Volume 64 - Number 1 - Spring 1998

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications. Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations, as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

64:10549 Chu, C. Y. Cyrus. Age-distribution dynamics and aging indexes. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 4, Nov 1997. 551-63 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I analyze the dynamics of the age distribution as some vital rates change. When the fertility or mortality rate declines, the age distribution often manifests a dynamic stochastic-dominance relationship. I also propose some alternative indexes for measuring population aging. These indexes are closely connected with the age-distribution dynamics and contain more refined information about the distribution of age among the old." The author calculates the aging indexes for eight countries.
Correspondence: C. Y. C. Chu, National Taiwan University, Department of Economics, 21 Hsu Chow Road, Taipei, Taiwan. E-mail: cychu@cc.ntu.edu.tw. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10550 de Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Plomp, Rinske. Transfers between generations in an ageing Europe. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1996/1997: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1997. 43-71 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"The article presented here is based on a study in preparation for the [1996] European Seminar on `Changing Families and Changing Policies in Europe'....The decline in the fertility rate and the increase in life expectancy in the European countries, have resulted in the ageing of the population. The key research question in this article concerns the consequences of ageing for the size and types of intergenerational financial transfers as well as intergenerational transfers of care."
Correspondence: J. de Jong Gierveld, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10551 Ebrahim, Shah. Ageing. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 5, Oct 1997. 469-577 pp. BMJ Publishing: London, England. In Eng.
This special issue is concerned with aging and includes papers that examine epidemiology, health services, research, and methods in relation to aging in several different countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: BMJ Publishing Group, BMA House, Tavistock Square, London WC1H 9JR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10552 Fallon, Joseph E. The impact of immigration on U.S. demographics. Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, Summer 1996. 141-66 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses the impact of immigration on the demographic profile of the United States, with a focus on changes in the sources of immigration and the effect of U.S. migration policy. "The demographic destruction of the U.S. has been swift and dramatic. The transformation, made in constant contravention of popular mandate, has been unprecedented in the history of democratic societies. To better understand this phenomenon and the role which post-1965 immigration policy plays in it...15 tables have been created and compiled from the official statistics of the U.S. Bureau of the Census and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service."
Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

64:10553 Gokhale, D. V.; Kunte, Sudhakar. Probability of a male child: is it constant over the population of couples? Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1997. 1-7 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The primary thesis of this paper is that the probability p of a male child, which is an intrinsic characteristics of a couple, should be assumed to vary when data are aggregated over couples. To this end, the present paper examines the fit of the Beta-Binomial distribution to Geissler's data, as reported by Fisher (1948)....The paper also shows how, in general, the...analysis can be used to supplement fitting of standard models to such data, using OUTLIER analysis."
Correspondence: D. V. Gokhale, University of California, Department of Statistics, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10554 Höhn, Charlotte; Störtzbach, Bernd. Demographic aging in the countries of the European Union. [Die demographische Alterung in den Ländern der Europäischen Union.] Geographische Zeitschrift, Vol. 82, No. 4, 1994. 198-213 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Despite all the political, economic, and cultural differences among the countries of the European Union, now numbering 15, the process of demographic aging is common to all: the proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing. The causes of this development are explored; then, projections up to the year 2020 show the future trajectory of this trend in the European Union and its possible consequences for social security systems.
Correspondence: C. Höhn, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10555 Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong, China). A profile of the elderly, 1996. Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, Oct 1997. [15] pp. Hong Kong, China. In Eng; Chi.
Data from the by-census conducted in 1996 are used to present an overview of the characteristics of the elderly population of Hong Kong.
Correspondence: Census and Statistics Department, General Statistics Section (1) B, 19/F Wanchai Tower I, 12 Harbour Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10556 Kim, Doo-Sub. The pattern of changing trends and the regional differences in the sex ratio at birth: evidence from Korea and Jilin Province, China. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jul 1997. 19-42 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this study is to develop explanations for the pattern of recently changing trends and regional differences in the sex ratio at birth in Korea and for Koreans in Jilin Province and Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture, China....The findings suggest that, since the mid-1980s, sex ratios at birth have risen remarkably in Korea....This paper also highlights the recent increase in the sex ratio at birth for the Korean population in China, residing in urban areas densely populated with Koreans. As the key forces behind the regional differences in sex ratios at birth, the effects of son-selective reproductive behaviors, which in turn, are affected by the community characteristics, are stressed."
Correspondence: D.-S. Kim, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10557 Kumar, N.; Raju, S.; Atkins, P. J.; Townsend, J. G. Where angels fear to tread? Mapping women and men in India. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 29, No. 12, Dec 1997. 2,207-15 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The authors have produced the `Atlas of Women and Men in India', using material from the 1991 Census, mainly at district level. The Atlas may be unacceptable to Indian geographers because it seeks to question the authority of numerical data and of maps, and to Western geographers because this is `mapping before we understand the process'. The authors introduce maps of the sex ratio in India and explore through a map of changes in the sex ratio 1981-91 some numerical, analytical, and ethical problems of such mapping. The Indian feminist activists consulted want the Atlas for advocacy: does this justify its production?"
Correspondence: N. Kumar, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. E-mail: naresh@jnu.ernet.in. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:10558 Paillat, Paul. Invariable and disturbing, demographic aging presents a challenge to public powers. [Invariable y perturbador, el envejecimiento demográfico lanza un desafio a los poderes públicos.] Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, No. 70, Apr-Jun 1995. 25-37 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The ageing of the European population is a new, unstoppable phenomenon. This newness raises problems that European society is as yet unable to resolve satisfactorily. In order to address them, a number of factors have to be taken into account, notably social policies--especially family-oriented and health-care policies--without losing sight of the crucial importance of intergenerational solidarity."
Correspondence: P. Paillat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10559 Rees, Philip. The geography of age. Geography Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, Jan 1994. 25-30 pp. Deddington, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the geography of age across the counties of England and Wales and the regions of Scotland [and in Northern Ireland]." Sections are included on national and subnational age structures and on spatial patterns for childhood ages, working ages, and retired ages.
Correspondence: P. Rees, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

64:10560 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). The sex and age distribution of the world populations: the 1996 revision. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/162, Pub. Order No. E.98.XIII.2. ISBN 92-1-151313-8. 1997. ix, 884 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume presents estimates and projections of the world's population by age and sex and by country and region. "The present report presents estimated sex and age distributions for the period 1950-1995 and projected figures, according to medium-, high-, and low-fertility variants for 1995-2050. Data are presented for countries with a population of at least 150,000 in 1995....A magnetic tape and a set of diskettes containing the major results of the present estimates and projections are also available for purchase. A description of these data sets and an order form appear at the end of this volume."
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10561 Wise, David A. Facing the age wave. Hoover Institution Press Publication, No. 440, ISBN 0-8179-9482-3. LC 97-14133. 1997. xvi, 120 pp. Hoover Institution Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
In this book, four experts examine some areas of concern created by the aging of the U.S. population. "David Wise analyzes the declining participation in the labor force by older Americans and the role played in encouraging this phenomenon by Social Security and early retirement plans funded by employees. Douglas Bernheim measures the inadequacy of personal saving for retirement and proposes methods to encourage saving for the critical senior years. John Shoven and David Wise describe the taxing of pensions as a disincentive to the most important form of saving in this country [and] David Cutler presents principles that are key to averting the crisis of looming health care costs."
Correspondence: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

64:10562 Austad, Steven N. Postreproductive survival. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 161-74 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Women in modern societies can expect to live nearly one-third of their adult lives in a postreprodutive state. Whether this phenomenon is relatively new in human experience or whether it represents something that has been a part of human life for millennia may be relevant to understanding medical and social issues surrounding postmenopausal life. One approach to an understanding of the human significance of menopause is to examine it comparatively. How commonly is postreproductive life found in nature, and under what circumstances is it found? Is there a reason to assume that humans are somehow special in this regard?" The author surveys precedents among other species and suggests that menopause in humans may have evolved in response to tradeoffs favoring the cessation of one's own reproduction and the channeling of effort into protecting and endowing the reproductive chances of one's offspring.
Correspondence: S. N. Austad, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10563 Carey, James R.; Gurenfelder, Catherine. Population biology of the elderly. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 127-60 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We organized this paper into three broad sections and a discussion. In the first section we introduce foundational principles we believe are important for understanding the relationship between longevity and life history of animals. These include biodemographic concepts and behavioral characteristics, such as altruism, dominance, territoriality, learning, and culture. In the second section we present a synopsis of roles and life histories of the elderly in three selected animal groups, including elephants, cetaceans, and primates, to provide specific biological context. In the third section we explore the concept of extended longevity as a preadaptation for the evolution of eusociality in wasps....In the discussion we attempt to synthesize the general findings of the natural history and roles of the elderly, discuss some common life-history patterns associated with extended life span, and suggest future directions."
Correspondence: J. R. Carey, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10564 Finch, Caleb E. Comparative perspectives on plasticity in human aging and life spans. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 245-68 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Throughout the world, human life expectancy is increasing. Unprecedented numbers are reaching ages beyond the 10th decade and the maximum human life span is creeping up to break new records each year....I will discuss how these demographic shifts represent the plasticity found throughout the evolution of life histories. Similarly wide variations in life expectancy and maximum life spans are observed in animals and plants, within populations as well as between closely related species....The general information that is available from all sources gives a very limited basis for predicting further changes in human aging schedules and ultimate life spans."
Correspondence: C. E. Finch, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2539. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10565 Kaplan, Hillard. The evolution of the human life course. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 175-211 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper presents a theory of evolution of the human life course....The paper begins with a basic description of available data on longevity in traditional hunting and gathering societies and the age profile of food production and consumption. These data are compared to information available on nonhuman primates with particular emphasis on chimpanzees, our closest living relatives. This discussion is followed by consideration of the comparative feeding and reproductive ecologies of humans and nonhuman primates. A model is then presented to outline the major tradeoffs involved in life-history evolution. The model shows that investments in foraging efficiency and mortality reduction coevolve and affect the age pattern of investments in reproduction. Several different approaches to the evolution of menopause are then considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the theory for historical, current, and future trends in human development and longevity."
Correspondence: H. Kaplan, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1591. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10566 Kranczer, Stanley. Record high U.S. life expectancy. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 78, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1997. 2-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In 1996 life expectancy in the United States rose to a record high of 75.9 years for all persons combined. A new peak was also recorded among newborn boys--72.8 years--while average future lifetime for infant girls increased to 79.0 years....In recent years longevity gains among males have outpaced those for females, with the result that the sex differential in longevity at birth in favor of females has narrowed considerably....Projections indicate that the trend in longevity improvements in favor of males will continue. As a consequence, the sex differential gap in average future lifetime is anticipated to diminish to 4.6 years by 2050."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10567 Marchetti, Cesare. Longevity and life expectancy. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 55, 1997. 281-99 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article the evolution of life expectancy is examined historically for various European nations at various ages, and according to sex. Appropriate logistic equations describe the facts and extrapolate into the future giving the doctor an indication of what is still to be accomplished and the demographer the tools with which to evaluate the aging of European population in the next 20 years....I posit that the increase in life expectancy is the product of a learning process to remove the accidents and obstacles on the way to the full life potential of an individual: longevity."
Correspondence: C. Marchetti, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: marcheti@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10568 Nault, François; Roberge, Roger; Berthelot, Jean-Marie. Life expectancy and health expectancy by sex, marital status, and socioeconomic status in Canada. [Espérance de vie et espérance de vie en santé selon le sexe, l'état matrimonial et le statut socio-économique au Canada.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 25, No. 2, Autumn 1996. 241-59 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article presents total life expectancy and health expectancy at age 30 [in Canada] by sex, marital status, and two variables used to define socioeconomic status: level of education and household income. The article shows that: (1) there is a relatively important difference in life expectancy according to marital status, level of education and income; (2) this difference is always greater for men than women; (3) adjusting for health further accentuates this difference, and more so for women than men; and (4) the differences between men and women in mortality and health generally decrease as socioeconomic status increases."
Correspondence: F. Nault, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10569 Raleigh, Veena S.; Kiri, Victor A. Life expectancy in England: variations and trends by gender, health authority, and level of deprivation. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 6, Dec 1997. 649-58 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "investigate variations and trends in life expectancy in English district health authorities in relation to gender and Jarman deprivation level [using] mortality data for English health authorities from 1984-94....Differences in life expectancy had widened over the decade and prosperous areas with greatest longevity had seen the largest gains. In most deprived areas improvements in life expectancy were negligible. The greatest gender differences in life expectancy were also seen in deprived areas."
Correspondence: V. S. Raleigh, University of Surrey, National Institute of Epidemiology, 14 Frederick Sanger Road, Surrey Research Park, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5YD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10570 Rose, Michael R. Toward an evolutionary demography. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 96-107 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Recent work on age-specific mortality rates strongly suggests that conventional demographic models are in need of repair. Rather than resorting to yet another ad hoc tuning up of the same mathematical tools, consider the alternative approach provided by the population genetics theory of age-structured populations. This theory has been well-characterized mathematically and has been extensively supported in experimental genetic systems, although neither theory nor experiment are complete or perfect. Results obtained from evolutionary theory offer the best prospects for the development of demographic models, in general. In this way, demography could leave its ad hoc traditions behind and join together with evolutionary biology to forge a much stronger theoretical foundation. While the Gompertz model is an excellent approximation to mortality rates for most individuals from some iteroparous populations, it appears inadequate for the description of even the qualitative pattern of the full life history of most organisms, granting that such full life histories are not usually adequately observed. Biodemography should now move on to the task of developing proper evolutionary foundations."
Correspondence: M. R. Rose, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10571 Tuljapurkar, Shripad. The evolution of senescence. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 65-77 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper suggests directions for developing an evolutionary theory of senescence with the aim of producing testable predictions or theoretically based tools for data analysis....I center my discussion on the concept of an evolutionary equilibrium for a life history, which includes the shape of fertility and mortality and possibly other features such as growth rates....I first discuss different theoretical approaches to the definition of evolutionary equilibria. Next I consider the classical theory and define two special equilibria: the `salmon' limit, and the `bacterium' limit. These equilibria reveal critical issues concerning the assumptions and structure of the theory. The consequences of some specific generalizations of the classical theory will then be reviewed. Finally, I outline a program of theoretical work that should lead to a more useful evolutionary theory of senescence."
Correspondence: S. Tuljapurkar, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10572 Wachter, Kenneth W. Between Zeus and the salmon: introduction. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 1-16 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"For demographers today, the golden challenge is to make the right judgment call predicting our children's life spans. Will the recent pace of gains in life expectancy and active life expectancy extend to the next generation, or are we approaching the point of diminishing returns? The deep theoretical questions in the demography of mortality and aging--including the proper framework for incorporating genetic variables and cofactors into demographic models--cluster around this very practical question of prediction, whose answer some of us may live to know....I begin by reviewing ideas from the evolutionary theory of longevity that have coexisted amicably with a pessimistic demographic stance in regard to open-ended further progress against old-age mortality. I then turn to new empirical results that are reviving an optimistic stance, to studies of the role of the elderly in nature, and to new theoretical departures. I conclude with a look at the immediate future and the knowledge we can hope to gain from further joint work in biodemography."
Correspondence: K. W. Wachter, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10573 Wachter, Kenneth W.; Finch, Caleb E. Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity. ISBN 0-309-05787-6. LC 97-33767. 1997. viii, 285 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This volume brings together the opinions of biologists and demographers on the topic of human longevity. The chapters are divided into the following main sections: The empirical demography of survival; Evolutionary theory and senescence; The elderly in nature; and Data for the future. Throughout the volume, an interdisciplinary approach to aging and longevity is advocated and stressed.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10574 Wilmoth, John R. In search of limits. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: the biodemography of longevity, edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Caleb E. Finch. 1997. 38-64 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The dramatic rise in life expectancy during the past two or three centuries is arguably the greatest collective human achievement....As we approach the end of the twentieth century, we are led to question whether this incredible progress has run its course. Is it plausible to believe that these well-documented gains in human longevity can continue? Are limits to the rise in human life expectancy imposed by the structure of the organism itself?...There are numerous means of approaching the question of whether such limits exist. In this chapter, I restrict the discussion to a review of relevant demographic evidence and do not address the many biological arguments related to this issue. My approach is that of a demographer and statistician who attempts to define what limits might look like in terms of aggregate mortality data and then reviews the existing empirical evidence within that framework."
Correspondence: J. R. Wilmoth, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10575 Zhong, Zhun; Chen, Yude; Yao, Kechin. Study of a calculation method for healthy life expectancy. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1997. 75-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To develop a calculation method for healthy life expectancy which would be suitable for China we analyzed the healthy life expectancy of urban residents in China, employing data on residents' deaths and data available from the 1993 national survey for health services and family health conditions....Results of the study show that the ratio of healthy life expectancy to life expectancy decreases with the increase of the residents' age; healthy life expectancy for females is higher than that for males; [and] healthy life expectancy for residents of large cities is lower than that for residents of medium and small cities."
Correspondence: Z. Zhong, Beijing Medical University, Beijing 100083, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population, and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation.

64:10576 Berson, David W. The importance of demographics in economic analysis: the unusual suspects. Business Economics, Vol. 32, No. 1, Jan 1997. 12-6 pp. Palos Verde Estates, California. In Eng.
"The proper use of demographic information can add significantly to the ability to analyze and forecast economic activity. With housing, short-run forecasting is difficult and long-term forecasting impossible without considering changing demographic factors. Combining detailed demographic analysis with sound structural econometric modeling of the cyclical factors underlying the demand for and the supply of housing has resulted in significantly more accurate analyses and forecasts of the [U.S.] housing market."
Correspondence: D. W. Berson, Fannie Mae Foundation, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10577 Boldrin, Michele; Jimenez-Martin, Sergi; Peracchi, Franco. Social security and retirement in Spain. NBER Working Paper, No. 6136, Aug 1997. 77 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We describe the historical evolution of the Spanish Social Security system and its current organization. Our attention concentrates on the main public pension scheme for private employees in the manufacturing and service sector (RGSS) which covers by far the largest majority of Spanish workers. After describing the way in which pension and retirement decisions are regulated by this system, we try to compute the incentives to early retirement it provides to different kinds of individuals. We show that the Spanish SS legislation generates strong incentives to retire early and that Spanish workers tend to do so."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10578 Chu, C. Y. Cyrus; Jiang, Lily. Demographic transition, family structure, and income inequality. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 79, No. 4, Nov 1997. 665-9 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We treat each age-specific income-earning member of the family as an income `source', and use the source-specific Gini decomposition approach as well as the Lorenz comparison approach to study the impact of the changing population age structure on family income inequality. Empirical analysis using Taiwanese data shows that the pattern of Gini coefficients is significantly affected by the above-mentioned age composition factor. The general implication is that for many developing countries which have recently gone through rapid demographic transition, family income inequality indexed may implicitly embody information as to the age-specific composition of family members, which is irrelevant to the general notion of inequality."
Correspondence: C. Y. C. Chu, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road IV, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10579 Diamond, Peter; Gruber, Jonathan. Social security and retirement in the U.S. NBER Working Paper, No. 6097, Jul 1997. 40, [19] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We provide an overview of the interaction between the SS [U.S. Social Security] system and retirement behavior. We begin by documenting historical trends in labor force participation and program receipt, and contemporaneous patterns of work and income receipt for the current cohort of older persons. We then present an overview of the structure of the SS program in the U.S., and review existing evidence on the relationship between SS and retirement. Finally, we present results of a simulation model which measures the implicit tax/subsidy rate on work after age 55 through the SS system. We find that, for married workers, the system is roughly neutral with respect to work after age 62, but that it heavily penalizes work after age 65."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: pdiamond@mit.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10580 Feldstein, Martin. Transition to a fully funded pension system: five economic issues. NBER Working Paper, No. 6149, Aug 1997. 26 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper provides a relatively nontechnical discussion of the effects of shifting from a pay-as-you-go system of Social Security pensions to a fully funded plan based on individual accounts. The analysis discusses the rationale for such a shift and deals with five common problems: (1) the nature of the transition path; (2) the effect of the shift on national saving and capital accumulation; (3) the rate of return that such accounts would earn; (4) the risks of unfunded and funded systems; and (5) the distributional effects of the shift."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: msfeldst@nbr.org. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10581 Gray, Jeffrey S. The fall in men's return to marriage: declining productivity effects or changing selection? Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 32, No. 3, Summer 1997. 481-504 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Historically, one of the most robust findings from human capital wage equations has been that married men earn more than men who never marry. However, the earnings premium paid to [U.S.] married compared with never-married men declined by more than 40 percent during the 1980s. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys (young men and youth cohorts) are used to explore two competing explanations for this decline: changes in the selection of high-wage men into marriage and changes in the productivity effects of marriage due to declining specialization within households. The results suggest that the drop in the marriage wage premium was due largely to a decline in the productivity effects associated with marriage. Instrumental variables estimation suggests that these declining productivity effects can be explained by a reduction in the average degree of specialization across households coupled with an increase in the wage penalty associated with wives' labor market hours."
Correspondence: J. S. Gray, University of Illinois, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 1301 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:10582 Holmes, Robin. Deprivation and the 1991 census. Geography Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, Jan 1995. 19-23 pp. Deddington, England. In Eng.
"This article looks at the patterns of relative deprivation in different types of area [in England and Wales], explores the connection between deprivation and other variables which might indicate disadvantage, and suggests some further lines of research which might be explored. It explains, in an inset, how to go about calculating an index of deprivation using a Census CD-ROM and a spreadsheet."
Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

64:10583 Jensen, An-Magritt. Gender gaps in relationships with children: closing or widening? In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 223-42 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data for Denmark, Norway, and Sweden are used to examine whether the narrowing gap between women and men in employment has widened the gap between men and children. The author argues that, notwithstanding the benefits to women of increasing economic independence from men, it is one of the leading causes of increasing poverty among women and children. "Women are still the ones to take care of children, in the family as well as in society. Children are handed over to women, who in the name of female emancipation take over the caring as well as the economic responsibilities. The new role of women thus contributes to a `feminization of childhood' and is closely linked to what Oppong (1993) has named a `pauperization of motherhood' and, it can be added, of childhood."
Correspondence: A.-M. Jensen, Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10584 Jones, Richard C. Remittances and inequality: a question of migration stage and geographic scale. Economic Geography, Vol. 74, No. 1, Jan 1998. 8-25 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The impact of migrant remittances on the place of migrant origin is examined using data from a 1988 household study undertaken in central Zacatecas state, Mexico. The focus is on whether remittances tend to increase or to decrease income inequalities. "Interfamilial inequalities are found first to decrease and then to increase as a place's migration experience deepens. Throughout this experience, however, rural incomes improve relative to urban ones, since remittances are targeted to the predominantly rural areas of origin."
Correspondence: R. C. Jones, University of Texas, Division of Social and Policy Sciences, San Antonio, TX 78249-0655. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10585 Lam, David. Demographic variables and income inequality. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 97-385, Apr 1997. 47 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper surveys a variety of areas in which demographic variables may play an important role in the distribution of income [in the United States]. The first issue analyzed...is the relationship between age structure and inequality....Many researchers argue that households, rather than individuals, should be used as the basis for analysis of the distribution of income....Section 3...focuses on the large literature that has analyzed the effects on the distribution of income among married couples of marital sorting and the joint labor supply behavior of husbands and wives. Section 4 extends the analysis beyond married couples to the household....Section 5 analyzes the effects of differential fertility across income classes on the distribution of income....Section 6 discusses the attention given to the effects of population growth on relative wages....Section 7 discusses the substantial changes in wage inequality observed in the United States in recent decades, and considers evidence on the role of demographic variables, especially age structure, in those changes."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

64:10586 McGarry, Kathleen; Davenport, Andrew. Pensions and the distribution of wealth. NBER Working Paper, No. 6171, Sep 1997. 20, [10] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper we use data from the Health and Retirement Survey to examine the distribution of pension wealth in relation to other private wealth [in the United States]. We pay particular attention to differences by sex and race. We find that men are approximately 50 percent more likely to have pensions than are women, and conditional on having a pension, the mean value for men is twice as great as that for women. These differences remain significant even when factors such as industry, occupation, and tenure are controlled for. Differences by race are smaller than differences by sex but are still significant....In addition to these results, the paper describes in detail the assumptions necessary to calculate pension wealth from the data available in the HRS."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: mcgarry@ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10587 Moore, James F.; Mitchell, Olivia S. Projected retirement wealth and savings adequacy in the health and retirement study. NBER Working Paper, No. 6240, Oct 1997. 30, [11] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Using the Health and Retirement Study, this paper explores asset holdings among a nationally representative sample of people on the verge of retirement. Making reasonable projections about asset growth, we assess how much more people would need to save in order to preserve consumption levels after retirement....[The] summary statistics conceal extraordinary heterogeneity in both assets and saving needs in the older population."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: moore86@wharton.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10588 Pestieau, Pierre; Stijns, Jean-Philippe. Social security and retirement in Belgium. NBER Working Paper, No. 6169, Sep 1997. 18, [32] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Belgium like many other industrialized countries is facing serious problems in financing its social security. Whereas the effects of aging are still to come, Belgium currently experiences one of the lowest attachments to the labor force of older persons. This paper presents the key features of the Belgian social security system and focuses on labor force participation and benefit receipt. Most of the attention is given to the interaction between retirement behavior and the various social security schemes. By measuring the implicit tax/subsidy rate on work after 55 through these schemes, we can so explain the actual pattern of early and normal retirement of Belgian older workers."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10589 Shapiro, Daniel M.; Stelcner, Morton. Language and earnings in Quebec: trends over twenty years, 1970-1990. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 115-40 pp. Guelph, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Using data from the 1991 Census, this paper examines linguistic earnings disparities [in Quebec] by gender in 1990, and compares the results to those obtained from the 1971 and 1981 Census data. The main findings are that, since the passage of Bill 101 in 1977, the earnings gap between (unilingual and bilingual) anglophones and bilingual francophones has indeed closed. However, the earnings situation of allophones (regardless of official languages spoken) has worsened as did that of unilingual francophones."
Correspondence: D. M. Shapiro, Simon Fraser University, Faculty of Business Administration, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

64:10590 Van Hook, Jennifer V. W.; Bean, Frank D. The growth in non-citizen SSI caseloads during the 1980s: immigration versus aging effects. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 96-97-12, 1996-1997. 31 pp. University of Texas, Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"In this paper, we attempt to explain the increase that has been observed during the 1980s in the number of elderly non-citizens who receive SSI [supplemental security income]. Specifically, we use U.S. Census data to discern whether the increase results from increases in the number of newly arrived elderly immigrants, from increases in the numbers of `settled' immigrants who have been in the country for many years and have been aging into age categories that allow them to obtain SSI benefits, or from increases in the levels of recipiency among any of these groups of immigrants."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

64:10591 Bonvalet, Catherine; Lelièvre, Eva. The transformation of housing and household structures in France and Great Britain. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sep 1997. 183-201 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"In France and Great Britain, the last 30 years have seen considerable evolution in the housing stock...and in household structure....This article describes the dynamic interaction of processes influencing the evolution of both households and dwellings. In the two countries, the life course of individuals has become more and more complex. This translates into an ever greater variety of housing needs, not only at different stages in family life, but also in relation to growing job insecurity regardless of family situation. At the same time, policies encouraging home-ownership seem to have reached their limits, because of the new demand for rented accommodation. The answer to sociological and economic evolution cannot be found in a `single' type of housing and tenure status, but rather in a wide range of dwellings and in the development of a more flexible housing market."
Correspondence: C. Bonvalet, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10592 Borjas, George J. To ghetto or not to ghetto: ethnicity and residential segregation. NBER Working Paper, No. 6176, Sep 1997. 28, [8] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the link between ethnicity and the choice of residing in ethnically segregated neighborhoods [in the United States]. Data drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth show that there exist strong human capital externalities both within and across ethnic groups. As a result, the segregation choices made by particular households depend both on the household's economic opportunities and on aggregate characteristics of the ethnic groups. The evidence suggests that highly skilled persons who belong to disadvantaged groups have lower probabilities of ethnic residential segregation-- relative to the choices made by the most skilled persons in the most skilled groups."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: gborjas@harvard.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10593 Ermisch, John; Francesconi, Marco. Family matters. Working Papers of the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, No. 97-1, Feb 1997. 27, [12] pp. University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change: Colchester, England. In Eng.
"The analysis uses a unique set of data matching mothers and their young adult children to study the impact of family background on young people's educational attainments. The data are derived from the first five years (1991-95) of the British Household Panel Study. Mother's education is found to be a very powerful predictor of their children's educational attainments, particularly for women. Having spent some time in a single parent family tends to reduce the educational attainments of young men moderately, but the effects on young women's education are small. Part, if not all, of this negative effect of experience in a single parent family reflects fewer economic resources in such families."
Correspondence: University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10594 Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena S. Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1997. 407-24 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia....The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school."
Correspondence: P. Jensen, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Science Park Aarhus, Gustav Wieds Vej 10c, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10595 Marcoux, Richard. School attendance and the demographic structure of households in urban environments in Mali. [Fréquentation scolaire et structure démographique des ménages en milieu urbain au Mali.] Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1995. 655-74 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between children's economic contribution to the household and school attendance in Mali is examined. Particular attention is given to the effect of household composition and school attendance. "Multivariate analysis shows that school attendance is ensured by factors that enhance the maintaining of a structure in which young people, and especially girls, form a substantial proportion. More generally, as long as child labour is a necessity for a large number of households it will be difficult to ensure that a high proportion of children in Mali receive primary education."
Correspondence: R. Marcoux, Université Laval, Département de Sociologie, bureau 2467, Pavillon Charles-De Koninck, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. E-mail: richard.marcoux@soc.ulaval.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10596 Maréchal, Michel. Life cycle and social class according to the Family Survey of 1990. [Cycle de vie et milieu social selon l'Enquête Famille de 1990.] INSEE Résultats: Démographie-Société, No. 62-63, ISBN 2-11-066657-9. Nov 1997. 219 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This report presents data on differences in demographic behavior by social class in France. It is based on data from the 1990 Family Survey, which involved 330,000 women aged 18-64 and was carried out in conjunction with the 1990 census. Comparisons are also made with the tables published in a 1987 study by Guy Desplanques based on a prior survey conducted in 1982. The tables include data on such topics as fertility, birth timing, number of children, infant and child mortality, sibling sex distribution, birth order, marriage and remarriage, union history, divorce, and widowhood. The social characteristics examined concentrate on professional and educational qualifications.
For the report published in 1987, see 53:20443.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Direction Générale, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10597 Mason, Karen O.; Jensen, An-Magritt. Gender and family change in industrialized countries. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828970-7. LC 95-4190. 1995. ix, 329 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The 12 papers in this volume were first presented at a seminar organized by the Committee on Gender and Population of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP). The seminar was held in Rome, Italy, in January 1992 and focused on the interrelationships between changing gender roles and changes in the family since World War II. The first section of the book examines the second demographic transition, a term used to describe the complex of family and demographic changes that have occurred in the industrial world since World War II. The second section has papers on particular areas of family change, and the third section emphasizes public policy and its relationship to gender and family changes.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10598 McLanahan, Sara S.; Casper, Lynne M.; Sorensen, Annemette. Women's roles and women's poverty. In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 258-78 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we compare women's roles in eight industrialized countries. We examine whether certain role combinations are more common in some countries than in others and whether there is a relationship between the roles that women occupy and their risk of being poor. We argue that the economic consequences of demographic change for women depend on the type of welfare state in which they reside, and we rely on Gosta Esping-Andersen's (1990) typology of capitalist welfare states to guide our analysis." Attention is given to the differences in women's roles and economic status in countries with contrasting welfare state regimes.
Correspondence: S. S. McLanahan, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10599 Montgomery, Mark R.; Lloyd, Cynthia B. Excess fertility, unintended births, and children's schooling. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 100, 1997. 72 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This research focuses on investments in children's schooling as one important dimension in which the costs of unintended births may be manifested. We also explore the implications of departures from family-size ideals, termed excess fertility, a concept related to, but distinct from, unintended fertility. Data for the analysis are drawn from four Demographic and Health Surveys, those of the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Kenya, and the Philippines. We find evidence suggesting that unwanted and excess births reduce educational attainment in the Dominican Republic and the Philippines, but find no such effects in Kenya or Egypt. The social and family-level factors that may lie behind such differential consequences are discussed at length."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10600 Patrinos, Harry A.; Psacharopoulos, George. Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru--an empirical analysis. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1997. 387-405 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the effects of being indigenous, number of siblings, sibling activities and sibling age structure on child schooling progress and child non-school activity. The analysis is based on the Peru 1991 Living Standards Survey. The analysis shows that family size is important. However, the analysis also demonstrates the importance of taking into consideration the activities of siblings. The number of siblings not enrolled in school proves to be an important control variable in at least one specification of the empirical model....The analysis also shows that the age structure of siblings is important, but in conjunction with their activities. That is, having a greater number of younger siblings implies less schooling, more age-grade distortion in the classroom and more child labor."
Correspondence: H. A. Patrinos, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: hpatrinos@worldbank.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10601 Presser, Harriet B. Are the interests of women inherently at odds with the interests of children or the family? A viewpoint. In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 297-319 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the extent to which the interests of women are at odds with the interests of children or the family, focusing primarily on the situation in the United States. She concludes that it is not inevitable that, in highly industrialized societies, mothers who wish to provide a secure, nurturing environment for their children must do so at a permanent cost to their own economic security and self-fulfillment, but that this is generally the case.
Correspondence: H. B. Presser, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10602 Sharma, Sarla; Gupta, M. P. Dynamics of educational development in the Chhattisgarh region, India. Population Geography, Vol. 17, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1995. 29-36 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to analyse the spatial patterns of the level of educational development along with the decennial change in the literacy rate in the Chhattisgarh region of Madhya Pradesh State [India]. Eleven variables...have been considered to find out the index of educational development in the tahsils [divisions] of the region. The eighty-two tahsils...are grouped into four categories...on the basis of decennial growth rate in literacy during 1981-91 and the level of educational development...."
Correspondence: S. Sharma, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Department of Geography, Raipur, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10603 Srb, Vladimír. Religious affiliation and demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics of the population in the Czech Republic. [Nábozenské vyznání a demografické, sociálne ekonomické a kulturní charakteristiky obyvatelstva Ceské republiky.] Demografie, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1997. 191-202 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines religious affiliation among the population in the Czech Republic. Religious affiliation is analyzed by age, sex, profession, social status, nationality, and fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

64:10604 Balzer, Marjorie M. Demography and the politics of identity in the Russian Federation. Anthropology and Archeology of Eurasia, Vol. 34, No. 1, Summer 1995. 104 pp. M. E. Sharpe: Armonk, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains an article on ethno-demographic processes in the Russian Federation, case studies of the ethno-political situation in Tuva and Yakutia, and a selection of statistical tables on ethnic groups in the country.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: M. E. Sharpe, 80 Business Park Drive, Armonk, NY 10504. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10605 Bennett, Claudette; Debarros, Kymberly. The Asian and Pacific Islander population in the United States: March 1996 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 503, Oct 1997. 1 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
A one-page summary of information is provided on the Asian and Pacific Islander population of the United States in 1996. A paper version of the tables is available as PPL-77 for $26.90. The electronic version of the complete tables is available online at http://www.census.gov.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Author's E-mail: claudette.e.bennett@ccmail.census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10606 Castonguay, Charles. Trends in language assimilation in Quebec and Canada between 1971 and 1991. [Evolution de l'assimilation linguistique au Québec et au Canada entre 1971 et 1991.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1997. 469-90 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
Using census data, the author analyzes trends in language assimilation among those not having English or French as their mother tongue in Quebec province, and among francophones in the other provinces of Canada. The results show that, although more recent immigrants to Quebec, particularly those from Latin cultures, are assimilating into the French-speaking population, the trend toward speaking English is stronger than in 1971 among immigrants who have been living in Quebec for longer periods and those born in the province. Elsewhere in Canada, with the possible exception of New Brunswick, the trend from French to English is increasing. The need for changes in Canadian policies concerning language, culture, and nationality is stressed.
Correspondence: C. Castonguay, University of Ottawa, Department of Mathematics, 550 Cumberland Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10607 Clyne, Michael; Kipp, Sandra. Language maintenance and language shift: community languages in Australia, 1996. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1997. 19-27 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"There is a continuing significant shift to English spoken in the home among Australia's established community language groups. There are also success stories in language maintenance. Factors influencing language use include the distribution of speakers, the age profile of the community, intermarriage patterns and cultural distance from Anglo-Australians. Australia-wide, the shift rates to English spoken at home range between three percent from Macedonian and 62 percent from Dutch in the first generation, and 15 percent from Macedonian and 95 percent from Dutch in the second generation."
Correspondence: M. Clyne, Monash University, Department of Linguistics, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10608 del Pinal, Jorge; Singer, Audrey. Generations of diversity: Latinos in the United States. Population Bulletin, Vol. 52, No. 3, Oct 1997. 48 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Early in the 21st century, Hispanic Americans will become the largest U.S. ethnic minority. By 2050, the Hispanic, or Latino, population is projected to number around 100 million and constitute 25 percent of the U.S. population, up from 11 percent in 1996. This Population Bulletin looks at three aspects of the U.S. Hispanic population: their growing numbers, their increasing diversity, and their relative well-being."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10609 France. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE] (Paris, France). Foreigners in France. [Les étrangers en France.] Contours et Caractères, ISBN 2-11-066162-3. May 1994. 152 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This work presents a portrait of the population of about four million foreigners currently living in France. Topics covered include immigration, population dynamics, families and households, children, education, employment, occupations, unemployment, income, location, housing, consumption, leisure, vacations, health, and crime.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10610 Germany. Statistisches Bundesamt (Wiesbaden, Germany). Focal point: the foreign population in Germany. [Im Blickpunkt: ausländische Bevölkerung in Deutschland.] ISBN 3-8246-0459-0. 1995. vi, 140 pp. Metzler-Poeschel Verlag: Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger.
On the basis of official statistics, this report presents information on foreigners living in Germany. It includes information on regional distribution, age structure, national origin, length of stay, marriages, births, deaths, migration, destination, households and families, housing, education, labor force participation, occupations, unemployment, dependence on public assistance, the handicapped, crime, naturalization, and asylum seekers.
Correspondence: Metzler-Poeschel Verlag, Verlagsauslieferung Hermann Leins, Postfach 11 52, 72125 Kusterdingen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10611 Kaz'mina, Ol'ga E.; Puchkov, Pavel I. Ethnodemographic processes in the Russian Federation. Anthropology and Archeology of Eurasia, Vol. 34, No. 1, Summer 1995. 13-41 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
This is an English translation of the introduction to a textbook on the ethnic demography of the Russian Federation. It explores the intricacies of multiple language groups, ethnic group interspersions, and the existence of small yet self-identifying populations without political territorial status. The political implications of demographic developments affecting ethnic groups, including migration, are also considered.
For the textbook from which this is translated, published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10612 Kosmin, Barry A.; Scheckner, Jeffrey. Jewish population in the United States, 1995. In: American Jewish yearbook 1996, edited by David Singer and Ruth R. Selden. 1996. 171-91 pp. American Jewish Committee: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors present estimates of the Jewish population in the United States, broken down by state and city. "The estimates are for the resident Jewish population, including those in private households and in institutional settings. Non-Jewish family members have been excluded from the total."
Correspondence: B. A. Kosmin, City University of New York, Graduate and University Center, Center for Jewish Studies, 33 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (DR).

64:10613 Lüdi, Georges; Werlen, Iwar; Franceschini, Rita; Antonini, Francesca; Bianconi, Sandro; Furer, Jean-Jacques; Quiroga-Blaser, Christine; Wymann, Adrian; Boruvka, Jan; Zuber, Claude-Anne. 1990 federal population census. The linguistic landscape of Switzerland. [Recensement fédéral de la population 1990. Le paysage linguistique de la Suisse.] Statistique de la Suisse, ISBN 3-303-16045-7. 1997. 720, 36 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre.
This report describes the linguistic situation of Switzerland according to the 1990 census. There are chapters on the geographic boundaries among the four official linguistic groups of Switzerland (speakers of German, French, Italian, and Romansh), each official language within and outside its own region, other languages, and polylingualism. Most of the data are by commune; maps and tables are integrated into the text.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10614 Price, Charles. The Asian element in Australia: 1996. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1997. 35-6 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"There has been much public debate about the size of the Asian-born and Asian ethnic-origin population in Australia (unmixed). By combining these two elements, it is estimated that the total unmixed Asian component of Australia's population is 8.16 percent."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10615 Reed, John. The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1996 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 502, Dec 1997. 1 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a a one-page summary of information on the Hispanic population of the United States in 1996. A paper version of the report is available for $26 as PPL-72 on request. The detailed tabulations are also available online at http://www.census.gov.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Author's E-mail: jreed@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10616 Schmelz, U. O.; DellaPergola, Sergio. World Jewish population, 1993. In: American Jewish year book, 1995, edited by David Singer and Ruth R. Seldin. ISBN 0-87495-108-9. LC 99-4040. 1995. 466-92 pp. American Jewish Committee: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents updates, for the end of 1993, of the Jewish population estimates for the various countries of the world. The estimates reflect some of the results of a prolonged and ongoing effort to study scientifically the demography of contemporary world Jewry. Data collection and comparative research have benefited from the collaboration of scholars and institutions in many countries, including replies to direct inquiries regarding current estimates. It should be emphasized, however, that the elaboration of a worldwide set of estimates for the Jewish populations of the various countries is beset with difficulties and uncertainties."
Correspondence: U. O. Schmelz, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Gaster Building, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10617 Schmelz, U. O.; DellaPergola, Sergio. World Jewish population, 1994. In: American Jewish yearbook 1996, edited by David Singer and Ruth R. Selden. 1996. 434-63 pp. American Jewish Committee: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents updates, for the end of 1994, of the Jewish population estimates for the various countries of the world....The respective results basically confirmed the estimates we had reported in previous AJYB volumes and, perhaps more importantly, our interpretation of the trends now prevailing in the demography of world Jewry. While allowing for improved population estimates for the year 1994 under review here, these new data highlighted the increasing complexity of the sociodemographic and identificational processes underlying the definition of Jewish populations--hence the estimates of their sizes--the more so at a time of enhanced international migration."
Correspondence: U. O. Schmelz, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Gaster Building, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (DR).

64:10618 Sebök, László. The Hungarians in East Central Europe: a demographic profile. Nationalities Papers, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1996. 551-62 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Tabular data are presented on the demographic characteristics of ethnic Hungarians in East Central Europe. Information is included on the total Hungarian population in neighboring states; nationality; language; and religion.
Correspondence: L. Sebök, Central European Institute, Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10619 Taylor, John. Policy implications of indigenous population change, 1991-1996. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1997. 1-10 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Since 1971 the indigenous population of Australia has trebled. From 1991 to 1996 numbers grew by 33 percent, 16 percent more than had been projected. This unexpected increase was highest in the southeast, especially in Tasmania and the ACT. Much of it can be explained by out-marriage. In 1996, 64 percent of couples (in married or de facto relationships) included a non-indigenous partner. Most of the children from these intermixed relationships have been counted as indigenous persons in the Census."
Correspondence: J. Taylor, Australian National University, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10620 Torczyner, Jim L.; Brotman, Shari L. The Jews of Canada: a profile from the census. In: American Jewish year book, 1995, edited by David Singer and Ruth R. Seldin. ISBN 0-87495-108-9. LC 99-4040. 1995. 227-60 pp. American Jewish Committee: New York, New York. In Eng.
The characteristics of the Jewish population of Canada are analyzed using data from the 1981 and 1991 censuses. "Overall, Canadian Jews continue to be better educated, more professional, and more urban and to have higher incomes than Canadians as a whole. As in 1981, husband-wife families remain the principal living arrangement of Canadian Jews, and children make up a higher percentage of the Jewish community in 1991 than they did in 1981. Several disconcerting social trends in the Jewish community that were already quite marked in 1981 have persisted and intensified during this last decade. The Jewish poverty rate is now almost indistinguishable from that of all Canadians. Women continue to be underrepresented in higher occupations and overrepresented among the poor. The number of single-parent families, the intermarriage rate, and the proportion of Jewish elderly all continue to rise."
Correspondence: J. L. Torczyner, McGill University, 845 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10621 Vaccaro, Concetta M. Immigration and socioeconomic development. [Immigrazione e sviluppo socio-economico.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 34, No. 126, Jun 1997. 225-68 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The objective of the research is to give an updated account of foreign communities living in Italy, based on the data available about their size, distinctive features, countries of origin and given reasons for their presence. It also aims at weighing the role immigrants play in the economic and social development, now that they are becoming more stable and integrated. The essay focuses especially on the connection between immigrants...and labour market and evaluates the extent of the significant contribution which immigrant workers give to the production of national wealth and the positive influence they can have on readjusting Italy's welfare system."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10622 Wang, Chao-Ke; Guo, Feng-Zhi. Forecasting minority group populations in Gui Zhou Province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997. 203-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this study is to forecast the population of minority groups in Gui Zhou Province [China]. Based on the census data from the fourth national census...a dispersed recurrence mathematics model has been developed and the model is used to predict the population of minority groups...for long-term forecasts (1990-2050)." Information is provided on birth and death rates, population size and growth, age structure, labor force, and the dependency burden.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10623 Xie, Yu; Goyette, Kimberly. The racial identification of biracial children with one Asian parent: evidence from the 1990 census. Social Forces, Vol. 76, No. 2, Dec 1997. 547-70 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This article examines the socioeconomic and demographic correlates that are associated with whether biracial children with an Asian parent are racially identified with their Asian parent or with their non-Asian parent. With data extracted from the 5-percent Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) of the 1990 [U.S.] census, we take into account explanatory variables at three levels: the child's characteristics, the parents' characteristics, and the locale's racial composition. Our results indicate that the racial identification of biracial children with an Asian parent is to a large extent an arbitrary option within today's prevailing racial classification scheme. We find empirical evidence in support of the theoretical proposition that both assimilation and awareness of Asian heritage affect the racial identification of biracial children with an Asian parent."
Correspondence: Y. Xie, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. E-mail: yuxie@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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