Volume 64 - Number 2 - Summer 1998

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

64:20703 Blayo, Yves. The persistence of population problems in China. [Persistance des problèmes démographiques en Chine.] Population et Sociétés, No. 331, Jan 1998. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines current population trends in China, and assesses the extent to which the government has been successful in tackling such problems as urbanization and rapid population growth. Some of the unintended consequences of the population policies adopted are discussed, such as selective abortion of female fetuses, infanticide of the newborn, and the abandonment of children, primarily girls.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75020 Paris, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20704 Dix, Holger. Population policy and German cooperation with developing countries: a policy study based on a case study of Rwanda. [Bevölkerungspolitik in der deutschen Entwicklungszusammenarbeit: eine Policy-Studie am Fallbeispiel Ruanda.] ISBN 3-929440-84-9. LC 96-228437. 1996. 183 pp. Agenda Verlag: Münster, Germany. In Ger.
This study analyzes the role of population policy within the framework of the efforts of the developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in their economic, political, and social development. The author focuses on Germany's work with the developing world, particularly Rwanda, where he has had personal experience. He examines in detail the German process of policy initiation, development, and implementation, and evaluates the extent to which population goals can and should form a part of this process.
Correspondence: Agenda Verlag, Hammer Straße 223, 48153 Münster, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20705 Ertur, Omer S.; House, William J. An integrated approach to population and human resources development planning: a suggested framework for the Sudan. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1993. 57-82 pp. Grahamstown, South Africa. In Eng.
"The principal objective of this article is to illustrate how the dire economic crisis prevailing in the Sudan necessitates greater recognition of the major role played by demographic phenomena in creating the country's problems. We argue that while state planning and direct involvement in the economy may be justifiably retracting throughout Africa, the public sector cannot absolve itself from taking responsibility for planning and policy-making in the broad area of population and human resources development. We then evaluate the current nature and scope of population and human resources planning in the Sudan and provide a description of the machinery and institutions involved in the planning process and assess their overall effectiveness."
Correspondence: O. S. Ertur, United Nations Population Fund, Katmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20706 Knaul, Felicia; Parker, Susan. Day care and female employment in Mexico: descriptive evidence and policy considerations. [Cuidado infantil y empleo femenino en México: evidencia descriptiva y consideraciones sobre las políticas.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1996. 577-607, 660-1 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper analyzes the supply and organization of public day care in Mexico and presents a series of considerations as to the formulation of future policy. The research concentrates on the evolution of public policies to provide day care to working women in the formal sector through the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS). Data on the evolution of female labor force participation, changes in family structure, the supply of day care and patterns of child care arrangements, suggest that access to formal facilities falls short of demand.... Innovative policies for the reorganization and expansion of the provision of day care are presently under consideration."
Correspondence: S. Parker, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20707 Meznaric, Silva. Population, nation, number: demography and the politics of ethnicity in modern Europe. [Populacija, nacija, broj: demografija i politika etnosa u modernoj Europi.] Revija za Sociologiju/Sociological Review, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 19-33 pp. Zagreb, Croatia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses ethnicity and population policy in post-Communist Europe. "The author explores [the] association between types of state regimes and types of population policies; it is argued that, after comparison of compatible cases, types of regimes do not [covary] with types of population policies. It is argued that one should associate types of population policy with types of intervention into [the] private sphere instead."
Correspondence: S. Meznaric, Institut za Migracije i Narodnosti, Zagreb, Croatia. E-mail: silva.meznaric@public.srce.hr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20708 Moutome-Ekambi, J. Concerning the social acceptability of the population policy in Cameroon. [De l'acceptabilité sociale de la politique de population du Cameroun.] African Anthropology/Anthropologie Africaine, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, 1994. 9-20 pp. Yaoundé, Cameroon. In Fre.
The author reviews the population policies that have evolved in Cameroon over time, and discusses the sociocultural context in which these developments have taken place. Several factors are identified that would act against a significant decline in fertility in the near future.
Correspondence: J. Moutome-Ekambi, Réseau OCISCA, B.P. 394, Dschang, Cameroon. Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

64:20709 Schlebusch, Cornelia. Population policy as a development strategy: historical and current background to a questionable argument. [Bevölkerungspolitik als Entwicklungsstrategie: Historisches und Aktuelles zu einem fragwürdigen Argument.] ISBN 3-88939-279-2. LC 95-160915. 1994. 193 pp. IKO-Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation: Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Ger.
This work is concerned with the linkage between economic development and population growth and policy. The author first gives a historical overview of various theories on population and development, and examines the purported connections between population growth and factors influencing development such as poverty, resource depletion, food supply, and political stability. She then addresses the situation of women and the population policies that have been implemented in various countries around the world, focusing on whether they leave women free to shape their own destiny.
Correspondence: Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation, Postfach 900 965, 60449 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

64:20710 Bourcier de Carbon, Philippe. Fluctuations in relative income and the baby boom in the United States. [Fluctuations du revenu relatif et "baby-boom" aux USA.] Population et Avenir, No. 635, Nov-Dec 1997. 2-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
In order to evaluate the necessity for and effectiveness of France's pronatalist policies, the author examines the causes of the postwar baby boom in the United States. He concludes that the U.S. baby boom was closely linked to a massive transfer of national resources to the generation of childbearing age in the form of federal grants and loans for education and housing. He then suggests that it is unrealistic to assume that fertility will spontaneously stabilize at around replacement level in France or elsewhere, as the transfer of a major part of national resources to the increasing older segment of the population will have a negative effect on fertility.
Correspondence: P. Bourcier de Carbon, Population et Avenir, 35 rue Marbeuf, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20711 De Silva, W. Indralal. Population planning strategies and programmes in Sri Lanka. Asian Profile, Vol. 23, No. 5, Oct 1995. 399-406 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
The author examines population and family planning strategies and programs in Sri Lanka. Aspects considered include population growth and family planning; mortality and morbidity; population redistribution; and immigration and emigration.
Correspondence: W.I. De Silva, University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit, 94 Cumaratunga Munidasa Mawatha, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

64:20712 Tárkányi, Ákos. European family policies: the history of the French family policy. [Európai családpolitikák: a Francia családpolitika történte.] Demográfia, Vol. 40, No. 1, 1997. 42-65 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Developments in policies designed to assist the family in France over the course of the twentieth century are described. The author also presents information on trends in fertility, third-order births, cohabitation, and divorce in recent decades.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

64:20713 Dávila, Alberto; Pagán, José A.; Viladrich Grau, Montserrat. The impact of IRCA on the job opportunities and earnings of Mexican-American and Hispanic-American workers. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, Spring 1998. 79-95 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article studies the earnings gap between Mexican, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white male workers resulting from changes in both the [U.S.] wage structure and immigration laws that occurred during the 1980s. Our results suggest that Mexican and Hispanic workers were adversely affected by these two changes. Using data from the 1980 and 1990 One Percent Public Use Microdata Samples, we show that these `at-risk' workers minimized the negative impact of the increases in the returns to skill by gaining in the non-Hispanic white residual wage distribution. We conclude that at-risk workers increased their work effort to lessen the effects of Act-induced employment losses. Using 1983-1992 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and EEOC [Equal Employment Opportunity Commission] data for this period, we provide support for this contention."
Correspondence: A. Dávila, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78539. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20714 Driscoll, Barbara A. Comparative migration issues. Critical Sociology, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1995. 67-74 pp. Eugene, Oregon. In Eng.
"This article reviews migration issues in Canada, the United States, and Mexico in the context of a general interpretation that NAFTA's [North American Free Trade Agreement] migration provisions are insufficient to deal with the larger continental migration problems."
Correspondence: B. A. Driscoll, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Investigadores sobre América del Norte, Torre II de Humanidades, Ciudad Universitaria, 11 Piso, Mexico City, DF 04510, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20715 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Baraka, Jessica L.; Huber, Gregory A. Implications of the 1996 Welfare and Immigration Reform Acts for U.S. immigration. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1997. 769-801, 929-30, 932 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors assess the impact of the U.S. welfare and immigration reforms enacted in 1996. They "suggest that these reforms will produce unintended, and possibly undesirable, consequences. They argue in particular that the 1996 reform measures, instead of preserving legal immigration and discouraging illegal immigration, are more likely to reduce the former and expand incentives for the latter. In addition, the Personal Responsibility Act creates added pressures for eligible legal immigrants to apply for U.S. citizenship. To the extent that higher rates of naturalization were unanticipated by reformers of welfare policy, the actual cost savings attributable to reduced benefits for noncitizens will be smaller than expected."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20716 Hailbronner, Kay; Martin, David A.; Motomura, Hiroshi. Immigration admissions: the search for workable policies in Germany and the United States. Migration and Refugees: Politics and Policies in the United States and Germany, Vol. 3, ISBN 1-57181-126-5. LC 97-27799. 1997. xii, 284 pp. Berghahn Books: Providence, Rhode Island/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is the third in a projected series of five volumes publishing the results of the German-American Project on Migration and Refugee Policies, convened by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The project's aim was to study German and U.S. immigration policy from a comparative perspective. This volume includes seven papers of the working group on admission policies, political asylum, and the crisis of controls. The authors generally concur that "traditional approaches to immigration control admissions in the major receiving countries of the West have serious shortcomings either in concept or in implementation, or at times in both."
Correspondence: Berghahn Books, 165 Taber Avenue, Providence, RI 02906. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20717 Heckmann, Friedrich; Tomei, Verónica. Freedom of movement in Europe: the significance of the Schengen Agreement on migration and the politics of Europe. [Freizügigkeit in Europa: migrations- und europapolitische Aspekte des Schengen-Vertrages.] Forum Migration, No. 2, ISBN 3-7713-0538-1. 1996. 111 pp. Europäisches Forum für Migrationsstudien [EFMS]: Bamberg, Germany. In Ger.
This volume contains the results of a workshop organized by the European Forum for Migration Studies in Nuremberg in 1995 to study the impact of the Schengen Agreement, which was implemented on March 26, 1995. The agreement opened the borders between many of the European countries, making the movement of people among them much easier. The contributions in this volume cover topics such as the impact of Schengen on migration theory and the politics of Europe; the legal basis and content of the agreement; aspects of legality and implementation of visa policy; the impact of the agreement on refugee policy and issues of implementation; the Swiss perspective on the Schengen agreement; and the significance of Schengen for the European Union as a whole.
Correspondence: Europäisches Forum für Migrationsstudien, Institut an der Universität Bamberg, Katharinenstraße 1, 96052 Bamberg, Germany. E-mail: efms@sowi.uni-bamberg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20718 MacDonald, Kevin. Jewish involvement in shaping American immigration policy, 1881-1965: a historical review. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 4, Mar 1998. 295-356 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper discusses Jewish involvement in shaping United States immigration policy.... Jews have been at the forefront in supporting movements aimed at altering the ethnic status quo in the United States in favor of immigration of non-European peoples. These activities have involved leadership in Congress, organizing and funding anti-restrictionist groups composed of Jews and gentiles, and originating intellectual movements opposed to evolutionary and biological perspectives in the social sciences."
Correspondence: K. MacDonald, California State University, Department of Psychology, Long Beach, CA 90840-0901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20719 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). International migration policies. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/161, Pub. Order No. E.98.XIII.8. ISBN 92-1-151320-0. 1998. x, 235 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present study is an attempt to give an overview of current international migration policies in both developed and developing countries.... Part one of the study is devoted to three major policy issues in international migration: (a) family reunification; (b) citizenship, nationality and naturalization; and (c) social, political, economic and cultural integration of migrants. Part two reviews policies and programmes targeting specific types of migration as well as relevant national, regional and global instruments in regard to permanent migration, labour migration, refugees and undocumented migrants."
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.