Volume 64 - Number 1 - Spring 1998

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

64:10681 Feldstein, Martin. A new era of Social Security. Public Interest, No. 130, Winter 1998. 102-25 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This article discusses the process of replacing the existing pay-as-you-go Social Security program of Old Age and Survivors Insurance in the United States with a prefunded program based on mandatory individual accounts. "After discussing the basic reasons for favoring the prefunding of Social Security old-age pensions (and Medicare as well) and the nature of a feasible transition from the existing pay-as-you-go system, I will explain why I now favor using a system of individual accounts rather than a single government account. I will then discuss the two major issues that are frequently raised as objections to a prefunded system based on individual accounts: the riskiness of investing in stocks and bonds and the distributional effects of shifting from pay-as-you-go to individual accounts. I will conclude by discussing the effect that such a system would have on national saving and capital accumulation."
Correspondence: M. Feldstein, Harvard University, Department of Economics, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:10682 Jones, Carolyn. The restructuring of the New Zealand welfare sector 1989-91. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 22, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1996. 69-82 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This essay will attempt to identify the key demographic features of the New Zealand population during the late 1980s and early 1990s and describe why the social welfare policies impacted so harshly on the most vulnerable members of the society....A lack of responsiveness to the needs of the large cohorts in their late teens and early twenties in terms of employment opportunities, education and their need to develop independence created...difficulties for families. The impact of increased unemployment among older workers and the impact that this had on a family's resources was not considered when unemployment benefits were tightened."
Correspondence: C. Jones, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10683 Lee, Ronald D. Integenerational relations and the elderly. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 212-33 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Recent essays on the role of the elderly in nature...describe a variety of animal behaviors across the life cycle. This note is prompted by the thought that these animal behaviors have interesting links and counterparts in human behaviors. In it I will consider some of these links, particularly those that have an intergenerational aspect. Specifically, I will discuss (1) various estimates of the prevalence of post-reproductive and elderly women in human stationary populations, (2) the role of elders as repositories of knowledge that may benefit their kin or larger group, (3) transfer flows of resources from members of one age group to members of another, and (4) transfers of assets to children at the death of their parent or inter vivos."
Correspondence: R. D. Lee, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10684 Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Johnson, Paul. Ageing and social policy: global comparisons. STICERD Occasional Paper, No. 19, ISBN 0-7530-0672-3. 1996. ii, 122 pp. London School of Economics and Political Science, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines: London, England. In Eng.
This report contains seven papers presented at a workshop held at the London School of Economics on January 14, 1995, entitled Ageing and Social Policy: Global Comparisons. "Unlike most research in this field, which focuses on the experience of specific countries or regions, this book takes an embracing, comparative approach. It identified similarities between the countries studied but also draws attention to key differences. These differences preclude the implementation of a single policy formula to meet the economic needs of the aged. Particular attention is paid to the roles allotted to the public, private and informal sectors in elderly welfare provision. The book also considers the long-term financial sustainability of alternative welfare strategies and the quality of protection they offer." Apart from two papers on general themes, case studies are presented on the experiences of Germany, Chile, Thailand, China, and India.
Correspondence: London School of Economics and Political Science, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10685 Seidman, Laurence S. The case for funding Social Security. Public Interest, No. 130, Winter 1998. 93-101 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The case is made for funding the Social Security program in the United States either by accumulating a large central fund or by privatizing the system, rather than relying on a pay-as-you-go approach. The main argument made in favor of the change is that it would increase the saving rate, which is currently low in comparison with other industrialized countries. The author concludes that the switch to a funded system would lead to temporary increases in taxation that would adversely affect older workers, but that in the longer run, the interest on the fund would allow for the same retirement benefits to be financed with a much lower payroll tax, and that all future workers would be better off.
Correspondence: L. S. Seidman, University of Delaware, Department of Economics, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

64:10686 Abernethy, Virginia. Political science. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 2, Nov 1997. 113-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the ways in which U.S. population growth estimates and policies can be influenced by political considerations. The focus is on growth due to immigration and on ways to stabilize the country's population in the future.
Correspondence: V. Abernethy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10687 Poston, Dudley L. The U.S. census and congressional apportionment. Society, Vol. 34, No. 3, Mar-Apr 1997. 36-44 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author discusses the method by which U.S. congressional members are apportioned using census figures. "The question becomes how much of a deviation from one man, one vote can be tolerated. I consider this question next in a brief discussion of the current apportionment Method of Equal Proportions and an alternative method that some have suggested should be used, that of Major Fractions. Later I review the history of U.S. apportionment procedures....I conclude by presenting and discussing the results of an exercise in which I apply the methods of Equal Proportions and Major Fractions to apportionment population data for the U.S. states for 1990 and 2000."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Texas A & M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10688 Volkov, A. How the mirror of society got false (60 years since the 1937 population census). [Kak stalo krivym zerkalo obshchestva (K 60-letiyu perepisi 1937 goda).] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 3, 1997. 14-20 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
This article describes the 1937 census of the Soviet population and discusses the reasons why the results were never published. The main reason for suppressing the data was that it revealed the terrible conditions affecting the population under the Soviet regime. The author describes how a second census was taken in 1939 and how the results were doctored to reveal only the facts that the authorities wanted to make public.
Correspondence: A. Volkov, Goskomstat Rossii, NII Statistiki, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

64:10689 Ashford, Lori. Improving reproductive health in developing countries. Oct 1997. 32 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The findings on reproductive health in developing countries from the National Research Council of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences are summarized in this report. The focus is on assisting policy makers in developing countries to identify reproductive health problems and the measures to deal with them. The full text of this report is available online at http://www.nap.edu.
For the full report, also published in 1997, see 63:30728.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10690 Behrman, Jere. The effect of structural adjustment on food policy and nutrition. In: Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America, edited by Georges Tapinos, Andrew Mason, and Jorge Bravo. 1997. 54-71 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, I address the question: what do we know about the impact of structural adjustment in Latin America on food policy and nutrition? I organize my comments by first presenting a simple economic household model of the determinants of nutritional and health status, since the proximate determinants of nutritional and health status are at the micro individual and household level. Then I use this framework to discuss: (1) the channels through which the food policy component of structural adjustment programmes may affect the reduced-form determinants of individual nutritional and health status; (2) how individuals and households respond to the changes in the reduced-form determinants of individual nutrition and health status induced by structural adjustment programmes; and (3) policy implications regarding the impact of structural adjustment on food policy and on nutrition."
Correspondence: J. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10691 Bonneux, Luc; Barendregt, Jan J.; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Van der Maas, Paul J. Preventing fatal diseases increases healthcare costs: cause elimination life table approach. British Medical Journal, Vol. 316, No. 7124, Jan 3, 1998. 26-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The objective of this study was "to examine whether elimination of fatal diseases will increase healthcare costs....Mortality data from vital statistics [on the population of the Netherlands in 1988 were] combined with healthcare spending in a cause elimination life table. Costs were allocated to specific diseases through the various healthcare registers....[The results showed that] elimination of fatal diseases--such as coronary heart disease, cancer, or chronic obstructive lung disease--increases health-care costs. Major savings will be achieved only by elimination of non-fatal disease--such as musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders."
Correspondence: L. Bonneux, Erasmus University Medical School, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: bonneux@mgz.fgg.eur.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10692 Callahan, Daniel; ter Meulen, Ruud H. J.; Topinková, Eva. A world growing old: the coming health care challenges. Hastings Center Studies in Ethics, ISBN 0-87840-591-7. LC 95-6447. 1995. xiii, 175 pp. Georgetown University Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a collective work in which the authors examine some problems related to the provision of adequate health care for the growing population of elderly people in the developed world. It is the product of a joint project between the Hastings Center in the United States and the Institute for Bioethics in the Netherlands on resource allocation and the elderly. The main topics of concern are the meaning and significance of old age, the goals of medicine and health care for the elderly, balancing the needs of the young and the old, resource allocation and social priorities, and families, societies, women, and long-term care.
Correspondence: Georgetown University Press, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10693 Chaudhury, Ranjit R. Reproductive health aspects of contraceptive methods. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 276-85 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses various contraceptive methods currently available and their effects on women's reproductive health in India. The safety and effectiveness of male contraceptive methods are assessed, and contraindications of several female contraceptives are described.
Correspondence: R. R. Chaudhury, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10694 Conly, Shanti R.; Epp, Joanne E. Falling short: the World Bank's role in population and reproductive health. ISBN 1-889735-02-7. LC 97-075701. 1997. x, 66 pp. Population Action International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report examines World Bank activities in the field of population. It focuses on the following questions: "In policy discussions with borrower countries, to what extent is the Bank encouraging attention to the relationships between population dynamics and development and ensuring that population concerns are adequately addressed? To what extent is the Bank providing financial support to reproductive health programs, including family planning? How can the Bank expand lending for these programs, improve the effectiveness of Bank-financed projects and stimulate additional donor and national funding? [and] What capacity does the Bank have for providing expert advice with respect to the sound planning and effective implementation of reproductive health and family planning projects? How are current organizational changes affecting the Bank's work in both population and reproductive health?"
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10695 Djamba, Yanyi K. Theoretical perspectives on female sexual behaviour in Africa: a review and conceptual model. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Sep 1997. 67-78 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A major drawback of research on sexual behaviour in Africa is the separation between theories and empirical work. This paper reviews three major theoretical perspectives on female sexual behaviour in Africa, and constructs a conceptual framework in which various hypotheses deriving from these theories can be empirically tested. This framework, which draws from Coleman's model of social capital, shows the linkages between sexual behaviour and key factors of (1) patrilineal bias, (2) rational adaptation, and (3) social disorganisation theories. It is suggested that, as a dynamic process, sexual activity and its key covariates must be measured and analysed within event history models."
Correspondence: Y. K. Djamba, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1172. E-mail: dyk@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10696 Frankel, Stephen; Gunnell, David J.; Peters, Tim J.; Maynard, Maria; Davey Smith, George. Childhood energy intake and adult mortality from cancer: the Boyd Orr cohort study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 316, No. 7130, Feb 14, 1998. 499-504 pp. London, England. In Eng.
In this study, 3,834 people who took part in Lord Boyd Orr's Carnegie survey of family diet and health in prewar Britain between 1937 and 1939 were followed up through 1996 to examine the relation between energy intake in childhood and adult mortality from cancer, other than smoking-related cancer. Significant associations between childhood energy intake and cancer mortality were seen when the confounding effects of social variables were taken into account in proportional hazards models. The effects were similar for men and women.
Correspondence: S. Frankel, University of Bristol, Department of Social Medicine, Bristol BS8 2PR, England. E-mail: stephen.frankel@bristol.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10697 Frisbie, W. Parker; Forbes, Douglas; Hummer, Robert A. Hispanic pregnancy outcomes: additional evidence. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 96-97-13, 1996-1997. 21, [5] pp. University of Texas, Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Our general objective is to examine [U.S.] differentials in pregnancy outcomes across Hispanic groups. Specifically, we wish to estimate the net effects of determinants of the risk of prematurity, low birth weight, and infant mortality and to determine whether ethnic differences persist once other predictors are controlled. This analysis directly addresses the question of whether, in addition to Mexican Americans, other Hispanic populations are characterized by an `epidemiological paradox', i.e., by a combination of a high risk sociodemographic profile and favorable pregnancy outcomes."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Author's E-mail: frisbie@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10698 Gardner, Robert; Blackburn, Richard. People who move: new reproductive health focus. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 45, Nov 1997. 27 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Migrants, refugees, and internally displaced persons are among the world's most vulnerable people. Clustered on the margins of cities or culturally isolated within them, housed in camps meant to be temporary, or without homes at all, they often have urgent health needs, including reproductive health. Programs and relief agencies are beginning to respond to this need."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. E-mail: PopRepts@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10699 Ghosh, Shanti. Life cycle of maternal health and child health. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 236-43 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Taking cognizance of the high maternal and childhood mortality [in India], the VIII Five Year Plan has embarked on the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) Program and all the districts will be covered by 1997." Goals and objectives of the program are discussed. Aspects considered include maternal health and family planning, maternal mortality and its impact on child mortality, the girl child, and adolescents.
Correspondence: S. Ghosh, 5 Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10700 Judge, Ken; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Benzeval, Michaela. Income inequality and population health. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 4-5, Feb-Mar 1998. 567-79 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A number of studies have suggested that inequalities in the distribution of income may be an important cause of variations in the average level of population health among rich industrial nations. However, what is missing from the debate so far is any systematic review of evidence about the relationship between different measures of income distribution and indicators of population health. This paper aims to bridge that gap. First, it summarizes the recent English language literature on this topic and illustrates the methodological problems that weaken the inferences that can be derived from it. Secondly, it presents new empirical estimates of the relationship between different measures of income distribution, infant mortality and life expectancy based on the most authoritative data published to date. In contrast to most earlier studies, we find very little support for the view that income inequality is associated with variations in average levels of national health in rich industrial countries. Some possible explanations for these differences are outlined."
Correspondence: K. Judge, University of Kent and Canterbury, PSSRU, Canterbury CT2 7NF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10701 Kane, Thomas T.; Khuda, Barkat; Phillips, James F. Reproductive health in rural Bangladesh: policy and programmatic implications. ICDDR, B Monograph, No. 7, ISBN 984-551-115-5. Jul 1997. xviii, 504, [10] pp. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh [ICDDR, B]: Matlab, Bangladesh. In Eng.
These two volumes present a selection of studies on reproductive health issues in Bangladesh. In the first volume there are five studies on aspects of reproductive knowledge and behavior, including awareness of sexually transmitted diseases, the management of reproductive tract infections, induced abortion and its determinants and consequences, and the determinants of antenatal care seeking. There are also six studies on contraceptive use dynamics, including the determinants of contraceptive use among the young and newly married and among the rural population, the gender composition of surviving children and contraceptive use, the quality of care and client satisfaction and their effect on contraceptive use, factors associated with side effects from oral contraceptives and injectables, and contraceptive switching patterns. In the second volume, there are three sections. The first, on the demand, cost, and use of MCH-FP services, includes studies on the effect of cash prices on the demand for family planning services, the effects of family planning services on fertility preferences, the cost-effectiveness of alternative service delivery systems, and procedures to assess awareness, accessibility, and utilization of services. The second section has four studies on the determinants of the fertility decline in rural Bangladesh. The third section has two studies on the determinants of infant and child malnutrition and mortality.
Correspondence: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Author's E-mail: barkat@cholera.bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10702 MacNab, Ying C.; Macdonald, Julie; Tuk, Terry A. The risks of childbearing at older ages. [Risques de la maternité à un âge avancé.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 9, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 41-50, 43-53 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article investigates whether, compared with younger women, those aged 30-34 and 35 and older [in British Columbia] experienced a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal complications, and whether their infants faced an increased risk of perinatal complications and congenital anomalies....For both parity groups, the odds of having a cesarean delivery increased with maternal age. An elevated risk of having a low birth weight infant or preterm birth was also found for older primiparous women. There was a higher risk of chromosonal anomalies for infants of older mothers. The risk of some maternal complications increased with age, yet for most perinatal complications there was no clear age effect."
Correspondence: Y. C. MacNab, British Columbia Vital Statistics Agency, Victoria V8W 1H8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10703 Mbizvo, Michael T.; Siziya, Seter; Olayinka, Jide; Adamchak, Susan E. Knowledge of STIs and AIDS, condom use, and risk awareness. Zimbabwe Further Analysis, Oct 1997. iii, 43 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This analysis, using a nationally representative sample, provides some useful insight into knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, perceived risk awareness, and use of condoms in Zimbabwe. Overall, knowledge of STIs is high. Only 9 percent of women and 3 percent of men report not knowing any STI. However, with the exception of HIV/AIDS, knowledge of particular STIs is very low. Nearly equal proportions of men (84 percent) and women (85 percent) know AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection. Far fewer respondents know other diseases, and the proportion of men knowing specific STIs is generally higher than that of women." The authors use data from the 1994 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10704 Mboup, Gora; Tossou, Justin Y. Benin further analysis: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding AIDS in Benin. [Analyse approfondie des données du Bénin: connaissance, attitude et comportement vis-à-vis du SIDA au Bénin.] Jul 1997. v, 38, 39 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng; Fre.
"This study proposes to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of women and men regarding AIDS [in Benin. It stratifies]...the population into target groups in relation to their knowledge of AIDS, of the modes of transmission, and of the means of protection. For each target group, the study evaluates the perception of the risk of exposure and behavioral changes with regard to AIDS. The reasons for the perception of risk as well as for changes in behavior are evaluated by selected characteristics of sexual activity (frequency of sexual relations, number of partners, and use of condoms). The study draws from data collected in the 1996 Benin Demographic and Health Survey [and other sources]....The study indicates that in Benin knowledge of AIDS is nearly universal among men. By comparison, a significant proportion (almost a fifth) of women have never heard of AIDS. Among women, there is also a limited knowledge of the sexual modes of AIDS transmission. Overall, 3 in 10 women and 1 in 10 men have a need for information about AIDS, its modes of transmission, and means of prevention...."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10705 Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne-Emmanuèle. Gender differentials in adolescent sexual activity and reproductive health risks in Cameroon. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 4, 1997. 50 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine, using Cameroon as a research setting, gender differentials in adolescent sexual activity and reproductive health risks, as well as their determinants and consequences. More specifically, this paper documents how young men and women in Cameroon vary in the way they conduct their sexual lives as well as in the reproductive health risks they take. Gender differentials in patterns of sexual initiation, number of regular and casual sexual partners, and condom use are considered. The paper also examines factors affecting male and female patterns of sexual and reproductive health behavior. Finally, the study evaluates and contrasts the health consequences of the sexual activity of both males and females, including the prevalence of STDs and abortion."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10706 Meekers, Dominique. Going underground and going after women: combating sexual risk behavior among gold miners in South Africa. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 13, 1997. 18 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines trends in AIDS knowledge, risk perception, sexual risk behavior, and condom use among gold miners in the Welkom area [of South Africa] during the course of a two-year HIV intervention project consisting of a social marketing component and a behavior change communications component. Analysis of 1995 and 1997 survey data...shows significant increases in gold miners' awareness of their personal risk of contracting HIV/AIDS, reductions in their number of sexual partners, and increases in the prevalence of condom use with all types of partners during the intervention period."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10707 Meekers, Dominique; Holscher, Michael; Munteanu, Anemona. Sexual and reproductive health behavior among Romanian adolescents: an exploratory narrative research analysis. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 11, 1997. 25 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses the World Health Organization (WHO) Narrative Research Method to enhance our understanding of the typical course of events during which adolescents and young adults [in Romania] need to make reproductive health decisions. This method produces a description of the typical circumstances in which adolescents make decisions about reproductive health issues, and illustrates the nature of interactions that commonly take place between a young couple and the network of persons who may influence their behavior and decisions."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10708 Miller, Kim S.; Clark, Leslie F.; Moore, Janet S. Sexual initiation with older male partners and subsequent HIV risk behavior among female adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 212-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from a 1993-1994 survey of 150 black and Hispanic [U.S.] teenagers were used to examine differences in HIV risk-related behavior between young women who have a first sexual partner three or more years older than themselves and those whose first partner is their age. Compared with teenagers whose first partner had been roughly their age, the 35% of adolescents with an older partner had been younger at first intercourse (13.8 years vs. 14.6) and less likely to use a condom at first intercourse (63% vs. 82%). They also were less likely to report having used a condom at last intercourse (29% vs. 44%) or having used condoms consistently over their lifetime (37% vs. 56%) or in the previous six months (44% vs. 66%). Some 38% of teenagers with an older first partner had ever been pregnant, compared with 12% of those with a peer-age first partner."
Correspondence: K. S. Miller, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD/HIV Prevention, Mailstop E-44, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10709 Musgrove, Philip. Economic crisis and health policy responses. In: Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America, edited by Georges Tapinos, Andrew Mason, and Jorge Bravo. 1997. 37-53 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author investigates the relation between economic crisis and health policy. Aspects considered include economic crisis versus structural adjustment; channels for health effects of economic crisis; the reach and importance of health policy; definitions of health policy; and the impact of political, ideological, and economic factors on health policy in Latin America in the 1980s.
Correspondence: P. Musgrove, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10710 Nataraj, Shyamala; Temba, Pudenciana; Nkya, Ananilea; Han, Hye-Jin; Kéré, Lucie A.; Tapsoba, Isabelle; Mangahas, Malou; Gomes, Eustáquio; Tapang, Hannah; Gudeta, Tseganesh; Asavaroengchai, Suwanna; Khan, Ayesha; Saeed, Hilda; Shallat, Lezak; Ezzat, Dina. Private decisions, public debate: women, reproduction and population. ISBN 1-870670-34-5. 1994. vi, 185 pp. Panos Publications: London, England. In Eng.
This book is concerned with the broader aspect of reproductive health concerns than those represented by concentrating on family planning programs alone. In it, "15 journalists from Africa, Asia and Latin America present the views of ordinary men and women and report on subjects as diverse as son preference, female genital mutilation, unauthorised sterilisations, untreated STDs, HIV infection, and the influence of Catholicism and Islam--all of which affect reproductive decisionmaking."
Correspondence: Panos Publications, 9 White Lion Street, London N1 9PD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10711 Offor, E.; Okolo, A. A. HIV seroprevalence in women of childbearing age in Benin City, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Sep 1997. 36-40 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this study, data obtained by unlinked anonymous testing and voluntary HIV screening in national sentinel serosurveillance are compared. The objectives are to determine HIV prevalence among women of childbearing age and to estimate the potential for perinatal transmission in Benin City as well as in Bendel State [Nigeria]. The overall goal is to provide data for the future planning of intervention programs targeting this particular group." Results indicate that "the seroprevalence of HIV-1 in Benin City and in Bendel State was 0.28 percent and 0.36 percent, respectively."
Correspondence: E. Offor, University of Benin, Department of Medical Microbiology, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10712 Pachauri, Saroj. A shift from family planning to reproductive health: new challenges. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 244-66 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses the shift in focus "from a population control approach of reducing numbers to a client-based approach of addressing the reproductive health needs of clients...." Possible means of making this ideological shift in India are assessed, with a focus on services to prevent and manage unwanted pregnancy, promote safe motherhood, improve child survival, prevent and manage reproductive tract infections, aid adolescents, provide health and sexuality education and counseling, and establish effective referral systems.
Correspondence: S. Pachauri, Population Council, Regional Office for South and East Asia, 42-A Golf Links, New Delhi 110 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10713 Pan American Health Organization [PAHO] (Washington, D.C.). Health conditions in the Americas: 1994 edition. Volume 1. Scientific Publication, No. 549, ISBN 92-75-11549-4. 1994. ix, 435 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the first volume of a two-volume work describing changes in the health situation in the Americas in the period 1989-1992. The first volume presents a regional overview, and the second provides country reports. The first volume also contains a chapter describing population characteristics and trends in the region, including population size and growth, fertility, mortality, migration, age distribution, the indigenous population, urbanization, the demographic transition, and population policies.
Correspondence: Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10714 Pearson, Thomas A.; Patel, Rajesh V. Diet modification and food policy strategies: what works? In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 355-74 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The list of potential nutritional causes of chronic diseases is a long one. It includes not only fat and cholesterol, but also a diet characterized by excess calories, high protein, high sodium, low potassium or calcium, low fiber, heavy alcohol, deficient antioxidant vitamins, and a host of less well defined dietary constituents. While no dietary recommendation can totally ignore these additional macro- and micronutrients, the focus of this discussion is on reduction of total dietary fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol; strategies for achieving that reduction; and the relevance and potential for implementation of those strategies in the New Independent States (NIS) [formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union]."
Correspondence: T. A. Pearson, Columbia University, Mary Imogene Bassett Research Institute, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10715 Pierce, John P. Tobacco control policy strategies: lessons from Western developed countries. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 287-313 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The objective of this chapter is to identify generalizable elements from existing tobacco control programs in Western developed countries that might usefully be employed in the NIS [the Newly Independent States formed following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The author considers]...the context for a tobacco control program, including the natural history of smoking behavior and the role of advertising in increasing tobacco consumption. The chapter then examines the various components of a tobacco control program. The final section addresses the application of these components to the NIS."
Correspondence: J. P. Pierce, University of California, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10716 Piet-Pelon, Nancy. Lessons learned and programmatic implications: seminar proceedings. ICDDR, B Monograph, No. 66, ISBN 984-551-107-4. 1997. viii, 81, [16] pp. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh [ICDDR, B]: Matlab, Bangladesh. In Eng.
This is the report of a seminar held from June 30th to July 1st, 1997, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, on the MCH-FP Extension Project. "The main objectives of this seminar are to: (a) provide the [government of Bangladesh], donors, NGOs, the scientific research community of Bangladesh, and the media, an overview of the major lessons learned and the policy impact the Project has had on the Bangladesh Health and Family Planning Programme over the past 15 years of its existence; (b) share with you some of the key findings, lessons learned and programmatic implications of the Project's most important recent operations research interventions in the areas of management improvement, quality of care, and sustainability; and (c) share with you some of the key results from a number of reproductive health studies and policy analyses carried out by the Project over the past year and a half."
Correspondence: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: barkat@cholera.bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10717 Popkin, Barry; Zohoori, Namvar; Kohlmeier, Lenore; Baturin, Alexander; Martinchik, Arseni; Deev, Alexander. Nutritional risk factors in the former Soviet Union. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 314-34 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter uses existing post-World War II data in combination with current survey information to explore both the shift in diet over the post-World War II period and more recent patterns of body composition in Russia and Kyrgyz. In particular, we focus on the use of body composition data to examine the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency and obesity....As is shown, problems of dietary excess and obesity are common among adults even in Kyrgyz, which is one of the poorest of the NIS countries."
Correspondence: B. Popkin, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10718 Prokhorov, Alexander V. Cigarette smoking and priorities for tobacco control in the New Independent States. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 275-86 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "reviews the extent of the tobacco epidemic in the NIS [the Newly Independent States formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union], the spread of Western tobacco products in the region, the health consequences of the epidemic, and the need for measures to curb the spread of the epidemic."
Correspondence: A. V. Prokhorov, University of Texas, Anderson Cancer Center, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10719 Puska, Pekka. Chronic disease prevention in the New Independent States: Finnish experiences. In: Premature death in the New Independent States, edited by José L. Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell. 1997. 335-54 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In the early 1970s, Finland was faced with a massive epidemic of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. A range of research-based activities was undertaken to tackle the problem, including a major national preventive demonstration program known as the North Karelia Project....This chapter...presents results and experiences from [Finland's] collaboration with Estonia and the Republic of Karelia....Health challenges and the potential for taking practical action toward chronic disease prevention in the New Independent States (NIS) [of the former Soviet Union] are discussed."
Correspondence: P. Puska, National Public Health Institute, Division of Health and Chronic Disease, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10720 Robine, Jean-Marie. Health expectancy indicators for the measurement of population health status. [Les espérances de vie en santé au service de la mesure de l'état de santé des populations.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 25, No. 2, Autumn 1996. 179-210 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This overview reviews the indicators currently used to describe the health status of populations. It emphasizes Quebec's contributions in helping to develop such indicators, including the development of health expectancy indicators; various theories on changes in population health status and longevity; Quebec's role in the international harmonization of health expectancy indicators; and the initial findings emerging from the compilation of health expectancy time series. An appendix offers a brief survey of texts on demographic indicators, an area in which Quebec has come to specialize."
Correspondence: J.-M. Robine, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Démographie et Santé, Val d'Aurelle, Parc Euromédecine, 34298 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10721 Srinivasan, K. Population policy and reproductive health. ISBN 81-7075-042-3. 1996. xvi, 361 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the seminar "Policy Direction and Strategy of Action in Population and Reproductive Health in India", which was held in New Delhi in December 1995. "A notable contribution of this volume is the views expressed by leaders from different political parties on problems of population and reproductive health in the country. The book will be extremely useful for students and scholars engaged in demographic and reproductive health studies in India and in formulation of policies and programmes in these fields."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 4805/24 Bharat Ram Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10722 Steinauer, Jody E.; DePineres, Teresa; Robert, Anne M.; Westfall, John; Darney, Philip. Training family practice residents in abortion and other reproductive health care: a nationwide survey. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 222-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The majority of residents responding to a 1995 survey of program directors and chief residents at 244 family medicine residency programs in the United States reported they had no clinical experience in cervical cap fitting, diaphragm fitting or IUD insertion and removal. For all family planning methods except oral contraceptives, no more than 24% of residents had experience with 10 or more patients. Although 29% of programs included first-trimester abortion training as either optional or routine, only 15% of chief residents had clinical experience providing first-trimester abortions. Five percent of residents stated they certainly or probably would provide abortions, while 65% of residents stated they certainly would not provide abortions. A majority (65%) of residents agreed that first-trimester abortion training should be optional within family practice residency programs."
Correspondence: A. M. Robert, University of California, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, San Francisco, CA 94143. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10723 Swaminathan, Padmini. Work and reproductive health: a Hobson's choice for Indian women? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 43, Oct 25, 1997. 53-61 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The observed statistical correlation between increase in women's outside employment and decrease in birth rates has catapulted the demand for increasing women's wage employment as a primary goal, not necessarily on its own merits, but as part of the demographic drive to reduce fertility. At what costs to women's welfare do such demographic outcomes occur? The existing structural nature of women's work (domestic as well as non-domestic) has severe built-in hazards for women's health (reproductive and otherwise) which no amount of first rate quality of care and/or access to health services alone can deal with. Focusing on Tamil Nadu [India], the author argues in addition that a demographic model state need not necessarily be a reproductively safe place."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10724 Thior, Ibou; Diouf, Georges; Diaw, Ibnou K.; Sarr, Abdoulaye D.; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Ndoye, Ibra; Mboup, Souleymane; Chen, Lincoln; Essex, Max; Marlink, Richard; Kanki, Phyllis. Sexually transmitted diseases and risk of HIV infection in men attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Dakar, Senegal. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Sep 1997. 26-35 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This cross-sectional study was carried out among male outpatients with symptoms of STDs at the STD reference centre at the Institute of Social Hygiene (IHS), Dakar, Senegal, from March 1989 through May 1991. This study was used to determine the prevalence of STDs and HIV among male patients attending an STD clinic and to identify their socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors....After multivariate analysis, the risk factors associated with HIV infection were a history of sex with prostitutes..., unprotected sexual contact..., and history of urethritis...[and] current STDs....HIV prevalence was quite low in this population compared to similar studies of STD patients from other sub-Saharan countries."
Correspondence: P. Kanki, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard AIDS Institute, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10725 Wilkins, Russell. Health. [La santé.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 25, No. 2, Autumn 1996. [172] pp. Association des Démographes du Québec: Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This special issue, which focuses on health in Canada and especially Quebec, includes articles on health expectancy indicators; mortality differences by poverty level; and life and health expectancies by sex, marital status, and socioeconomic status.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Association des Démographes du Québec, C.P. 403, Succursale Côte-des-Neiges, Montreal, Quebec H3S 2S7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

64:10726 Cliquet, Robert L. The demographic future of the human species: from quantity to quality? In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1996/1997: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1997. 15-42 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"The present contribution deals with the possible implications of the quantitative control of births and deaths developed in the last and, especially, in the 20th century, for the qualitative control over births and deaths in the 21st and following centuries. The fact is that the latter might not only intervene in the human phenotype, but also in the human genetic endowment. Thus, the human might not only determine its own demographic growth and phenotypic development, but also its genetic composition, for example, [and] steer its future evolution."
Correspondence: R. L. Cliquet, Scientific Institute of the Flemish Community, Population and Family Study Centre, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10727 Johnson, Thomas E.; Shook, David R. Identification and mapping of genes determining longevity. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 108-26 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"I will first review the concept of genetic determination of life span and life expectancy and the concept of longevity-determining genes that we call `gerontogenes'. Next, we will review relevant literature and experiments done in an effort to identify such gerontogenes. This review will focus mostly on invertebrates because few experiments in vertebrates, notably the mouse, have tried to identify gerontogenes. We will speculate as to how these gerontogenes might be identified in other species, paying careful attention to the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). This discussion will focus on identifying gerontogenes in nematodes and mice; much of the material has been selected from ongoing experiments in our own laboratory....Finally, we will review work from our laboratory on the genetic determination of mortality rates."
Correspondence: T. E. Johnson, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10728 Wallace, Robert B. The potential of population surveys for genetic studies. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 234-44 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Knowledge of the genetic causes of health conditions and age-related physiologic changes is growing rapidly. Much of the lore of genetics and health, in addition to basic genetic science and molecular biology, comes from the study of informative families and patient groups and, to some extent, from specifically designed population studies. Many populations have been surveyed in recent years to address general health issues, and many more are being surveyed for other important reasons, such as for testing social, economic, or political hypotheses....However, given the substantial costs of these population surveys and the restricted availability of research funds, it is essential to at least explore possible intersections of genetic inquiry with existing and planned field studies. The purpose of this paper is to (1) catalog many of the important geographic surveys being supported and/or archived by NIA [National Institute on Aging], (2) describe selected, potential applications of these surveys for genetic study, (3) address the various modes of specimen collection applicable in population surveys, and (4) suggest a research agenda to realize these potential methodologic enhancements."
Correspondence: R. B. Wallace, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10729 Wertz, Dorothy C.; Fletcher, John C. Ethical and social issues in prenatal sex selection: a survey of geneticists in 37 nations. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 2, Jan 1998. 255-73 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In a recent 37-nation survey of 2,903 geneticists and genetic counselors, 29% would perform prenatal diagnosis (PND) for a couple with four girls who want a boy and would abort a female fetus. An additional 20% would offer a referral. The percentage who would perform PND in the United States (34%) was exceeded only by Israel (68%), Cuba (62%), Peru (39%), and Mexico (38%). In all, 47% had had requests for sex selection. There appears to be a trend toward honoring such requests since a similar survey in 1985. This paper discusses reasons for this trend and the ethical dilemmas of refusing patient requests in societies where individual autonomy is stressed."
Correspondence: D. C. Wertz, Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, 200 Trapelo Road, Waltham, MA 02254. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).


Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.