Volume 64 - Number 2 - Summer 1998

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

64:20408 Baten, Jörg; Murray, John E. Women's stature and marriage markets in preindustrial Bavaria. Journal of Family History, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1998. 124-35 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"The authors investigate marital patterns among Bavarian women born 1819 to 1886. In particular, Becker's hypothesis concerning heights and probability of marriage, namely, that likes tend to marry likes, is considered. The authors find to the contrary that the shortest women were at a distinct disadvantage in the marriage market. Other characteristics that lowered the probability of ever marrying included birth in northern Bavaria, lower class status, and illegitimate birth. It is concluded that the height-marital status relationship sheds light on the wage premium paid to married workers: The premium probably reflects greater productivity that (1) existed prior to marriage and (2) increased the likelihood of marriage."
Correspondence: J. E. Murray, University of Toledo, Department of Economics, Toledo, OH 43606. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20409 Castro Martín, Teresa. Marriages without papers in Latin America. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 941-60 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This study aims at examining the variety of nuptiality forms in the Latin American region. First, we assess the current prevalence of consensual unions as well as recent trends in all Latin American countries. Afterwards, using DHS data for nine countries, we compare the demographic and socio-economic profile of women in formal and informal unions, paying special attention to their childbearing behaviour. Lastly, the factors that are associated with being in a consensual union versus a legalised marriage are assessed within a multivariate framework."
Correspondence: T. Castro Martín, UN Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20410 Clegg, E. J.; Ringrose, T. J.; Cross, J. F. Some factors affecting marital distances in the Outer Hebrides. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan 1998. 43-62 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Some factors affecting marital distances have been studied in two Outer Hebridean islands [of Scotland], Harris (843 marriages) and Barra (444 marriages), over the period 1855-1990. In each island marital distances fell before 1900, but then rose to their greatest values after the 1950s.... When the association between marital frequencies and inter-settlement distances was studied, it was found that for Harris there was, overall, a trend to endogamous and short-distance marriage. However, this trend was only slight during 1955-90. For Barra a similar trend was found before 1955, but thereafter there appeared to be virtually no connection between marital frequency and inter-settlement distance."
Correspondence: E. J. Clegg, University of Aberdeen, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Aberdeen AB9 1AS, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20411 De Rose, Alessandra; Pallara, Alessandro. Survival trees: an alternative non-parametric multivariate technique for life history analysis. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1997. 223-41 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper an extension of tree-structured methodology to cover censored survival analysis is discussed.... The tree-shaped diagram...can be used to draw meaningful patterns of behaviour throughout the individual life history.... The fundamentals of tree methodology are outlined; [then] an application of the technique to real data from a survey on the progression to marriage among adult women in Italy is illustrated; [and] some comments are presented on the main advantages and problems related to tree-structured methodology for censored survival analysis."
Correspondence: A. De Rose, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Direzione Centrale Statistiche su Popolazione e Territorio, Via A. Ravà 150, 00142 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20412 Dobson, Coretta D.; Houseknecht, Sharon K. Black and white differences in the effect of women's educational attainment on age at first marriage. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar 1998. 204-23 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This study uses data from the June 1992 Current Population Survey to examine the effect of educational attainment on age at first marriage among Black and White women in the United States. The results both support and modify claims stemming from previous research. There is evidence for the contention that educational attainment delays age at first marriage for Black and White women. The greater impact of educational attainment on delaying marriage for White women in confirmed. An important discovery stems from using degree attained rather than years of education and our distinguishing four levels of education beyond high school. At less than a bachelor's degree, Black women marry later than White women, but among those with a bachelor's degree or higher, Black women who marry do so earlier than White women."
Correspondence: S. K. Houseknecht, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20413 Hiedemann, Bridget; Suhomlinova, Olga; O'Rand, Angela M. Economic independence, economic status, and empty nest in midlife marital disruption. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 1, Feb 1998. 219-31 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We examine the risk of separation or divorce later in the marital career from a family development perspective. With data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we use a hazards framework to estimate the effects of women's economic independence, couples' economic status, and family life course factors on the risk of middle-age separation or divorce. Several dimensions of economic independence and economic status influence the risk of midlife marital disruption. Moreover, the transition to empty nest influences the risk of marital disruption, but the effect of empty nest depends on the duration of the marriage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: B. Hiedemann, Seattle University, Department of Economics and Finance, Broadway and Madison, Seattle, WA 98122. E-mail: bgh@seattleu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20414 Kritz, Mary M.; Gurak, Douglas T. The effects of family planning on marital disruption in Malaysia. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 719-36 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This paper examines how contraceptive use affects women's position in society. Specifically, it assesses whether Malaysian women who use contraception are more likely than nonusers to experience marital disruption. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (MLFS-2), the authors employ event history analysis to study retrospective life histories of married women. They examine "how contraceptive use interacts with marriage duration, number of marital births, and employment, and find that contraceptive use early in marriage decreases disruption. We also find that non-users are more likely to experience a disruption if they have no or few births and if they were employed in the prior person year. Parallel findings for a contracepting only sub-sample suggest that women who are most in control of their lives, as measured by use of contraception to avert unplanned pregnancies and work in the prior person year, are more likely than other women either to remain in their marriages, in the case of the former, or to leave them, in the case of the latter."
Correspondence: M. M. Kritz, Cornell University, Population and Development Program, 221 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853. E-mail: mmk5@cornell.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20415 Miret-Gamundi, Pau. Nuptiality patterns in Spain in the eighties. Genus, Vol. 53, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1997. 183-98 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The marriage patterns in Spain are analysed, highlighting some associated socio-economic, political and cultural factors.... It seems there is a quite clear match between economic and nuptiality trends; as accompanying the rise of unemployment and the general economic crisis, there was undoubtedly a decrease in the levels of adult nuptiality. But this is not enough to fully explain the nuptiality age patterns, and we need to refer to other possible reasons for the trends in nuptiality, as we do here with the evolution of the housing market."
Correspondence: P. Miret-Gamundi, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. E-mail: pm@socsci.soton.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20416 Pollak, Robert A. Theories of marriage. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 905-17 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
From an economist's perspective, the author examines some of the basic questions that the study of marriage poses for demographers. These questions include: What constitutes marriage? What constitutes a theory of marriage? and Why do we need a theory of marriage?
Correspondence: R. A. Pollak, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20417 Robichaux, David. Consensual union and nuptiality in rural Tlaxcala and Mexico: an essay of cultural interpretation. [Las uniones consensuales y la nupcialidad en Tlaxcala rural y México: un ensayo de interpretación cultural.] Espiral, Estudios sobre Estado y Sociedad, Vol. 4, No. 10, Sep-Dec 1997. 101-41 pp. Guadalajara, Mexico. In Spa.
The author examines consensual unions and nuptiality in rural Tlaxcala and in Mexico as a whole, with a focus on interpreting data from a cultural perspective. Aspects considered include continuity and change in couple formation customs, and consensual unions as a consequence of secularization.
Correspondence: D. Robichaux, Universidad Iberoamericana, Departamento de Ciencias Sociales y Políticas, Prolongación Paseo de la Reforma 880, Col. Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20418 Saluter, Arlene F.; Lugaila, Terry A. Marital status and living arrangements: March 1996 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 496, Mar 1998. 6 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report, based on the March 1996 Current Population Survey, provides estimates on marital status and living arrangements for the resident population of the United States. More detailed information is available electronically at the Bureau's website (http://www.census.gov). Once on the site, click on "Subjects A-Z", then click on "M" for marital status. A paper version of the tables is also available as PPL-67 for $28.50.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Fertility and Family Statistics Branch, Washington, D.C. 20233. E-mail: tlugaila@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20419 Sánchez Barricarte, Jesús J. Changes in nuptiality in Navarre and the Basque country. [Cambios en la nupcialidad de los navarros y los vascos.] Revista Internacional de Sociología, No. 17, May-Aug 1997. 119-32 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1991 Encuesta Sociodemográfica are used to analyze changes in nuptiality among both men and women in Navarre and the Basque region of Spain. "We have seen how the mean age at marriage for both sexes has decreased, although men still get married at older ages. We have seen how the number of years of education is the major variable determining age at marriage. Regarding the percentage of people who never marry (those who stay single at the age of 50), we have found important differences among the trends observed for men and women. While the former are more likely to remain single, the latter [are] more likely to get married."
Correspondence: J. J. Sánchez Barricarte, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20420 Santow, Gigi; Bracher, Michael. Whither marriage? Trends, correlates, and interpretations. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 919-39 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"We summarise the broad features of recent changes in union formation and dissolution, highlight some recent findings concerning correlates of the pace of nuptial events, and venture some interpretations. Hesitating to attempt a global picture, we concentrate on the countries of the industrialised West, namely Europe (excluding Eastern Europe), North America, and Australasia. In focusing on nuptiality we are forced largely to ignore such potentially relevant factors as leaving home, the availability of housing, economic trends, and contraception...."
Correspondence: G. Santow, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: gigi.santow@suda.su.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20421 Scherbov, Sergei; van Vianen, Harrie. Marital and fertility careers of Russian women born between 1910 and 1935. Population Research Centre Working Paper, No. 98-1, Mar 1998. 17 pp. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper we present a detailed demographic analysis of the marital and fertility careers of [women born in Russia around 1920] based on individual retrospective life histories.... We assess the influence of external events on age at first marriage, widowhood, and divorce, childlessness, parity and age at birth."
This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, NL 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. E-mail: prc@frw.rug.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20422 Shaikh, Kashem. Recent changes in marriage patterns in rural Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1997. 31-48 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article considers age at marriage and other aspects of nuptiality in Bangladesh in the context of opportunities to accelerate national development. It suggests that concerted efforts to increase the female age at marriage could produce a number of beneficial effects ranging from reduction in the incidence of divorce and widowhood to a lowering of fertility. It suggests a number of policy and programme measures that could be employed to foster such an increase."
Correspondence: K. Shaikh, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20423 Singh, Mohan. Divorce in a rural north Indian area: evidence from Himachali villages. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 961-77 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Data collected from 10 villages in Himachal Pradesh in northern India are used to analyze patterns of divorce in a Hindu population. "The main reasons for divorce were sexual maladjustment between spouses caused by early marriages of girls and large differences in ages of spouses. Therefore the mechanism that explains divorce in [the] Indian situation is different from the one in the west. The study found that as the age of marriage increased and passed the average age of menarche, the level of divorce decreased. Differences in age of spouse, educational achievements of women and their husbands and their caste also explained the variability in the incidence of divorce."
Correspondence: M. Singh, Nanyang Technological University, Bukit Timah Campus, 469 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259756. E-mail: singhm@nievax.nie.ac.sg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20424 Smith, Peter J.; Beaujot, Roderic. Men's orientation toward marriage and family roles. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 97-14, ISBN 0-7714-2054-4. Dec 1997. 21 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Starting with the theoretical notion that gender can be seen as a schema that imposes structure and meaning, this paper explores the diversity in men's orientations regarding marriage and family roles. The responses from a qualitative survey in Southwestern Ontario show variation between traditional and liberal orientations in terms of men's views on the extent to which women prefer childcare over work. However, men from various orientations largely consider it appropriate to make distinctions between the family roles of men and women."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20425 van Poppel, Frans. Nineteenth-century remarriage patterns in the Netherlands. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 28, No. 3, Winter 1998. 343-83 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This study investigates what became of men and women [in the Netherlands] whose marriages ended during the second half of the nineteenth century. In contrast to earlier research, it not only treats the life courses of widows and widowers; it also compares them to the life courses of men and women who had lost a spouse through divorce.... We conclude that gender was decisive in the probability of remarriage. Age at dissolution was also influential, but its effect differed according to gender.... Being divorced increased a woman's chances of remarrying, whereas divorce or widowhood made no difference to a man's chances of remarrying. The duration of a dissolved marriage also affected each gender differently."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20426 Wolf, Arthur P.; Gates, Hill. Modeling Chinese marriage regimes. Journal of Family History, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan 1998. 90-9 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"In some parts of China people commonly raised their sons' wives. In other parts they rarely did so. This article compares evidence from two widely separated localities and suggests that the frequency of marriages involving home-raised daughters-in-law was correlated with the age at which these girls entered their future husband's household and the extent to which the practice was class related. It also suggests that this correlation was the product of marriage market forces."
Correspondence: A. P. Wolf, Stanford University, Department of Anthropology and Human Biology, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20427 Yamamoto, Chizuko; Kojima, Katsuhisa. Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1994. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1996. 36-51 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Data on first marriages, remarriages, and marriage rates by age are presented for 1994. Trends over the period from 1980 to 1994 are analyzed. Data are also presented on divorces and divorce rates by age for 1992 to 1994.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.

64:20428 Adepoju, Aderanti. Family, population and development in Africa. ISBN 1-85649-465-9. LC 96-22286. 1997. x, 230 pp. Zed Books: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
This book contains 10 studies by various authors on aspects of the family in Africa. It "investigates the challenges facing the African family and their multiple effects from an extremely broad perspective. The contributors explore the nature of available data on which current policies are premised, marriage patterns, the role of the family in agriculture, the changing roles and status of women, the transformations generated by mass migration, the strains and tensions wrought by structural adjustment programmes and the functioning of family law. Throughout, the book makes clear the importance of the family to the development process."
Correspondence: Zed Books, 7 Cynthia Street, London N1 9JF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20429 Akerlof, George A. Men without children. Economic Journal, Vol. 108, No. 447, Mar 1998. 287-309 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This essay is concerned with the impact on society of the fact that an increasing number of men in the United States neither marry nor live with children. The author notes that, between 1986 and 1993, the fraction of men aged 25-34 who were householders living with children declined from 66 to 40 percent. He makes the case that the increase in social pathology as evidenced by rising crime rates, declining marriage rates, increases in births outside marriage, and increasing drug abuse, may not be due to economic factors such as the rise in welfare payments or the decline in job opportunities alone. Rather, he suggests that social changes, such as the decline in the popularity of marriage, are primarily responsible for these adverse effects. He argues that welfare is a response to poverty, not its cause, and that society's response to the disintegrating family should be to try to replace the income that has disappeared rather than trying to reduce the level of welfare.
Correspondence: G. A. Akerlof, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:20430 Alberdi Alonso, Inés; Alberdi, Cristina; Alvira, Francisco; Cabré, Anna; Durán, Maria A.; Gil Calvo, Enrique. Report on the situation of the family in Spain. [Informe sobre la situación de la familia en España.] Colección Estudios, No. 24, ISBN 84-7850-071-5. 1995. xvi, 485 pp. Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a general review of the current situation of the family in Spain. Following an introduction on the family and social change, there is a section on demographic aspects of the family, with chapters on recent developments in the family in Europe, the dynamics of family characteristics in Spain, and population characteristics and the morphology of families and households. There are also sections on the individual, family, and society, with chapters on cultural aspects and the domestic economy; and on legal aspects, including changes in the law concerning marriage, the reform of the Civil Code in 1981, family law, the recognition of children born outside marriage, consensual unions, and new techniques of human reproduction. A final section examines the future of the family.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales, Centro de Publicaciones, José Abascal 39, 28003 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20431 Barroso, Carmen. Policy strategies to encourage greater involvement of fathers with their children in Southern countries. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 831-47 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This paper is concerned with the growing interest in the participation of fathers in childrearing. It "will examine three questions: first, what has prompted this interest? second, what is the actual involvement of fathers in different societies and cultures? and third, what is the role of governmental policies in Southern countries to encourage greater participation of men in providing economic resources for their children and in direct childcare?"
Correspondence: C. Barroso, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Population Program, 140 South Dearborn, Suite 1100, Chicago, IL 60603. E-mail: cbarroso@macfdn.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20432 Bian, Fuqin; Logan, John R.; Bian, Yanjie. Intergenerational relations in urban China: proximity, contact, and help to parents. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 1998. 115-24 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We examine the relations of...noncoresident offspring with parents in terms of proximity, frequency of contact, and exchange of help. Based on a 1993 random sample survey conducted in two major Chinese cities, we find that although rates of coresidence are high, noncoresident sons and daughters live close to parents, have frequent contact with their parents, and provide regular help to parents.... There is some evidence of closer relationships with sons than with daughters, but parents without a son receive as much help from all children as do parents with sons. The effects of these and other predictors are estimated in multivariate analyses, and results are interpreted in terms of the persistence or change of traditional family norms."
Correspondence: F. Bian, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Social Science 340, Albany, NY 12222. E-mail: j.logan@albany.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20433 Cherlin, Andrew J. By the numbers. New York Times Magazine, Apr 5, 1998. 39-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses changes in the meaning of motherhood in the United States, with a focus on how society can accommodate these changes. Aspects considered include female employment, declining marriage and birth rates, divorce and remarriage, economic changes, family benefits, and male and female participation in child care. Policy changes and proposals are considered.
Correspondence: A. J. Cherlin, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Sociology, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20434 Clarke, Lynda; Joshi, Heather; Di Salvo, Pamela; Wright, Judith. Stability and instability in children's family lives: longitudinal evidence from two British data sources. Centre for Population Studies Research Paper, No. 97-1, ISBN 0-902657-61-5. Jan 1997. v, 25 pp. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study (LS) and National Child Development Study (NCDS--1958 cohort) to draw a dynamic picture of children's family circumstances [in England and Wales]. This longitudinal perspective of living arrangements provides a preliminary investigation of some of the long-term impacts on children of adults changing coresidents. There is clear evidence of more family disruption for children born in the 1980s than in the 1970s.... [This was] largely accounted for by an increase in the number of children living with lone mothers rather than step-families. It is worth emphasizing that still the majority of children (up to three-quarters of children under ten) lived with their natural parents in 1991." The study also showed that children of older mothers experienced more family stability.
Correspondence: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 49-51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. E-mail: L.Clarke@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20435 Daly, Anne. Indigenous female sole parents, a preliminary analysis of 1996 census data. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1998. 13-7 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper presents a preliminary analysis of 1996 [Australian] Census data relating to female indigenous sole parents. It confirms results from the 1991 Census which show that sole-parent families account for a larger share of indigenous families than is the case among other Australian families. Indigenous female sole parents tend to be younger and to have larger numbers of children and less education. They are also less likely to be in employment than other Australian sole parents."
Correspondence: A. Daly, University of Canberra, Faculty of Management, P.O. Box 1, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20436 Dykstra, Pearl A. The consequences of divorce for intergenerational exchange within families. [De gevolgen van echtscheiding voor intergenerationele uitwisselingen binnen families.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1997. 75-94 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Data from the NESTOR-survey Living Arrangements and Social Networks of Older Adults were used to examine the consequences of divorce for intergenerational exchanges within families [in the Netherlands].... The results indicated that divorced older adults are less likely to have supported exchanges with their adult children than are older adults who never experienced a marital breakup.... The results show furthermore that parental divorce leads to a greater disruption of parent-child relationships than does divorce within the younger generation. The likelihood that parents and children become estranged is greatest in families where members of both generations have gone through a divorce."
Correspondence: P. A. Dykstra, Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20437 Fauve-Chamoux, Antoinette; Fialová, Ludmila. The phenomenon of domesticity in Europe, sixteenth to twentieth centuries. [Le phénomène de la domesticité en Europe, XVIe-XXe siècles.] Acta Demographica, No. 13, ISBN 80-901674-7-0. 1997. 193 pp. Akademie ved Ceské Republiky, Sociologický Ústav, Ceská Demografická Spolecnost: Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng; Fre; Ger.
This issue contains papers presented at a round table on domestic service in Europe from the sixteenth to twentieth centuries; the meeting was held in Prague in the Czech Republic on September 17-18, 1996. Of the 11 papers, seven are in French, two in German, and two in English; the countries discussed include Germany, Hungary, Poland, Norway, and Italy.
Correspondence: Akademie ved Ceské Republiky, Sociologický Ústav, Ceská Demografická Spolecnost, Jilská 1, 110 00 Prague 1, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20438 Foster, Geoff; Makufa, Choice; Drew, Roger; Kralovec, Etta. Factors leading to the establishment of child-headed households: the case of Zimbabwe. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., No. 2, 1997. 155-68 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper analyses factors associated with the establishment of 43 child- and adolescent-headed households in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. Such households result from the rapid increase in numbers of parental deaths leading to overburdening of the capacity of relatives to fulfil their traditional role of caring for orphans. Most children living in child and adolescent headed households have had both parents die in the preceding five years; many of them receive regular visits and support from relatives. Child-headed households represent a new coping mechanism in response to the impact of AIDS on communities. Community groups can help extended families to cope with the burden of orphans by encouraging the establishment of volunteer-based visiting programs to at-risk households and by channelling essential material support to destitute families."
Correspondence: G. Foster, Family AIDS Caring Trust, Mutare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20439 Haaga, John; Moffitt, Robert A. Welfare, the family, and reproductive behavior: report of a meeting. ISBN 0-309-06025-7. 1998. ix, 24 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"On May 2-3, 1996, the...National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council and Institute of Medicine convened a Workshop on Welfare Reform and the Family and Reproductive Behavior. Its purpose was to bring together experts in demographic and family studies, along with researchers and officials familiar with the welfare programs, to assess what we know and what we need to know about effects of welfare on marriage, fertility-related behavior, and the family, especially children.... This document provides a summary of presentations and discussions at the meeting."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20440 Hantrais, Linda. Exploring relationships between social policy and changing family forms within the European Union. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1997. 339-79 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article examines critically the linkages posited between social policy and changing family forms in European Union member states since the 1960s. While lower fertility rates, changing family patterns, population ageing and the rapid growth in women's economic activity can be shown to provoke policy responses, evidence for a causal impact of policy on demographic behaviour and for the diffusion of policies between countries is inconclusive. The article argues that policy environments are shaped by a complex array of factors, which may appear, in certain configurations, to be conducive to family building or to the development of particular family forms."
Correspondence: L. Hantrais, Loughborough University, European Research Centre, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, England. E-mail: L.Hantrais@lboro.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20441 Hirosima, Kiyosi. Projection of living arrangements of the elderly in Japan: 1990-2010. Genus, Vol. 53, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 79-111 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"According to the extrapolation of the proportions of the elderly belonging to each household type by marital status [in Japan], the elderly population by household status is projected. This shows that the proportion of the elderly co-residing with a son or daughter decreases from 58 percent to 40 percent [from 1990 to 2010], mainly owing to the declining propensity of co-residing by marital status, and that more (43 percent) elderly women still live with a son or daughter than those (32 percent) in couple-only households in 2010, while the relation is already the reverse for elderly men (36:50)."
Correspondence: K. Hirosima, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue-shi, Shimane Prefecture 690, Japan. E-mail: hirosima@soc.shimane-u.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20442 Holmes, Jessica; Tiefenthaler, Jill. Cheaper by the dozen? The marginal time costs of children in the Philippines. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 6, Dec 1997. 561-78 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, the hypothesis that there are diminishing marginal time costs of children is tested using household data from the developing country setting of the Philippines. By examining the determinants of additional time spent in childcare before and after the birth of a child, it is found that the marginal time costs are not the same across households of various sizes. Firstborn children cost significantly more in terms of additional mother's time than children of higher birth orders. In addition, the time costs of the second child are found to be significantly greater than those of the third child. However, these economies of scale in childcare are limited and do not extend beyond three children. The effect of birth spacing on the marginal time costs of children is also found to be significant." Data are from the Cebu Health and Nutritional Survey.
Correspondence: J. Tiefenthaler, Colgate University, Department of Economics, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346-1398. E-mail: tiefenthaler@center.colgate.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20443 Jensen, An-Magritt. New forms of reproductive and family behaviour in contemporary Europe: a review of recent findings. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 869-84 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"The paper gives a cross-sectional presentation of regional and gender differences in the living with adults and the living with children, as depicted from the European Fertility and Family Surveys.... The results indicate that it is not partnerships, but the living with children which creates wide regional and gender differences. In spite of marked declines in marriage rates, regional and gender differences in the living with a partner are shallow and disappear by age. In contrast, pronounced regional and gender differences are traced in the living with children. The balance between adults and children in the families signifies that the most adult dominated families are found in Central Europe, while child dominated families are found in Eastern Europe. Furthermore, the results show that women more often live in child dominated families, while men live in adult dominated families."
Correspondence: A.-M. Jensen, ISS/NTNU, 7055 Drafvoll, Norway. E-mail:anmagritt.jensen@sv.ntnu.no. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20444 Johnson, Richard W.; DaVanzo, Julie. Economic and cultural influences on the decision to leave home in Peninsular Malaysia. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 1998. 97-114 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using retrospective data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey, we estimate hazard models of nest-leaving in Peninsular Malaysia. We find that the departure of children, especially sons, responds to economic incentives, including housing costs, family businesses, education, and economic growth, and that ethnic differences in nest-leaving are important. We also find that the median age of departure from home has declined sharply over the past 40 years, a period of rapid social and economic change in Malaysia."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. W. Johnson, Rutgers University, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, 30 College Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901. E-mail: rjohn@rci.rutgers.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20445 Klijzing, E.; Macura, M. Cohabitation and extra-marital childbearing: early FFS evidence. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 885-901 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Some early results from the Fertility and Family Surveys project are presented. The project involved surveys carried out in 20 developed countries using a standard model questionnaire that included questions on birth and partnership histories. The results presented here pertain to women aged 20-39, and concern cohabitation and extramarital childbearing, including cohabitational childbearing. The countries included are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.
Correspondence: E. Klijzing, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, Room 439, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. E-mail: erik.klijzing@unece.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20446 Knodel, John; Debavalya, Nibhon. Living arrangements and support among the elderly in South-East Asia: an introduction. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1997. 104 pp. UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is a special issue on living arrangements and sources of social and economic support of the elderly in developing countries. The articles are as follows: Living arrangements and support among the elderly in South-East Asia--an introduction, by John Knodel and Nibhon Debavalya; Patterns in living arrangements and familial support for the elderly in the Philippines, by Josefina N. Natividad and Grace T. Cruz; An overview of the living arrangements and social support exchanges of older Singaporeans, by Angelique Chan; Family support and living arrangements of Thai elderly, by John Knodel and Napaporn Chayovan; Living arrangements, patrilineality and sources of support among elderly Vietnamese, by Truong Si Anh, Bui The Cuong, Daniel Goodkind, and John Knodel; and Drawing policy lessons for Asia from research on ageing, by Albert I. Hermalin.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Population Division, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20447 Koç, Ismet. Female-headed households in Turkey and socio-demographic and economic characteristics of female household heads. Turkish Journal of Population Studies/Nüfusbilim Dergisi, Vol. 19, 1997. 73-99 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"The focus of the study is to examine the socio-demographic and economic differences between female...and male [household] heads in Turkey in order to illuminate different social, demographic and economic needs of female-headed households. Data used in this study mainly comes from the household questionnaires of 1978 Turkish Fertility Survey (TFS) and 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS).... Results...indicate that female household heads have...more difficulties in access to education, employment, social security and income generation compared to male household heads."
Correspondence: I. Koç, Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20448 Kuklo, Cezary. Household and family on the Polish territories in historical perspective. Polish Population Review, No. 10, 1997. 341 pp. Polish Demographic Society: Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
This special issue contains a selection of papers in English by various authors on aspects of families and households in the territories that made up Poland from the fifteenth to the twentieth century.
Correspondence: Polish Demographic Society, Al. Niepodleglosci 164, Room 3, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20449 Levin, Irene; Sussman, Marvin B. Stepfamilies: history, research, and policy: Part I. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, 1997. 213 pp. Haworth: Binghampton, New York. In Eng.
This issue of the journal contains 11 papers on aspects of stepfamilies around the world. A further 7 papers on the same topic are planned for the next issue.
Correspondence: Haworth Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. E-mail: getinfo@haworth.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20450 London, Rebecca A. Trends in single mothers' living arrangements from 1970 to 1995: correcting the Current Population Survey. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 1998. 125-31 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I examine trends in single mothers' living arrangements using data from the 1970-1995 [U.S.] Current Population Surveys. I create a consistent trend by correcting a coding problem that stemmed from the misidentification of children living in multigenerational households before 1984. Revised estimates show that the number of single mothers in each of these years was undercounted by 200,000-300,000. All of these women were subfamily heads living with their parents, and the problem occurred disproportionately among teens and black women.... There was little change in the percentage of single mothers living in this arrangement over the time period. However, the data indicate a large increase in the rate of cohabitation and a comparable decline in the rate of living independently among this population."
Correspondence: R. A. London, Berkeley Planning Associates, 440 Grand Avenue, Suite 500, Oakland, CA 94610. E-mail: rebecca@bpacal.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20451 McQuillan, Kevin. The ages of fatherhood: evidence on the timing and duration of fatherhood in the past. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 97-15, ISBN 0-7714-2055-2. Dec 1997. 14, [5] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The goal of this paper is to make a modest contribution to the growing research base on fatherhood by examining the experience of fathers [in the Alsace region of France from 1750 to 1850]. The analysis...takes the father as the unit of study and examines the timing and duration of fatherhood in an historical setting characterized by both demographic difference and change. The paper provides an opening to examine the impact of demographic change on the experience of fatherhood and provides an historical context to contemporary debates on the role of the fathers."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20452 Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, Arvind; Shajy, K. I. Implications of changes in family dynamics in India: 1971-1988. Janasamkhya, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1994. 57-73 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the implications of demographic transition...on kinship relationships in India during 1971-1988. Three simulations based on the schedules of fertility and mortality of India during 1971, 1981, and 1988 have been undertaken. The kinship size constitutes parents, grand parents, siblings (brothers and sisters) and children. Improved mortality condition has increased the percentage of kins in ancestor generation. The percentage of kins in ancestor generation was 15 percent in 1988 as compared to 8.5 percent in 1971.... The increase in the percent of kins in ancestor generation and the support ratio obviously shows the aging of the population."
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20453 Rajulton, Fernando; Ravanera, Zenaida R. Male parenting: a life course perspective. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 97-10, ISBN 0-7714-2050-1. Dec 1997. 17 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"In this paper, we concentrate on measuring the quantity or the amount of time lived by men with their children, and leave out the quality or the types and intensity of involvement in child-rearing.... Using the Canadian General Social Survey (Cycle 5) data collected in 1990, we show the proportions of men (classified by birth cohorts) going through the process of parenting in an intact two-parent family.... We propose a model that can be used for accommodating the recent trends in single-parent and blended families."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Center, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20454 Scott, Jacqueline. Changing households in Britain: do families still matter? Sociological Review, Vol. 45, No. 4, Nov 1997. 591-620 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we use data from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) to explore how a representative adult sample of more than 5,000 households in Britain describe the events and changes that have happened in their lives over the past year.... The first objective is to examine the relative importance given to family events in comparison to competing concerns of employment, leisure activities, consumption and the like. A second objective is to examine the extent to which people's reports are confined to things that happened in their own lives, and the extent to which people's lives seem bound up with others, such as partners, parents, children and grandchildren. These data are used both qualitatively and quantitatively to explore the various questions...about how the importance given to family and relationships varies by gender and across generations."
Correspondence: J. Scott, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20455 Toulemon, Laurent; de Guibert-Lantoine, Catherine. Fertility and family surveys in countries of the ECE region: standard country report, France. Economic Studies, No. 10e, Pub. Order No. GV.E.97-0-27. ISBN 92-1-100763-1. 1998. xiii, 106 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of comparable surveys on fertility and family change being undertaken in ECE member countries. This report presents results from the survey carried out in France in 1994. There are chapters on socioeconomic and cultural trends, population trends, and the main results of the survey. These include household composition, leaving the parental home, partnership formation and dissolution, children, fertility regulation, fertility preferences, and female education and employment. There is also a technical annex on the methodology of the survey.
For a publication presenting results from this survey in French, published in 1994, see 63:40781.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20456 Urassa, Mark; Boerma, J. Ties; Ng'weshemi, Japheth Z. L.; Isingo, Raphael; Schapink, Dick; Kumogola, Yusufu. Orphanhood, child fostering and the AIDS epidemic in rural Tanzania. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., No. 2, 1997. 141-53 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Data were used from the Kisesa Community Study in northwest Tanzania, to assess the prevalence and consequences of orphanhood in the context of existing child care practices in a rural area with moderately high HIV-prevalence.... Seven point six per cent of children under 15 and 8.9 per cent of children under 18 had lost one or both parents. Child fostering was very common. Virtually all orphans and foster-children were cared for by members of the extended family, often the maternal grandparents: 14 per cent of households had at least one orphan. Such households did not have a lower economic status, but had a less favourable dependency ratio. Households with orphans were also more likely to be female-headed."
Correspondence: J. T. Boerma, Royal Tropical Institute, 63 Mauritskade, 1092 AD Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20457 Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. Living as a couple but living apart. [Vivre en couple chacun chez soi.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 1,059-81 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In the mid-1960s, almost nine out of ten marriages were not preceded by a period of cohabitation; thirty years later the situation has been completely reversed, and some couples even forgo permanent cohabitation and a shared residence. The INED surveys on family situations (1986) and the Fertility and Family Survey--FFS (1994) have identified a disassociation between living as a couple and actually living together.... This article asks whether non-cohabiting partnership was a way of forming a couple comparable to unmarried cohabitation at the time the latter first began to spread, or whether it was just a `serious' form of a loving relationship. An attempt is made to isolate the characteristics, choices and constraints of those who opt for this way of life."
Correspondence: C. Villeneuve-Gokalp, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75020 Paris, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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