Volume 64 - Number 1 - Spring 1998

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

64:10624 Castañón Romo, Roberto; Sandoval Navarrete, Javier. Population and development. [Población y desarrollo.] Revista Mexicana de Sociología, Vol. 58, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1996. 171-84 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze "the different theories which explain the two-way relationship between population growth and economic development. The paper therefore reviews the positions of Malthus, Simon..., the Club of Rome and the theories of demographic regulation and transition to further the understanding of the political, economic and social factors which influence the adoption of a particular population policy. Finally, the authors propose the re-definition of woman's social role...that will lead to the questioning of the current asymmetry between the sexes and woman's role in the family, as an important part of the redefinition of population policy, which necessarily implies the exercise of greater democracy and joint responsibility in the basic unit of the social fabric: the family."
Correspondence: R. Castañón Romo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Del. Coyoacán, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10625 Mason, Andrew. Will population change sustain the "Asian economic miracle"? AsiaPacific Issues, No. 33, Oct 1997. 7 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"For more than three decades the economic performance of eight East Asian economies has been the envy of the world....A new analysis of these economies' growth shows that one of the key causes of success--favorable demographics--will persist for another two decades or more....The favorable change in Asian populations is the result of an unusually rapid transition from high to low birth and death rates. The resulting population changes have created an unprecedented opportunity for economic growth."
Correspondence: East-West Center, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10626 van Wissen, Leo. Demography of the firm: modelling and death of firms using the concept of carrying capacity. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1996/1997: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1997. 219-44 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper presents an application of demographic tools to the study of the population of firms....In this paper a number of similarities and differences between human demography and economic demography are presented. The main difference is the presence of economic markets that drive the underlying processes in economic demography. The concept of carrying capacity is used here to incorporate this market mechanism in economic demography. The concept is defined in a spatial setting and its validity is illustrated using empirical data from the Netherlands."
Correspondence: L. van Wissen, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

64:10627 Ahonsi, Babatunde A. Gender relations, demographic change and the prospects for sustainable development in Africa. Africa Development/Afrique et Développement, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1995. 85-114 pp. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The subject of this paper is the interconnections between gender relations, demographic change and Africa's prospects for sustainable development in the larger context of the ecological, economic and socio-political forces that shape living conditions in the region....The thrust of [the] argument is that the rapid and uneven growth of population is only one of many factors implicated in Africa's econo-environmental crisis. But its strong synergism with gender relations and the limited scope for overcoming the externally derived problems means that a transition to lower fertility and elevated women's status may be Africa's most realistic avenue to sustainable development."
Correspondence: B. A. Ahonsi, University of Lagos, Department of Sociology, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10628 Bajraj, Reynaldo; Bravo, Jorge; Tapinos, Georges. Economic adjustment and demographic responses in Latin America: an overview. In: Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America, edited by Georges Tapinos, Andrew Mason, and Jorge Bravo. 1997. 3-16 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of economic adjustment in Latin America over the last decade and to review the still sparse but growing evidence relating to the demographic responses associated with such changes. First, we present the economic background to the analyses of the demographic fluctuations, which are examined in the second part of the chapter." The authors briefly review the papers included in this volume.
Correspondence: R. Bajraj, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10629 Bravo, Jorge. Demographic consequences of economic adjustment in Chile. In: Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America, edited by Georges Tapinos, Andrew Mason, and Jorge Bravo. 1997. 156-73 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the demographic impact of economic adjustment in Chile. "A brief overview of the adjustment process is given, highlighting its major phases during the last twenty years. Economic changes, including the evolution of the principal social policies, are then linked to demographic fluctuations, separate sections being devoted to changes in nuptiality, fertility, health conditions and mortality, migration, and spatial distribution."
Correspondence: J. Bravo, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10630 Cai, Fang. Analysis of continued economic progress in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1997. 101-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper uses...historic and theoretical points of view to explain continued economic progress [and to refute] some incorrect views regarding China's economic progress. One view in this paper deals with how China's continued economic progress could burden and threaten [the world]. Another view...analyzes the government's improper policy toward the relationship among China's modern population, resources, and environment."
Correspondence: F. Cai, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population Science, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10631 Crenshaw, Edward M.; Ameen, Ansari Z.; Christenson, Matthew. Population dynamics and economic development: age-specific population growth rates and economic growth in developing countries, 1965 to 1990. American Sociological Review, Vol. 62, No. 6, Dec 1997. 974-84 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this cross-national investigation of the economic growth rates of 75 developing countries, we regress the annual average percentage change in real gross domestic product per capita from 1965 to 1990 on demographic models that incorporate either total population growth rates and labor force growth rates or age-specific population growth rates. We find than an increase in the child population hinders economic progress, while an increase in the adult population fosters economic development. We posit a demographic windfall effect whereby the demographic transition allows a massive, one-time boost in economic development as rapid labor force growth occurs in the absence of burgeoning youth dependency. We also speculate on a demographic ratchet effect whereby economies lie fallow during `baby booms,' but grow rapidly as `boomers' age and take up their economic roles in society."
Correspondence: E. M. Crenshaw, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. E-mail: crenshaw.4@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10632 Kulkarni, Sumati. Inter-relationship between population and socio-economic development in India--present conditions and future scenario. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 67-82 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper proposes to examine the relationship between population and economic development [in India] on the basis of available evidence and analysis of recent data." Aspects considered include population trends, macroeconomic performance, evidence of demographic pressure and future implications, new economic policy and population growth, and challenges for the future.
Correspondence: S. Kulkarni, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10633 Mason, Andrew. The response of fertility and mortality to economic crisis and structural adjustment policy during the 1980s: a review. In: Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America, edited by Georges Tapinos, Andrew Mason, and Jorge Bravo. 1997. 17-33 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to review the demographic experience of the 1980s [in Latin America] and to assess the impact of economic crisis and structural adjustment on fertility and mortality. There are two principal concerns. The first is that structural adjustment policies have had adverse and unanticipated effects on mortality or fertility, undermining important social objectives of development. A second possibility is that mortality has increased or fertility decline has slowed because of economic problems which are unrelated to structural adjustment policies....[The author concludes that] the existing studies are mixed in their assessment about the demographic impacts, but there is no evidence of a widespread decline in childbearing or increase in mortality. In some Latin American countries, fertility and mortality do not seem to have been affected at all."
Correspondence: A. Mason, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10634 Mayur, Rashmi. Challenge of population growth and sustainable future of India. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 329-31 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses the grave consequences of India's continued population increase, particularly the impact on the environment and development. Recommendations for solving the population problem are offered.
Correspondence: R. Mayur, Urban Development Institute, 73A Mittal Tower, Nariman Point, Mumbai 400 021, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10635 Mufuka, Ken; Iverson, Shepherd. Overpopulation and unemployment in Zimbabwe. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 13, No. 1, Feb 1996. 79-88 pp. Halfway House, South Africa. In Eng.
"This article argues that the population explosion in Zimbabwe can be traced to three causes: the country's economic prosperity during the period of the central African Federation (1953-63), and its successful food policy, both before and after independence; the success of the health system, also in both periods; and the fact that women have not been incorporated into the economy as wage-earners, which has contributed to a high birth rate."
Correspondence: K. Mufuka, Lander University, Greenwood, SC 29649. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10636 Ortega-Osona, José A.; Reher, David. Short-term economic fluctuations and demographic behaviour: some examples from twentieth-century South America. In: Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America, edited by Georges Tapinos, Andrew Mason, and Jorge Bravo. 1997. 129-55 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we will analyse short-term fluctuations of economic and demographic variables for selected countries of the Latin American region. The rather disappointing results of our initial models will be evaluated in terms of the demographic and economic changes taking place during the present century. Two further methods enabling us to view this relationship more clearly will be proposed. Overall, our analysis will point to the following conclusions: (1) during the present century, the traditional relationship between short-term demographic and economic fluctuations continues to exist but has varied considerably over the century; and (2) the new methods of analysis we have proposed have been found to be adequate for testing the existence and intensity of these relationships."
Correspondence: J. A. Ortega-Osona, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10637 Rios-Neto, Eduardo; Carvalho, José A. M. de. Demographic consequences of structural adjustment: the case of Brazil. In: Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America, edited by Georges Tapinos, Andrew Mason, and Jorge Bravo. 1997. 174-98 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we study the case of twentieth-century Brazil, focusing on the impact of economic variables on the annual variations of vital rates. We give particular attention to the impact of post-war stabilization policies and structural adjustment on the fluctuations of marriages, births, and deaths. In the next section we review the literature dealing with the evolution of vital rates in Brazil and São Paulo, with special emphasis on the historical process and the structural adjustment of the 1980s. In the third section we review the literature on the determinants of short-term fluctuation on vital rates in the pre-industrial and Latin American settings. In the final section, we use time series analyses to evaluate the impact of annual variations in real minimum wages, and real gross domestic product on vital rates (marriages, births, and deaths)."
Correspondence: E. Rios-Neto, Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais, Centro de Planeación Regional y Urbanización, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10638 Tapinos, Georges; Mason, Andrew; Bravo, Jorge. Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America. ISBN 0-19-829210-4. LC 96-52402. 1997. vii, 258 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers dealing with the demographic impact of economic adjustment in Latin America. The papers are grouped into sections on the general framework, policy and institutional factors, short-term fluctuations in vital rates, and family labor force responses.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10639 Tripathi, R. S.; Tiwari, R. P. Population growth and development in India. ISBN 81-7024-783-7. 1996. xxiii, 360 pp. APH Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various Indian scholars on aspects of population and development in India. The table of contents is as follows: Population growth and development: prospects and consequences, by K. N. S. Yadava and G. S. Yadava; The concept of development, by S. K. Sharma; Growing population and changing threshold: a study of infrastructural development in Jammu and Kashmir, by Mohd. Y. Bhat and Mohd. S. Bhat; Spatio-temporal variations in female employment: a study of rural Madhya Pradesh, by R. S. Tripathi and R. P. Tiwari; Population problems and planning strategy in Haryana state: a geographical perspective, by S. H. Ansari and Kokila Rani; Growth of population and agricultural changes in Madhya Pradesh, by C. K. Jain; Levels, trend and determinants of infant and child mortality in Orissa, by Ranjana Kar; Population potential model and spatial distribution of population, by V. Phanse and A. Dubey; Consequences of rapid population growth in Uttarkhand: a geographical outlook, by S. S. A. Jafari; The villages, the village population and spatial organisation of Vashishthi river basin (Maharashtra), by S. Karlekar; Impact of population on the availability of health care facilities in Kashmir Valley, by I. A. Mayer; Differential urbanization and regional imbalances: a case study of the Lower Damodar Valley region, by S. Basu; People's participation in development schemes, by R. C. Srivastava and Prem Prakash; Development of public welfare measures and growth of population in erstwhile Rewa state (1901-1941): an historical account, by P. K. Tiwari; Temporal and spatial variations in population growth in Andaman island, India, by R. P. Mishra and Manju Suresh; Population growth and prospects of human resource development in Bilaspur District (M.P.), by V. K. Patel; Population growth and human resource development in Mandsaur district (M.P.), by A. K. Srivastava and Mahesh Jain; Variation of population growth rate (1901-1991): a case study of Seoni Plateau (M.P.), by Rajeev Koshal; Population growth and agricultural landuse in semiarid region: a case study of Ahmadnagar district (Maharashtra), by B. C. Vaidya; Female workforce and rural development: a case study, by Seema Shukla and P. N. Shukla; Adoption of family planning practices and its relationship with socio-economic characteristics: a changing profile in Seoni district (M.P.), by Rajeev Koshal; The level and trends of infant mortality in rural Uttar Pradesh, by Sandeep Parmar; Population characteristics of the small farmers and their adoptability of wheat technology: an empirical analysis, by Sandeep Parmar.
Correspondence: APH Publishing, 5 Ansari Road, Daryanganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10640 Zhang, Lingguang. Impact of declining fertility on population growth and socioeconomic development. In: 1992 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, China: selected research papers in English. Oct 1997. 109-15 pp. State Family Planning Commission of China: Beijing, China; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The author discusses the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development in China. The probability that recent low fertility rates can be maintained in the future is considered. Other topics examined include population growth and the availability of resources; the impact of declining fertility on the pension system and on the workforce and productivity; and poverty and income distribution.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10641 Zhang, Shao Long. Population, consumption, and continuous economic progress. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997. 215-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses prospects for modernization and economic development in China. The interrelations among economic growth, natural resources, environmental protection, population growth, and consumption are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

64:10642 Barber, Clarence L. Declining population growth as a cause of the Depression. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 9, No. 2, Spring 1995. 245-6 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"Recurrent interest in the Great Depression may reflect a feeling that economists still don't fully understand why the depression originated in the United States and why it became so severe in a country that had believed itself to be in a period of permanent prosperity....What economists may have overlooked is the importance of a declining rate of population growth as a causal factor....A crucial factor contributing to the depression may have been the predictions of demographers."
Correspondence: C. L. Barber, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:10643 Ezrati, Milton. Japan's aging economics. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 76, No. 3, May-Jun 1997. 96-104 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Japan's population is aging faster than that of any other country in the world. The unprecedented increase in retirees relative to the size of Japan's work force will force radical change if the nation is to avoid a fiscal crisis, or worse. These seemingly innocent demographic changes will force Japan to shrink its famously high savings rate, reverse its proud trade surplus, send more industry overseas, liberalize its tightly controlled markets, and take on a more active, high-profile foreign policy. Ultimately, these changes will shift the balance of power in East Asia."
Correspondence: M. Ezrati, Nomura Asset Management, 180 Maiden Lane, New York, NY 10038. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10644 Helliwell, John F. National borders, trade and migration. NBER Working Paper, No. 6027, May 1997. 29 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The paper first extends and reconciles recent estimates of the strikingly large effect of national borders on trade patterns....Initial estimates from a census-based gravity model of interprovincial and international migration [between Canada and the United States] show a much higher border effect for migration, with interprovincial migration among the Anglophone [Canadian] provinces almost 100 times as dense as that from U.S. states to Canadian provinces. Effects of migration on subsequent trade patterns are found for international but not for interprovincial trade, suggesting the existence of nationally-shared networks, norms and institutions as possible sources of the large national border effects for trade flows."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: helliwel@unixg.ubc.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

64:10645 Buen, Jørund; Hansen, Stein. Scope for sustainable food production in China. Fridtjof Nansen Institute Publication Series, No. 2, ISBN 82-7613-211-1. 1997. 40 pp. Fridtjof Nansen Institute: Lysaker, Norway. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held by the Forum for Norwegian China Competence on June 10, 1997 on the prospects for sustainable food production in China. The focus is on two papers, one by Nikos Alexandratos, head of FAO's Global Perspectives Unit on China's food and the world, and the other by Gerhard Heilig of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis presenting a modeling analysis of China's future food demand. The first paper questions Lester Brown's contention that the booming economy of China will place unprecedented demands on global food supplies, and the second emphasizes the uncertainties in the forecasting process concerning the balance between population growth and available food supplies.
Correspondence: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Fridtjof Nansens vei 17, Postboks 326, 1324 Lysaker, Norway. E-mail: sentralbord@fni.no. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10646 Fischer, Günther; Heilig, Gerhard K. Population momentum and the demand on land and water resources. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, Vol. 352, 1997. 869-89 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates, by major world regions and countries, what we know about population growth, what can be projected with reasonable certainty, and what is pure speculation. The exposition sets a frame for analysing demographic driving forces that are expected to increase human demand and pressures on land and water resources....In establishing a balance between availability of land resources and projected needs, the paper distinguishes regions with limited land and water resources and high population pressure from areas with abundant resources and low or moderate demographic demand." The authors conclude that "the regions which will experience the largest difficulties in meeting future demand for land resources and water...include foremost Western Asia, South-Central Asia, and Northern Africa. A large stress on resources is to be expected also in many countries of Eastern, Western and Southern Africa."
Correspondence: G. Fischer, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-Mail: fisher@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10647 Gardner-Outlaw, Tom; Engelman, Robert. Sustaining water, easing scarcity: a second update. 1997. 20 pp. Population Action International, Population and Environment Program: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents revised estimates of the number of people who will be living in countries experiencing water shortages over the next 50 years. The revised estimates take into account the latest UN projections indicating that the world's population will be smaller by about 450 million people in the year 2050 than previously thought. The authors state that there are currently over 430 million people living in countries suffering water shortages, and estimate that the percentage of the world's population living in water-stressed countries will increase from three- to fivefold by the year 2050.
Correspondence: Population Action International, Population and Environment Program, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Author's E-mail: tgo@popact.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10648 Hinrichsen, Don. Winning the food race. Population Reports, Series M: Special Topics, No. 13, Dec 1997. 23 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The prospects for providing sufficient food for the world's growing population in the twenty-first century are assessed in this report. The author concludes that "in many developing countries rapid population growth makes it difficult for food production to keep up with demand. Helping couples prevent unintended pregnancies by providing family planning would slow the growth in demand for food. This would buy time to increase food supplies and improve food production technologies while conserving natural resources."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. E-mail: PopRepts@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10649 Pimentel, David; Pimentel, Marcia. The demographic and environmental consequences of the green revolution. Focus, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1994. 37-44 pp. Tulsa, Oklahoma. In Eng.
"Productive agricultural programs and ample nutritious food supplies are fundamental to the social structure and economy of all nations. Some have hypothesized that development, including agricultural development, is essential to reducing population growth....In this paper the role of agriculture as a solution to the population and environmental problem is examined."
Correspondence: D. Pimentel, Cornell University, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:10650 Poleman, Thomas T. Recent trends in food availability and nutritional wellbeing. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 2, Nov 1997. 145-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper notes that, despite a doubling of the world's population, the past half century has witnessed marked improvements in per capita food availabilities and nutritional wellbeing in most parts of the globe. Aggregate diet quality has gone up in most developing countries and the incidence of child malnourishment and infant mortality has declined sharply. For the two groups falling outside of these generalizations--those living in Sub-Saharan Africa and the more impoverished of the three countries of the Indian subcontinent--remedial action lies less with agriculture than in political reform (Africa) and more and better paying jobs (Asia)."
Correspondence: T. T. Poleman, Cornell University, Department of Agriculture, Resource, and Managerial Economics, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10651 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). Government views on the relationships between population and environment. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/147, Pub. Order No. E.98.XIII.7. ISBN 92-1-151318-9. 1997. vii, 78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report, which has been compiled from national reports and statements presented at a number of recent UN conferences, describes the perceptions of selected governments on the impact of population size, growth, and spatial distribution on the physical environment.
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

64:10652 Amin, Sajeda; Diamond, Ian; Naved, Ruchira T.; Newby, Margaret. Transition to adulthood of female factory workers: some evidence from Bangladesh. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 102, 1997. 52 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The rapidly expanding sector of garment manufacturing for export is unusual for Bangladesh in that it employs young, unmarried women in large numbers. This paper examines data from a study on garment workers in Bangladesh to explore the implications of work for the early socialization of young women....Work creates a period of transition as contrasted with the abrupt assumption of adult roles at very young ages that marriage and childbearing mandate. It is argued that this longer transition creates a period of adolescence for young women working in the garment sector and that some aspects of adolescence have strong implications for the long-term reproductive health of these young women."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10653 Blundell, Richard; Johnson, Paul. Pensions and retirement in the UK. NBER Working Paper, No. 6154, Sep 1997. 52, [17] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Labor force participation of men over age 50 fell dramatically in the UK between the early 1970s and early 1990s. Despite the fact that the state retirement pension does not become available to men until age 65, half of men aged 60-64 were economically inactive in the mid 1990s....Overall the state retirement pension system offers no incentives for people to retire early. However, other benefits are available to people before the age of 65....The state pension system...is complemented by extensive occupational pension coverage. For those in the occupational system the rules of their own scheme are likely to be an important element in their retirement decision."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10654 Börsch-Supan, Axel; Schnabel, Reinhold. Social security and retirement in Germany. NBER Working Paper, No. 6153, Sep 1997. 38, [19] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper describes the German public old age social security program (`Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung') and its incentive effects on retirement decisions....It summarizes labor market behavior of older persons in Germany during the last 35 years and surveys the empirical literature on the effects of the social security system on retirement in Germany. The paper shows that even after the 1992 reform the German system is actuarially unfair. This generates a substantial redistribution from late to early retirees and creates incentives to early retirement."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: axel@econ.uni-mannheim.de. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10655 Brugiavini, Agar. Social security and retirement in Italy. NBER Working Paper, No. 6155, Sep 1997. 55, [47] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the incentives provided by the Italian Social Security System (SS) to supply labor...by first documenting the stylized facts of the labor market and the SS provisions. A simulation model is then developed to better understand the incentive effects of SS on current cohorts of retirees....The simulation results show that the Italian SS Program provides a strong incentive to retire early and the age-implicit tax profile fits very closely with the estimated hazards out of the labor force. Additional evidence of the existence of behavioral responses to SS policy changes lends further support to the view that old age insurance arrangements have an influence on labor supply decisions."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: brugiavi@unive.it. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10656 Callister, Paul. Ethnic and labour force classifications in couple families: some methodological issues in the use of census data. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 22, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1996. 83-7 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The author investigates the relation between labor force participation rates and ethnicity in New Zealand couple families. The "data suggest that defining couples and wider family groupings as `Maori', `Pacific Islands' or `other' by the ethnicity of just one adult disguises differences within these family groups which may be just as important as the differences between them."
Correspondence: P. Callister, Paul Callister and Associates, Economic and Social Research, Paekakariki, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10657 Cui, Fengyuan; Cheng, Shen. On the impact of reproductive behavior upon the supply of female labor. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1997. 161-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors attempt to answer the following questions: "First, does reproduction affect the supply of labor in China, and if it does, what are the indicators? Second, do the supply models for female labor in the West fit the reality of China?" The impact of wife's age, wages, legally required maternity leave, and relationships with parents is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10658 de Oliveira, Orlandina; García, Brígida. Recent changes in the Mexican industrial labor force. [Cambios recientes en la fuerza de trabajo industrial mexicana.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 11, No. 2, May-Aug 1996. 229-62, 419 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"We study...some of the repercussions of the crisis and economic restructuring on the manufacturing labour force in the main urban areas of Mexico. Using the data of the National Survey of Urban Employment for the period 1986-1992, we set, first of all, the evolution of female and male presence in the manufacture of the country's main industrial cities. Further, some of the characteristics of the manufacturing labour force in different types of cities are examined. For this purpose, we are considering several issues: the condition of wage earner and non-wage earner workers, the size of the establishment, some sociodemographic aspects (gender, age, schooling level, and condition of the head of household), as well as different aspects related to labour conditions (length of workday, job benefits, and salary levels)."
Correspondence: O. de Oliveira, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Sociologicos, Camino al Ajusco 20, Pedregal de Santa Teresa, 01000 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10659 Dustmann, Christian; Rajah, Najma; Smith, Stephen. Teenage truancy, part-time working and wages. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1997. 425-42 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Although the determinants of teenager participation in the labour market have been studied previously (both in the United States and the United Kingdom), there remain a number of neglected questions. We address some of these in this paper, basing our analysis on data taken from the UK National Child Development Study. We first examine how teenagers divide their time between working and studying. We further analyse what explains teenage wages and labour supply. We utilize a rich set of variables describing parental background, as well as parents' labour force status and draw on information on physical stature to explain variations in wages."
Correspondence: C. Dustmann, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10660 Francesconi, Marco. A dynamic structured analysis of female labour supply and fertility: the role of part-time work. Working Papers of the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, No. 95-22, Nov 1995. 64 pp. University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change: Colchester, England. In Eng.
"This paper [which is published in two separate parts] formulates and estimates a dynamic stochastic structural model of a married woman's labor force participation and fertility decisions. Questions addressed by this study include: Is high persistence in employment (in that women who participate at one age are more likely to participate in future ages) a common feature to both part-timers and full-timers? How would the patterns of women's employment and fertility behaviour vary with changes in exogenous variables, such as schooling level, or the shape of the earnings profiles. To what extent does parity change when part-time work becomes relatively `less costly' as compared to full-time work? And is part-time work a viable strategy for women to keep their `hands in' the labor market while raising children?...The theoretical model is estimated using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, 1968-1991."
Correspondence: University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10661 Galbi, Douglas A. Child labor and the division of labor in the early English cotton mills. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1997. 357-75 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The share of children employed in English cotton factories fell significantly before the introduction of effective child labor legislation in the early 1830s. The early factories employed predominantly children because adults without factory experience were relatively unproductive factory workers. The subsequent growth of the cotton industry fostered the development of a labor market for productive adult factory workers. This effect helps account for the shift toward adults in the cotton factory workforce."
Correspondence: D. A. Galbi, 1307 North Ode Street, Apartment 435, Arlington, VA 22209. E-mail: edinp@tomco.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10662 García, Brígida; Oliveira, Orlandina de. Economic recession and changing determinants of women's work. In: Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America, edited by Georges Tapinos, Andrew Mason, and Jorge Bravo. 1997. 229-51 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to study the determinants of women's work in different social groups in Mexico before and during the economic recession of the 1980s. The aim is to explore through a multivariate analysis how economic constraint may have changed the influence of age, education, place of residence, and family responsibilities on women's economic performance. Because Mexico is an unequal and polarized society, the changing effect of the different variables during the recession is analysed separately for more and less privileged groups of the population. The Encuesta Nacional Demográfica (END) of 1982, and the Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad y Salud (ENFES) of 1987 constitute our sources of basic information."
Correspondence: B. García, El Colegio de México, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10663 Gruber, Jonathan; Wise, David. Social security programs and retirement around the world. NBER Working Paper, No. 6134, Aug 1997. 27, [24] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The populations in all industrialized countries are aging rapidly and individual life expectancies are increasing. Yet older workers are leaving the labor force at younger and younger ages....Together these trends have put enormous pressure on the financial solvency of social security systems around the world....This paper is a summary of the findings of the evidence in eleven industrialized countries....It is clear there is a strong correspondence between the age at which benefits are available and departure from the labor force....We conclude that social security program provisions have indeed contributed to the decline in the labor force participation of older persons, substantially reducing the potential productive capacity of the labor force."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: jonathan.gruber@ms01.do.treas.sprint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10664 Hamermesh, Daniel S. Immigration and the quality of jobs. NBER Working Paper, No. 6195, Sep 1997. 30 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A precondition for the absence of labor-market competition between immigrants and natives is that they differ in their willingness to accept work that offers different amenities. The implications of a model embodying this assumption are that immigrants will be observed experiencing inferior workplace amenities than natives, and that the presence of immigrants will affect the amenities natives enjoy." The author examines these hypotheses using data from the 1991 Current Population Surveys and the Quality of American Life Surveys of 1971 and 1978. "The analysis clearly shows that observationally similar immigrants and native whites enjoy very similar packages of amenities....African-Americans, however, receive a set of workplace amenities that is inferior to that of otherwise similar native whites and immigrants."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: hamermes@eco.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10665 Hoem, Britta. The way to the gender-segregated Swedish labour market. In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 279-96 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Some aspects of sex-specific labor force participation in Sweden are explored. In particular, "this chapter modifies the somewhat glorified picture of Swedish gender equality by providing some facts about hours actually worked, about the `self-selected' gender segregation in the Swedish educational system, and about its consequences for segregation in the labour market."
Correspondence: B. Hoem, Statistics Sweden, Karlavagen 100, 115 81 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10666 Hsueh, James Cherng-Tay; Chien, Wen-Yin. An exploratory study of job mobility for reworking women in Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, Jun 1997. 67-98 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"It is shown that around one seventh of married women has experienced returning [to the] labor market. Among them, more than half did not move up or down relative to their former occupational status. In multiple covariate analyses, we found schooling is the most essential factor explaining the changes of occupational statuses." The authors analyze the determinants of women returning to the labor force after marriage and childbirth, using data from a 1993 survey in Taiwan.
Correspondence: J. C.-T Hsueh, National Taiwan University, Department of Sociology, 1 Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10667 Jia, Shaofeng; Meng, Xiangjing. Forecasting analysis of employment in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1997. 115-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss employment forecasts in China, with a focus on the problem of excess labor. Labor force supply and demand are projected, and future trends in employment and unemployment are outlined. Differences between rural and urban areas are considered.
Correspondence: S. Jia, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography, 52 San Li He Road, Beijing 100864, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10668 Joesch, Jutta M. Paid leave and the timing of women's employment before and after birth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 4, Nov 1997. 1,008-21 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"From a theoretical perspective, a paid leave policy for childbirth has two effects: It encourages some women to interrupt work for a longer time, and it entices other women to return to their job after birth rather than quit, resulting in a shorter interruption of work. It is, thus, ambiguous on theoretical grounds alone whether, on average, paid leave leads to longer or shorter interruptions of work. This issue is investigated empirically in an economic framework with survival analysis and data from the 1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth. Women with access to paid leave were found to work later into pregnancy, to be less likely to work during the birth month, and to start work sooner once the infant was a least 2 months old. For women who had paid leave available, additional weeks of leave lengthened work interruptions but at a decreasing rate."
Correspondence: J. M. Joesch, University of Washington, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Box 357660, WA 98195-7660. E-mail: joesch@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10669 Kapteyn, Arie; de Vos, Klaas. Social security and retirement in the Netherlands. NBER Working Paper, No. 6135, Aug 1997. 38, [13] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Compared to other industrialized countries, the labor force participation of the elderly in the Netherlands is very low. Moreover, it has fallen very fast over recent years. We discuss the incentives for employees to retire, arising from public schemes such as social security and disability insurance, and from private arrangements, such as early retirement and occupational pensions. In general, the generous replacement rates offered by these schemes act as powerful stimuli for retirement. Although Dutch research into the retirement effects of the earnings replacement schemes for the elderly was limited until the early nineties, there is now a fast growing literature on this. This literature confirms the findings in the current paper."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10670 Kohler, Catherine; Thave, Suzanne. The economically active immigrant population in 1982 and 1990. [La population active immigrée en 1982 et 1990.] INSEE Résultats: Démographie-Société, No. 61, ISBN 2-11-066647-1. Oct 1997. 138 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This report presents a selection of data concerning the immigrant population in France for the intercensal period 1982-1990. It is noted that the immigrant population of working age has increased by 137,000 since 1982 to reach a total of 2,137,000 in 1990, and that unemployment in this population has increased by about the same amount. To some extent the effects of unemployment among men are compensated for by an increase in the employment of female immigrants. Unemployment particularly affects the young and those of African origin.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10671 Lam, David; Levison, Deborah. Structural adjustment and family labour supply in Latin America. In: Demographic responses to economic adjustment in Latin America, edited by Georges Tapinos, Andrew Mason, and Jorge Bravo. 1997. 201-28 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we look at evidence on changes in the labour force participation rates of different family members during the 1980s in a variety of Latin American countries. We attempt, within the limitations of the data, to compare observed changes in labour market activity to economic fluctuations in these economies....We [use] detailed annual household survey data for Brazil to see whether the highly aggregated published data conceal more systematic labour market changes when we can control more carefully for an individual's position in the household and the household's socioeconomic position. Focusing attention on married women at the lowest educational levels, we find some evidence of a counter-cyclical labour supply response, with increases in participation in the worst years of Brazil's recession and decreases in participation in better years. The evidence is not overwhelming, however, with short-term responses often dominated by long-term trends."
Correspondence: D. Lam, University of Michigan, Department of Economics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10672 Leger, Jean-François. The annual entry of foreigners into the French labor market (1990-1992). [Les entrées annuelles d'étrangers sur le marché de l'emploi français (1990-1992).] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1997. 7-24 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author provides estimates of the number of foreigners in the French labor market during the period 1990-1992, using a new methodology. "Between 1990 and [January 1,] 1993, a total of 100,000 foreigners holding a residence permit entered every year on the labour market, [amounting] to 15% of all entries (French and foreigners). As was the case at the end of the 1970s, only one third of them entered, as workers, in the labour market. These results confirm the relevance of the methodology used."
Correspondence: J.-F. Leger, Université de Paris V, Département des Sciences Sociales, 12 rue Cujas, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10673 Model, Suzanne. An occupational tale of two cities: minorities in London and New York. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 4, Nov 1997. 539-50 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper, queuing theory is tested through an examination of the occupational attainment of six groups of non-whites in London and New York. Workers in the dominant economy are distinguished from those in the niche economy and emphasis is placed on the former. Black male immigrants in New York and black female immigrants in London hold more favorable occupational status. These results reflect differences in (1) the presence of indigenous minorities--African Americans and Puerto Ricans--in New York but not London, and (2) the relatively low position of indigenous minority males compared to the relatively middling position of indigenous minority females in New York's labor queue."
Correspondence: S. Model, University of Massachusetts, Department of Sociology, Social and Demographic Research Institute, Amherst, MA 01003-4830. E-mail: Model@Sadri.UMass.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10674 Oshio, Takashi; Yashiro, Naohiro. Social security and retirement in Japan. NBER Working Paper, No. 6156, Sep 1997. 23, [21] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We discuss the incentive mechanism of the public pension on the retirement decisions made in the Japanese labor market. Though the labor market participation of Japanese older persons is quite high by international standards, a principal incentive mechanism of the public pension system in Japan affecting the retirement behavior has many things in common with those in other OECD countries. The pension benefits are designed `actuarially unfair', and the decision to work beyond age 60 is penalized."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: tot00885@ritsumei.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10675 Pischke, Jörn-Steffen; Velling, Johannes. Employment effects of immigration to Germany: an analysis based on local labor markets. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 79, No. 4, Nov 1997. 594-604 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We analyze the impact of increased immigration on employment outcomes of natives in Germany using a data set of county-level variables for the late 1980s. In order to construct more unified labor market regions, we aggregate the 328 counties to 167 larger regions. We study two measures of immigration, the change in the share of foreigners between 1985 and 1989 as well as one-year gross and net flows of immigrants to an area. In order to address the potential problem of immigrant selection into local labor markets, we condition on previous labor market outcomes, which may serve as the basis of immigrant selection. This specification allows for mean reversion in the unemployment rate, which is strong in our data set and period of study. We show that this rules out some other approaches of identifying the impact of immigration. Our results indicate no detrimental effect of immigration. We find no support for the hypothesis that the absence of displacement effects is due to a response of native migration patterns."
Correspondence: J.-S. Pischke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10676 Psacharopoulos, George. Child labor versus educational attainment: some evidence from Latin America. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1997. 377-86 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The paper addresses the issue of child labor in relation to the educational attainment of working children. The empirical analysis is based on household surveys in Bolivia and Venezuela. It was found that labor force participation is non-trivial among those below the legal working age or supposed to be in school. Working children contribute significantly to total household income. The fact that a child is working reduces his or her educational attainment by about 2 years of schooling relative to the control group of non-working children. Grade repetition, a common phenomenon in Latin America, is closely associated with child labor."
Correspondence: G. Psacharopoulos, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: gpsach@worldbank.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10677 Siddiqui, Sikandar. The pension incentive to retire: empirical evidence for West Germany. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1997. 463-86 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper, the impact of the West German pension system on the retirement decisions of elderly citizens is analyzed within the framework of a discrete-time hazard rate model deduced from a micro-economic decision rule. The model is estimated using a panel dataset of elderly West German citizens. In order to improve the precision of the estimates obtained, the data from the sample are combined with aggregate-level information on the labour force participation behaviour of the elderly. Policy simulations based on the estimates reveal that the probability of early retirement can be reduced significantly by appropriate changes in the pension system."
Correspondence: S. Siddiqui, Universität Hamburg, Arbeitsbereich Makroökonomie und Quantitative Wirtschaftspolitik, Von Melle-Park 5, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. E-mail: siddiqui@hermes1.econ.uni-hamburg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10678 Suen, Wing. Retirement patterns in Hong Kong: a censored regression analysis. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1997. 443-61 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper provides an overview of retirement patterns in Hong Kong on the basis of limited data. A censored regression model is used to infer the retirement age from people's current retirement status and their current age. This model is equivalent to a restricted probit model, and the interpretation of parameters is straightforward. The results clearly show a negative income effect on the retirement decision. The retirement age seems to be positively related to lifetime earnings but negatively related to the rate of decline of earnings with age."
Correspondence: W. Suen, University of Hong Kong, School of Economics and Finance, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. E-mail: hrneswc@hkusua.hku.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10679 van Dongen, Walter; Pauwels, Koenraad; Malfait, Dirk. The double day's duty of married men and women in Flanders. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1996/1997: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1997. 141-69 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"The article presents the major results of the CBGS survey `Family and Labor' (1992) concerning the daily combination of professional and household labour of married men and women in Flanders. It starts with the central issue of the daily combination of professional and family labour by women and men....Following that analysis, the different aspects of the internal and external division of labour within families and the reconciliation of work and family life are discussed. They are placed on a broad time axis of the past and the actual division of labour and of the future perspectives."
Correspondence: W. van Dongen, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10680 Vanhaute, Eric. Labour markets and family strategies in Flanders, 1750-1990: a long-term perspective. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1996/1997: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1997. 171-90 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"Although the interrelationship between `internal' household strategies and `external' constraints of the labour markets has received a lot of attention in recent family history, the debate about the measurement of these micro-macro-linkages is still in its infancy. This contribution focuses on a methodological problem: to test the possibilities of comparative statistics that link micro-patterns (households) and macro-processes (labour markets). The combination on a time axis of some crude demographic and economic parameters, applied to Flanders 1750-1990, illustrates the possibilities of a more profound integrated research project."
Correspondence: E. Vanhaute, University of Ghent, Department of Contemporary History, Universiteitsstraat 4, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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