival in which individual perceptions are determined by a prior distribution that summarizes initial subjective beliefs about mortality probabilities, these beliefs then being updated by reference to a sample of information on mortality experience, yielding a posterior distribution that summarizes how beliefs change in the light of experience.... In the second section some of the major findings from this experimental literature are reported, and I speculate about their implications for mortality perceptions. In the final section I present conclusions and offer suggestions for a demographic research agenda." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: M. R. Montgomery, State University of New York, Department of Economics, Stony Brook, NY 11790. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30163 Moss, Nancy E.; Carver, Karen. The effect of WIC and Medicaid on infant mortality in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 9, Sep 1998. 1,354-61 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impact of participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and Medicaid on the risk of infant death in the United States is explored using data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. "Participation in the WIC program during pregnancy and infancy was associated with a reduced risk of endogenous and exogenous infant deaths (odds ratios [ORs] = 0.68 and 0.62, respectively). The risk of endogenous death among infants whose mothers participated in Medicaid during pregnancy was equal to that of the privately insured (OR = 1.04). Uninsured infants faced higher risks of endogenous death (OR = 1.42)."
Correspondence: N. E. Moss, 701 Garland, Palo Alto, CA 94303-3604. E-mail: nemoss@worldnet.att.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30164 Oldenburg, C. E. Michael; Rasmussen, Finn; Cotten, Niki U. Ethnic differences in rates of infant mortality and sudden infant death in Sweden, 1978-1990. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1997. 88-94 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study examined ethnic differences in infant mortality rates (IMRs) and rates of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) among Swedish and immigrant women between 1978 and 1990 in Sweden. The study population comprised 1,265,942 single live births to women between the ages of 15 and 44 years in Sweden.... This study revealed no ethnic differences in IMRs. There were also no ethnic differences in the mortality rates due to SIDS, except for immigrant women from Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands who experienced significantly higher rates of SIDS than Swedish women."
Correspondence: F. Rasmussen, University Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: New York University, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York, NY.

64:30165 Rajan, S. Irudaya; Mohanachandran, P. Infant and child mortality estimates--Part I. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 19, May 9, 1998. 1,120-40 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Using some of the information obtained from the 1991 Census, an estimate has been made of the infant and child mortality for all states and union territories along with districts of India by place of residence and sex. We have also estimated infant and child mortality by some social and economic characteristics such as religion, caste, education and occupation for all states and union territories."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30166 Rao, Saumya R.; Pandey, Arvind; Shajy, K. I. Child mortality in Goa: a cross-sectional analysis. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1997. 101-10 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper is a study of the determinants of child mortality in the relatively developed Indian state of Goa. Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 1992-93) conducted in the state of Goa have been used to examine the child mortality experiences of 1,331 women who were within a marriage lasting 15 years. An aggregated index of child mortality, which summarizes the mortality experiences of a woman with exposure adjustment, is the study variable. Maternal education and longer birth spacing were found to lower child mortality risks significantly."
Correspondence: S. R. Rao, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30167 Reher, David S.; Pérez-Moreda, Vicente; Bernabeu-Mestre, Josep. Assessing change in historical contexts: childhood mortality patterns in Spain during the demographic transition. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 35-56 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Data will be presented that will offer proof of the heterogeneity of childhood mortality patterns in rural Spain.... Appropriate indicators will be generated in different regional contexts, and time-series dating from the early nineteenth century to 1960 will be presented. Lags of as much as 30 or 40 years will emerge and the relative intensity of change will be shown to vary sharply for different mortality indicators. Certain regularities can be observed across regional contexts, which suggests that the patterns observed transcend specific local contexts and are at least in part independent of prevailing mortality levels and other contextual constraints."
Correspondence: D. S. Reher, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30168 Reid, Alice. Locality or class? Spatial and social differentials in infant and child mortality in England and Wales, 1895-1911. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 129-54 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using the 1911 census to calculate trends and differentials in infant and child mortality for the 15 or so years leading up to 1911, I have attempted to reveal more about [the role of class and locality in] the demographic transition in England and Wales.... Analysis of the aggregate results from the 1911 census suggests that a child's chance of survival was strongly conditioned by who its parents were, or, more precisely, by what job its father did.... Using individual records from the same source I have demonstrated that, once other factors are controlled for, the largest differentials in infant and child mortality were associated with where the child lived."
Correspondence: A. Reid, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30169 Rollet, Catherine. Childhood mortality in high-risk groups: some methodological reflections based on French experience. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 213-25 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This brief summary and evaluation of the methods used in France to measure the mortality of high-risk groups [in the nineteenth century] shows the progress that was achieved (which was not linear) and its limits." Sections are included on a model inquiry in 1889 on mortality among foundlings, abandoned children, and orphans; problems associated with the use of annual statistics; and the advocacy work of medical practitioners.
Correspondence: C. Rollet, Université Versailles/Saint Quentin-en-Yvelines, 23 rue du Refuge, 78000 Versailles, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30170 Sastry, Narayan. A nested frailty model for survival data, with an application to the study of child survival in northeast Brazil. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 92, No. 438, Jun 1997. 426-35 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article presents a multivariate hazard model for survival data that are clustered at two hierarchical levels.... We apply the model to an analysis of the covariates of child survival using survey data from northeast Brazil collected via a hierarchically clustered sampling scheme. We find that family and community frailty effects are fairly small in magnitude but are of importance because they alter the results in a systematic pattern."
Correspondence: N. Sastry, RAND Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30171 Scott, Cheryl L.; Iyasu, Solomon; Rowley, Diane; Atrash, Hani K. Postneonatal mortality surveillance--United States, 1980-1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 47, No. SS-2, Jul 3, 1998. 15-30 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report contains public health surveillance data that describe [U.S.] trends in postneonatal mortality (PNM) [from 1980 to 1994] and that update information published in 1991.... The PNM rate per 1,000 live births declined 29.8% from 4.1 in 1980 to 2.9 in 1994 (31.7% decline among white infants and 25.8% among black). Most of the decline resulted from reduced mortality from infections and sudden infant death syndrome.... The decline of PNM rates for birth defects was greater for white infants than for black infants. The racial gap in PNM rates widened regionally during the study period, except in the South and the Northeast where ratios remained stable."
Correspondence: C. L. Scott, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30172 Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per; Lie, Rolv T.; Daltveit, Anne K.; Irgens, Lorentz M. Influence of consanguinity and maternal education on risk of stillbirth and infant death in Norway, 1967-1993. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 148, No. 5, Sep 1, 1998. 452-9 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"To analyze the influence of consanguinity and maternal education on stillbirth and infant death for children born in Norway between 1967 and 1993, the authors studied 7,274 children of ethnic Pakistani origin and 1,431,055 children of Norwegian ethnic origin. Of these children, 31.0% of the Pakistani children and 0.1% of the Norwegian children had parents who were first cousins. Consanguinity increased the relative risk of stillbirth...and infant death...after adjustment of maternal education, maternal age, parity, and year of birth. In 1985-1993, 29%...of stillbirths and infant deaths among the Pakistani group were attributable to consanguinity. In the Norwegian group, 17%...of the deaths were attributable to factors associated with low maternal education, while in the Pakistani group, the corresponding estimate was nonsignificant. The risks of stillbirth and infant death were similar for children with non-consanguineous parents in both populations."
Correspondence: C. Stoltenberg, National Institute of Public Health, Department of Population Health Sciences, Section of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 4404 Torshov, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30173 Svenson, Lawrence W.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; Sauve, R. S.; Robertson, Charlene M. T. Alberta's infant mortality rate: the effect of the registration of live newborns weighing less than 500 grams. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique, Vol. 89, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 188-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"We undertook the present analysis to determine the effects of the registration of live births weighing less than 500 grams on Alberta's IMR [infant mortality rate] by linking data on birth and death registrations and comparing the results with a chart review strategy described elsewhere."
Correspondence: L. W. Svenson, Alberta Health, Health Surveillance Branch, P.O. Box 1360, Station Main, Edmonton, Alberta T5J 2N3, Canada. E-mail: svensl@mail.health.gov.ab.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30174 Viazzo, Pier P.; Bortolotto, Maria; Zanotto, Andrea. A special case of decline: levels and trends of infant mortality at Florence's foundling hospital, 1750-1950. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 227-46 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors investigate infant mortality among foundlings in Florence, Italy, from 1750 to 1950. Relationships between infant and early childhood mortality are examined. Some differentials in infant mortality are analyzed, including legitimacy, sex, financial subsidies, and legal recognition of foundlings by their mothers.
Correspondence: P. P. Viazzo, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Verdi 8, 10124 Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30175 Victora, Cesar G.; Vaughan, J. Patrick. Land tenure and child health in Rio Grande do Sul: the relationship between agricultural production, malnutrition and mortality. Brazilian Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 1, 1997-1998. 123-43 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Eng.
"Four different approaches were applied to test the hypothesis that patterns of land tenure and agricultural production in Rio Grande do Sul [Brazil] are important infant mortality determinants. These studies have employed various data sources on distinct analytical levels.... The results...provide reliable evidence of there being a strong relationship between the degree of concentration of land tenure and agricultural production on the one hand, and malnutrition and infant mortality on the other."
Correspondence: C. G. Victora, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Medicina Social, C.P. 464, 96001 Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30176 Vishwanath, L. S. Efforts of colonial state to suppress female infanticide. Use of sacred texts, generation of knowledge. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 19, May 9, 1998. 1,104-12 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
This article summarizes the history of female infanticide in India, and the British colonial government's efforts to suppress it, from the time the British discovered the practice in 1789 to the passage of the Female Infanticide Act in 1870. Information is included on the reasons for and prevalence of the practice, the methods used, and its effects on the sex ratio.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30177 Vögele, Jörg. Urbanization, infant mortality and public health in Imperial Germany. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 109-27 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This chapter attempts to analyse urban infant mortality change in Germany during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries against the background of increasing public health services. As a prerequisite, levels and trends of urban infant mortality and the changing patterns of disease will be analysed. Subsequently, the focus will be on two major elements of sanitary reform--central water-supply and sewage systems and municipal milk supply--and on the growing infant-care movement. For this purpose, the specific developments in the 10 most populous towns (in 1910) and average conditions in all towns with population exceeding 15,000 inhabitants will form the core of the following analysis."
Correspondence: J. Vögele, Universität Düsseldorf, Institut für Geschichte der Medizin, Universitätsstraße 1, 4000 Düsseldorf 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30178 Wang, Duolao; Murphy, Mike. Covariates of infant mortality in China: an exploratory approach. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1998. 21-38 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"To elucidate the nature of the relationship between infant mortality in China and a variety of covariates using data from the 2/1000 Chinese Fertility Survey, we use a logistic regression model where the covariates are transformed with the help of Alternating Conditional Expectation (ACE) algorithm.... The study demonstrates the procedures and usefulness of the ACE guided transformation in multivariate analysis. The transformed covariates are then used to estimate the effects of a series of socioeconomic and demographic factors collected in the study of infant death in China. The study shows that after appropriate transformations, all the demographic and socioeconomic variables selected have statistically significant and direct influence on infant death."
Correspondence: D. Wang, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30179 Wolpin, Kenneth I. The impact of infant and child mortality risk on fertility. In: From death to birth: mortality decline and reproductive change, edited by Mark R. Montgomery and Barney Cohen. 1998. 74-111 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses "the micro foundations of fertility behavior in [developing country] environments where there is significant infant and child mortality risk. My purpose in this chapter is to clarify and summarize the current state of knowledge. To that end, I survey and critically assess three decades of research that has sought to understand and quantify the impact of infant and child mortality risk on childbearing behavior. To do so requires the explication of theory, estimation methodology, and empirical findings."
Correspondence: K. I. Wolpin, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30180 Woods, Robert; Williams, Naomi; Galley, Chris. Differential mortality patterns among infants and other young children: the experience of England and Wales in the nineteenth century. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 57-72 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"There is a long-standing convention--almost a general `rule'--in the demographic literature that the infant mortality rate...will normally be higher than the early childhood mortality rate.... In this short and preliminary chapter we begin to challenge the assumptions that underpin this convention. Most of our examples are drawn from England and Wales in the nineteenth century, but our arguments and the implications to be drawn therefrom have a wider significance, which we shall attempt to elaborate...."
Correspondence: R. Woods, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30181 Wright, Robert E. Marital status and infant mortality. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1997. 147-61 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the relationship between marital status and infant mortality in Jamaica. Discrete-time hazard models that account for unobserved heterogeneity are estimated using the demographic histories of the 1975/76 Jamaican Fertility Survey. The analysis indicates that marital status is an important factor in explaining differences in infant mortality. More specifically (and contrary to what is found unconditionally), infant mortality is higher in common-law (and visiting) unions compared to marriage, after other factors thought to affect infant mortality are held constant."
Correspondence: R. E. Wright, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30182 Wyon, John B. Determinants of rates of early childhood sickness and death, and of long birth intervals: evidence from the Khanna Study, rural Punjab, India, 1954-1969. In: Prospective community studies in developing countries, edited by Monica Das Gupta et al. 1997. 54-80 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter reports selected findings from a longitudinal study of community-based rates of deaths, sicknesses, and birth intervals in eleven villages of the Punjab, India. These findings were the result of broader studies of births, deaths, migrations, and population dynamics, and a test of birth-control methods villagers could use on their own to cause lower birth rates in some village communities." The focus here is on the main findings with regard to high death rates in the second year of life, infections and malnutrition as causes of death in the first two years of life, the most frequent preventable causes of death among preschool children, and the determinants of long birth intervals. The relevance of the Khanna Study for subsequent practices of longitudinal community health research and practice is noted.
Correspondence: J. B. Wyon, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

64:30183 Dinkel, Reiner H. Determination of mortality in the highest age groups: a study supplementing the abridged life tables of the Federal Republic of Germany by the method of extinct generations. [Sterblichkeitsmessung in den obersten Altersstufen: Die Ergänzung abgekürzter bundesdeutscher Sterbetafeln durch die Methode der Extinct Generations.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1997. 493-509 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author uses the extinct generations method to calculate death probabilities at ages over 85. "From birth cohorts 1870 on, this concept has been adopted here for German data.... Recalculating death probabilities above age 85 for the existing complete German life tables, the concept of measurement by extinct generations proves to be well comparable in accuracy to what was calculated by the German Statistical Office."
Correspondence: R. H. Dinkel, Universität Bamberg, Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Insb. Quantitative Verfahren, Feldkirchenstraße 21, 96052 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30184 Meddings, David R.; Hertzman, Clyde; Barer, Morris L.; Evans, Robert G.; Kazanjian, Arminée; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Sheps, Samuel B. Socioeconomic status, mortality, and the development of cataract at a young age. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 11, Jun 1998. 1,451-7 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"It has been hypothesized that senile cataract may serve as a marker for generalised tissue aging.... An earlier analysis we carried out to test this hypothesis revealed a strong age-dependent relationship between undergoing cataract surgery and subsequent mortality. Relative risks for dying over 9 [years] of follow-up were particularly increased for individuals who had developed cataract requiring operation between the ages of 50-65. This finding prompted us to test the hypothesis that [younger patients between 50 and 65] undergoing surgery for cataract...would tend disproportionately to be resident in areas of generally lower socioeconomic status.... The results of this ecologic study prompt consideration of whether factors which have the dual attributes of being correlates of socioeconomic status and implicated in the development of cataract may play a role in mediating the processes involved in the well known association of socioeconomic status and mortality." Data are from a population-based linked health data resource in British Columbia, Canada.
Correspondence: D. R. Meddings, University of British Columbia, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, 5804 Fairview Avenue 429, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30185 Thatcher, A. R.; Kannisto, V.; Vaupel, J. W. The force of mortality at ages 80 to 120. Odense Monographs on Population Aging, Vol. 5, ISBN 87-7838-381-1. 1998. 104, 20 pp. Odense University Press: Odense, Denmark. In Eng.
"The purpose of this monograph is to see whether new data make it possible to re-assess the relative merits of various contending models for the way in which the probability of dying changes with age, at least in the range of ages from 80 to 120. Thirteen countries have a sufficiently long run of reliable data to be useful for the specialised purposes of the present analysis: Austria, Denmark, England and Wales, Finland, France, Germany (West), Iceland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. These countries include almost 40 million persons who reached age 80, and over 120,000 who reached age 100 during the period 1960-1990. The analysis covers over 32 million deaths at age 80 and over in this period. The results show that the Gompertz, Weibull, and Heligman and Pollard models give estimates of mortality which are far too high above age 100. The other three models studied--the logistic, Kannisto and quadratic models--were all far closer to the observed values, and it is not easy to choose among them. Based on various theoretical and pragmatic considerations we conclude that the logistic model and its Kannisto approximation are the best of the six models. The analysis indicates that the probability of dying reaches a value of between about 0.5 and 0.65, for both males and females at age 120."
Correspondence: Odense University Press, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. E-mail: press@forlag.ou.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30186 Waitzman, Norman J.; Smith, Ken R. Phantom of the area: poverty-area residence and mortality in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 6, Jun 1998. 973-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of the study was to conduct a national multivariate analysis on poverty-area residence and mortality in the United States.... Proportional hazards analyses were performed of the effect of poverty-area residence on the risk of mortality among adult examinees in the 1971 through 1974 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who were followed through 1987.... Poverty-area residence was associated with significantly elevated risk of all-cause mortality...and some cause-specific mortality among those aged 25 through 54 years, but not among those aged 55 through 74 years, at baseline after adjustment for several individual and household characteristics."
Correspondence: N. J. Waitzman, University of Utah, Department of Economics, 1645 E Central Campus Dr-Front, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9300. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30187 Wang, Jia; Jamison, Dean T.; Bos, Eduard; Vu, My Thi. Poverty and mortality among the elderly: measurement of performance in 33 countries, 1960-94. Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 2, No. 10, Oct 1997. 1,001-10 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the effect of income and education on life expectancy and mortality rates among the elderly in 33 countries for the period 1960-94 and assesses how that relationship has changed over time as a result of technical progress.... The data are from vital-registration based life tables published by national statistical offices for several years during this period.... The results indicate that, controlling for income, mortality rates among the elderly have declined considerably over the past three decades. We also find that poverty (as measured by low average income levels) explains some of the variation in mortality rates among the elderly across the countries in the sample. The explained amount of variation is more substantial for females than for males." Comparisons are made among several developed and developing countries.
A revised version of this paper with corrected tables and additional country-specific performance graphs is available from the authors as Pacific Rim Publications Series Reprint, No. 28.
Correspondence: J. Wang, University of California, Center for Pacific Rim Studies, 11292 Bunche Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1487. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

64:30188 Bah, Sulaiman M. A critical analytical and historical review of South African published life tables. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 98-2, ISBN 0-7714-2097-8. May 1998. 26 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The paper gives a critical review of South African life tables published since the 1920s. The life tables were constructed on the assumption that vital registration was complete among whites, coloureds and Asians.... Even though the life tables published in the 1920s and 1930s were meticulous and excellent pieces of work, they might have underestimated mortality by assuming completeness in vital registration.... The life tables among coloureds showed the most irregular pattern."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. E-mail: sulaimanb@pwv.gov.za. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30189 Frias, Luís A. de M.; Rodriguez, Paulo. Brazil: model life tables and stable population. Brazilian Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 1, 1997-1998. 41-57 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Eng.
"In the 1974 Meeting of the Brazilian Association for Population Studies, Frias and Leite presented a set of model life tables that were meant to reflect the sex-age structure of Brazilian mortality. A later examination of this study revealed the need for revision and further development in order to improve this valid piece of work." The present article reviews and complements the earlier study.
Correspondence: L. A. de M. Frias, Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Av. Franklin Roosevelt 166, Centro 20021 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30190 Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong, China). Hong Kong life tables: 1991-2016. Jun 1997. 47 pp. Hong Kong, China. In Eng; Chi.
Life tables are presented for Hong Kong by sex for the period 1991-2016. The tables for the years 1991-1995 are calculated using results from the 1996 by-census, those for the years 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016 from estimates.
Correspondence: Census and Statistics Department, Demographic Statistics Section, 6/F Fortress Tower, 250 King's Road, North Point, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30191 Paes, Neir A. Model representation of mortality patterns. [Representação de modelos padrões de mortalidade.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de População, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 169-82 pp. Campinas, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"In this study a bibliographic review of the classical model life tables in the demographic literature is done, calling...attention to the characteristics and limitations of using such models for constructing complete life tables. A critical review with relation to the `Brazil Model' of life tables [is done] and two new models [are] proposed based on the Brazilian experience of mortality."
Correspondence: N. A. Paes, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Departamento de Estatística, Campus Universitário, 58059-900 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

64:30192 Balarajan, R.; Soni Raleigh, Veena. Patterns of mortality among Bangladeshis in England and Wales. Ethnicity and Health, Vol. 2, No. 1-2, Mar-Jun 1997. 5-12 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigate the patterns of mortality among Bangladeshis living in England and Wales.... [They analyze] national mortality data, classified by country of birth, for the latest period (1988-1992).... The mortality among Bangladeshi men was significantly higher...than the levels prevalent in England and Wales. In contrast, the mortality among Bangladeshi women was significantly lower.... The cancer mortality overall was lower than expected in both sexes, with the exception of cancer of the liver and gall bladder. The mortality from breast cancer...and cervical cancer...was lower than expected."
Correspondence: R. Balarajan, Saint Bernard's Hospital, National Institute for Ethnic Studies in Health and Social Policy, Southall, Middlesex UB1 3EU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30193 Blane, David; Drever, Frances. Inequality among men in standardised years of potential life lost, 1970-93. British Medical Journal, Vol. 317, No. 7153, Jul 25, 1998. 255 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Information was published last year about the social class distribution of premature deaths in England and Wales during 1991-3. [In this one-page article, the authors analyze] these deaths in terms of standardised years of potential life lost, a measure that takes account of the age at death as well as death itself. We considered only men of working age because of the importance of this group to policy." The results indicate that "deaths from accidents and violence tend to occur earlier in adulthood than deaths from ischaemic heart disease and neoplasms; and they occur more often in the manual working class. Accidents and violence consequently contribute substantially to the overall health inequalities among men of working age."
Correspondence: D. Blane, Imperial College School of Medicine, Department of Behavioural and Cognitive Science, London W6 8RP, England. E-mail: d.blane@cxwms.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30194 Braun, Kathryn L.; Yang, Haiou; Onaka, Alvin T.; Horiuchi, Brian Y. Asian and Pacific Islander mortality differences in Hawaii. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1997. 213-26 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) to compare mortality rates of the five major ethnic groups in Hawaii (Caucasians, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, and Hawaiians) and (2) to explore methodological issues related to comparative studies of API [Asian and Pacific Islander] health indicators.... In general, death rates were highest for Hawaiians and lowest for Japanese and Chinese illustrating the importance of API data disaggregation and suggesting that special attention be paid to improving the health of Hawaiians. Methodologically, the study demonstrated that, while some compromises in analysis are required, legitimate comparisons across API groups can be made if data sets are available."
Correspondence: K. L. Braun, University of Hawaii, School of Public Health, Center on Aging, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. E-mail: kbraun@hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30195 Chenet, Laurent; Leon, David; McKee, Martin; Vassin, Serguei. Deaths from alcohol and violence in Moscow: socio-economic determinants. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1998. 19-37 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors "examine the association between accidental, violent and alcohol related adult mortality in the Russian capital and socio-economic status characteristics such as educational status, occupational group and marital status.... The probability of death from alcohol related diseases increased as education level decreased, with those men failing to complete secondary education over two and a half times as likely to die from these causes than men with higher education. Blue collar workers were also much more likely to die from these causes than white collar workers. Marriage had a marked protective effect for both men and women."
Correspondence: L. Chenet, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30196 Das Gupta, Monica. "Missing girls" in China, South Korea and India: causes and policy implications. Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies Working Paper Series, No. 98.03, Mar 1998. iv, 19 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We examine the phenomenon of excess female child mortality in China, South Korea and India, where this has been a striking and long standing problem." Chapters are included on levels, trends, and patterns in the proportions of girls "missing"; factors underlying son preference; the experience of not having a son; consequences of son preference, especially the marriage squeeze; and policy implications.
Correspondence: Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. E-mail: cpds@hsph.harvard.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30197 Das Gupta, Monica; Li, Shuzhuo. Gender bias and the "marriage squeeze" in China, South Korea and India 1920-1990: the effects of war, famine and fertility decline. Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies Working Paper Series, No. 97.05, Nov 1997. 24, [8] pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We explore how historical events have influenced the extent of excess female child mortality [in China, South Korea, and India] during 1920-90, and some of the substantial social ramifications of changes in the level of gender-based discrimination. We examine how the level of discrimination has been affected by events in the wider society which place households under severe stress.... We also explore how the marriage market has been affected by the extent of discrimination...."
Correspondence: Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. E-mail: cpds@hsph.harvard.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30198 Davey Smith, George; Hart, Carole; Watt, Graham; Hole, David; Hawthorne, Victor. Individual social class, area-based deprivation, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and mortality: the Renfrew and Paisley study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 6, Jun 1998. 399-405 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigate the associations of individual and area-based socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular disease risk factors and mortality...[in] the towns of Renfrew and Paisley in the west of Scotland.... Both the area-based deprivation indicator and individual social class were associated with generally less favourable profiles of cardiovascular disease risk factors at the time of the baseline screening examinations.... Independent contributions of area-based deprivation and individual social class were generally seen with respect to risk factors and morbidity. All cause and cardiovascular disease mortality rates were both inversely associated with socioeconomic position whether indexed by area-based deprivation or social class."
Correspondence: G. Davey Smith, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30199 Kallan, Jeffrey. Effects of sociodemographic variables on adult mortality in the United States: comparisons by sex, age, and cause of death. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1997. 136-47 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The effects of sociodemographic variables on mortality for U.S. adults are estimated, using data from the National Health Interview Survey matched with National Death Index data.... Results indicate that all of the sociodemographic variables (education, income, employment status, marital status, race) have independent effects on all-cause mortality, with similar-effect sizes for males and females, and weaker effects in the older group (ages 65+) than the younger (ages 25-64). For the separate causes of death, the effects of most sociodemographic variables vary by sex."
Correspondence: J. Kallan, 206 Gibson Street, No. 70, Falls Church, VA 22046. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30200 Klasen, Stephan. Marriage, bargaining, and intrahousehold resource allocation: excess female mortality among adults during early German development, 1740-1860. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 58, No. 2, Jun 1998. 432-67 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This article investigates sex-specific mortality rates in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century rural Germany to determine whether there was any gender bias in the allocation of household resources. Family reconstitution data from 60 villages provide evidence of considerable excess female mortality among married adults. The empirical findings are consistent with a bargaining approach to understanding intrahousehold resource allocation and suggest that women's survival disadvantage is related to their positions in the remarriage market, the perceived value of their work, as well as differences in altruism. Agricultural change appears to be one factor responsible for the emergence of this disadvantage."
Correspondence: S. Klasen, University of Munich, Department of Economics, Schackstraße 4, 80539 Munich, Germany. E-mail: klasen@lrz.uni-muenchen.de. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30201 Kunst, Anton E.; Groenhof, Feikje; Mackenbach, Johan P. Mortality by occupational class among men 30-64 years in 11 European countries. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 11, Jun 1998. 1,459-76 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study compares eleven countries with respect to the magnitude of mortality differences by occupational class, paying particular attention to problems with the reliability and comparability of the data that are available for different countries. Nationally representative data on mortality by occupational class among men 30-64 years at death were obtained from longitudinal and cross-sectional studies.... The magnitude of mortality differences was quantified by three summary indices." Although some differences were found, "this study underlines the similarities rather than the dissimilarities between European countries. There is no evidence that mortality differences are smaller in countries with more egalitarian socio-economic and other policies."
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30202 Lantz, Paula M.; House, James S.; Lepkowski, James M.; Williams, David R.; Mero, Richard P.; Chen, Jieming. Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and mortality: results from a nationally representative prospective study of U.S. adults. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 279, No. 21, Jun 3, 1998. 1,703-8 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
In order to ascertain whether the higher mortality risk among the socioeconomically disadvantaged is due to a higher prevalence of health risk behaviors, the authors "investigate the degree to which 4 behavioral risk factors (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, sedentary lifestyle, and relative body weight) explain the observed association between socioeconomic characteristics and all-cause mortality". Using data from a nationally representative sample of 3,617 adult women and men participating in the Americans' Changing Lives survey, the authors conducted a longitudinal survey to investigate the impact of education, income, and health behaviors on the risk of dying within the next 7.5 years. They found that "when health risk behaviors were considered, the risk of dying was still significantly elevated for the lowest-income group...and the middle-income group"; they conclude that "socioeconomic differences in mortality are due to a wider array of factors and, therefore, would persist even with improved health behaviors among the disadvantaged."
Correspondence: P. M. Lantz, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Health Management and Policy, 109 Observatory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. E-mail: plantz@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30203 Law, M. R.; Morris, J. K. Why is mortality higher in poorer areas and in more northern areas of England and Wales? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 6, Jun 1998. 344-52 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "identify and quantify the factors responsible for the differences in mortality between affluent and deprived areas, the north and the south, and urban and rural areas in England and Wales.... All cause mortality was 15% higher in the districts comprising the most compared with the least deprived tenth of the population, 23% higher in the most northern...than in the most southern...districts, and 4% higher in metropolitan (within large cities) than rural districts.... Differences in the prevalence of smoking account for much of the variation in mortality between areas. Alcohol accounts for some, diet little."
Correspondence: M. R. Law, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30204 Lee, Elisa T.; Cowan, Linda D.; Welty, Thomas K.; Sievers, Maurice; Howard, William J.; Oopik, Arvo; Wang, Wenyu; Yeh, Jeunliang; Devereux, Richard B.; Rhoades, Everett R.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Go, Oscar; Howard, Barbara V. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in three American Indian populations, aged 45-74 years, 1984-1998: the Strong Heart Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 147, No. 11, Jun 1, 1998. 995-1,010 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Community mortality surveillance for 1984-1988 was conducted by researchers of the Strong Heart Study, which examined the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors of cardiovascular disease in three American Indian populations, aged 45-74 years, in Arizona, Oklahoma, and South/North Dakota.... When compared with the rates in each state, average annual all-cause mortality rates were higher for the American Indian populations in almost every age group.... Cardiovascular disease mortality rates were close to the U.S. averages in Arizona and Oklahoma, but they were more than two times higher in South/North Dakota among those between 45 and 64 years of age." An invited commentary by Michael P. Stern is included on pp. 1,009-10.
Correspondence: E. T. Lee, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Public Health, Center for American Indian Health Research, P.O. Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73190. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30205 Nikiforov, Sergey V.; Mamaev, Valery B. The development of sex differences in cardiovascular disease mortality: a historical perspective. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 9, Sep 1998. 1,348-53 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors use some historical data to examine trends in differential mortality by sex from cardiovascular disease (CVD) over time. The data are for England and Wales from 1861 to 1992 and for the United States from 1900 to 1991. "Three stages in the relationship between male and female CVD mortality were found: (1) An early stage of equal male and female mortality, (2) a stage of the appearance of sex differences in mortality, and (3) a stage with consistently present male excess mortality. [They conclude that] male excess mortality from CVD has not always been present in the historical record. Further research is needed to elucidate the causes of this excess mortality."
Correspondence: S. V. Nikiforov, Systems Applications International, ICF Kaiser Consulting Group, 101 Lucas Valley Road, San Rafael, CA 94903-1791. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30206 Peng, Fei. Mortality differentials and changes in the regions of China during the 1980s. [Disparités et changements de la mortalité régionale en R.P. de Chine dans les années 1980.] In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 3. 1997. 1,353-69 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Fre.
A multivariate analysis of recent changes in mortality in mainland China is presented using data from the 1982 and 1990 censuses. The focus is on regional differentials in mortality and on regional changes in mortality over time. The results indicate that levels of mortality increase in a steady fashion from the regions bordering the coast in the east to the remoter regions situated in the west of the country. People living in urban areas have the highest life expectancy and those in the western regions the lowest. The impact of infant mortality on mortality differentials in general is significant. Most regions experienced increases in life expectancy over the period studied, and regions that had the highest levels of mortality in 1982 registered the most improvement in life expectancy over time.
Correspondence: F. Peng, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30207 Pinnelli, Antonella; Mancini, Paola. Gender mortality differences from birth to puberty in Italy, 1887-1940. In: The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750-1990, edited by Carlo A. Corisini and Pier P. Viazzo. 1997. 73-93 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors analyze differential mortality trends by sex from infancy to puberty in Italy during the period 1887-1940. They aim "to reconstruct an important aspect of living conditions (that is, gender differentials) and provide material on the hypothesized biological differences." Aspects considered include gender differences by cause of death and at times of great historical upheaval.
Correspondence: A. Pinnelli, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30208 Rychtaríková, Jitka. Mortality in the Czech republic by family status. [Úmrtnost v Ceské Republice podle rodinného stavu.] Demografie, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1998. 93-102 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"A differential mortality study of marital status and medical causes of death has been made for the period 1982-1993 for the Czech republic...within two age groups: 15-69 years and 70 or more.... Mortality patterns by marital status have shown stronger differences in the first (younger) group and for males. Married people most contributed to the recent decrease in mortality and thus the inequalities in mortality by marital status have widened."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30209 Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.; Leon, David A.; Adamets, Sergey; Andreev, Eugeniy; Deev, Alexander. Educational level and adult mortality in Russia: an analysis of routine data 1979 to 1994. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 3, Aug 1998. 357-69 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"The investigation of socio-economic differences in mortality in Russia was effectively prohibited in the Soviet period.... Using cross-sectional data on mortality in Russia around the 1979 and 1989 Censuses, we have analysed mortality gradients according to length of education. Our results show that educational differences in mortality are at least as big as seen in Western countries, and are most similar to the recently reported differences observed for other former communist countries such as the Czech Republic, Estonia and Hungary. As observed in many other countries the strength of association of mortality with education declines with age, varies by cause of death and is generally stronger among men than women." The author suggests that the differentials may be related to educational differences in alcohol consumption and points out that socioeconomic mortality differences have widened in the 1990s.
Correspondence: V. M. Shkolnikov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Economic Forecasting, Center of Demography and Human Ecology, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30210 Solomon, Caren G.; Manson, JoAnn E. Obesity and mortality: a review of the epidemiologic data. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 66, No. 4, Suppl., 1997. 1,044-50 pp. Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"We review the literature concerning obesity and mortality [in the United States], with reference to body fat distribution and weight gain, and consider potential effects of sex, age, and race on this relation. We conclude that when appropriate adjustments are made for effects of smoking and underlying disease, optimal weights are below average in both men and women; this appears to be true throughout the adult life span.... Weight gain in adulthood is also associated with increased mortality."
Correspondence: C. G. Solomon, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of General Medicine, Section for Clinical Epidemiology, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30211 Trovato, Frank; Lalu, N. M. Contribution of cause-specific mortality to changing sex differences in life expectancy: seven nations case study. Social Biology, Vol. 45, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1998. 1-20 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"During the last two decades some industrialized nations witnessed varying degrees of constriction in their sex gaps in overall life expectancy. We investigate this development by paying particular attention to the contributions of major causes of death to the change in the difference between 1970 and 1990. The analysis is based on the experiences of seven nations: Australia, United States, Sweden, England and Wales, Portugal, Hungary, and Japan.... We apply decomposition analysis to answer the following questions: (1) What is the relative contribution of major causes of death to sex differences in average length of life within broad age categories? (2) How do the contributions of age and cause of death vary across time to either widen or narrow the sex gap in survival? (3) How do the patterns of cause contribution vary across societies?"
Correspondence: F. Trovato, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

64:30212 Booth, Heather. Pacific Island suicide in comparative perspective. Working Papers in Demography, No. 76, 1998. 18 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper provides...a comprehensive comparative assessment of suicide in the Pacific region.... Levels of suicide are compared regionally and globally. Age, sex and method of suicide are examined in detail. The paper provides a regional perspective, identifying both commonality and diversity."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30213 Bradshaw, Benjamin S.; Smith, David P. Decline of tuberculosis mortality in an urban Mexican-origin population, 1935-1984. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1997. 25-41 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Through a series of life table analyses, this paper describes the natural history of tuberculosis mortality in a Mexican-origin [U.S.] community over five decades (1935-84) during which the disease underwent a transition from a major underlying cause of death to a disease condition mentioned more often on death certificates as contributing to death than causing death.... There was a rapid convergence in age-specific patterns of tuberculosis death rates in Mexican Americans toward those of non-Hispanic whites, so that by 1960 tuberculosis was primarily a cause of death in old age rather than young adulthood."
Correspondence: B. S. Bradshaw, University of Texas School of Public Health, Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78284. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30214 Caraël, Michel; Schwartländer, Bernhard. Demographic impact of AIDS. AIDS, Vol. 12, Suppl., No. 1, 1998. 50 pp. Lippincott-Raven: London, England. In Eng.
"The papers in this special issue of AIDS emanated from a meeting jointly organized by the World Bank and UNAIDS. Held in Washington, D.C., in January 1998, the meeting sought to stimulate and inform discussion on the demographic impact of AIDS." Articles in this issue are as follows: Mortality impact of the AIDS epidemic: evidence from community studies in less developed countries, by J. Ties Boerma, Andrew J. Nunn, and James A. G. Whitworth; Impact of the HIV epidemic on mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from national surveys and censuses, by Ian M. Timæus; Projecting the impact of AIDS on mortality, by John Stover and Peter Way; and Measuring the impact of HIV on fertility in Africa, by Basia Zaba and Simon Gregson.
Correspondence: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30215 Carolei, Antonio; Marini, Carmine; Di Napoli, Mario; Di Gianfilippo, Giacinto; Santalucia, Paola; Baldassarre, Massimo; De Matteis, Giorgio; di Orio, Ferdinando. High stroke incidence in the prospective community-based L'Aquila registry (1994-1998): first year's results. Stroke, Vol. 28, No. 12, Dec 1997. 2,500-6 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"Changes in stroke incidence are likely to occur as a consequence of aging of the population, but evidence for this hypothesis is lacking.... A prospective community-based registry of first-ever strokes (1994 to 1998)...was established in the L'Aquila district, central Italy, with a total population of 297, 838.... In 1994, 819 patients...suffered from a first-ever stroke.... In our population-based study, we found a high stroke incidence notably in the older age subgroups, suggesting that rather than declining, stroke is only being postponed until later in life."
Correspondence: A. Carolei, Università degli Studi di L'Aquila, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna Sanità Pubblica, Clinica Neurologica, 67100 L'Aquila-Collemaggio, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30216 Fernquist, Robert M.; Cutright, Phillips. Societal integration and age-standardized suicide rates in 21 developed countries, 1955-1989. Social Science Research, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jun 1998. 109-27 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"Gender-specific age-standardized suicide rates for 21 developed countries over seven 5-year periods (1955-59...1985-89) form the two dependent variables. Durkheim's theory of societal integration is the framework used to generate the independent variables, although several recent theories are also examined. The results from a MGLS multiple regression analysis of both male and female rates provide overwhelming support for a multidimensional theory of societal integration and suicide, as first suggested by Durkheim."
Correspondence: P. Cutright, Rte. 1, Box 243C, Saluda, NC 28773. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30217 Fillmore, Kaye M.; Golding, Jacqueline M.; Graves, Karen L.; Kniep, Steven; Leino, E. Victor; Romelsjo, Anders; Shoemaker, Carlisle; Ager, Catherine R.; Allebeck, Peter; Ferrer, Heidi P. Alcohol consumption and mortality. I. Characteristics of drinking groups. Addiction, Vol. 93, No. 2, Feb 1998. 183-203 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This is the first of a set of three papers evaluating drinking status and mortality risk [in the United States]. Analyses of multiple studies describe associations of drinking patterns with characteristics hypothesized to confound the relationships between drinking status and mortality.... The current paper assesses cross-sectional associations between drinking patterns and some health, social position, social integration and mental health characteristics."
Correspondence: K. M. Fillmore, University of California, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Box 0646, Laurel Heights, San Francisco, CA 94143-0646. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30218 Fillmore, Kaye M.; Golding, Jacqueline M.; Graves, Karen L.; Kniep, Steven; Leino, E. Victor; Romelsjö, Anders; Shoemaker, Carlisle; Ager, Catherine R.; Allebeck, Peter; Ferrer, Heidi P. Alcohol consumption and mortality. III. Studies of female populations. Addiction, Vol. 93, No. 2, Feb 1998. 219-29 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This is the third of a set of three papers evaluating drinking status and mortality risk. Analysis of three general population surveys of [U.S.] women evaluated all-cause mortality rates by drinking pattern.... Analyses...were consistent with the hypothesis that abstainers differed from light drinkers in ways that might account for abstainers' greater mortality risk. Abstaining women were less likely to be employed and, when they were employed, had lower-status jobs, had less education, were more likely to be members of ethnic minority groups, described their health as worse, [and] were more likely to be obese than light drinkers...."
Correspondence: K. M. Fillmore, University of California, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Box 0646, Laurel Heights, San Francisco, CA 94143-0646. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30219 Fingerhut, Lois A.; Ingram, Deborah D.; Feldman, Jacob J. Homicide rates among U.S. teenagers and young adults. Differences by mechanism, level of urbanization, race, and sex, 1987 through 1995. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 280, No. 5, Aug 5, 1998. 423-7 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Homicide rates for persons 15 through 24 years old [in the United States] began to decline between 1993 and 1994, but recent trends in homicide rates by mechanism of homicide and urbanization group have not been described.... [The authors] examine homicide trends from 1987 through 1995 for persons 15 through 24 years old by urbanization level." The results indicate that "after increasing since 1987, firearm and non firearm homicide rates began declining between 1993 and 1995 among persons 15 through 24 years old. These declines are taking place across all urbanization strata and among white and black males and females."
Correspondence: L. A. Fingerhut, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Office of Analysis, Epidemiology, and Health Promotion, 6525 Belcrest Road, No. 750, Hyattsville, MD 20782. E-mail: LAF4@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30220 Fingerhut, Lois A.; Cox, Christine S. Poisoning mortality, 1985-1995. Public Health Reports, Vol. 113, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 218-35 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper, we report on our analysis of poisoning mortality in the United States in 1995 and trends in poisoning mortality over the decade from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. We will (a) explain how we have defined poisoning deaths, (b) summarize age-, sex-, cause-specific, and geographic patterns of deaths for which poisoning was reported as the underlying cause, (c) report trends in poisoning mortality for 1985-1995, and (d) discuss why a thorough understanding of the causes of poisoning mortality must take account of more than the underlying causes of poisoning deaths." A commentary by Albert Woodward is included (pp. 234-5).
Correspondence: L. A. Fingerhut, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Room 750, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. E-mail: laf4@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30221 Fortney, Judith A. Measurement and levels of maternal mortality. In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 1. Sep 1997. 85-101 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, Département des Sciences de la Population et du Développement: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
"After discussing current definitions of maternal mortality, this chapter describes measurement issues, means of estimating maternal mortality, and levels of maternal mortality in the world today and in the past." Attention is given to the declines in levels of maternal mortality that have occurred in both the developed and developing countries, and to their causes.
Correspondence: J. A. Fortney, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30222 Gaudette, Leslie A.; Altmayer, Christopher A.; Wysocki, Marek; Gao, Ru-Nie. Cancer incidence and mortality across Canada. [L'incidence du cancer et de la mortalité par cancer au Canada.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 10, No. 1, Summer 1998. 51-66; 55-68 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article analyses provincial and territorial patterns in incidence and mortality rates for selected cancer sites.... Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated for Canada and each province/territory for men and women for major cancer sites for the 1991-1993 period.... Geographic variations in cancer incidence and mortality rates are strongly influenced by trends in the four leading cancers: lung, colorectal, prostate and breast.... These patterns generally reflect provincial/territorial variations in smoking prevalence, dietary habits, and the extent of cancer control programs, such as screening."
Correspondence: L. A. Gaudette, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30223 Grønbæk, M. Wine and mortality. BioFactors, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1997. 377-83 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In the present chapter the question of possible different effects of beer, wine and spirits in data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study will be addressed.... The results...strongly suggest that, in addition to the common effect of ethanol, there are--within the studied range of drinking--different factors influencing health in the three types of beverages.... [We find] that only wine drinking clearly reduces both risk of dying from cardio- and cerebrovascular disease, and risk of dying from other causes...."
Correspondence: M. Grønbæk, Copenhagen University Hospital, Danish Epidemiology Science Center, Institute of Preventive Medicine, 1399 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30224 Immonen-Räihä, Pirjo; Mähönen, Markku; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaarsalo, Esko; Narva, Erkki V.; Salmi, Kalervo; Sarti, Cinzia; Sivenius, Juhani; Alhainen, Kari; Torppa, Jorma. Trends in case-fatality of stroke in Finland during 1983 to 1992. Stroke, Vol. 28, No. 12, Dec 1997. 2,493-9 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"Stroke mortality has been declining in Finland during the past 20 years. It is not known, however, whether this favorable development is attributable to the decline in the incidence or case-fatality of stroke. For this reason we examine the trends in case-fatality of stroke, including trends by subtype of stroke.... The 28-day case-fatality of stroke fell yearly by 3.6%...in men and by 2.6%...in women. At the end of the study period, the average 28-day case-fatality of all strokes was 20% in men and 21% in women. Considerable differences by subtype of stroke were observed."
Correspondence: P. Immonen-Räihä, City of Turku Health Office, Health and Stroke Center, P.O. Box 11, 20701, Turku, Finland. E-mail: pirjo.immonen-raiha@turku.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30225 Kallan, Jeffrey E. Drug abuse-related mortality in the United States: patterns and correlates. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1998. 103-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the sociodemographic determinants of psychoactive drug-related mortality in the United States, using data from the National Health Interview Survey (1987-1990 combined) linked with National Death Index data (deaths through 1991). Proportional hazards models are used to estimate the gross and net effects of age, sex, race, marital status, education, income, employment status, and health status on the risk of drug-related mortality. Results show that age, sex, and race (the main breakdowns in previous studies), as well as marital status, income, and health status have significant net effects on the risk of drug-related mortality."
Correspondence: J. E. Kallan, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30226 Kelsall, J. E.; Samet, J. M.; Zeger, S. L.; Xu, J. Air pollution and mortality in Philadelphia, 1974-1988. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 9, Nov 1, 1997. 750-62 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from various studies on the association between air pollution and mortality in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, undertaken in the period 1974-1988 are used in a new analysis in which the authors attempt to control for the effects of temporal factors, weather, and other pollutants in order to estimate the independent effect of total suspended particles (TSP) on mortality. The results confirm the association between TSP and mortality found in previous studies in Philadelphia and show that the association is robust to consideration of other pollutants.
Correspondence: J. M. Samet, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30227 Krug, E. G.; Powell, K. E.; Dahlberg, L. L. Firearm-related deaths in the United States and 35 other high- and upper-middle-income countries. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 2, Apr 1998. 214-21 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We compared the incidence of firearm-related deaths among 36 countries.... During the one-year study period, 88,649 firearm deaths were reported. Overall firearm mortality rates are five to six times higher in HI and UMI [high-income and upper-middle-income] countries in the Americas (12.72) than in Europe (2.17), or Oceania (2.57) and 95 times higher than in Asia (0.13). The rate of firearm deaths in the United States (14.24 per 100,000) exceeds that of its economic counterparts (1.76) eightfold and that of UMI countries (9.69) by a factor of 1.5."
Correspondence: E. G. Krug, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention, Mailstop K60, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30228 Lachs, Mark S.; Williams, Christianna S.; O'Brien, Shelley; Pillemer, Karl A.; Charlson, Mary E. The mortality of elder mistreatment. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 280, No. 5, Aug 5, 1998. 428-32 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Although elder mistreatment is suspected to be life threatening in some instances, little is known about the survival of elderly persons who have been mistreated.... [The authors] estimate the independent contribution of reported elder abuse and neglect to all-cause mortality in an observational cohort of community-dwelling older adults [in the United States].... [Data were from] The New Haven Established Population for Epidemiologic Studies in the Elderly cohort, which included 2,812 community-dwelling adults who were older than 65 years in 1982, a subset of whom were referred to protective services for the elderly.... [The results indicate that] reported and corroborated elder mistreatment and self-neglect are associated with shorter survival after adjusting for other factors associated with increased mortality in older adults."
Correspondence: M. S. Lachs, New York Hospital-Cornell University Medical College, Division of Geriatrics and Gerontology, 525 East 68th Street, Box 46, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30229 Leino, E. Victor; Romelsjö, Anders; Shoemaker, Carlisle; Ager, Catherine R.; Allebeck, Peter; Ferrer, Heidi P.; Fillmore, Kaye M.; Golding, Jacqueline M.; Graves, Karen L.; Kniep, Steven. Alcohol consumption and mortality. II. Studies of male populations. Addiction, Vol. 93, No. 2, Feb 1998. 205-18 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This is the second of a set of three papers evaluating drinking status and mortality risk. Analysis of eight general population surveys of [U.S.] men evaluated all-cause mortality rates by drinking pattern.... The analyses (a) evaluate alternative definitions of drinking patterns...; (b) conduct separate analyses for male youth...and adults...; (c) separate long-term abstainers from former drinkers...; (d) control for characteristics believed to confound associations of drinking patterns with mortality risk...; and (e) conduct independent analyses by study as well as synthesize results to determine the degree to which the results replicate."
Correspondence: E. V. Leino, University of California, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Box 0646, Laurel Heights, San Francisco, CA 94143-0646. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30230 Mäkelä, Pia; Valkonen, Tapani; Poikolainen, Kari. Estimated numbers of deaths from coronary heart disease "caused" and "prevented" by alcohol: an example from Finland. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 58, No. 5, Sep 1997. 455-63 pp. Piscataway, New Jersey. In Eng.
"Epidemiological studies show that moderate alcohol consumption rather than abstention is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. Our objective was to adjust established methods for calculating attributable fractions to a situation where the risk function is J-shaped and to estimate the number of CHD deaths `caused' and `prevented' by alcohol in Finland.... Our best estimates suggest that approximately one-tenth of the observed number of CHD deaths among middle-aged men in Finland is `prevented' by alcohol, while the relative effect is considerably smaller among older men and all women."
Correspondence: P. Mäkelä, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Population Research Unit, P.O. Box 18 (Unioninkatu 35), 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30231 Mannino, David M.; Ford, Earl; Giovino, Gary A.; Thun, Michael. Lung cancer deaths in the United States from 1979 to 1992: an analysis using multiple-cause mortality data. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 2, Apr 1998. 159-66 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We sought to describe trends in the presence of lung cancer at the time of death in the United States from 1979 to 1992.... We analysed death certificate reports in the Multiple-Cause Mortality Files compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics.... Of the 29,042,213 decedents in the study period, 1,892,129 (6.5%) had a diagnosis of lung cancer listed on their death certificates; of these 1,892,129 decedents, 1,734,767 (91.7%) had lung cancer listed as the underlying cause of death. Decedents with lung cancer listed as being present but not the underlying cause of death were more likely to be male...and older..., but less likely to be black than white...."
Correspondence: D. M. Mannino, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, 4770 Buford Highway, M/S F-39, Atlanta, GA 30341. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30232 Mcisaac, Sandra J.; Wilkinson, Richard G. Income distribution and cause-specific mortality. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1997. 45-53 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim was to identify the age-, sex- and cause-specific premature mortality rates contributing to the association between life expectancy and income distribution in developed countries. Income distribution was calculated for the 13 OECD countries and years for which the Luxembourg Income Study held data.... A more egalitarian distribution of income was related to lower all-cause mortality rates in both sexes in most age groups.... Income distribution was associated not only with larger absolute changes in mortality from these causes, but also with larger proportionate changes."
Correspondence: R. G. Wilkinson, University of Sussex, Trafford Centre for Medical Research, Brighton BN1 9RY, England. Location: New York University, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York, NY.

64:30233 Midhet, Farid; Becker, Stan; Berendes, Heinz W. Contextual determinants of maternal mortality in rural Pakistan. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 12, Jun 1998. 1,587-98 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigated the risk factors associated with maternal mortality in sixteen rural districts of Balochistan and the North-West Frontier (NWFP) provinces of Pakistan. [They] designed a nested case-control study comprising 261 cases (maternal deaths reported during [the] last five years) and 9,135 controls (women who survived a pregnancy during [the] last five years). Using contextual analysis, [they] estimated the interactions between the biological risk factors of maternal mortality and the district-level indicators of health services. Women under 19 or over 39 [years] of age, those having their first birth, and those having a previous history of fetal loss were at greater risk of maternal death. Staffing patterns of peripheral health facilities in the district and accessibility of essential obstetric care (EOC) were significantly associated with maternal mortality."
Correspondence: F. Midhet, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 7B05, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30234 Nizard, Alfred; Bourgoin, Nicolas; de Divonne, Geneviève. Suicide and social malaise. [Suicide at mal-être social.] Population et Sociétés, No. 334, Apr 1998. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of recent trends in suicide in France is presented using official data. Particular attention is given to the relations between suicide and alcohol consumption, the breakdown of family ties, unemployment, and suicide among young adults.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30235 Obiri, Godwin U.; Fordyce, E. James; Singh, Tejinder P.; Forlenza, Susan. Effect of HIV/AIDS versus other causes of death on premature mortality in New York City, 1983-1994. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 147, No. 9, May 1998. 840-5 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study examined years of potential life lost (YPLL) before age 65 years to assess the relative impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) versus other leading causes of death on premature mortality in New York City, New York, between 1983 and 1994. Most causes of death showed substantial year-to-year variation in YPLL, with the exception of HIV/AIDS. The YPLL attributed to HIV/AIDS increased monotonically from 11,866 in 1983 to 167,317 in 1994, a nearly 15-fold increase. The rank order of the relative contribution of HIV/AIDS to total YPLL changed from the eighth leading cause of death to the leading cause. YPLL from heart disease, which ranked second in 1983, declined to fourth in 1994, homicide was unchanged, and chronic liver disease declined from fifth to ninth rank. The annual YPLL attributed to malignant neoplasms was similar to that for heart disease, but peaked in 1984, and the reduction over the subsequent decade was about 13%. Total YPLL was 78% greater among males than among females in 1983 and was nearly twice as high in 1994."
Correspondence: G. U. Obiri, New York City Department of Health, Office of AIDS Surveillance, 125 Worth Street, P.O. Box 44, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30236 Okolocha, Chike; Chiwuzie, Jasper; Braimoh, Suleiman; Unuigbe, Jacob; Olumeko, Patience. Socio-cultural factors in maternal morbidity and mortality: a study of a semi-urban community in southern Nigeria. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 5, May 1998. 293-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors investigate "community based or socio-cultural factors that determine maternal morbidity and mortality in a semi-urban setting...in central part of Edo state in southern Nigeria.... There is a fairly good knowledge of haemorrhage but this is circumscribed by attitudes, practices, and situations that keep women away from or delay the decision to seek modern obstetric care."
Correspondence: C. Okolocha, University of Benin, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30237 Oldfield, Katherine; Milne, Ruairidh; Vessey, Martin. The effects on mortality of the use of combined oral contraceptives. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1, Apr 1998. 2-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "assess, using a computerised model, the effects on mortality of the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) [using] two hypothetical cohorts of one million women each, identical except for their use of contraception.... Based on the standard pattern of use, there were 1.7 per cent more deaths in the COC cohort to age 50. The important effects on mortality of different patterns of use and of different assumptions about risks in ex-users were illustrated."
Correspondence: K. Oldfield, University of Southampton, Wessex Institute for Health Research and Development, Southampton S016 7PX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30238 Stepukonis, Faustas. The development of suicides in the Scandinavian and the post-Soviet Baltic countries in a postindustrial-country context. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 35-46 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"A review of developmental trends in the suicide rate in the Baltic region and the OECD countries from the 1960s until the present is the focus of this article.... It is argued that the post-Soviet Baltic and Scandinavian model of suicide development can be explained by Durkheim's classical suicide theory. However, explaining the postindustrial type of suicide tendencies requires acceptance of a long-lasting anomie model for the prediction of suicide rates.... The conclusion is that there are preconditions and empirical evidence for predicting the process of a declining suicide rate in the groups of the countries investigated."
Correspondence: F. Stepukonis, Klaipeda University, Department of Social Sciences, Klaipeda, Lithuania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30239 Stockwell, Edward G.; Goza, Franklin W.; Luse, Verl O. Infectious disease mortality among adults by race and socioeconomic status: metropolitan Ohio, 1989-1991. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1997. 148-52 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The data presented here are part of an on-going longitudinal study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and [infectious disease] mortality in the major metropolitan centers of Ohio. Using a Standardized Mortality Ratio, we find that mortality in the seven-city urban aggregate exceeds that of the rest of the state by 39 per cent for the nonwhite population and only 1 per cent for the white population. Further, for the nonwhite population, living in a high income area has no discernible health benefit for nonwhites as compared to whites. On the other hand, for the AIDS virus, there is a clear inverse association between economic status, and mortality from AIDS."
Correspondence: E. G. Stockwell, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30240 Vartiainen, Erkki; Pekkanen, Juha; Koskinen, Seppo; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Puska, Pekka. Do changes in cardiovascular risk factors explain the increasing socioeconomic difference in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Finland? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 52, No. 7, Jul 1998. 416-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The objective of this study is "to estimate the extent to which changes in blood pressure, smoking, and serum cholesterol concentration explain the observed increase in socioeconomic differences in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in Finland during the past 20 years.... Predicted changes in mortality from IHD were calculated using logistic regression models with the risk factor levels assessed by cross sectional population surveys conducted in 1972, 1977, 1982, and 1987." The study analyzes data on a total of 16,741 men and 16,389 women aged 30-59. The authors conclude that "less than half of the decline in IHD mortality among white collar men was explained by the risk factor changes, while they explained 75% of the decline among blue collar men and 89% of the decline among male farmers. Changes in risk factors did not explain the increasing difference in IHD mortality between the socioeconomic groups, especially among men."
Correspondence: E. Vartiainen, National Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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