Volume 64 - Number 2 - Summer 1998

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

64:20244 Ahmed, Mohammed F. Estimation of birth rates and expectation of life at birth at national and district levels of Bangladesh--a critical comparison. Genus, Vol. 53, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1997. 129-56 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"In this paper the reverse survival method as suggested by Venkatacharya (1990) has been used to estimate birth rates for the national as well as for the district levels of Bangladesh. An attempt has also been made to estimate the male and female birth rates based on the same method.... An attempt...has also been made to estimate life-expectancy at birth for both sexes combined at national and district levels of Bangladesh. [An] attempt has also been made to obtain sex-specific life-expectancy at birth."
Correspondence: M. F. Ahmed, South Camden Community School, Charrington Street, London NW1, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20245 Anderson, David. Men, reproduction and fatherhood. IUSSP Policy and Research Paper, No. 12, ISBN 2-87108-060-7. 1997. 28 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This report summarizes some of the major themes discussed at a seminar on male fertility in the era of fertility decline. The seminar was organized by the IUSSP's Committee on Anthropological Demography and was held in Zacatecas, Mexico, November 13-16, 1995. The topics covered include male fertility and its determinants, men's motives for reproduction, men's control over their fertility, men as collaborators in fertility decision making, and fatherhood.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20246 Atoh, Makoto. Very low fertility in Japan and value change hypotheses. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1997. 3-20 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author investigates possible causes of recent changes in marital behavior and the resulting fertility decline in Japan. The focus is on the importance of cultural factors and changes in values since the 1960s. Aspects considered include changes in women's status, attitudes toward premarital sex, division of labor between males and females, care of elderly parents, and sex preferences.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20247 Bachu, Amara. Fertility of American women: June 1995 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 499, Oct 1997. 1 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a one-page summary of information on the fertility of American women based on the June 1995 Current Population Survey. A paper version of the tables is available for $23 as PPL-74 on request. These tables provide demographic characteristics of women by race and Hispanic origin. The detailed tabulations are also available online at http://www.census.gov.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Fertility and Family Statistics Branch, Washington, D.C. 20233. E-mail: abachu@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20248 Berinde, Diana. Two pathways to a third child. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 124, ISBN 91-7820-119-5. Dec 1997. 42 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The transition from two to three children is investigated, using data on Swedish women's fertility behaviour and labour force participation over a period of some 20 years ending in 1992/93. Two questions are examined: what is the relationship between working life and childbearing of two-child mothers? Is there any impact of public policies on their further fertility? Two paths to the third child are identified, one of women with an university degree and another, of women with preference for more children, reflected by marriage after having the first or the second child, or by persistent working experience followed by household work."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20249 Brui, B. The impact of social and medical demographic factors on the birth rate in Russia. [Vliyanie sotsial'nykh i mediko-demograficheskikh faktorov na uroven' rozhdaemosti v Rossii.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 1, 1998. 72-4 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Factors affecting recent fertility trends in Russia are analyzed. The author notes that Russia has had a similar experience to most Western countries over the course of the century concerning the trend toward lower fertility. In fact, fertility in Russia dropped to below replacement levels in the 1960s, and has not recovered since that time. Attempts to raise fertility levels through social policy ceased to have any effects during the 1980s. Consideration is also given to family planning and maternal and child health issues.
Correspondence: B. Brui, Goskomstat Rossii, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20250 Burch, Thomas K. Fertility decline theories: toward a synthetic computer model. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 97-7, ISBN 0-7714-2005-6. Jul 1997. 17 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper is a first step toward a comprehensive model of fertility decline.... The [second] section gives brief sketches of the central theoretical ideas of [selected] authors, highlighting complementarities and possibilities for synthesis. Following that, a synthetic model is presented, graphically and in the difference-equation language of Professional Dynamo Plus. Illustrative output is given for Taiwan (1957-63)...."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Center, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20251 Caldwell, John C. The global fertility transition: the need for a unifying theory. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1997. 803-12, 930, 932-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This address to the 1997 IUSSP General Conference urges the need to regard the global fertility transition as a single process explained by a unified fertility transition theory. The argument is that a global fertility transition was inevitable and that demographic pressure was intertwined with ideas, ideologies, and organized assistance both in nineteenth-century Europe and in the developing countries of the second half of the twentieth century. Once fertility change began, it was certain that it would be explained, championed, and assisted. These actions accelerated the change in both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20252 Collumbien, Martine; Timæus, Ian M.; Acharya, Laxmi. The onset of fertility decline in Nepal: a reinterpretation. Centre for Population Studies Research Paper, No. 97-2, ISBN 0-902657-58-5. Dec 1997. iv, 29 pp. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates fertility in Nepal using the measures of parity progression proposed by Brass and Juarez (1983) to detect the onset of fertility decline. The analysis is based largely on the 1991 Nepal Fertility, Family Planning and Health Survey. Evaluation of the birth history data collected in this survey indicates that they are sufficiently reliable to determine fertility trends. The sample size allows analysis at sub-national level. Supporting evidence as to the pattern of decline is provided by the 1991 Census and by earlier surveys."
Correspondence: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 49-51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. E-mail: M.Collumbien@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20253 Das Gupta, Monica; Narayana, D. Bangladesh's fertility decline from a regional perspective. Genus, Vol. 53, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1997. 101-28 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"Bangladesh is believed to have undergone a very dramatic fertility decline because of its family planning program. Reviewing the evidence, we find that the decline in fertility, though important, is not so dramatic as generally believed. Fertility levels are similar to those of neighboring India, which is not perceived to have an outstanding family planning program. While the program must have facilitated the decline, many significant changes have taken place in Bangladesh's society and economy which make for reduced demand for children. A desire to reduce fertility was generated by growing pressure on resources, and this has sharpened with the changing values and aspirations associated with increasing integration of the population with the modern economy."
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. E-mail: monica@hsph.harvard.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20254 De Santis, Gustavo; Livi Bacci, Massimo. Population reproduction: a method of breakdown and estimation. [La reproduction des populations: une méthode de décomposition et d'estimation.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 1,119-42 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article shows how...a classic measure of reproduction...can be broken down into a series of multiplicative components, each of which reflects a specific dimension (intensity or timing) of nuptiality, mortality, fertility and, if required, migration.... A number of simple algorithms are proposed for calculating the mean age at birth and for estimating the proportion of women who are married at this age. An application to England, France and Germany establishes the existence and the characteristics of their respective demographic regimes in the XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries."
Correspondence: M. Livi Bacci, Università di Firenze, Dipartimento Statistico, Viale Morgagni 59, 50134 Florence, Italy. E-mail: livi@stat.ds.unifi.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20255 De Simoni, Alessandro. An estimate of age and parity distributions of the female population of childbearing age: Italy and its large subdivisions, from 1980 to 1995. [Una stima delle distribuzioni per età e parità della popolazione femminile in età feconda: Italia e grandi ripartizioni, anni dal 1980 al 1995.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 1/96, Oct 1995. 75 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Age and parity data for women 15-59 years of age from 1980 to 1995 are given for Italy as a whole and separately for the northern and southern regions. "The data reported here derive from an indirect estimation procedure which basically consists [of] a `longitudinal' monitoring, for each year of observation, of the female population by age, assigning it to higher parity categories according to the corresponding data on births classified by the mother's age and by order. Besides the specific aspects of recent Italian fertility trends, the data is interesting since it enables us to determine the so-called parity progression rates in which both terms of the ratio are specified with regard to the woman's age and parity."
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20256 Denny, Clerk; Mitra, S. A general model of fertility decline to replacement level in the second generation. Janasamkhya, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1994. 17-28 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This paper presents a model of population momentum which expresses the ratio of the ultimate stationary population to the initial stable population when fertility declines to replacement level in the second generation regardless of the pattern of the fall.... Results starting from the initial stable age distributions are compared with those generated by the actual population compositions." The model is employed to calculate the results of a fall in age-specific fertility rates in the second generation in four countries: Guatemala, Japan, Mexico, and Rwanda.
Correspondence: C. Denny, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20257 Elizarov, Valerii V. The demographic situation and problems of family policy. [Demograficheskaya situatsiya i problemy semeinoi politiki.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 2, 1998. 55-61 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The decline in fertility that occurred in Russia from the early 1960s to the 1980s is analyzed. The author focuses on the factors that influence young parents to have children, and on the extent to which social policies can be developed to influence them in these decisions. The impact of changing patterns of marriage and divorce on fertility is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20258 Gregson, Simon; Zhuwau, Tom; Anderson, Roy M.; Chandiwana, Stephen K. HIV and fertility change in rural Zimbabwe. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., No. 2, 1997. 89-112 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"We review a number of mechanisms through which an HIV epidemic and responses to it can affect birth rates, through the biological and behavioural proximate determinants. Uninfected as well as infected people can be affected and many of the changes could have unintended consequences for fertility at the individual level. Results from a small-scale in-depth study in two rural areas of Zimbabwe are reviewed. These indicate that the local HIV epidemic has begun to influence the proximate determinants of fertility. If observed trends persist, a modest acceleration in the recent decline in birth rates seems plausible."
Correspondence: S. Gregson, Blair Research Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20259 Hayashi, Kenji; Hyoi, Nobuyuki. An analysis on fertility recovery in Sweden (1980-1990). Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology, Vol. 60, No. 6, 1994. 322-32 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"In Sweden, [the] Total Fertility Rate (TFR) has increased drastically since 1980, predominantly after 1985.... The current analysis [suggests] that fertility changes in Sweden are closely related to the scheme of paid maternity leave. The 1986 renovation seems to highly enhance the motivation of childbearing. However, the...scheme unexpectedly seems to bring about the increase of abortion rate at the same time."
Correspondence: K. Hayashi, Institute of Public Health, Department of Demography and Health Statistics, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

64:20260 Hoem, Britta; Hoem, Jan M. Fertility trends in Sweden up to 1996. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 123, ISBN 91-7820-117-9. Nov 1997. 14, [5] pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this paper, we describe fertility trends in Sweden over three decades through 1996. We relate these trends to family-relevant public policies, women's labor-force participation, and general economic developments, and suggest that fertility and employment levels for women may be expected to move in concert rather than in opposite directions...."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20261 Imai, Hiroyuki. Application of Butz-Ward type models to fertility in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1996. 30-5 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Butz-Ward models are applied to the analysis of Japanese fertility data for the period 1965-1995.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20262 Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C. Stability of marital unions and fertility in Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan 1998. 33-41 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using nationally representative data, it is shown that marital unions are relatively stable in Nigeria. Remarriage rates are high so little time is lost between unions. Consequently, the fertility of women who have experienced marital disruption is only slightly lower than for those in stable unions. Their slightly lower parity may be a function of a high incidence of reproductive impairment, which is a major reason for divorce and separation in Nigeria."
Correspondence: U. C. Isiugo-Abanihe, University of Ibadan, Department of Sociology, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20263 Kenya. Central Bureau of Statistics (Nairobi, Kenya). Kenya population census, 1989: Analytical report. Volume IV: fertility and nuptiality. [1997?]. [162] pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
This report analyzes the data from the 1989 census of Kenya on fertility and nuptiality. There are chapters on fertility levels and trends, fertility differentials, and nuptiality. The report also contains a summary and conclusions.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Planning and National Development, P.O. Box 30266, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Northwestern University Library, Evanston, IL.

64:20264 Kirk, Dudley; Pillet, Bernard. Fertility levels, trends, and differentials in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s and 1990s. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 1, Mar 1998. 1-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study presents an assessment of fertility trends in 23 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It examines trends and differentials in proximate determinants and fertility preferences. Findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys for these countries over a period of 15 years show that desired family size has decreased significantly. Two-thirds of the countries examined show evidence of fertility decline, a particularly rapid decline in the cases of Kenya and Zimbabwe. Areas with higher education for women and lower child mortality experienced larger reductions in fertility and desired family size. Contraceptive use far exceeds other proximate determinants in explaining these changes. The striking regularity in fertility reduction across all ages indicates that contraception is practiced mostly for birth spacing and that contraceptive methods have gained wide acceptance among younger cohorts."
Correspondence: D. Kirk, Stanford University, Food Research Institute, Stanford, CA 94305-6084. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20265 Kojima, Hiroshi; Rallu, Jean-Louis. Fertility in Japan and France. [La fécondité au Japon et en France.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 1,143-72 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Fertility in Japan and France was very similar between 1975 and 1985, but the subsequent decline has been greater in Japan, where levels have stood at below 1.5 births per women since 1993. A study of fertility using civil registration and survey data, and from indices based on the parity-specific birth probabilities, reveals that the decline in fertility in Japan was due to the fall in nuptiality until the mid-1980s but that since then there has also been a fall in fertility within marriage. Unlike in France, extra-marital fertility has not increased in Japan, and the compensation due to postponed births remained at a low level until the start of the 1990s."
Correspondence: H. Kojima, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Kasumigaseki 1-2-3, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20266 Kojima, Katsuhisa; Yamamoto, Chizuko. Fertility in Japan: 1994. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1996. 52-8 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Fertility trends in Japan for 1994 are analyzed. Data are included on births by nationality; fertility and marriage trends, 1970-1994; components of births and the birth rate, 1920-1994; and birth rates by age and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20267 Llorente Marrón, Maria del M.; Costa Reparaz, Emilio; Díaz Fernández, Montserrat. A model for the simultaneous analysis of the number and quality of children. [Un modelo de determinación simultánea del número y calidad de hijos.] Revista Internacional de Sociología, No. 17, May-Aug 1997. 133-51 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors develop an economic model of fertility, based on the New Family Economy approach, which enables a simultaneous analysis to be made of such factors as the interaction between child quality and quantity, female labor force participation, and family leisure activities. "By means of the estimate of a system of simultaneous equations, we have empirically contrasted the main existing linkages among the dependent variables mentioned and those which characterize the economic and social position of the family, women's and men's wage rates, nonlabor income, age and cultural standard of both husband and wife, etc. The required sample information has been obtained by means of a survey [of] over 1,200 families living in Principado de Austurias [Spain]. The model has been estimated following the two-stage square methods. The estimates...satisfactorily reflect the main interrelations that exist among the different variables analyzed."
Correspondence: M. del M. Llorente Marrón, Universidad de Oviedo, Calle San Francisco 3, 33003 Oviedo, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20268 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Montgomery, Mark R. The consequences of unintended fertility: potential implications for investments in children. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 699-718 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors describe how new conceptual and empirical research is needed on the consequences for both mothers and children of unwanted childbearing in developing countries and how such a new framework of research will be able to provide a rationale for the support of family planning programs. "In this paper, we begin with a discussion of the dilemma that faces economists in fertility research as they try to deduce preferences from behaviour. This is followed by a review of findings from the sociological literature about the meaning of preferences and the advantages and disadvantages...of alternative approaches to measurement. As will be discussed, existing demographic data on preferences function much like blinders, in that they constrain our angle of vision on the potential consequences of unintended childbearing. The next section discusses these limitations. Finally, we review some intriguing recent research results...that should encourage further attention to this neglected topic and discuss some practical steps that could be taken to strengthen the empirical base for further research."
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, Social Sciences Research, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. E-mail: clloyd@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20269 Lobao, Linda M.; Brown, Lawrence A. Development context, regional differences among young women, and fertility: the Ecuadorean Amazon. Social Forces, Vol. 76, No. 3, Mar 1998. 819-49 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This study examines macro-micro linkages between development context and fertility. We extend two conceptual approaches on the social context of fertility to an alternative development setting, the extractive periphery, represented by Ecuador's Amazon. Focus is on how relationships between young women's social structural positions and fertility are modified by attributes of the region's development. Data are from a full population of young Ecuadorean women. The fertility-reducing effects of women's education, student status, labor force participation, and paid employment are found to decline in the Amazon as a consequence of its family-based economy, class structure, and high-fertility demographic regime."
Correspondence: L. M. Lobao, Ohio State University, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Rural Sociology Program, Columbus, OH 43210. E-mail: lobao@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20270 Lockwood, Matthew. Fertility and household labour in Tanzania: demography, economy, and society in Rufiji District, c.1870-1986. ISBN 0-19-828754-2. LC 97-39099. 1998. xiii, 203 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This book is an interdisciplinary study of the way in which human reproduction interweaves with the reproduction of society and economy in coastal Tanzania. Combining demography, history, and sociology...it offers a new methodology for the study of African fertility and the role of household demography in agrarian economies. Part I provides a political economy of changing fertility. Demographic patterns are situated within the wider social and economic context, in particular the transformation of marriage in relation to kinship and local political structures, and child-spacing dynamics rooted in the moral economy of gender. In Part II, the author examines the implications of demographic patterns for people's workloads and economic fortunes at the individual and household level. Based on extensive field-work in a Tanzanian village, the analysis shows the importance of women's involvement in rice cultivation, and the fluidity of life cycles."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20271 Lockwood, Matthew. Reproduction and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. IDS Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1997. 91-100 pp. Brighton, England. In Eng.
"In this article I explore some of the relationships between poverty and reproduction in Africa. Much thinking about these issues has been based on a particular understanding of fertility--one which relates poverty to high fertility via a shortage of labour power and insecurity. However, some recent work looks at reproduction in sub-Saharan Africa in a rather different way. I briefly outline that work, and then try to draw out the implications for an understanding of poverty, gender and reproduction."
Correspondence: M. Lockwood, University of Sussex, School of African and Asian Studies, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:20272 Macunovich, Diane J. Fertility and the Easterlin hypothesis: an assessment of the literature. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 1, Feb 1998. 53-111 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Focusing just on the fertility aspects of the Easterlin hypothesis, this paper offers a critical assessment--rather than just a selective citation--of the extensive fertility literature generated by Easterlin, and a complete inventory of data and methodologies in seventy-six published analyses. With an equal number of micro- and macro-level analyses using North American data (twenty-two), the `track record' of the hypothesis is the same in both venues, with fifteen providing significant support in each case. The literature suggests unequivocal support for the relativity of the income concept in fertility, but is less clear regarding the source(s) of differences in material aspirations, and suggests that the observed relationship between fertility and cohort size has varied across countries and time periods due to the effects of additional factors not included in most models."
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, Syracuse University, Maxwell Center for Policy Research, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244-1020. E-mail: dmacunov@maxwell.syr.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20273 Macura, Miroslav. Fertility and nuptiality changes in central and eastern Europe: 1982-1993. Stanovnistvo, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1997. 11-43 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng. with sum. in Scr.
The author investigates changes over time in the level and timing of fertility and first marriage in central and eastern Europe from 1982 to 1993. "We seek to answer the following questions.... Were the changes in first marriage accompanied by those in non-marital cohabitation?... Were the shifts in overall fertility and first marriage accompanied by those in their timing, as measured by the mean age of childbearing and the mean age at entry into first marriage, respectively?"
Correspondence: M. Macura, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Population Activities Unit, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20274 Matthews, Beverly. The gender system and fertility: an examination of the hidden links. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 97-11, ISBN 0-7714-2051-X. Dec 1997. 22 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This study uses qualitative methods and case studies to explore the underlying causal nexus between gender and demographic behaviour [in Canada]. The purpose is to explore [several issues]: how does the household division of labour...interact with gender role orientations to influence fertility strategies and how is this mediated by the cultural gender system...? And, ultimately, does an egalitarian gender system inevitably result in `precariously' low fertility?"
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20275 McDonald, Peter. Contemporary fertility patterns in Australia: first data from the 1996 census. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1998. 1-13 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The results of the 1996 [Australian] Census show that levels of fertility are falling for almost all categories of women and for women as a whole. Most young women would like to have at least two children but economic and social circumstances force them to curtail their preferences. Very low fertility is not in Australia's interests. The solution lies not in forcing women out of the work force but in supporting them in their desire to combine work and family."
Correspondence: P. McDonald, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20276 Merrigan, Philip; St.-Pierre, Yvan. An econometric and neoclassical analysis of the timing and spacing of births in Canada from 1950 to 1990. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 1, Feb 1998. 29-51 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper estimates a reduced form neoclassical model of Canadian fertility dynamics using an econometric technique that integrates several features not usually found in the demographic and economic literature. We find considerable support for the neoclassical model. We also find that correlated unobservables and parity stopping effects play an important role in Canadian fertility dynamics as well as other socio-demographic features of Canadian women. However, we fail to totally characterize the important drops in the fertility rate that took place for this era."
Correspondence: P. Merrigan, University of Quebec, Département des Sciences Economiques, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. E-mail: merrigan.philip@uqam.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20277 Mimura, Noriko. Fertility and prenatal care among poor women in Nicaragua: an empirical analysis with data from the Living Standards Measurement Survey of 1993. CIDR Working Paper Series, Dec 1996. 21 pp. Duke University, Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Center for International Development Research: Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This study analyzes the impact of poverty on prenatal care and fertility in Nicaragua in order to provide a statistical and analytical basis for more effective resource allocation in the maternal health sector in this country. Using data from the Living Standards Measurement Survey (1993), the author provides a statistical analysis of the relationship between the socioeconomic level of women and the number of births, amount of prenatal care received, and amount spent on prenatal care. She examines as well the effect that rural/urban residency, the presence of a spouse in a household, and years of education for women have on these relationships."
Correspondence: Duke University, Center for International Development Research, Box 90237, Durham, NC 27708-0237. E-mail: cidr@pps.duke.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20278 Muhwava, William; Timæus, Ian M. Fertility decline in Zimbabwe. Centre for Population Studies Research Paper, No. 96-1, ISBN 0-902657-60-7. Dec 1996. iv, 53 pp. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"The extent to which fertility has declined in Zimbabwe has been hotly debated. This paper attempts to resolve this controversy by conducting a comprehensive analysis of all the fertility data available from national censuses and surveys.... As well as examining summary measures of total fertility, the study presents estimates of parity progression for each cohort interviewed in the two DHS surveys using the method proposed by Brass and Juarez to adjust for truncation bias. In addition, we check our fertility estimates against the Census enumerations by carrying out an intercensal population projection based on them." The authors conclude that, after some inconsistencies in the 1970s and 1980s, "fertility in Zimbabwe is incontrovertibly in transition."
Correspondence: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 49-51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. E-mail: W.Muhwava@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20279 Ntozi, James P. M.; Nakanaabi, Immaculate M.; Lubaale, Yovani A. M. Fertility levels and trends in the face of the AIDS epidemic in Uganda. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 611-24 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"The paper uses data on ever-married women interviewed in 1992 and 1995 surveys in six districts of Uganda. Total fertility rates declined during the inter-survey period from 7.3 to 6.0. Women in households that experienced AIDS-related deaths had lower fertility levels than women in non-AIDS-affected households in both 1992 and 1995. This pattern was true of women at older ages, in polygamous unions, the widowed and separated, and among the highly educated and the uneducated."
Correspondence: J. P. M. Ntozi, Makerere University, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. E-mail: isae@mukla.gn.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20280 Pandey, Arvind; Dwivedi, S. N.; Mishra, R. N. A stochastic model for the study of last closed birth interval with some biosocial components. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1998. 1-27, 109 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"We present a stochastic model to describe variation in last closed birth interval for women of a given marriage duration by parity as well as regardless of parity. The model is derived under some simplified assumptions relating to human reproduction process accounting for the non-exposure period in the beginning of the reproductive life caused by such biosocial components as adolescent sterility and temporary separation between the partners called as an inoperative period. We illustrate the model regardless of parity on an observed set of data taken from a rural area of northern India and estimate the risk of conception before and after the first birth."
Correspondence: A. Pandey, International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Mathematical Demography and Statistics, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20281 Pandey, Arvind; Saxena, N. C.; Singh, K. K. Estimation of parity progression ratios from birth order statistics. Genus, Vol. 53, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 177-88 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper presents a technique which estimates parity progression ratios (PPRs) from birth order statistics. The method proposed here...overcomes the major problem of obtaining mother's mean age at birth at different orders which were typically derived from maternity histories provided by survey data. This technique has been illustrated using data from the Census of India, 1981 and the Sample Registration System of India, 1990. We find that the estimates of PPR so derived are more sensitive to the changes in distribution of births than other inputs."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Pandey, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20282 Paul, Bimal K. Changes in reproductive behavior in Bangladesh. Geographical Review, Vol. 87, No. 1, Jan 1997. 100-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Some recent changes in reproductive behavior in Bangladesh are examined, and the factors associated with the rapid decline in fertility that has occurred are analyzed. Data are primarily from the 1993-1994 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. In view of the current age structure, the author notes that the problems of overpopulation will be solved only by continued support for population control by the people as a whole, a strong political commitment on the part of the government, and additional support from the international community.
Correspondence: B. K. Paul, Kansas State University, Department of Geography, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20283 Petrovic, Mina. The fertility problem in Yugoslav society in the late 1990s. [Problem fertiliteta stanovnistva u jugoslovenskom drustvu krajem 90-tih.] Socioloski Pregled/Sociological Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1996. 217-28 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"At the end of the 1990s Yugoslav society is simultaneously faced with two population problems: depopulation and explosive growth of the population.... In this article the attention is focused on some social preconditions of high and low fertility of Yugoslav regions.... The article also deal with possibilities of implementation [of] the population policy." The impact of political factors, modernization, and regional, social, economic, and cultural features is emphasized.
Correspondence: M. Petrovic, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Narodnog Fronta 45, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20284 Preston, Samuel H.; Guillot, Michel. Population dynamics in an age of declining fertility. Genus, Vol. 53, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1997. 15-31 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"Formal demography offers two lessons that bear on growth prospects for low fertility populations. First, population growth rates become more and more sensitive to variation in fertility rates, i.e. long-term population growth rates are a function of relative changes in fertility levels rather than of absolute changes. Second, even below-replacement fertility creates a momentum that carries features of current demographic patterns into the future. The longer a return to replacement-level fertility is delayed, the larger the momentum of decline will be."
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. E-mail: spreston@pop.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20285 Rasevic, Mirjana. Factors affecting natural fertility. [Faktori prirodnog fertiliteta.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1997. 93-107 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper represents a review of the origins of the difference between the theoretical, formally formulated framework for child bearing, and the actual child bearing in conditions in which it is not controlled.... The conclusion that [differences in] biological factors [among populations] have a limited impact on...natural fertility indicates that even if these differences do exist, they are not large enough to affect the level of child bearing in populations which do not practice fertility control. Consequently, their impact in populations which widely practice population control is even less significant."
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Instituta Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20286 Rizkallah, Hala N.; Moneim, Ahmad A. Fertility decline in Lebanon. [La baisse de la fécondité au Liban.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 1,224-33 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent fertility trends in Lebanon are analyzed using data from the 1996 survey carried out as part of the Pan-Arab Project on Child Development. Methods developed by Bongaarts are used to assess the relative impact of intermediate variables such as changes in age at marriage, breast-feeding, induced abortion, and contraception on the decline in fertility that has occurred in recent years.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20287 Robichaux, David. Income generation and age at couple formation: toward an interpretation of the demographic explosion in rural Mexico. [Asalarización y edad de formación de la pareja: hacia una interpretación de la explosión demográfica en el México rural.] Sociológica, Vol. 11, No. 32, Sep-Dec 1996. 51-78 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author considers the ways in which salaried labor can translate into population growth in rural sectors of Mexico, and the subsequent impact on the age of couple formation. Data are from a Tlaxcala community where salaried work has gained importance. Results indicate not only a decline in fertility and mortality rates, but also a decline in the age at first union.
Correspondence: D. Robichaux, Universidad Iberoamericana, Departmento de Ciencias Sociales y Politícas, Prolongación Paseo de la Reforma 880, Col. Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20288 Robins, Tamasine. Dangerous misconceptions? Fertility change in colonial western Kenya. In: Population dynamics: some past and emerging issues, edited by Richard A. Powell, Eleuther A. Mwageni, and Augustine Ankomah. 1996. 9-17 pp. University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies: Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the applicability of ideas of demographic transition in an African context through a case study of western Kenya, with particular reference to the fertility experience. Changes in the birth rate are used to interpret the overall extent and determinants of population change. This paper shows how Eurocentric interpretations of population growth in western Kenya have been incorrect in their reliance on the demographic transition model, and suggests that this has had negative impacts on the potential success of population policies in the area." Specifically, the author argues that "a key factor contributing to population growth during the colonial period was a substantial and sustained rise in fertility. This was influenced by the arrival of colonialism and the infiltration of western values and social systems via missionary teaching.... The penetration of the capitalist economy further contributed to rising birth rates, with the establishment of labour migration and subsequent changing gender roles, which served to necessitate fertility increase."
Correspondence: T. Robins, University of Wales, Institute of Earth Studies, Aberystwyth, Wales. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

64:20289 Rwenge, Mburano. The determinants of marital fertility by place of residence in Benin: an analysis using intermediate variables. [Determinants de la fécondité des mariages selon le milieu d'habitat au Bénin: examen par les variables intermédiaires.] Les Cahiers de l'IFORD, No. 7, ISBN 2-905327-20-0. Mar 1994. 125 pp. Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques [IFORD]: Yaoundé, Cameroon. In Fre.
This analysis of fertility in Benin is based on data from the National Survey of Fertility undertaken between 1981 and 1983. The focus of the study is on how intermediate variables, such as age at first marriage, lactation, postpartum abstinence, and contraceptive usage, affect fertility differently in rural and urban areas. The study shows how urbanization and education have the effect of lowering fertility in urban areas.
Correspondence: Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20290 Shakhatreh, Farouk M. N. Fertility patterns, child growth and nutrition, and the use of maternity services: comparing South Jordan with the three main cities. Dirasat Series B (Pure and Applied Sciences), Vol. 21, No. 5, 1994. 69-82 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"The Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) was carried out in 1990. This paper aims to answer whether southern women and their children are different from women and their children in Amman, Zarqa and Irbid regarding fertility, use of maternity services, and child growth and nutrition. There had been much improvement in the use of maternity services in Jordan over the past seven years.... Total fertility per Jordanian woman aged 15-49 years is 5.6.... The growth pattern of Jordanian preschool children is satisfactory when compared to other Arab countries." However, the results clearly indicate the underprivileged status of women and children living in the south compared to those living in the three main cities.
Correspondence: F. M. N. Shakhatreh, University of Jordan, Department of Community Medicine, Amman, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20291 Singh, K. K.; Singh, R. S.; Singh, Uttam; Singh, Kiran. Levels and trends of fecundability and sterility in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Janasamkhya, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1994. 75-97 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This paper deals with the application of a model (Bhattacharya et al., 1987) to describe the number of births to a female in a specified period of time, when the start of observation is [at a] distant point since marriage. [The] model is applied to study the levels and trends of fecundability and sterility of females in eastern Uttar Pradesh (rural) based on data available from three surveys conducted under the auspices of [the] Centre of Population Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. A short description of the model with assumptions and procedure to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters are outlined."
Correspondence: K. K. Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20292 Strassmann, Beverly I.; Warner, John H. Predictors of fecundability and conception waits among the Dogon of Mali. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 105, No. 2, Feb 1998. 167-84 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Here we study female fertility by focusing on one component of the interbirth interval: the waiting time to conception during menstrual cycling. Our study population is a Dogon village of 460 people in Mali, West Africa. This population is pronatalist and noncontracepting.... Using survival analysis, we identified significant predictors of the waiting time to conception: wife's age (years), husband's age,...marital duration (years), gravidity (number of prior pregnancies), and breast-feeding status.... We fit both continuous and discrete time survival models, but the former appeared to be a better choice for these data."
Correspondence: B. I. Strassmann, University of Michigan, Department of Anthropology, 1020 LSA Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. E-mail: bis@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20293 Takyi, Baffour K.; Oheneba-Sakyi, Yaw. Gender differentials in family size among Ghanaian couples. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, Dec 1997. 296-306 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using data from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) of 1988, the present study focuses on the impact of demographic, social, economic and interpersonal factors on family size among Ghanaian couples. The results of our study indicate that age at first marriage is a significant factor in fertility levels for wives but not for husbands. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between a mother's education and fertility, although the relationship between a husband's education and family size is not significant. Nonetheless, consistent with previous research, the husband's approval of the use of family planning plays a significant role in the couple's fertility behavior."
Correspondence: B. K. Takyi, University of Akron, Department of Sociology, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20294 Tremblay, Marc. Intergenerational transmission of reproductive behavior in the Saguenay region in the late nineteenth century. [Transmission intergénérationnelle de la reproduction au Saguenay à la fin du XIXe siècle.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1997. 129-45 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper presents the results of a study on intergenerational transmission of reproductive behaviour among women in the Saguenay region [of Canada].... The analysis is based on a comparison of the reproductive behaviour (number of children and age at childbirth) of mothers born in the Saguenay region between 1850 and 1880 with that of their children (male and female). The findings show a positive relationship between the two generations, in regard to both the number of children and the parents' age at the birth of their first child."
Correspondence: M. Tremblay, Université du Québec, Centre Interuniversitaire SOREP, 555 Boulevard de l'Université, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20295 Underwood, Jane H. They also serve: Chamorro male fertility in the pre-World War II period. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998. 23-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Male fertility, a generally overlooked aspect in studies of human reproductive patterns, is examined from the reproductive life histories of Chamorro males with essential completed fertility by 1941. Males in this `natural fertility' indigenous population of the Pacific island of Guam exhibit low levels of couple infertility which are counteracted by high levels of adult male mortality, while new unions formed after the death of female partners tend to reduce completed fertility by only about one child.... Early terminators, formerly fertile couples of reproductive age who fail for unspecific biological or behavioral reasons to continue reproducing, affect an equal or even larger impact than adult male mortality on failure to attain theoretical male fertility maxima in this population."
Correspondence: J. H. Underwood, University of Arizona, Department of Anthropology, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20296 Vikat, Andres; Thomson, Elizabeth; Hoem, Jan M. Stepfamily fertility in contemporary Sweden: the impact of childbearing before the current union. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 125, ISBN 91-7820-121-7. Dec 1997. 25 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"We focus on the fertility of Swedish men and women who lived in a consensual or marital union in the 1970s and 1980s, and where at least one of the partners had had children before they entered into that union.... We find clear evidence that couples wanted a shared biological child, essentially regardless of how many children (if any) they had had before their current union."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20297 Wanner, Philippe; Fei, Peng; Cotter, Stéphane. Spatial and temporal changes in fertility in Switzerland since 1981. Some possible explanations for observed trends. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Soziologie/Revue Suisse de Sociologie/Swiss Journal of Sociology, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1997. 491-506 pp. Zurich, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The present study is part of a systematic analysis of the phenomena of population changes, with the aim of validating demographic indices. Its focus is the changes in fertility over the last 15 years [in Switzerland], in a context of generally low fertility. It is based on an analysis of the trends in fertility across regions and with time. The results lead us to consider the following paradox: while fertility has remained stable in Switzerland since the 1980s, with nevertheless a slight decrease in level, the differences between the cantons have been greatly reduced."
Correspondence: P. Wanner, Office Fédéral de la Statistique, Section de l'Evolution de la Population, Schwarztorstr. 53, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. E-mail: Philippe.Wanner@bfs.admin.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20298 Wetherell, Charles; Plakans, Andrejs. Fertility and culture in Eastern Europe: a case study of Riga, Latvia, 1867-1881. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1997. 243-68 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Recent research on the secular decline of fertility in historical Europe has focused on cultural explanations in the wake of the European Fertility Project's failure to confirm demographic transition theory. Using the city of Riga in present-day Latvia as a case study, the essay provides initial estimates of nuptiality and fertility for resident language and religious groups in 1867 and 1881, and reviews the prospects of future work. Despite obstacles, Eastern Europe offers researchers an exceptional opportunity to test major cultural and economic hypotheses about the fertility decline because sustained ethnic diversity coexisted with economic development."
Correspondence: C. Wetherell, University of California, Department of History, Riverside, CA 92521. E-mail: charles.wetherell@ucr.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20299 Winckler, Onn. Syria: population growth and family planning, 1960-1990. Orient, Vol. 36, No. 4, Dec 1995. 663-72 pp. Leverkusen, Germany. In Eng.
"The aims of this article are to examine the reasons for the high rates of natural increase in Syria over the past four decades; to observe the results of this process in the fields of economic and social development; and to question whether the authorities were aware of the implications of the rapid population growth, and what measures, if any, were taken to reduce the level of birth rates and fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

64:20300 Yaakoubd, Abdel-Ilah. Facts and determinants of the fertility transition in Morocco. [La transition de fécondité au Maroc: faits et facteurs.] Genus, Vol. 53, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 189-202 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
"Morocco, similar to Algeria, Tunisia and other developing countries, has, since independence, experienced many economic transformations and socio-cultural changes that have had a major impact on the main component of demographic growth, i.e. natality. In this paper, we attempt to give an overview of the principal features affecting this evolution. Emphasis is placed particularly on the underlying determinants and similarities and dissimilarities compared with Algeria and Tunisia."
Correspondence: A.-I. Yaakoubd, Institut National de Statistique et d'Economie Appliquée, B.P. 6217, Madinat Al Irfane, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20301 Yadava, R. C.; Srivastava, Meenakshi. On the extension of a probability distribution for straddling birth interval. Janasamkhya, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1994. 43-56 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"An attempt has been made to derive a probability model for straddling birth interval incorporating heterogeneity in the population with respect to fecundability. The theoretical expressions for the mean and variance of this distribution have also been derived which may serve as a basis for estimation of mean fecundability in the population."
Correspondence: R. C. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20302 Yashin, Anatoli I.; Iachine, Ivan A.; Andreev, Kirill F.; Larsen, Ulla. Multistate models of postpartum infecundity, fecundability and sterility by age and parity: methodological issues. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1998. 51-78, 109-10 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of a new approach based on the multistate structure of the reproductive process to the analysis of different aspects of fecundability using incomplete reproductive history data. The main thrust of our work is the derivation of basic relationships for observed, i.e. marginal, hazard rates.... To limit the size of the present paper we restrict ourselves to two illustrative examples which demonstrate the ability of the methods proposed to estimate the parameters in the simplest empirical cases."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20303 Zakharov, Sergei V.; Ivanova, Elena I. The fertility decline in Russia. [Rozhdaemost' i brachnost' v Rossii.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 7, 1997. 70-80 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The authors analyze the fertility decline in Russia between 1988 and 1995, giving consideration to how changing nuptiality and birth patterns have affected fertility. They first examine trends in Russian fertility and nuptiality from the end of the nineteenth century up to the 1960s. Comparisons are also made to the trends in fertility and nuptiality occurring in other developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20304 Zakharova, O. D.; Rybakovskii, L. L. Geopolitical aspects of depopulation in Russia. [Geopoliticheskie aspekty depopulyatsii v Rossii.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 6, 1997. 46-54 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Recent trends in fertility in Russia are analyzed, the focus being on the reasons for the very low levels of fertility recorded over the decade of the 1990s. The prospects for a continuing decline in the size of the country's population are assessed. The authors note that there are two schools of thought about future trends: one school maintains that population decline is a natural trend that will correct itself over time; the other believes that the current demographic situation is a direct result of failures in the economic and political domain, and that resolving problems in these areas will also help to solve the country's demographic problems.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

64:20305 Bean, Lee L.; Zohry, A. G. Marriage and fertility in the Gulf region: the impact of pro-family, pro-natal policies. CDC Working Paper, No. 36, 1994. 37 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
Data from six Gulf Child Health Surveys are used to analyze fertility differences within and among Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. "The background to these surveys is provided in the first section of the paper. The second section provides an overall assessment of the general quality of the data particularly as it relates to the measurement of fertility. The third part of the papers provides a description of the major differences in fertility levels and patterns, and an effort is made to explain the reported variations. The final section relates the reported findings to the patterns of social and economic change as well as the explicit and implicit population policies of the six countries."
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, St. No. 4, Building No. 78, El-Nafoura Square, El-Mokattam, Cairo, Egypt. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

64:20306 Carpenter, Lucy M.; Nakiyingi, Jessica S.; Ruberantwari, Anthony; Malamba, Samuel S.; Kamali, Anatoli; Whitworth, James A. G. Estimates of the impact of HIV infection on fertility in a rural Ugandan population cohort. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., No. 2, 1997. 113-26 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Fertility rates in a population-based cohort of over 3,500 women aged 15-49 years living in rural southwest Uganda are described and examined in relation to infection with HIV.... With the exception of women aged 15-19 years, women who were not infected with HIV had higher fertility than HIV-infected women.... The lower fertility in HIV-positive women is unlikely to be explained by increased use of contraception, as use of modern contraceptive methods in rural Uganda is low and fewer than ten per cent of women are aware of their HIV-serostatus. More likely explanations are reduced sexual activity due to clinical symptoms associated with HIV infection or lower fertility associated with co-existing infections with other sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis."
Correspondence: L. M. Carpenter, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Medical Research Council Programme on AIDS, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20307 de Man, V.; de Jong, A. H. Women with high income remain more often childless. [Vrouwen met een hoog inkomen blijven vaker kinderloos.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 12, Dec 1997. 32-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"According to various economic theories a high income of the female partner will have a negative effect on the ultimate number of children of the couple. The theory of the New Home Economics attributes this effect to the fact a woman with a high income loses a substantial part of her income if she decides to have a child and quits working. The Human Capital theory states that a woman with a high income has made a large investment in herself and that she is therefore unwilling to endanger the return on that investment by becoming [a] full-time mother. This negative relationship between fertility and income has been analysed using the dataset of the Netherlands Family and Fertility survey 1993."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20308 DeWit, Margaret L.; Ravanera, Zenaida R. The changing impact of women's educational attainment and employment on the timing of births in Canada. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 97-9, ISBN 0-7714-2049-8. Oct 1997. 20, [3] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The present research considers the question of possible cohort differences in the impact of education on first and second births in Canada.... Also examined here in some detail is the role of women's paid employment in affecting the timing of births, as well as the possible interaction between educational achievement and employment activity."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. E-mail: DeWitM@SMTPLINK.IPFW.INDIANA.EDU. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20309 DoDoo, F. Nii-Amoo. Marriage type and reproductive decisions: a comparative study in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 1, Feb 1998. 232-42 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The effect of marriage type--polygamy versus monogamy--on reproductive decisions is investigated using comparative data from the 1988, 1989, and 1993 Demographic and Health Surveys of Ghana and Kenya. The data provide no consistent support for the hypothesized negative effect of polygamy on women's ability to implement their fertility preferences. Rather, there appears to be some evidence of a stronger female influence, particularly in the polygamous 1989 Kenya sample, and a weak male advantage is discernible primarily in the monogamous samples."
Correspondence: F. N.-A. DoDoo, Vanderbilt University, Department of Sociology, Box 1811-B, Nashville, TN 37205. E-mail: dodoof@ctrvax.vanderbilt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20310 Iglicka, Krystyna. Territorial changes in fertility in Poland 1931-1988. [Terytorialne przemiany plodnosci w Polsce w latach 1931-1988.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 384, 1994. 190 pp. Szkola Glówna Handlowa, Oficyna Wydawnicza: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
This doctoral thesis analyzes changes in geographical fertility differentials in Poland in the period from 1931 to 1988. The focus is on the process of demographic transition and the causes of fertility change. The analysis is presented separately for the country as a whole and for individual voivodships, or regions. Topics covered include the impact of family planning on fertility and differences in fertility between urban and rural populations. Comparisons are made with other European countries.
Correspondence: Szkola Glówna Handlowa, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20311 Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C. The socio-cultural context of high fertility among Igbo women. International Sociology, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1994. 237-58 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this study fertility differentials, reproductive behaviour and fertility preferences and intentions [among the Igbo of Nigeria] are examined as a function of three well-recognised cultural institutions or contextual factors: the bestowal of high fertility honour or title to women of a given family size, patriarchal relations, and patrilinearity and son preference, together with individual status indicators. Our findings suggest that socio-cultural institutions establish or condition relationships and behaviours among the Igbo: in other words, individual fertility behaviour takes place within the context of complex social organisation and under the influence of multiple social, cultural and ideological realities."
Correspondence: U. C. Isiugo-Abanihe, University of Ibadan, Department of Sociology, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:20312 Karim, Mehtab S. Reproductive behavior in Muslim countries. DHS Working Paper, No. 23, Oct 1997. 50 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report utilizes DHS data from nine [Muslim] countries to explain patterns and differentials in reproductive behavior.... From each country, information on socioeconomic characteristics of ever-married women (urban-rural residence and level of education), age at marriage, exposure to mass media (watching television regularly), knowledge of contraception, and past and current contraceptive use among currently married women is utilized. Two measures of fertility are employed: the mean number of children ever born to ever-married women and their total marital fertility rate, based on births during the five years prior to the survey."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20313 Khan, M. E.; Patel, Bella C. Reproductive behaviour of Muslims in Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 1, Mar 1997. 13-29 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The present paper, based on a large sample survey carried out in Uttar Pradesh, [India,] compares the reproductive behaviour of Hindus and Muslims, and attempts to examine the determinants of their differential fertility and family planning behaviour.... The findings of the study...indicate that as commonly believed, Muslims have a relatively higher fertility than Hindus.... Muslim women have poorer access to information than their Hindu counterparts; their traditional values do not allow them to discuss their reproductive goals with their husbands and seek their cooperation to achieve their desired family size which is invariably smaller than the finally achieved family size."
Correspondence: M. E. Khan, Population Council, Sangha Rachna, 3rd Floor, 53 Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20314 Klepinger, Daniel; Lundberg, Shelly; Plotnick, Robert D. Teen childbearing and human capital: does timing matter? Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 98-2, Jan 1998. 25 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper, we model and estimate the relationship between adolescent childbearing at different ages and human capital investment [in the United States].... Using data from the NLSY [The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth], we find that adolescent fertility at any age substantially reduces years of formal education and early adult work experience for both black and white women. Moreover, we find that the effects of early and later teen births are essentially the same for both education and early adult work experience, and that there are no important racial differences in the effects."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20315 Pozo Avalos, Arturo; Médico, Asesor. Fertility in Loja, Bolívar, Esmeraldas, Azuay, and El Oro. [La fecundidad en Loja, Bolívar, Esmeraldas, Azuay y El Oro.] Correo Poblacional y de la Salud, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep 1997. 24-9 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The authors analyze fertility differences in five regions of Ecuador, with a focus on the impact of women's educational level, contraceptive use, women's marital status, and age at first birth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20316 Siow, Aloysius. Differential fecundity, markets, and gender roles. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 106, No. 2, Apr 1998. 334-54 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author investigates how differential fecundity of women interacts with marriage, labor, and financial markets to affect gender roles in monogamous societies. "The main findings of the paper are as follows: (i) Fecund women are relatively scarce. Men will behave differently than women in response to this scarcity. In the most fundamental way, demand and supply conditions in the marriage market affect gender roles. (ii) Differential fecundity does not have any market-invariant gender effect. Gender roles depend on the way in which marriage, labor, and financial markets interact. (iii) Gender differences in the labor market can occur without corresponding differences in labor market opportunities, productivities in child rearing, or social norms. (iv) With uncertainty in human capital accumulation and no insurance against this uncertainty, the model's predictions are consistent with observed gender roles."
Correspondence: A. Siow, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:20317 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). "Own-children" estimates of fertility of the Thai hill tribes. ISBN 974-236-595-4. 1997. [12], 42 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
"The Thai hill tribes...are among the disadvantaged minority groups in Thailand.... This study investigates fertility of the hill tribes by ethnic group, utilizing the Own-Children technique, and their contraceptive use.... This paper also provides information on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds of the hill tribes."
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20318 Wadhera, Surinder; Millar, Wayne J. Teenage pregnancies, 1974 to 1994. [La grossesse chez les adolescents, de 1974 à 1994.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 9, No. 3, Winter 1997. 9-17; 9-18 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article provides an overview of trends from 1974 to 1994 in pregnancies among women aged 15 to 19 [in Canada].... In 1994, there were an estimated 46,800 teenage pregnancies. This marked the continuation of an almost steady rise from 1987, when the number was 39,300. As well, there has been an increase in the percentage of teenage pregnancies ending in an abortion."
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

64:20319 Chandra, Anjani; Stephen, Elizabeth H. Impaired fecundity in the United States: 1982-1995. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1998. 34-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1982, 1988 and 1995 rounds of the [National Survey of Family Growth], trends in both the proportions and numbers of women with impaired fecundity and of those who received infertility services were examined. Multiple logistic regressions were carried out to estimate the effects of demographic characteristics on the likelihood of currently having impaired fecundity and of ever having received medical help for infertility.... The proportion of U.S. women aged 15-44 who reported some form of fecundity impairment rose from 8% in 1982 and 1988 to 10% in 1995, an increase in absolute numbers from 4.6 million to 6.2 million women.... The dramatic increase...occurred because the large baby-boom cohort, many of whom delayed childbearing, had reached their later and less fecund reproductive years. This increase in both rates and numbers occurred across almost all age, parity, marital status, education, income, and race and ethnicity subgroups."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Chandra, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, Reproductive Statistics Branch, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20320 de Jong, A. H. Many women are facing fertility problems. [Veel vrouwen kampen met vruchtbaarheidsproblemen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 2, Feb 1998. 6-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of women in the Netherlands who are experiencing difficulties in getting pregnant is on the rise, due to an ever further postponement of motherhood. About 8% of all women who have tried to get pregnant will eventually remain childless."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20321 Okonofua, Friday E.; Harris, Diana; Odebiyi, Adetanwa; Kane, Thomas; Snow, Rachel C. The social meaning of infertility in Southwest Nigeria. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, No. 2, Oct 1997. 205-20 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"We have conducted a number of qualitative studies aimed at exploring socio-cultural issues associated with infertility in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Twenty-five focus-group discussions were held with knowledgeable persons in the rural and urban parts of the community to ascertain their attitudes towards infertility. The results show that community members accord great significance to child-bearing, but they have incorrect knowledge of the causes and appropriate treatment of infertility.... Women are more likely to suffer the social consequences of infertility; they suffer physical and mental abuse, neglect, abandonment, economic deprivation and social ostracism as a result of their infertile status." Some recommendations for improving the situation are suggested.
Correspondence: F. E. Okonofua, Women's Health and Action Research Centre, P.O. Box 10234, Ugbowo, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20322 Sundby, Johanne; Mboge, Reuben; Sonko, Sheriff. Infertility in the Gambia: frequency and health care seeking. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 7, Apr 1998. 891-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In order to understand the problems of undesired infertility in the Gambia, where the desire for children and fertility is very high, a population based estimate of the frequency of sub-/infertility was undertaken.... Primary sterility was found to be fairly uncommon (3%), and secondary infertility to be more frequent (6%). Half of the infertile couples failed to seek formal health care, and they had to reach a certain level of care in order to be properly managed. As investigations are very basic and treatment possibilities scarce, many forms of alternative care are often sought."
Correspondence: J. Sundby, University of Oslo, Institute of General Practice and Community Medicine, Department of Medical Anthropology, P.O. Box 1130 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20323 Zargar, Abdul H.; Wani, Arshad I.; Masoodi, Shariq R.; Laway, Bashir A.; Salahuddin, Mohammad. Epidemiologic and etiologic aspects of primary infertility in the Kashmir region of India. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 68, No. 4, Oct 1997. 637-43 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
The authors "assess the magnitude of primary infertility and...study its etiologic aspects in [Kashmir] India.... Fifteen percent of the couples interviewed had primary infertility, among whom 4.66% had unresolved infertility at the time of the survey. The etiology of infertility in 250 consecutive couples revealed a female factor in 57.6%, a male factor in 22.4%, combined factors in 5.2%, and an undetermined cause in 14.8%."
Correspondence: A. H. Zargar, P.O. Box 1098, G.P.O. Srinagar 190 001, Kashmir, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

64:20324 Agha, Sohail; Davies, John. Contraceptive social marketing in Pakistan: assessing the impact of the 1991 condom price increases on sales and consumption. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 14, 1998. 27 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report describes the effect of condom price increases in Pakistan, particularly on the demand for condoms among low-income couples. A price change may affect demand by (1) reducing sales of the importer/producer to regional distributors, (2) reducing sales of distributors to retailers and reducing sales from retailers to consumers. This paper uses four data sets to measure the effect of the price increases at these different levels."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20325 Agha, Sohail. Is low income a constraint to contraceptive use among the Pakistani poor? PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 15, 1998. 25 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examine whether low income is a barrier to contraceptive use in Pakistan.... Multivariate regression analysis performed using the Pakistan Contraceptive Demand Survey suggests that low income is a deterrent to modern contraceptive use in Pakistan. This is particularly the case for contraceptive methods supplied through the private sector."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20326 Agha, Sohail. Sexual activity and condom use in Lusaka, Zambia. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1998. 32-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"The 1996 Lusaka Sexual Behavior and Condom Use Survey gathered data on sexual activity in Lusaka [Zambia] from 806 respondents; multiple regression analysis was performed to identify factors that predicted men's and women's condom use.... Most respondents reported that their most recent intercourse was with their marital partner (62% of women and 43% of men) or with a regular partner (20% of women and 23% of men); almost one-quarter of men (24%), however, reported having last had intercourse with a casual partner. Overall, 17% of women and 24% of men had used a condom at last intercourse.... Because of gender inequity, programs directed at men are more likely to succeed in encouraging condom use than are those aimed at developing women's skills in negotiating condom use."
Correspondence: S. Agha, Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20327 Ayalew, Tekabe; Dejene, Amare; Mekonnen, Yared. Unmet need and the demand for family planning in Addis Ababa. Ethiopia Journal of Health Development, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1995. 41-5 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"A study was conducted in 1993 to estimate the unmet need for family planning service in Addis Ababa [Ethiopia].... The prevalence of contraceptive use (met need) was 21.6% (162), indicating a great deal of potential users and the need for appropriate method to reach them. It was found that age, knowledge about contraception and level of education of respondents were the most important factors affecting unmet need and there was no significant interactive effect."
Correspondence: T. Ayalew, National Research Institute of Health, P.O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20328 Bratt, John H.; Foreit, James; de Vargas, Teresa. Three strategies to promote sustainability of CEMOPLAF clinics in Ecuador. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 1, Mar 1998. 58-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The continuing trend of donor attention and resources away from Latin America threatens the sustainability of nongovernmental family planning organizations in that region. Managers can improve sustainability through cost control, cost recovery, and income generation. The Population Council's INOPAL II and INOPAL III projects and Family Health International assisted CEMOPLAF, an Ecuadoran private voluntary organization, in carrying out operations research in each of these areas.... Results indicate that any one intervention will probably have a limited impact, and that managers likely will need to undertake several initiatives simultaneously to make significant progress toward sustainability."
Correspondence: J. H. Bratt, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20329 Brown, Mark S. Contraceptive prevalence and fertility: a different relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa? In: Population dynamics: some past and emerging issues, edited by Richard A. Powell, Eleuther A. Mwageni, and Augustine Ankomah. 1996. 44-51 pp. University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies: Exeter, England. In Eng.
Although a very strong correlation has been shown to exist between a population's total fertility rate (TFR) and its level of contraceptive prevalence (CPR) in much of the developing world, a distinctly weaker CPR/TFR correlation seems to exist in Sub-Saharan Africa, with observed TFRs above expected levels. "With the benefit of new data from the DHS, this paper reviews the evidence for a different relationship between contraception and fertility in Africa, and goes on to consider possible explanations for higher than expected fertility. Finally, the focus moves to consider the evidence for a changing relationship between CPR and TFR over time, and possible implications for the likely course of an African fertility transition."
Correspondence: M. S. Brown, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Population Unit, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

64:20330 Finer, Lawrence B.; Zabin, Laurie S. Does the timing of the first family planning visit still matter? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1998. 30-3, 42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Nationally representative data from the 1982, 1988 and 1995 cycles of the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth were used to examine changes in the timing of first family planning visits and to explore the degree to which young women are now more likely than in the past to practice contraception independently of making a visit to a provider.... The proportion of women who waited a month or more after their first intercourse to see a provider grew slightly between 1978 and 1995, from 76% to 79%; women waited a median of 22 months after first intercourse in 1991-1995. Any contraceptive use at first intercourse increased among both women who delayed a first visit (from 51% to 75%) and among those whose first visit occurred before their first intercourse or within the same month (from 61% to 91%)."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. B. Finer, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20331 Kaufman, Gayle. Sterilisation of married couples: husband versus wife sterilisation. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan 1998. 1-14 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Sterilisation has been increasing in the United States in recent decades. Using the National Survey of Families and Households, this paper examines sterilisation among married couples using event history techniques, viewing husband and wife sterilisation as competing risks. Wives are more likely to experience sterilisation and at shorter durations of marriage. Number of children has a curvilinear effect on sterilisation, increasing and then decreasing its likelihood. Wives who are older than their husbands are more likely to get sterilised themselves. Black and Hispanic husbands are more likely to undergo sterilisation."
Correspondence: G. Kaufman, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20332 Khan, M. E.; Cernada, George. Spacing as an alternative strategy: India's family welfare programme. ISBN 81-7018-837-7. LC 96-904383. 1996. xii, 244 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This book is an outcome of a national seminar on alternative strategies for promoting family planning spacing methods in India. The 14 articles are divided into four sections. The first section, entitled India's Family Welfare Programme: current situation, consists of the following three articles: Promoting spacing: a step towards paradigm shift, by M. E. Khan and George P. Cernada; Birth spacing methods in the Indian Family Welfare Programme, by S. B. Mishra; and Demographic impact of family planning programme in India: a statistical analysis, by S. Rajagopal. The second section, entitled User and women's perspective, consists of the following two articles: Promoting contraceptive choices in the Indian programme: women's perspectives, by Shireen Jejeebhoy and Sumati Kulkarni; and Women's perspectives in the use of family planning spacing methods, by Sandhya Barge. The third section, entitled Improving the quality of services, consists of the following four articles: Factors influencing IUD retention in Northern Karnataka, by P. N. Mari Bhat and J. B. Hasalkar; Factors influencing choice of a contraceptive and the reasons for its discontinuation, by M. M. Gandotra and N. P. Das; Choice, acceptance and continuation of spacing methods in India, by Prem P. Talwar; and Quality of family welfare services in increasing the acceptance and continuation of contraception: the case of India, by N. P. Das. The fourth section, entitled Improving programme strategies, consists of the following five articles: Strategic perspectives on promoting spacing methods, by J. K. Satia; Social marketing: an innovation towards population control, by V. K. Sharma and R. L. Narasimhan; Social marketing of condoms in India: a trend analysis for the period 1981-91, by R. Narasimhan and M. E. Khan; Role of community-based contraceptive distribution in promoting spacing methods of family planning, by I. C. Tiwari; and Present status and future directions for increasing the use of information, education and communication for promoting spacing methods, by Harish Khanna.
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, A-6 Nimri Commercial Centre, Near Bharat Nagar, Ashok Vihar, Phase IV, Delhi 110 052, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20333 Khan, Mehrab A.; Rahman, Mizanur. Determinants of contraceptive method choice in rural Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1997. 65-82 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"A multivariate analysis of correlates of contraceptive method choice in 1983, 1990 and 1991 [in Bangladesh] was undertaken among national and regional samples of women.... Programmatic, demographic and socio-cultural differentials of contraceptive method-choice were documented." Factors considered include visits by family planning program personnel, age, parity, education, religion, and wife's and husband's approval of family planning.
Correspondence: M. A. Khan, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20334 Lee Poy, Petrina I.; Paxman, John M. Contraceptive knowledge and use in Haiti: an element of the fertility decline over the past two decades? [La conaissance et la pratique de la contraception en Haïti: facteur de la baisse de la fécondité depuis deux décennies?] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1997. 41-68 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Haiti is one of the few countries that have had several contraceptive prevalence surveys. With data covering an eighteen-year period, it was possible to identify trends in contraceptive knowledge and use in the country from 1977 to 1995. Despite an increase in prevalence, the impact of contraceptive use on fertility has been minimal compared to the other proximate determinants."
Correspondence: P. I. Lee Poy, Boston University, School of Public Health, 147 Bay Street Road, Boston, MA 02215. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20335 Mathur, Hari M. The family welfare programme in India. ISBN 0-7069-9854-5. 1995. xx, 202 pp. Vikas Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a selection of studies by various authors on aspects of the national family planning program in India. The table of contents is as follows: The family welfare programme in India--changing paradigm, by Ashish Bose; Determinants and consequences of rapid population growth, by Prem P. Talwar; Micro-level planning for family welfare services, by Jai Satia, Dilip Mavalankar, and Bharti Sharma; Financing family welfare programme, by Dinesh Paul; Private sector inputs in family planning programme, by Nirmal Sawhney; Improving the quality of family welfare services, by G. Giridhar and Seema Pahariya; Social and cultural influences on fertility behaviour, by Hari M. Mathur; Demand for family planning among scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, by T. K. Roy and Balram Paswan; Fertility transition in India--problems and prospects, by K. B. Pathak and B. S. Singh.
Correspondence: Vikas Publishing House Pvt, 576 Masjid Road, Jangpura, New Delhi 110 014, India. Location: Syracuse University Library, Syracuse, NY.

64:20336 Miles-Doan, Rebecca; Brewster, Karin L. The impact of type of employment on women's use of prenatal-care services and family planning in urban Cebu, the Philippines. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 1, Mar 1998. 69-78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study re-evaluates the relationship of urban women's employment to their health-service and contraceptive use, drawing on data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Multivariate analyses reveal significant differences across types of work for the likelihood of both obtaining timely prenatal care and practicing contraception at one year postpartum. Wage workers in white-collar jobs are significantly more likely than those not employed for pay to have obtained prenatal care and are substantially more likely to have adopted a contraceptive method in the year following childbirth. Women who are self-employed also are significantly more likely than those not employed for pay to be using contraceptives."
Correspondence: R. Miles-Doan, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 654 Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20337 Miles-Doan, Rebecca; Brewster, Karin L. The impact of work sector on women's use of family planning and prenatal care services in Cebu Province, the Philippines. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 97-136, [1997]. 23, [4] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This study reevaluates the relationships between employment and contraceptive use, and employment and health service use, using data from a longitudinal survey of a 12-month birth cohort of 3,000 Filipino infants and their mothers. It compares groups of mothers using a more detailed measure of employment than previous studies and one that captures those aspects of work most likely to engender a sense of autonomy and control." Data are from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in the Philippines.
Correspondence: R. Miles-Doan, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Bellamy 654, Tallahassee, FL 32306. E-mail: rmiles@coss.fsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20338 Mitchell, Janet B.; McCormack, Lauren A. Access to family planning services: relationship with unintended pregnancies and prenatal outcomes. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, Vol. 8, No. 2, May 1997. 141-52 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Family planning services are important because they can prevent unintended pregnancies and improve prenatal outcomes. This paper uses secondary data to analyze trends in access to family planning services, with a particular focus on poor women and young women. Trends from the 1980s showed a small decline in family planning visits and an upsurge in the percentage of births that were unwanted at the time of conception. These changes were particularly marked for poor women. Over the same decade, public expenditures for contraceptive services declined dramatically. The health insurance system with respect to family planning must be modernized to meet the needs of women and couples today."
Correspondence: J. B. Mitchell, Center for Health Economics Research, 300 Fifth Avenue, 6th Floor, Waltham, MA 02154. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:20339 Ocholla-Ayayo, A. B. C. Sociocultural influence on family-planning acceptance in Africa: special reference to Kenya. African Anthropology/Anthropologie Africaine, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, 1994. 31-48 pp. Yaoundé, Cameroon. In Eng.
"Although it has been observed in several countries that low fertility is associated with high income, the influence of income on fertility is closely linked to other social, cultural and economic variables, particularly to the level of education, economic activity, status and occupations of women. The paper will therefore critically analyse these factors [against] the background of social-cultural structures and processes vis-à-vis the present population policies in Kenya."
Correspondence: A. B. C. Ocholla-Ayayo, University of Nairobi, Population Studies and Research Institute, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: University of Illinois Library, Urbana, IL.

64:20340 Peipert, Jeffrey F.; Domagalski, Lisa; Boardman, Lori; Daamen, Maxim; McCormack, William M.; Zinner, Stephen H. Sexual behavior and contraceptive use: changes from 1975 to 1995 in college women. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 10, Oct 1997. 651-7 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to compare the sexual practices and contraceptive use in a sample of [336] college women in 1995 with women surveyed [in Rhode Island] in 1975, 1986 and 1989.... The proportions of women who were sexually experienced, number of life-time male sexual partners, number of male sexual partners in the past year and frequencies of specific sexual practices were similar over the four survey times. Condom use was reported as the usual method of contraception in 7% of sexually experienced women in 1975, 14% in 1986, 25% in 1989 and 46% in 1995...."
Correspondence: J. F. Peipert, Women and Infants' Hospital, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02905. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20341 Peterson, Linda S.; Oakley, Deborah; Potter, Linda S.; Darroch, Jacqueline E. Women's efforts to prevent pregnancy: consistency of oral contraceptive use. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1998. 19-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article explores the predictors of inconsistent [oral contraceptive] use in a nationally representative sample of U.S. women aged 15-44.... Data on 1,485 pill users participating in the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth are used to describe users' characteristics, and logistic regression analyses are conducted to identify factors that predict inconsistent use.... While 85% of pill users rely solely on the pill, 15% also use another method. Overall, 16% of users are inconsistent in their pill-taking.... Among users of the pill only, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women have a significantly increased likelihood of inconsistent use...as do those who recently began use...and those who have had an unintended pregnancy...."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. S. Peterson, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20342 Piccinino, Linda J.; Mosher, William D. Trends in contraceptive use in the United States: 1982-1995. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1998. 4-10, 46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Information on current contraceptive use was collected from a representative sample of women of reproductive age in the 1995 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). This information is compared with similar data from 1982 and 1988 to examine trends in use, both overall and in social and demographic subgroups.... The proportion of U.S. women using a contraceptive method rose from 56% in 1982 to 60% in 1988 and 64% in 1995. As in 1982 and 1988, female sterilization, the pill and the male condom were the most widely used methods in 1995. Between 1988 and 1995, the proportion of users relying on the pill decreased from 31% to 27%, while condom use rose from 15% to 20%.... The decline in pill and diaphragm use and the increase in reliance on condoms suggest that concerns about HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases are changing patterns of method use among unmarried women."
Correspondence: L. J. Piccinino, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Reproductive Statistics Branch, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20343 Salway, Sarah; Nurani, Sufia. Postpartum contraceptive use in Bangladesh: understanding users' perspectives. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 1, Mar 1998. 41-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Qualitative and quantitative data are used to explore postpartum contraceptive use in two populations in Bangladesh. Findings from in-depth interviews with contraceptive users illustrate that women are primarily concerned with their own and their newborn child's health and well-being in the period following childbirth. In addition, women are aware of a diminished risk of pregnancy during the period of postpartum amenorrhea. These perceptions, plus a belief that modern methods of contraception are `strong' and potentially damaging to health, mean that the majority of women are reluctant to adopt family planning methods soon after birth, despite a desire to avoid closely spaced pregnancies. Supplementation of the child's diet is also shown to be an important factor determining the timing of postpartum contraceptive initiation."
Correspondence: S. Salway, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, 49-51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20344 Suchindran, C. M. An alternative measure of fertility control. Janasamkhya, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1994. 29-42 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"A measure of fertility control is proposed as a simple modification of the Anderson-Silver Index, viz., the proportion of all births from the age-specific fertility schedules that occurs among women by age 35. The proposed measure has three components, one of which is the Anderson-Silver measure. The age gap ratio based on the mean age at childbearing among women having children after age 35 and the Gini Coefficient measuring average length of exposure to childbearing after age 35 form the other two components. Illustrations of the proposed index [using data from the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys] and its components show that when all three components change in the same direction, any one of the index members can be used to order fertility control in the population. However, when the components indicate conflicting directions, a combined measure called the Sen Index proposed here as a measure of fertility control can provide an Index preserving some coherence of the differences in the components."
Correspondence: C. M. Suchindran, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20345 Visaria, Leela. The unmet need for family planning: an analysis of panel data from rural Gujarat. Gujarat Institute of Development Research Working Paper, No. 85, ISBN 81-85820-43-0. May 1997. iv, 28 pp. Gujarat Institute of Development Research: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to analyse data collected at two points with an interval of six years, to understand the extent to which (a) women, who did not want any additional children or have unmet need for family planning, convert it into a demand for and use of contraception and (b) women, who desire additional children, resort to using contraception. The study was undertaken in rural areas of two tribal districts of Gujarat-Bharuch and Panchmahals [India]."
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Near Gota Char Rasta, Gota, Ahmedabad 382 481, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20346 Wembah-Rashid, J. A. R. Traditional fertility regulation and child-spacing practices: a Tanzanian matrilineal tradition of child spacing. African Anthropology/Anthropologie Africaine, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, 1994. 49-58 pp. Yaoundé, Cameroon. In Eng.
The author discusses fertility regulation and child-spacing practices in traditional societies using the example of Tanzania. "The matrilineal tradition of Tanzania appears, at least outwardly, to retain its old form in terms of beliefs, customs and practices related to fertility regulation and child spacing. It is, however, giving way to external pressures from the patrilineal tradition and contemporary social, economic, religious and political realities operating on the ground."
Correspondence: J. A. R. Wembah-Rashid, University of Nairobi, Institute of African Studies, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: University of Illinois Library, Urbana, IL.

64:20347 Westoff, Charles F.; Bankole, Akinrinola. The time dynamics of unmet need: an example from Morocco. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1998. 12-4, 24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"The availability of data from a national longitudinal study made it possible to track Moroccan women who were classified in 1992 as having an unmet need for family planning over the following three years." Results indicate that "unmet need declined by about 43% over a three-year period among a sample of women interviewed both in 1992 and 1995. While 29% of women in need were still in need three years later (mostly to limit births), 35% had adopted a method by 1995, and another 36% had moved into the `other, no need' category, which includes women trying to get pregnant and infecund women. Religious objections or the husband's opposition were the obstacles to using contraceptives that were most difficult to overcome."
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20348 World Health Organization [WHO] (Geneva, Switzerland). Communicating family planning in reproductive health: key messages for communicators. Pub. Order No. WHO/FRH/FPP/97.33. 1997. xxi, 56 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Communicating the benefits of family planning to individuals, communities, and policy makers is the first step in making services more accessible.... [This report] synthesizes the lessons learned from years of research and experience of family planning programmes around the world." Chapters are included on women's health, child health, family well-being, contraceptive choices, contraceptive safety, sexually transmitted disease prevention, needs of adolescents, and male responsibility.
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Family Planning and Population, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20349 Yusuf, Farhat; Siedlecky, Stefania; Leeder, Stephen. Female sterilisation in New South Wales, 1981 to 1994-1995. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper, No. 7-97, ISBN 1-86408-398-0. Nov 1997. 17 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
The authors investigate the decline in the popularity of female sterilization in New South Wales, Australia, since 1981. They analyze "not only the temporal changes in incidence but also the socio-demographic characteristics of patients, diagnoses, and associated procedures."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Actuarial Studies and Demography Department, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. E-mail: lschalch@efs.mq.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20350 Zhao, Hongxin; Rao, K. V. Trends and differentials in female contraceptive sterilization in the United States: what has changed? What has not? Genus, Vol. 53, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1997. 199-214 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"Using data from the 1976 and 1988 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), we employed discrete-time logistic regression to determine factors associated with the timing of female contraceptive sterilization and changes in the relative importance of the covariates in a sample of ever-married women who want no more children during this twelve-year period. The analysis suggests that parity, marital status, poverty status and religion are important predictors in both surveys. Age at first marriage, planning status of last birth, region and race fail to emerge as important predictors in the 1988 NSFG, but are important in the 1976 NSFG. Surprisingly, educational attainment does not show its significant effect on the likelihood of sterilization in either year."
Correspondence: H. Zhao, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

64:20351 Diczfalusy, Egon. The contraceptive revolution. An era of scientific and social development. ISBN 1-85070-748-0. LC 96-34919. 1996. xvi, 240 pp. Parthenon Publishing Group: Pearl River, New York/Carnforth, England. In Eng.
This book is based on a number of lectures given by the author on various population issues over the period 1978-1997, most of which have been previously published. The general focus is on the contraceptive revolution and the evolution of the concept of reproductive health. Most of the papers examine an aspect of research to develop new, safe, and effective methods of contraception.
Correspondence: Parthenon Publishing Group, One Blue Hill Plaza, P.O. Box 1564, Pearl River, NY 10965. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20352 Guillebaud, John. The pill and other forms of hormonal contraception. 5th ed. ISBN 0-19-828317-2. 1997. xviii, 302 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an updated edition of a basic handbook on hormonal contraception designed for the general reader. It spells out both the advantages and disadvantages of oral contraceptives to enable the reader to make informed choices about the various methods. It also attempts to distinguish facts about the pill from hearsay. Information is included on frequently asked questions about the pill, useful addresses, a world directory of pill names, and a glossary.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20353 Hardon, Anita. Contesting claims on the safety and acceptability of anti-fertility vaccines. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 10, Nov 1997. 68-81 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper describes the controversy surrounding anti-fertility vaccines, focusing on the anti-hCG vaccine. It deals first with the rationale that researchers give for the development of anti-fertility vaccines, and the specific requirements that they set for the new contraceptive method.... This paper shows how the scientists' discourse on safety and acceptability of the technology to future users has changed in response to the critique of women's health advocates. Finally, it reflects on the role of women's health advocates in contraceptive technology development, and the responses of researchers to their actions."
Correspondence: A. Hardon, University of Amsterdam, Anthropological Sociological Center, Medical Anthropology Unit, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: hardon@pscw.uva.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20354 Kambic, Robert T. The effectiveness of natural family planning methods for birth spacing: a comprehensive review. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 97-09, Sep 1997. 23, [9] pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author reviews the effectiveness of natural family planning methods for birth spacing. The paper discusses "methodology topics as they relate to problems in NFP [natural family planning] studies.... It will then review the three methods of data collection: the survey, the retrospective, and [the] prospective study, along with problems and sources of error in studies. Next it examines pregnancy analysis in NFP clinics and discusses the reporting of results. The paper discusses sources of data for the analysis and the results of the analysis."
Correspondence: R. T. Kambic, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, Room 4028, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: bkambic@jhsph.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20355 Spruyt, Alan; Steiner, Markus J.; Joanis, Carol; Glover, Lucinda H.; Piedrahita, Carla; Alvarado, Gloria; Ramos, Rebecca; Maglaya, Cesar; Cordero, Milton. Identifying condom users at risk for breakage and slippage: findings from three international sites. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 2, Feb 1998. 239-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined whether past condom failure (breakage, slippage, or both) can predict future failure and evaluated other predictors of condom failure." The study was conducted in 1994 at sites in Mexico, the Philippines, and the Dominican Republic. The results suggest that "a history of condom failure predicts future failure, a finding that may be useful for targeted intervention. Moreover, these data provide further evidence that certain behaviors and lower educational attainment are associated with condom failure."
Correspondence: A. Spruyt, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:20356 United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] (New York, New York); United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York); World Health Organization [WHO] (Geneva, Switzerland); World Bank. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (Geneva, Switzerland). Long-term reversible contraception: twelve years of experience with the TCu380A and TCu220C. Contraception, Vol. 56, No. 6, Dec 1997. 341-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Few data on the long-term efficacy of intrauterine devices (IUD) are available, and this article reports on the final 12-year experience with the TCu220C and TCu380A devices from two randomized, multicenter trials conducted in 24 centers. A total of 3,277 and 1,396 women, respectively, were recruited for use of each device between 1981 and 1986.... We conclude that both devices are safe and effective for at least 12 years of use and the low pregnancy rate with the TCu380A is comparable with that reported in the United States among women who had undergone tubal sterilization."
Correspondence: P. J. Rowe, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20357 Wang, Duolao. The socio-demographic determinants of contraceptive failure in China. In: Population dynamics: some past and emerging issues, edited by Richard A. Powell, Eleuther A. Mwageni, and Augustine Ankomah. 1996. 52-9 pp. University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies: Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This study tries to explore the socio-demographic and contraceptive use factors affecting the occurrence of contraceptive failure during the first eight-and-a-half years of contraceptive use by method. The data are derived from the China Two-Per-Thousand Fertility Survey, which collected information on the complete fertility and contraceptive history of currently married women aged 15-57, on 27 methods of contraceptive use as well as on women's background characteristics. This makes it possible to examine the determinants of contraceptive failure. The purpose of this study is to identify what the determinants of contraceptive failure are and how they vary by method."
Correspondence: D. Wang, London School of Economics and Political Science, Centre for Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

64:20358 Audinarayana, N. Determinants of maternal and child immunisation and family planning acceptance: an inter-state analysis. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 1, Mar 1997. 30-6 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Maternal and child health (MCH) services constitute important components of the Indian family welfare programme.... This paper...attempts to examine some of the socioeconomic, programme implementation and communication factors and their relationship with MCH and family planning performance in the major Indian states using...the 1991 Census of India, and the Family Welfare Year Book, 1990-91."
Correspondence: N. Audinarayana, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20359 Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mucheke, Stephen. Informed choice and decision-making in family planning counseling in Kenya. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1998. 4-11, 42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"To develop a practical understanding of the concept of informed choice...we explored the nature of family planning decision-making during client-provider consultations in Kenya.... Family planning providers in Kenya do appear to recognize the essential elements of informed choice and understand the importance of offering clients information about a variety of methods and of letting clients make their own decisions.... Nonetheless, informed choice is not fully realized in these sessions. Clients may not understand how the often generic information offered by providers relates to their own needs. They also may need help in weighing the advantages and disadvantages of different methods or in verifying that their preferred method is suitable."
Correspondence: Y. M. Kim, Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. E-mail: ccp@charm.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20360 Maternowska, M. Catherine. Community, clinic and culture: a case study of the impact of family planning in Haiti. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 737-55 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Using a political economy of fertility framework, and aided by insights from medical anthropology, the author examines the social and political impact of a family planning program in a poor urban community in Haiti. "On the local level, it connects the household, community and family planning clinic in Cité Soleil to challenge widely accepted assumptions about the positive and empowering effects of family planning interventions. An in-depth look at the programme reveals obstacles that women and men face in attempting to achieve fertility regulation when their reproductive health is relentlessly compromised by economic, political and social inequities. Rather than empowering women and men by offering them access to care and increased reproductive freedom, this programme has served to undermine people's health and rights."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20361 Mturi, Akim J.; Curtis, Siân L. Fertility, infant mortality and family planning policy in Tanzania. In: Population dynamics: some past and emerging issues, edited by Richard A. Powell, Eleuther A. Mwageni, and Augustine Ankomah. 1996. 36-43 pp. University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies: Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the potential impact of the Tanzania family planning programme on the [infant mortality rate] through changing reproductive patterns in the country. We first estimate the potential reductions in infant mortality that could be achieved if government policies to eliminate all high-risk childbearing through the use of family planning are successful.... Since complete elimination of all high-risk births is unrealistic, the paper then examines the anticipated change in infant mortality if increases in contraceptive use result in a realistic favourable family formation pattern. This is done by imposing the family formation pattern of Zimbabwe, which experiences a much higher contraceptive prevalence rate...than Tanzania and has a relatively favourable family formation pattern. Finally, a third possible scenario is examined in which government policies fail and increases in family planning are actually associated with the adoption of a less favourable family formation pattern, as often occurs during fertility transition.... This is done by imposing the family formation patterns of Brazil, which experiences high levels of contraceptive use and yet also experiences a relatively unfavourable family formation pattern. The last section of the paper discusses the policy implications of the results."
Correspondence: A. J. Mturi, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

64:20362 Reddy, P. H. Population programme in Ninth Plan. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 5, Jan-Feb 1998. 239-44 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The Approach Paper to the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002) [in India] has identified the three factors that contribute to population growth as: the large population in the reproductive age, higher fertility due to unmet need for family planning and high wanted fertility due to high infant mortality rate. How much do these factors contribute to population growth? Although the paper recognises the need for promotion of male participation in family planning, no strategy is spelled out. Other issues like the need to promote spacing methods, incentives and disincentives, family planning targets, demographic goals, etc, are not even mentioned in the Approach Paper."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:20363 Sarkar, Rajlaxmi; Walia, Indarjit; Singh, Amarjeet. Client segmentation of eligible couples in Chandigarh for family planning. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 1, Mar 1997. 56-61 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The authors discuss the effectiveness of India's family planning program, with a focus on the need for "modern marketing strategies based on sound data analysis and an action plan which suits the differential needs of various segments of clients as opposed to the blanket approach used for the entire population thus far. The present study was undertaken as an exercise to try out this approach in a resettlement colony of Chandigarh."
Correspondence: R. Sarkar, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, College of Nursing, Chandigarh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20364 Turan, Janet M.; Bulut, Aysen; Nalbant, Hacer. The quality of family planning services in two low-income districts of Istanbul. Turkish Journal of Population Studies/Nüfusbilim Dergisi, Vol. 19, 1997. 3-24 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This study was developed to examine QOC [quality of care] in family planning services in two low-income districts of [Istanbul, Turkey].... The results indicate that trained women from the community without any medical background (home visitors) can deliver relatively high quality of family planning information and counseling. In contrast, it appears that the quality of information and counseling being delivered by some categories of health professionals in Istanbul is seriously lacking. The multivariate analysis performed suggests that women's characteristics and the type of family planning method they select may also affect the quality of information and counseling that they receive."
Correspondence: J. M. Turan, Istanbul University, Institute of Child Health, Beyazit, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20365 Wang, Caroline C.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Lu, Shu Hua; Wang, Hai Yun; Zhou, Mei Rong. Reducing pregnancy and induced abortion rates in China: family planning with husband participation. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 4, Apr 1998. 646-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study assessed the effectiveness of a family planning intervention with and without husband's participation in reducing pregnancy and abortion rates in Shanghai, China." The study involved 1,800 non-sterilized married women. The results suggest that "family planning interventions involving husbands may reduce pregnancy and abortion rates among non-IUD users."
Correspondence: C. C. Wang, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, 1420 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

64:20366 Adongo, Philip B.; Phillips, James F.; Binka, Fred N. The influence of traditional religion on fertility regulation among the Kassena-Nankana of northern Ghana. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 1, Mar 1998. 23-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents findings from a study of the influence of traditional religion on reproductive preferences of Kassena-Nankana lineage heads in northern Ghana. Seven reproductive preference questions were administered to nine lineage heads who are primary practitioners of the cult of soothsaying. With the assistance of soothsayers, interviews were repeated in conjunction with the invocation of religious rites in order to determine the views of ancestral spirits on the seven questions. Pairs of lineage head and ancestral interviews are compared to determine the role of traditional religion in shaping male reproductive preferences. Interview pairs reflect a shared preference for sons, large compounds, and a growing lineage. Findings nonetheless show that some ancestral spirits want small families, some even wanting fewer children than corresponding lineage heads."
Correspondence: P. B. Adongo, Navrongo Health Research Centre, P.O. Box 114, Navrongo, Upper East Region, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20367 Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela. Couples' fertility and contraceptive decision-making in developing countries: hearing the man's voice. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1998. 15-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Demographic and Health Survey data collected in 18 developing countries between 1990 and 1996 were used to directly compare husbands' and wives' attitudes toward fertility and contraception. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine how these attitudes affect couples' contraceptive behavior.... Men and women in these countries desire fairly large families; however, husbands tend to want more children than their wives and to want the next child sooner.... In most couples, either both spouses want more children or both want no more, but in 10-26%, their desires differ. Modern method use is low in most of these countries, but husbands are more likely than their wives to report such use."
Correspondence: A. Bankole, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20368 Bhushan, Indu; Sirageldin, Ismail. Education, fertility desires, and the perceived cost of contraception. In: Population and development transformations in the Arab world, edited by Ismail Sirageldin and Eqbal Al-Rahmani. 1996. 103-29 pp. JAI Press: Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Reasons for the continued prevalence of unwanted fertility and unmet need for contraception in Egypt are explored. The authors note that "the perceived cost of contraception is higher than the economic cost even for educated Egyptian women. The results, based on a multivariate simultaneous system indicates that in the case of Egypt, low contraception use is related more to noneconomic factors. A socioeconomic strategy that takes account of prevailing values needs to be developed."
Correspondence: I. Bhushan, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

64:20369 Desai, Sonalde; Alva, Soumya. Land redistribution: a population stabilisation strategy? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 10, Mar 7-13, 1998. 533-6 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The current preoccupation with debates on family planning vis-à-vis development has meant a neglect of issues of equity and the nature of development strategies. This neglect becomes particularly problematic as theoretical models based on industrial societies are uncritically applied to a labour surplus agrarian society. This paper focuses on one such neglected aspect, the nature of land distribution. The authors argue that in a predominantly agricultural setting land ownership plays an important role in fertility decisions made by individual parents." The primary geographical focus of the study is on India.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:20370 Dupuis, Dave. What influences people's plans to have children? Canadian Social Trends, No. 48, Spring 1998. 2-5 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"This article uses data from the 1995 General Social Survey (GSS) to examine some of the factors that influence the fertility intentions of young adults aged 20 to 39 [in Canada]." The author concludes that marital status, family history, education, and religiosity all influence the number of children desired by individuals.
Correspondence: D. Dupuis, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20371 East, Patricia L. Racial and ethnic differences in girls' sexual, marital, and birth expectations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 1, Feb 1998. 150-62 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines potential racial and ethnic differences in early adolescent [U.S.] girls' desired and perceived normative role timing and the extent to which various socioeconomic and family factors and school and job aspirations might be linked with girls' role-timing expectations.... Results indicated that young women of different races and ethnicities saw their life course unfold in different sequences based on different timetables and independent of their socioeconomic circumstances. Hispanics desired rapid transitions at a young age, and Southeast Asians desired more gradual transitions at an older age. Blacks perceived the greatest likelihood of nonmarital childbearing for themselves, the longest normative interval between first sex and first birth, but they desired the shortest interval between first marriage and first birth." Data are from a survey of 574 girls attending public junior high schools in Southern California.
Correspondence: P. L. East, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Mail Code 8449, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103. E-mail: peast@ucsd.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20372 Filmer, Deon; Pritchett, Lant. Environmental degradation and the demand for children: searching for the vicious circle. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 1623, 1996. 50 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Because of the important role that children play in collection activities, the demand for children may increase as local environmental resources are depleted, setting up a vicious circle between resource depletion and population growth. Analysis of household data from Pakistan yields some support for this hypothesis, although the effect may be small and dependent on endogenous local property rights." Data are from the 1991 Pakistan Integrated Household Survey.
Correspondence: World Bank, Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: sfallon@worldbank.org. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20373 Henshaw, Stanley K. Unintended pregnancy in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1998. 24-9, 46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1982, 1988 and 1995 cycles of the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth, supplemented by data from other sources, are used to estimate 1994 rates and percentages of unintended birth and pregnancy and the proportion of women who have experienced an unintended birth, an abortion or both. In addition, estimates are made of the proportion of women who will have had an abortion by age 45.... Excluding miscarriages, 49% of the pregnancies concluding in 1994 were unintended; 54% of these ended in abortion. Forty-eight percent of women aged 15-44 in 1994 had had at least one unplanned pregnancy sometime in their lives; 28% had had one or more unplanned births, 30% had had one or more abortions and 11% had had both. At 1994 rates, women can expect to have 1.42 unintended pregnancies by the time they are 45, and at 1992 rates, 43% of women will have had an abortion."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20374 Ignatczyk, Walentyna. Procreative behaviours and attitudes of young marriages in Poland according to their standard of living. Polish Population Review, No. 11, 1997. 7-28 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The paper focuses on...whether the changing standards of living, housing and financial status [have] a significant impact on the modification of the family values system [in Poland]. We...attempted to identify to what degree the standard of living of young marriages with married life to 7 years determined their pro family behaviours in the period of socio-economic transformation in Poland."
Correspondence: W. Ignatczyk, University of Economics, Family Research Centre, ul. Niepodleglosci 10, 60-907 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20375 Kohlmann, Annette; Kopp, Johannes. A bargaining model of the shift toward different numbers of children. [Verhandlungstheoretische Modellierung des Übergangs zu verschiedenen Kinderzahlen.] Zeitschrift für Soziologie, Vol. 26, No. 4, Aug 1997. 258-74 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger.
The factors affecting the decision to have a first, second, or third child in Germany are examined. The authors look at various economic models of fertility behavior and conclude that two theoretical problems occur: on the one hand, these theories investigate the maximization of household utilities instead of the individual utilities of each spouse; on the other hand, it is assumed that the couple decides how many children they will have only once (at the beginning of the marriage). In contrast, this article attempts, in order to explain current fertility decisions, to include the individual utilities of wife and husband and, moreover, to model the decision as a sequential process. In this way, it is possible to identify specific effects of sociostructural variables with different parities.
Correspondence: A. Kohlmann, Technische Universität Chemnitz-Zwickau, Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Soziologie I, 09107 Chemnitz, Germany. E-mail: annette.kohlmann@phil.tu-chemnitz.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20376 Lockwood, Matthew. Sons of the soil? Population growth, environmental change and men's reproductive intentions in northern Nigeria. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 1997. 305-22 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper is about two radically different views of the relationship between population and environment, based on detailed interviews with a small group of male farmers in northern Nigeria. The study was aimed at understanding why poor people in areas of environmental pressure and land scarcity continue to have large families. Conventional academic explanations for this, based on economic models, attach great importance to the relationship between population growth, environmental change and the assumed demand for children. However, the farmers interviewed perceived these relationships in radically different ways from the models.... The paper argues that these perceptions render the economic models irrelevant, and are central to an understanding of male farmers' reproductive intentions (and possibly the fertility behaviour of their wives)."
Correspondence: M. Lockwood, c/o Christian Aid, P.O. Box 100, London SE1 7RT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20377 Lodewijckx, Edith; Hendrickx, Kristin. "The fear of forgetting my pill is enough to make me ill." A qualitative study of Moroccan women. ["Alleen al de angst om de pil te vergeten maakt mij ziek." Een kwalitatief onderzoek bij Marokkaanse vrouwen.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1996. 61-86 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Through interviews in focus groups Moroccan women [living in Belgium] were questioned on their ideas, questions and knowledge and also on their experiences and problems with contraceptives.... The role of their husbands and the women's network were discussed.... Consideration was [also] given to the reasons why women become unexpectedly pregnant and to abortion as a strategy for dealing with unexpected pregnancies."
Correspondence: E. Lodewijckx, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20378 Meekers, Dominique. The effectiveness of targeted social marketing to promote adolescent reproductive health: the case of Soweto, South Africa. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 16, 1998. 35 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study analyzes the impact of the Society for Family Health's adolescent reproductive health program in Soweto (Johannesburg) [South Africa] on adolescents' perceptions regarding sexual risks and preventive action, and on their sexual behavior and use of protective measures.... The findings suggest that the intervention was more effective in changing beliefs related to pregnancy prevention than those related to STD/HIV prevention."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20379 Mwageni, Eleuther A. Family size preference and contraceptive behaviour among men in Mbeya region, Tanzania. In: Population dynamics: some past and emerging issues, edited by Richard A. Powell, Eleuther A. Mwageni, and Augustine Ankomah. 1996. 60-6 pp. University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies: Exeter, England. In Eng.
"This paper demonstrates the relationship between family size preference and men's contraceptive behaviour. More specifically, the paper establishes the levels and pattern of family size preferences. In addition, the paper highlights the main influences upon family size." Data are from a 1994 survey of 600 men aged 15-50 in southwest Tanzania.
Correspondence: E. A. Mwageni, University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies, Exeter EX4 4QS, England. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

64:20380 Petro-Nustas, Wasileh. Factors influencing husband-wife discussions of family planning and the desired family size in Jordan. Dirasat, Medical and Biological Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1996. 113-27 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"The objective of this study is to probe into the factors that account for husbands' involvement in spousal discussions of family planning issues and the desired family size they opt for. Data figures and statistics...are based on the 1990 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey.... [Results] reveal that 58.8% of the women in the sample do participate in spousal discussions on issues concerning family planning...[and that] 57.6% of husbands (as reported by their wives in the sample) agree with them on the number of children they want...." The effects of wife's and husband's age, place of residence, and level of education are examined.
Correspondence: W. Petro-Nustas, University of Jordan, Faculty of Nursing, Amman, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20381 Ragab, Ahmed R. A.; Ankomah, Augustine; Ford, Nicholas J.; Powell, Richard A. Understanding the pattern of contraceptive use and unmet need among married women in Lower Rural Egypt. In: Population dynamics: some past and emerging issues, edited by Richard A. Powell, Eleuther A. Mwageni, and Augustine Ankomah. 1996. 657-73 pp. University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies: Exeter, England. In Eng.
"Although a review of the performance of family planning programmes in nearly a hundred countries [in 1991 placed] Egypt at the top of the moderate group, which represents a significant improvement in programme performance..., there are still several inhibitions to the use of contraceptives. This paper highlights some of the key cultural, religious and other situational impediments to contraceptive use in rural Egypt."
Correspondence: A. R. A. Ragab, Al-Azhar University, International Islamic Centre for Population Studies and Research, Cairo, Egypt. Location: British Library, Document Supply Centre, Wetherby, England.

64:20382 Rajna, P. N.; Krishnamoorthy, D. S. Regional variation in the synthetic cohort estimate of mean desired family size in India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 43, No. 1, Mar 1997. 45-50 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"In recent times, there has been a search for a new index which would predict immediate future fertility, and there are a few attempts at estimating desired family size for a synthetic cohort from parity specific proportions of women wanting more children and of women wanting their last birth. Using data from the National Family Health Survey 1992-93, this study uses mean desired family size estimates to predict and analyse fertility of the states of India."
Correspondence: P. N. Rajna, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20383 Rasevic, Mirjana. Population attitudes in the low-fertility region of Serbia. [Populaciona klima na niskonatalitetnom podrucju Srbije.] Socioloski Pregled/Sociological Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1996. 205-15 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author investigates attitudes toward fertility and family formation in the low-fertility region of Serbia. Data are from a sample of 201 Belgrade women under age 40, who had decided to terminate their pregnancies. Aspects considered include incidence and acceptance of induced abortion; preference for abortion or contraception; awareness of population problems; attitudes toward marriage, family life, and children; self-interest; and differences between reproductive intentions and behavior.
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Narodnog Fronta 45, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20384 Rowland, Donald T. Cross-national trends in childlessness. Working Papers in Demography, No. 73, 1998. 31 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper is intended to provide a comparative and historical setting for the discussion of childlessness and its implications in later life. The aim is to compare and explain trends through time in the proportions childless in Western Europe and in some other developed countries, especially the United States and Australia. The experiences of birth cohorts of women born between 1900 and 1940 are the main focus."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20385 van de Kaa, Dirk J. Postmodern fertility preferences: from changing value orientation to new behaviour. Working Papers in Demography, No. 74, 1998. 51 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper I aim to explore whether the term `postmodernism', or one of its derivatives, could usefully have a place in demographic studies and population analysis. I shall, more particularly, do so with reference to the issue of fertility preferences in developed societies."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20386 Zhao, Zhongwei. Deliberate birth control under a high-fertility regime: reproductive behavior in China before 1970. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1997. 729-67, 929, 931-2 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Three interrelated beliefs concerning fertility patterns in historical China are widely held. The first suggests that fertility in Chinese history was very high; the second holds that Chinese couples did not control their fertility; and the third insists that the Chinese wanted to have as many children as possible. This study investigates whether deliberate fertility control was practiced in a selected Chinese population that was largely unaffected by China's nationwide family planning program, which began in the 1970s.... The evidence suggests that traditional Chinese culture might not be as thoroughly pronatalist as people commonly have supposed. Indeed, the fertility-regulating practice found in the selected population and China's recent fertility changes seem to indicate that some cultural beliefs might have played a facilitating role in lowering high fertility. While most Chinese people in the past did seek to have a son to continue their family line, a considerable number of them might not have wanted as many children as possible."
Correspondence: Z. Zhao, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20387 Zvidrins, Peteris. Fertility preferences in Latvia. Revue Baltique, No. 10, 1997. 90-103 pp. Vilnius, Lithuania. In Eng.
"The current levels of fertility and natural increase in Latvia are the lowest in history and are among the lowest in the present-day world. Since 1989 the number of births as well as special indicators of fertility [have been] falling.... In this article we study some aspects of reproductive preferences, using survey data. In particular, we are focusing on the latest survey where some direct questions on fertility preferences were included." Data are from the 1995 Latvian Fertility and Family Survey, which involved 2,699 women and 1,501 men aged 18-49.
Correspondence: P. Zvidrins, University of Latvia, Centre of Demography, Rainis Boulevard 19, Riga 226098, Latvia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

64:20388 Aliaga Bruch, Sandra; Machicao Barbery, Ximena. Abortion: a question not only for women. [El aborto: una cuestión no sólo de mujeres.] LC 96-196685. Nov 1995. 123 pp. Centro de Información y Desarrollo de la Mujer (CIDEM): La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This report presents the results of a survey on abortion, which included 317 women associated with a university in Cochabamba, Bolivia. The survey included questions on attitudes toward and experience of abortion; sexual experience; contraception; pregnancy history; and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS.
Correspondence: Centro de Información y Desarrollo de la Mujer, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20389 Cerjan-Letica, Gordana. The conflict about abortion: impossibility of dialogue between the pro-choice and pro-life movements. [Prijepor o pobacaju: (ne)mogucnost dijaloga pokretâ Za izbor i za zivot.] Revija za Sociologiju/Sociological Review, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 1-18 pp. Zagreb, Croatia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"Reproduction is...the locus of...two powerful and conflicting social movements: pro-choice and pro-life. Using the sociological theories of social movements as a general framework, and a theory of resource mobilization as a specific approach, the author analyzes strategies, policies and activities of the movements in the USA and Croatia."
Correspondence: G. Cerjan-Letica, Stomatoloski Fakultet Sveucilista u Zagrebu, Kneza Mislava 14, Zagreb 10000, Croatia. E-mail: Gordana.Cerjan-Letica@public.srce.hr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20390 Dolian, Gayane; Lüdicke, Frank; Katchatrian, Naira; Morabia, Alfredo. Contraception and induced abortion in Armenia: a critical need for family planning programs in Eastern Europe. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 5, May 1998. 803-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The results of a pilot study on levels of induced abortion in Armenia are presented. The data were collected from a consecutive series of 200 women attending an abortion clinic in Yerevan, Armenia, in 1994-1995. "Women younger than 20 years of age reported a median of 1 and women older than 40 years reported a median of 8 induced abortions in their lifetimes (overall median=3). Lack of contraceptive information was the major reason cited for not using contraception."
Correspondence: A. Morabia, University Hospital, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Rue Micheli-du-Crest 25, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:20391 Edwards, Rem B. New essays on abortion and bioethics. Advances in Bioethics, Vol. 2, ISBN 0-7623-0194-5. 1997. xiii, 346 pp. JAI Press: Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on factual, valuational, religious, and metaphysical issues relevant to abortion. The 10 studies are: Ontogenesis of the brain in the human organism--definitions of life and death of the human being and person, by Julius Korein; Abortion procedures and abortifacients, by Jane E. Hodgson; Abortion and the law--the supreme court, privacy, and abortion, by Frank H. Marsh; Abortion and religion, by Nancy R. Howell; The Roman Catholic position on abortion, by Robert Barry; "Conservative" views of abortion, by Philip E. Devine; Moderate views of abortion, by L. W. Sumner; Not drowning but waving--reflections on swimming through the shark-infested waters of the abortion debate, by N. Ann Davis; An essay on the moral status question, by Lewis M. Schwartz; and Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women, by Rem B. Edwards.
Correspondence: JAI Press, 55 Old Post Road, No. 2, Greenwich, CT 06836. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20392 Gorbach, Pamina M.; Hoa, Dao T. Khanh; Nhan, Vu Quy; Tsui, Amy. Contraception and abortion in two Vietnamese communes. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 4, Apr 1998. 660-3 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between contraceptive method chosen and induced abortion is examined using data on two communes in northern Viet Nam; the data were collected in a 1994 survey of 504 rural and 523 urban women. "For the 13.6% of urban and 19% of rural commune women having had an abortion in the previous year, logistic regression analyses demonstrated that use of an intrauterine device reduced the likelihood of subsequent abortion in both communes. Traditional method use in the rural commune, however, increased women's likelihood of a subsequent abortion."
Correspondence: P. M. Gorbach, University of Washington, Center for AIDS and STD, 1001 Broadway, Suite 215, Box 359931, Seattle, WA 98122-4304. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:20393 Huntington, Dale; Nawar, Laila; Hassan, Ezzeldin O.; Youssef, Hala; Abdel-Tawab, Nahla. The postabortion caseload in Egyptian hospitals: a descriptive study. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1998. 25-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
The authors "assess the state of postabortion care [and] estimate the rate of induced abortion in Egypt.... Among the 22,656 admissions to the obstetrics and gynecology departments during the 30-day study period, approximately one of every five patients (19%) was a woman admitted for treatment of an induced or spontaneous abortion. Projections yielded an estimated induced abortion rate in Egypt of 14.8 per 100 pregnancies.... Postabortion care could be improved if vacuum aspiration under local anesthesia [were] used as the primary postabortion treatment, and if adherence to antiseptic measures [were] increased."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Huntington, Population Council, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20394 Karro, Helle. Abortion in the framework of family planning in Estonia. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Supplement, No. 164, 1997. 46-50 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
The legal status of abortion and trends in childbirth, abortions, and contraceptive use in Estonia are analyzed using "national statistical data on induced abortions, spontaneous abortions, births and contraceptive use in Estonia.... Even though induced abortion is legal in Estonia, the abortion rate has been declining but is still high and in 1994 was 53.8 per 1,000 women of fertile age. Among young women under 20 years of age, abortions decreased slightly in the period 1992-94 (from 55.5 to 41.5 per 1,000). The birth rate has been declining rapidly in recent years, resulting in a net population reduction. The use of modern contraceptives is increasing but is still low."
Correspondence: H. Karro, Tartu University, Women's Clinic, Lossi 36, 2400 Tartu, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20395 Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Induced abortions in Denmark. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 76, Suppl., No. 164, 1997. 54-9 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"A law on Induced Abortion on Request came into force in Denmark in 1973. During the first years the rate of abortion increased but since the early 1980s the rate has been rather constant. The paper reviews recent findings concerning induced abortion and discusses its role in controlling fertility [using data from official sources]". The results indicate that "fertility trends in Denmark are characterized by an increasing age at first birth. Half of the aborters today have no children before and 10% had given birth less than 18 months earlier. Among aborters a higher proportion than among parturients were still under education and a higher proportion were single with no steady partner. Half of the aborters became pregnant in spite of contraceptive use, indicating a need for better contraceptives."
Correspondence: L. B. Knudsen, Statistics Denmark, Sejrøgade 11, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20396 Kulczycki, Andrzej. Religious systems and abortion: representation and reality. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 781-801 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to survey religious teachings on abortion, their implications, and how these are translated into actual practice.... A secondary aim...is to examine the limiting conditions on abortion and reproductive behaviour imposed by religious teachings, as well as how women are affected by these structures and cope with them.... This paper further analyses the interaction between religion, culture and abortion, both as an ethical representation and as a social reality." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: A. Kulczycki, American University of Beirut, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Population Studies, Beirut, Lebanon. E-mail: andrzej@aub.edu.lb. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20397 Medoff, Marshall H. A pooled time-series analysis of abortion demand. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 6, Dec 1997. 597-605 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study estimates the demand for abortion in the United States using state data pooled over years 1992 and 1982. The empirical results showed that the price elasticity of abortion demand ranged from -0.70 to -0.99 and an income elasticity between 0.27 and 0.35. The demand for abortion was found (1) not to be statistically related to a woman's educational level; (2) to be higher the greater a state's taste for abortion; (3) coincident with the business cycle; and (4) not to be related to the level of a state's welfare payment."
Correspondence: M. H. Medoff, California State University, Department of Economics, Long Beach, CA 90840-4607. E-mail: mmedoff@csulb.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20398 Wadhera, Surinder; Millar, Wayne J. Marital status and abortion. [Etat matrimonial et avortement.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 9, No. 3, Winter 1997. 19-26; 19-27 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article examines the marital status of women who obtained abortions between 1974 and 1994, with particular attention to those who were married or in common-law relationships.... While abortion rates were highest for single women, those who were married (including common-law and separated) accounted for over one-quarter of all abortions performed in 1994. Since 1974 the age-standardized abortion rate per 1,000 married women aged 15 to 44 almost doubled from 6.6 to 11.2. For most of these women, it was their first abortion, and the majority had taken at least one pregnancy to term."
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

64:20399 Abma, Joyce; Driscoll, Anne; Moore, Kristin. Young women's degree of control over first intercourse: an exploratory analysis. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1998. 12-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"While policymakers and researchers alike often seem to believe that young women's decision to initiate sexual intercourse is conscious and free of ambiguity, the actual degree of control that such young women exert over first intercourse has rarely been explicitly examined.... The 1995 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth asked all women who had experienced intercourse to rate, on a 1-10 scale, the wantedness of their first intercourse; they were then asked whether the experience was voluntary.... Twenty-four percent of women aged 13 or younger at the time of their first premarital intercourse report the experience to have been nonvoluntary, compared with 10% of those aged 19-24 at first premarital intercourse.... Women whose first partner was seven or more years older than themselves were more than twice as likely as those whose first partner was the same age or younger to choose a low value (36% vs. 17%). Women whose partner had been seven or more years older were also less likely than other women to have used contraceptives at first intercourse."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. Abma, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Reproductive Statistics Branch, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20400 Bhattacharya, B. N.; Yadava, K. N. S.; Singh, S. R. J.; Yadava, G. S. A probability distribution on the fertility of migrants: a model approach. Genus, Vol. 53, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 129-43 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The present article proposes a probability distribution to study the impact on fertility caused by couple separation due to migration [in India]. Such distribution is being tested using data from a field work in a rural area (3,514 families in 19 villages of Uttar Pradesh) known for its important seasonal migrations. A high conception rate is observed among migrant couples when they meet again after a long separation."
Correspondence: B. N. Bhattacharya, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20401 Mannan, Haider R. Effects of lactation, contraception and other factors on birth interval in Bangladesh: evidence from the 1989 BFS. Genus, Vol. 53, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1997. 145-57 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This study, based on the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS), has identified breastfeeding duration as the principal determinant of the last closed birth interval. Breastfeeding duration adds 12.1 months to the average birth interval which is about 32 percent of the length of the average birth interval. It is found that most women do not deliberately breastfeed their child for the purpose of controlling fertility. The effect of contraceptive use on the birth interval has increased over the past decade or so but only moderately. The effects of various socio-economic factors on the birth interval are transmitted primarily through the duration of breastfeeding."
Correspondence: H. R. Mannan, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: duregstr@bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20402 Mukherjee, S.; Bhattacharya, B. N.; Singh, K. K. Effect of breast-feeding on post-partum amenorrhoea in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Janasamkhya, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1994. 107-31 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This study analyses the average duration of Post-Partum Amenorrhoea (PPA) and [the] effect of breast-feeding on the duration of PPA in a traditional Indian society. A multivariate hazards model is applied to investigate the effect of breast-feeding on the duration of PPA. The results clearly show the contraceptive role of breast-feeding in prolonging the duration before resumption of menstruation."
Correspondence: S. Mukherjee, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20403 Vitzthum, Virginia J.; Aguayo, Víctor M. The ecology of breastfeeding: approaches toward improvement of women's and children's health. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1998. 145-228 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This special section contains seven studies on aspects of breast-feeding in various countries around the world. The studies examine both the benefits of breast-feeding for infant health and its impact on maternal fecundity. "The articles in this thematic collection...explore human lactation within an ecological framework, with the goal of better understanding how variation in breastfeeding behavior is generated in differing contexts. Such an exploration provides new insights into the bases of variation in human reproduction and infant health, and brings the research-based knowledge to bear on the goals of improving women's and children's well-being."
Correspondence: V. J. Vitzthum, University of California, Department of Anthropology, Riverside, CA 92521-0418. E-mail: vitzthum@ucrac1.ucr.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20404 Zaba, Basia; Collumbien, Martine. HIV and fertility: modelling the effects of changes in union dynamics. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 2. 1997. 583-609 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the likely scale of the fertility changes due to the biological consequences of HIV and due to structural changes arising from differential vulnerability amongst women of varying fecundity. The scale and direction of these fertility changes is compared with the probable effects of some of the behavioural changes, by examining post HIV fertility levels in populations which experience only those changes associated with biological and structural factors, and in populations which also display behaviour modifications."
Correspondence: B. Zaba, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. E-mail: bzaba@lshtm.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

64:20405 Clarke, George R. G.; Strauss, Robert P. Children as income-producing assets: the case of teen illegitimacy and government transfers. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 64, No. 4, Apr 1998. 827-56 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper develops a classical model of the teen fertility decision in the presence of public income transfers. The theoretical model predicts that welfare payments will encourage fertility, holding constant other economic opportunities, and that better economic opportunities will discourage fertility. Considering the possible simultaneity of illegitimacy rates and benefit levels, due to the collective choice process, we confirm the theoretical model's predictions with [U.S.] state-level data from 1980 through 1990."
Correspondence: G. R. G. Clarke, World Bank, Development Research Group, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail:gclarke@worldbank.org. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:20406 Foster, E. Michael; Jones, Damon; Hoffman, Saul D. The economic impact of nonmarital childbearing: how are older, single mothers faring? Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 1, Feb 1998. 163-74 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"During recent decades, the rate of nonmarital childbearing among [U.S.] women aged 20 and older has increased steadily. Despite this increase, little is known about the economic status of the women involved and how it compares with that of their married counterparts or of teen mothers. This study examines the experiences of a sample of women drawn from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics; it assesses the economic situation of these women before and after giving birth. In general, the economic situation of older, single mothers is closer to that of teen mothers than that of married childbearers the same age. The results presented here also reveal substantial variation among older, single mothers. In particular, we find that these women fare better when they are White, 25 years old and older, did not begin having children as teenagers, or are cohabiting."
Correspondence: E. M. Foster, Georgia State University, School of Policy Studies, Department of Public Administration and Urban Studies, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303. E-mail: prcemf@langate.gsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20407 Kravdal, Øystein. Wanting a child without a firm commitment to the partner: interpretations and implications of a common behaviour pattern among Norwegian cohabitants. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1997. 269-98 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this study, data from the Norwegian Family and Occupation Survey of 1988 and the Statistics Norway Omnibus Surveys of 1996 are used to assess the proportion of mistimed births in consensual unions, and to find out whether the remaining cohabitants, who deliberately have a child while living in this informal relationship, are predominantly hesitant towards marriage, or whether they expect marriage to take place shortly afterwards.... Respondents in the Omnibus Survey gave reasons for not marrying (yet), which are referred and discussed.... After [a] discussion of individual considerations behind childbearing in consensual unions, possible underlying social and cultural forces are pointed out. The results are reviewed from a policy perspective in the concluding section."
Correspondence: Ø. Kravdal, University of Oslo, Department of Economics, P.B. 1095 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. E-mail: okravdal@econ.uio.no. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.