Volume 64 - Number 2 - Summer 1998

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

64:20660 Baccaïni, Brigitte; Gani, Léon. Competition or solidarity between "young" and "old": attitudes among French high school students. [Concurrence ou solidarité entre "jeunes" et "vieux": les attitudes des lycéens en France.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 1,083-118 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The results of a survey conducted in 1996 on final-year lycée pupils [in France] (mainstream and technological curricula), are used in this article to analyze the opinions of the pupils concerning intergenerational relations and the place of old people in economic and social life. The findings confirm that a majority of pupils are apprehensive about the competition that old people represent in the labour market.... Opinions among lycée pupils about the role of families in caring for old people are more ambivalent.... These attitudes towards old people...seem to be linked to the degree to which the pupils are informed about population questions...."
Correspondence: B. Baccaïni, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75020 Paris, France. E-mail: baccaini@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20661 Baldacci, Emanuele; Lugaresi, Sergio. Social expenditure and demographic evolution: a dynamic approach. Genus, Vol. 53, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 61-78 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper provides an analysis of the impact of the population ageing on social expenditure.... A dynamic macrosimulation model...is applied to assess the impact of the ageing of the population on the Italian social security, health care and education systems. The main conclusions are that around 2030 social expenditure will reach a peak despite the 1995 reform of the pension system. A further cut in pension expenditure is therefore needed to [offset] the increase in the share of the retired as a proportion of the active population."
Correspondence: E. Baldacci, Italian Statistical Office, General Government Division, Via Tuscolana 1782, 00173, Rome, Italy. E-mail: e.baldacci@agora.stm.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20662 Bertram, Hans; Hradil, Stefan; Kleinhenz, Gerhard. Social and demographic change in the new German states. [Sozialer und demographischer Wandel in den neuen Bundesländern.] Transformationsprozesse, 2nd ed. Vol. 6, ISBN 3-8100-1529-6. 1997. 390 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
This volume is part of a series published by a government-sponsored commission that supports research on social and political change in post-unification Germany. The papers, by various authors, are divided into three sections. The first, on internal migration, has one contribution on migration from East to West Germany and another on migration from the West to the Berlin-Brandenburg area. The second section contains papers on social inequalities in East Germany, including several on women and one on Polish labor migrants. The third section deals with "problematic social groups" and focuses on the elderly population.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Straße 27, 51379 Leverkusen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20663 de Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Dykstra, Pearl A. The long-term consequences of divorce for fathers. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 849-66 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The consequences of divorce for older adults are analyzed using data from the Dutch NESTOR Living Arrangements and Social Networks Survey, which included 4,494 men and women born in the period 1903-1937. The study examines the following three issues: whether elderly divorced men look to their adult children for support as much as their married and widowed counterparts do; whether those who rely less on support from their families are more likely to rely on support from public facilities for the aged; and the extent to which differences in economic and social resources help to explain the use of formal or informal support systems for the elderly.
Correspondence: J. de Jong Gierveld, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: gierveld@nidi.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20664 Fialová, Ludmila; Kucera, Milan. The main features of population development in the Czech Republic during the transformation of society. Czech Sociological Review, Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring 1997. 93-111 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng.
"The behaviour of the population of the Czech Republic has been changing since 1991. The changes have resulted in a considerable decrease in marriages and births, and a slight fall in mortality rates. The decline in the number of newly-weds and new-born children can be attributed to significant structural changes in society connected with the transformation of the reproductive model established in the post war era. The changes have been initiated most notably by the younger generation...."
Correspondence: L. Fialová, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Sociology, Jilská 1, 110 00 Prague 1, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20665 Foot, David K.; Stoffman, Daniel. Boom, bust and echo: how to profit from the coming demographic shift. ISBN 0-921912-97-8. 1996. ix, 245 pp. Macfarlane Walter and Ross: Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
This book, written for the lay reader, analyzes the impact of demographic trends in Canada on various aspects of society up to about the year 2015. There are chapters on real estate, the economy and investing, the labor force, trends in consumption and leisure, the future of cities and suburban areas, education, health care, family structures, demographic aging, and how demographic methods can be used to forecast various developments.
Correspondence: Macfarlane Walter and Ross, 37A Hazelton Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5R 2E3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20666 Mohanty, S. P.; Momin, A. R. Census as social document. LC 96-906061. 1996. 245 pp. Rawat Publications: Jaipur, India. In Eng.
This is a selection of papers presented at a seminar held in Bombay, India, in March 1993 on the social aspects of the data collected in the census of India. "The papers presented at the seminar dwelt on a vast spectrum of census data such as an assessment of economic data relating to working population, a critical appraisal of census data for urban India, an analysis of occupational diversification and urbanization, migration induced by poverty to urban centres in the country, ageing populations and their economic activities, significance of census data in the context of contemporary Indian society, an assessment of demographic situation of tribal population, and so on."
Correspondence: Rawat Publications, 3-Na-20 Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur 302 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20667 Rimashevskaya, N. M. The social consequences of economic changes in Russia. [Sotsial'nye posledstviya ekonomicheskikh transformatsii v Rossii.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 6, 1997. 55-65 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The author examines the social consequences of the economic changes that are occurring in Russia with the switch from a planned economy to a market economy. These include the growth of a low-income population and increases in unemployment and poverty. The demographic impact of these changes is also considered, with particular reference to their effects on fertility and mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

64:20668 Antonova, O.; Brui, B.; Gorbunova, T.; Nikitina, S. The demographic situation in the Russian Federation during the structural transition associated with perestroika and the subsequent economic stabilization. [O demograficheskoi situatsii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii na period strukturnoi perestroiki i stabilizatsii ekonomiki.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 12, 1997. 53-6 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The authors describe the demographic situation in the Russian Federation in the period of perestroika and in the subsequent period of economic and social turmoil associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Topics covered include changes in population growth and decline, life expectancy, morbidity, health status, the health system, and age distribution.
Correspondence: O. Antonova, Goskomstat Rossii, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20669 Courbage, Youssef. Demography and elections in Northern Ireland. [Démographie et élections en Irlande du Nord.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 1,219-23 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of the results of the 1997 election in Northern Ireland is presented, and the author examines changes over time in the Unionist, Nationalist, and non-confessional vote. He also discusses the extent to which the decline in the Unionist and non-confessional vote and the increase in the Nationalist vote over time are linked to demographic trends.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75020 Paris, France. E-mail: courbage@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

64:20670 Becker, Stan. Incorporating women's empowerment in studies of reproductive health: an example from Zimbabwe. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 97-10, Nov 1997. [18] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author examines the possibility of considering women's status in studies of reproductive health, using DHS survey data for Zimbabwe. The association between women's empowerment (as measured by household decision making) and both contraceptive use and prenatal care is investigated.
Correspondence: S. Becker, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: sbecker@jhsph.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20671 Becker, Stan; Nathanson, Connie. Inequality in sexual behavior and reproductive health outcomes: number of sexual partners and contraceptive use in Tanzania. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 97-08, Oct 1997. 16, [2] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"We hypothesize that in most cases the link between sexual behavior and reproductive health outcomes is that they are jointly determined. Nevertheless, in addition we will examine a possible causal link between one specific (summary) sexual behavior and one reproductive health behavior. We will also only explore one of many possible associations between inequality in sexual behavior and demographic outcomes--the number of sexual partners and use and choice of a contraceptive method [in Tanzania]."
Correspondence: S. Becker, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: sbecker@jhsph.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20672 Bernard, Anne; Bussière, Yves; Thouez, Jean-Pierre. Aging and disability in Quebec: regional projections 1991-2006. [Vieillissement et incapacités au Québec: perspectives régionales 1991-2006.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1997. 91-107 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The rapid aging of Quebec's population in the next few decades will entail significant regional disparities. Based on regional demographic projections by the Bureau de la Statistique du Québec (BSQ) for the years 1991-2006 and data from Statistics Canada's Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS), we analyze changes in clienteles with mobility impairments. This analysis shows not only the extent of regional disparities but also their impact on the evolution of disabilities that restrict mobility."
Correspondence: A. Bernard, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 2635 boulevard Hochelaga, Suite 640, C.P. 7500, Sainte-Foy, Quebec G1V 4C7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20673 Bolan, Alison; Manandhar, Dharma S.; Shrestha, Purna; Ellis, Matthew; Costello, Anthony M. de L. The effects of postnatal health education for mothers on infant care and family planning practices in Nepal: a randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, Vol. 316, No. 7134, Mar 14, 1998. 805-11 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The impact of postnatal health education for mothers on infant care and family planning in Nepal is analyzed using data on 540 mothers. The data were collected between 1994 and 1996 at a maternity hospital located in the capital, Katmandu. "Our findings suggest that the recommended practice of individual health education for postnatal mothers in poor communities has no impact on infant feeding, care, or immunisation, although uptake of family planning may be slightly enhanced."
Correspondence: A. M. de L. Costello, Institute of Child Health, Centre for International Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, England. E-mail: a.costello@ich.ucl.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:20674 Bond, George C.; Kreniske, John; Susser, Ida; Vincent, Joan. AIDS in Africa and the Caribbean. ISBN 0-8133-2878-0. 1997. xv, 234 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on aspects of AIDS in Africa and the Caribbean, many of which were originally given at an international conference held in New York in November 1991. Part One has essays on the anthropology of AIDS and on sociocultural aspects of AIDS. Part Two presents case studies on AIDS in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Uganda. Part Three is concerned with policy issues and covers such topics as the HIV epidemic as a development issue, the placement of women at the center of the analysis, racist aspects of AIDS research, and U.S. aid in AIDS research. Part Four contains a concluding essay on AIDS.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20675 Bozon, Michel; Kontula, Osmo; Marquet, Jacques; Huynen, Philippe; Ferrand, Alexis; Delbès, Christiane; Gaymu, Joëlle; Schiltz, Marie-Ange. Sexual behaviors and social changes: the nature and rhythm of changes and the factors associated with lack of change. [Comportements sexuels et transformations sociales: nature et rythme des changements, facteurs d'immobilité.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1997. 1,361-559 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This section contains a selection of articles on sexual behavior and social change in Europe. Chapters are included on sexual initiation and gender; models of sexuality among couples and the impact of the social network; sex behavior among persons over age 50; and lifestyles of young male homosexuals in the context of HIV. A critical bibliography is included (pp. 1,539-59).
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75020 Paris, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20676 Burton, Anthony H.; Mertens, Thierry E. Provisional country estimates of prevalent adult human immunodeficiency virus infections as of end 1994: a description of the methods. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1998. 101-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A country-by-country review of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) data was undertaken by the World Health Organization. This paper describes the methods used to make estimates of HIV prevalence. It is estimated that, globally, approximately 16.9 million adults were living with HIV infections at the end of 1994. The majority (66%) of the infections were in sub-Saharan Africa (over 11,000,000), followed by South and South East Asia (over 3,000,000)."
Correspondence: A. H. Burton, World Health Organization, Global Programme on AIDS, Surveillance, Evaluation, and Forecasting Unit, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20677 Caldwell, John C.; Anarfi, John K.; Caldwell, Pat. Mobility, migration, sex, STDs, and AIDS: an essay on Sub-Saharan Africa with other parallels. In: Sexual cultures and migration in the era of AIDS: anthropological and demographic perspectives, edited by Gilbert Herdt. 1997. 41-54 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationships among migration, sex behavior, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, they identify a number of primarily male migration streams, and describe the commercial sex networks that frequently develop in response to such migrations. The importance of commercial sex, multiplicity of sex partners, and the high mobility inherent in such professions as long-distance truck driving for the spread of AIDS is noted.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20678 Caldwell, John C. The impact of the African AIDS epidemic. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., No. 2, 1997. 169-88 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author discusses the demographic impact of the AIDS epidemic in Africa. Aspects considered include mortality, fertility, marriage, orphans, the social effect, and future trends.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20679 Desai, Sonalde; Alva, Soumya. Maternal education and child health: is there a strong causal relationship? Demography, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 1998. 71-81 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using data from the first round of Demographic and Health Surveys for 22 developing countries, we examine the effect of maternal education on three markers of child health: infant mortality, children's height-for-age, and immunization status. In contrast to other studies, we argue that although there is a strong correlation between maternal education and markers of child health, a causal relationship is far from established. Education acts as a proxy for the socioeconomic status of the family and geographic area of residence.... In the final model, maternal education has a statistically significant impact on infant mortality and height-for-age in only a handful of countries. In contrast, maternal education remains statistically significant for children's immunization status in about one-half of the countries even after individual-level and community-level controls are introduced."
Correspondence: S. Desai, University of Maryland, Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, 3114 Art-Sociology Building, College Park, MD 20742-1315. E-mail: sdesai@bssl.umd.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20680 Drever, Frances; Whitehead, Margaret. Health inequalities: decennial supplement. Series DS, No. 15, ISBN 0-11-620942-9. 1997. xi, 257 pp. Office for National Statistics: London, England. In Eng.
This publication presents a selection of studies by various authors on aspects of health inequalities in Britain. There is a section on mortality with the following chapters: A brief introduction to the life expectancy and mortality analyses, by Frances Drever and Margaret Whitehead; Expectation of life by social class, by Lin Hattersley; Mortality in childhood, by Beverley Botting; Patterns and trends in male mortality, by Frances Drever and Julia Bunting; Differences in mortality of migrants, by Seeromanie Harding and Roy Maxwell; Male mortality from major causes of death, by Frances Drever, Julia Bunting, and Douglas Harding; Mortality trends using the Longitudinal Study, by Seeromanie Harding, Ann Bethune, Roy Maxwell, and Joanna Brown; Unemployment and mortality, by Ann Bethune; Mortality of women and men using alternative social classifications, by Jillian Smith and Seeromanie Harding.
Correspondence: Office for National Statistics, Marketing and Customer Services, Copyright Enquiries, Zone B1/4, 1 Drummond Gate, London SW1V 2QQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20681 Fetter, Bruce; Coelho, Philip R. P.; Rogers, John; Nelson, Marie C. The epidemiologic transition: one, many or none? Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, No. 2, Oct 1997. 235-55 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This is a series of three brief essays on the nature of the epidemiological transition. First, Fetter suggests that transition theory in its current form leaves some important questions unanswered. In the second piece, Coelho looks at the epidemiological picture of the New World after it was discovered by European explorers. The third essay, by Rogers and Nelson, examines Sweden's epidemiological transition in detail, emphasizing local variations.
Correspondence: B. Fetter, University of Wisconsin, Department of History, Milwaukee, WI 53201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20682 Frisbie, W. Parker; Forbes, Douglas; Hummer, Robert A. Hispanic pregnancy outcomes: additional evidence. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 79, No. 1, Mar 1998. 149-69 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
Differences in pregnancy outcomes across Hispanic groups in the United States are examined using data from NCHS Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set files for 1989-1991. The focus is on "whether, in addition to Mexican Americans, other Hispanic populations are characterized by an `epidemiologic paradox', that is, a combination of a high-risk sociodemographic profile and favorable pregnancy outcomes." The results indicate that "except among Puerto Ricans, rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes among Hispanics are rather similar to Anglo rates. The adjusted odds of prematurity and low birth weight, however, are significantly higher than the Anglo risk for all Hispanic groups, while the odds of Hispanic infant mortality are significantly lower. Maternal smoking, low weight gain, and low education significantly increase the risk of adverse outcomes, as do both inadequate and `adequate plus' prenatal care. [The authors conclude that] the `paradox' is reversed in the case of birth outcomes, but remains in the case of infant mortality."
Correspondence: W. P. Frisbie, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. E-mail: frisbie@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20683 Herdt, Gilbert. Sexual cultures and migration in the era of AIDS: anthropological and demographic perspectives. ISBN 0-19-829230-9. 1997. x, 256 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book is a product of a conference held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 1994, which addressed the relationship between migration, sexual practices, and the spread of AIDS in developing countries. "The definition of sexual culture and social-historical formations that result in sexual encounters and the interruption of fertility behaviour across cultural boundaries were of particular interest to the symposium. The conference was an initiative of the Committee on Anthropological Demography, a research group attached to the IUSSP." The importance of migration from rural to urban areas and the development of sexual networks and commercial sex activities are also examined.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20684 Hurtubise, Eric; Légaré, Jacques; Carrière, Yves. The economic welfare and health of Quebec seniors. [Le bien-être économique et la santé des personnes âgées au Québec.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1997. 69-90 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The current aging of Quebec's population is expected to intensify in the beginning of the next century. By 2031, seniors could represent 25 percent of the total population, or nearly two million individuals. It is vital that policy-makers more fully grasp the multiple aspects of this much-feared eventuality. To this end, the aim of this study is to shed new light on one facet of the problem. Using data from the 1986 Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS), the authors analyze the correlation between the income and health status of Quebec seniors aged 65 and over living in private households."
Correspondence: J. Légaré, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20685 Hyder, Adnan A.; Rotllant, Guida; Morrow, Richard H. Measuring the burden of disease: healthy life-years. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 2, Feb 1998. 196-202 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors introduce a composite indicator, the healthy life year (HeaLY), and use data from Ghana to develop a spreadsheet to compare this indicator with the disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) indicator in the allocation of scarce health resources in a developing country situation. The results indicate that "two thirds of HeaLYs lost in Ghana were from maternal and communicable diseases and were largely preventable. The age weighting in DALYs leads to a higher value placed on deaths at younger ages than in HeaLYs. This spreadsheet can be used as a template for assessing changes in health status attributable to interventions."
Correspondence: R. H. Morrow, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Health Systems, International Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:20686 Lartigue, Teresa; Avila, Héctor. Sexuality and human reproduction in Mexico. [Sexualidad y reproducción humana en México.] ISBN 968-856-461-3. 1996. 308; 262 pp. Universidad Iberoamericana: Mexico City, Mexico; Plaza y Valdés: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
These are the proceedings of a conference on reproductive health in Mexico, held in March 1995. There are papers on such topics as adolescent pregnancy, unwanted pregnancy, the desire for children, abortion, maternal mortality, the knowledge and use of contraception, fertility preferences, maternal and family health, reproductive behavior and infant mortality, and rural fertility.
Correspondence: Plaza y Valdés, Manuel Ma. Contreras No. 73, Col. San Rafael, C.P. 06470 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20687 Légaré, Jacques; Marcil-Gratton, Nicole; Huot, Paul-Marie. Changes in tobacco use among youth aged 15-24 since the 1987 Quebec Health Survey. [Evolution du tabagisme chez les jeunes de 15 à 24 ans depuis l'Enquête Santé Québec de 1987.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1997. 109-28 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Although missing some information on former smokers, data from the 1992-1993 Enquête sociale et de santé (Social and Health Survey) enable us to assess trends since the 1987 Santé Québec (Quebec Health) survey. Our results show that for young people born between 1965 and 1970, for whom some of the information had to be estimated, the trend toward reduced tobacco use among both men and women under 25 seems to be continuing. The main factor explaining the higher incidence of tobacco use for women than for men in this cohort is the lesser tendency for men to adopt this behaviour at a young age. But this aspect is to a large degree offset by a greater tendency for women to give up smoking."
Correspondence: J. Légaré, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20688 Magadi, Monica. The impact of AIDS on some urban households in Kenya with particular reference to female headed households. African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 3-4, Aug-Nov 1992. 285-8 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"The study examines [the] social, economic and demographic impact of AIDS on the urban households in Kenya with particular reference to coping mechanisms in female headed households.... The distribution of AIDS patients admitted at the hospital by sex was 61% and 39% for males and females, respectively. The majority of the patients were in the age range 20-44 years, the mean age being 31 years for males and 28 years for females. There were marked differences in the ratio of male to female cases between ethnic groups and marital status. [The] majority of the patients were of low socio-economic status."
Correspondence: M. Magadi, University of Nairobi, Population Studies and Research Institute, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20689 Parker, Richard G. Migration, sexual subcultures, and HIV/AIDS in Brazil. In: Sexual cultures and migration in the era of AIDS: anthropological and demographic perspectives, edited by Gilbert Herdt. 1997. 55-69 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter seeks to examine the changing shape of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil in relation to current patterns of migration and population movement, and the ways in which these patterns have affected sexual behaviour and impacted upon the spread of HIV and AIDS. The first section of the paper offers a brief overview of what might be described as the social epidemiology of AIDS in Brazil.... The second part of the paper provides an overview of traditional migratory patterns--particularly from the North-East to South-East of the country, from rural to urban areas, and back again--and seeks to analyse the relationship between these patterns and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Brazil. The third part of the paper focuses on what might be described more specifically as sexual migration from outlying areas to the emerging sexual subcultures, especially among men who have sex with men, in major urban centres such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20690 Post, May. Preventing maternal mortality through emergency obstetric care. [Prévenir la mortalité maternelle par le biais des soins obstétricaux d'urgence.] SARA Issues Paper, Apr 1997. 22; 26 pp. Support for Analysis and Research in Africa [SARA]: Washington, D.C. In Eng; Fre.
The author discusses the need to increase access to facilities providing emergency obstetric care (EOC) worldwide. Programs and practices designed to improve EOC are described and evaluated, with a focus on community education and involvement, traditional birth attendants, emergency transportation, midwifery services, and health center quality. The emphasis is on the need to reduce levels of maternal mortality.
Correspondence: Support for Analysis and Research In Africa, c/o U.S. Agency for International Development, 320 21st Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20523. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20691 Programa Regional sobre Aspectos Sociales de la Reproducción Humana [PRASSAR] (Buenos Aires, Argentina); Programa Regional de Investigación Social, Entrenamiento y Asistencia Técnica en Salud Reproductiva y Sexualidad (Buenos Aires, Argentina); Asociación de Estudios de Población de la Argentina. Comité Científico sobre Salud Reproductiva [AEPA] (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The second workshop of social studies about reproductive health and sexuality. [Segundo taller de investigaciones sociales en salud reproductiva y sexualidad.] [1996]. 238 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
These are the proceedings of a workshop held May 6-7, 1996, in Buenos Aires on aspects of reproductive health and sexuality in Argentina. Topics covered include maternal mortality, contraceptive usage, sexually transmitted diseases, adolescent pregnancy, abortion, and AIDS.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20692 Raghupathy, Shobana. Unwanted pregnancies and preventive health care use in Thailand. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 6, Dec 1997. 579-95 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the use of maternal and child health services by women who have unwanted or mistimed pregnancies. The results of our analysis indicate that wantedness of births exerts a significant influence on health care use in Thailand, after controlling for other determinants of utilization. Women with unwanted pregnancies are less likely to seek prenatal care or receive tetanus toxide inoculations. Further, women from disadvantaged socioeconomic groups, women with high parity and those with lower educational levels have the highest proportion of unintended pregnancies."
Correspondence: S. Raghupathy, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: st403514@brownvm.brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20693 Rodríguez-Ocaña, Esteban; Bernabeu-Mestre, Josep. Physicians and statisticians: two ways of creating demographic health statistics in Spain, 1841-1936. Continuity and Change, Vol. 12, No. 2, Aug 1997. 247-64 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This study describes how demographic health statistics were created in Spain. The first section is devoted to the painstaking process of creating a system capable of producing modern demographic statistics. The second part deals with the medical initiatives taken towards the consolidation of a statistical system suitable for public health purposes, where the main variable was indeed the question of registration and classification of causes of death. We show the scant success in practice of the theoretical programme advanced by hygienists in the 1860s and reinforced in the late 1920s."
Correspondence: E. Rodríguez-Ocaña, University of Granada, Department of Pathology and History of Science, 18071 Granada, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20694 Rychtarikova, Jitka. Reappearance of historical inequalities in health during the Eastern European transition. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 509-28 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines the changing health situation in the countries of Eastern Europe since World War II. The regions studied include the former USSR and Yugoslavia, as well as the Eastern European countries. The author notes that, although the period of communist control had many detrimental effects on the economies of the more advanced countries in the region, the provision of basic educational and health services did reduce levels of inequality and had a favorable impact on general health. The recent political and economic changes in the region are contributing toward growing inequalities in health conditions and mortality both within and among the countries.
Correspondence: J. Rychtarikova, University of Prague 2, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Demography and Geodemography, Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20695 Santos, Taís de F. Infant and child morbidity in Northeast Brazil: the role of breastfeeding. In: Population dynamics: some past and emerging issues, edited by Richard A. Powell, Eleuther A. Mwageni, and Augustine Ankomah. 1996. 18-26 pp. University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies: Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This study assesses the protective role of breastfeeding against infections, particularly diarrhoea and respiratory infections in Northeast Brazil. The Northeast is a region of contrast having the same characteristics of other developing areas (such as poor social and health conditions and high infant mortality), but experiencing breastfeeding patterns closer to those observed in industrialised countries." Although the study showed little or no correlation between breastfeeding and infectious diseases, the author suggests that confounding factors, such as accuracy of reporting, the cleanliness of the water supply, and socioeconomic factors, may have influenced the results.
Correspondence: T. de F. Santos, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

64:20696 Singhanetra-Renard, Anchalee. Population movement and the AIDS epidemic in Thailand. In: Sexual cultures and migration in the era of AIDS: anthropological and demographic perspectives, edited by Gilbert Herdt. 1997. 70-86 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes how changes in migration patterns, increased social mobility, and changes in sexual behavior have combined to facilitate the spread of HIV infections and AIDS in Thailand. The importance of cultural attitudes toward sexuality and traditional gender relations in the development of a commercial sex industry and the spread of AIDS is discussed. Ethical and human rights issues are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20697 Szasz, Ivonne. Reproductive health in sociodemographic studies. [La salud reproductiva en los estudios sociodemográficos.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, Jan-Aug 1997. 372 pp. El Colegio de México: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This special issue contains articles by various authors on diverse social problems linked to well-being in human reproduction, with a focus on the study of sexuality. Articles are included on reproductive health and society, maternal mortality in Mexico, anthropological study of sexuality, differences in the signification of female sexuality in Mexico, gender and sexual values in Mexico, ethnographic sampling in sexuality research on the Mexico-U.S. border, the gender approach and the social representation of sexuality, a survey on sex behavior in the West Indies and Guyana, and sexuality profiles based on male-female differences in Colombia.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: El Colegio de México, Departamento de Publicaciones, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20698 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). World population monitoring 1996: selected aspects of reproductive rights and reproductive health. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/156, Pub. Order No. E.97.XIII.5. ISBN 92-1-151319-7. 1998. xii, 282 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In addition to an overview and introduction, this report consists of eight chapters covering the following topics: entry into reproductive life; reproductive behaviour; contraception; abortion; maternal mortality and morbidity; sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS); reproductive rights; and population information, education and communication with respect to reproductive rights and reproductive health.... This report contains an extensive set of annex tables providing indicators of the current demographic situation in major areas and regions, as well as data on population size and growth, population distribution, and fertility and mortality levels in countries, major areas and regions. These annex tables also provide data specific to reproductive rights and reproductive health."
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20699 Utomo, Iwu D.; McDonald, Peter. Religion, culture and sexuality: a study of young people in higher income families in Jakarta. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 803-28 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Data from the 1994 Jakarta Marriage Values and Sexuality Survey are used to analyze sexual attitudes and behavior among young people of higher socioeconomic status in Jakarta, Indonesia. The focus is on how factors such as religion, the media, and exposure to Western values affect sex behavior and attitudes. The results suggest that young people are increasingly exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases without being provided with adequate knowledge about how to cope with these problems.
Correspondence: I. D. Utomo, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0201, Australia. E-mail: iwu300@coombs.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

64:20700 Cliquet, R. L. The demographic future of humans: from quantity to quality? [De demografische toekomst van de mens: van kwantiteit naar kwaliteit?] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1996. 1-30 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The quantitative control of fertility and mortality which developed in the course of the past and the present centuries forms one of the factors contributing to the development of a future qualitative control. This qualitative control might not only intervene in the human phenotype, but also change the human genetic endowment. Thus, humankind might not only influence its demographic growth and phenotypic expression, but also its genetic composition.... An enduring shift from a quantitative to a qualitative future might be facilitated by a demographic shrinking of the human species."
Correspondence: R. L. Cliquet, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20701 Grant, Jonathan C. The historical incidence of consanguineous marriage. In: Population dynamics: some past and emerging issues, edited by Richard A. Powell, Eleuther A. Mwageni, and Augustine Ankomah. 1996. 3-8 pp. University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies: Exeter, England. In Eng.
"An understanding of the historical incidence of consanguineous marriages may be of use in examining historical determinants of mortality and fertility. It is the intention of this paper to highlight the historical incidence of consanguineous marriages from a variety of sources. In doing so it is hoped that the relevance of consanguinity as a demographic variable in contemporary and historical population studies will be demonstrated."
Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

64:20702 James, William H. Infertility treatment and multiple birth rates in Britain 1938-94. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan 1998. 127-31 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Murphy et al. (1997) showed age-standardised twinning rates for Scotland and England & Wales 1952-94.... The authors conclude their paper with the words: `perhaps 15% of twins nationally now follow [infertility] treatment and the natural twinning rate might still be in decline.' This note questions whether this conclusion is consistent with the data." A reply by M. Murphy, K. Hey, M. O'Donnell, B. Willis, and J. D. Ellis is included (pp. 128-31).
Correspondence: W. H. James, University College London, Galton Laboratory, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.