Volume 64 - Number 1 - Spring 1998

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

64:10208 Antony, T. V. Programmes and policies adopted in Tamil Nadu which affected its CBR. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 187-202 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author outlines some of the programs and policies adopted in Tamil Nadu, India, that may have contributed to the region's fertility decline. Aspects considered include female age at marriage, nutrition programs, female literacy and status, infant mortality and child survival, acceptance of contraception and birth spacing, and IEC program implementation.
Correspondence: T. V. Antony, 85 4th Main Road, Gandhi Nagar, Adyar, Madras 600 020, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10209 Bachu, Amara. Fertility of American men. Population Division Working Paper Series, No. 14, Mar 1996. 32 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This analysis of the fertility of men in the United States is based on 1992 data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. The data concerned 16,777 men over age 18, who were asked how many children they had fathered, and 19,204 women. The analysis took into account such factors as ethnic group, marital status, educational status, income, employment status, and age. The results indicate that the data on fertility obtained from men are similar to those obtained from women, although the overall nonresponse rates on children ever born are higher for men than for women.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10210 Bhat, P. N. Mari. Contours of fertility decline in India: a district level study based on the 1991 census. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 96-177 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author uses 1991 census data for India "to unravel some of the mysteries surrounding Indian demographic trends, to assess future prospects, to study the spatial patterns of fertility change and explore the plausible determinants of fertility levels." Data from the 1992-1993 National Family Health Survey are also used where applicable.
Correspondence: P. N. M. Bhat, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Population Research Centre, Vidyagiri Dharwad, Karnataka 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10211 Blanc, Ann K.; Poukouta, Prosper V. Components of unexpected fertility decline in Sub-Saharan Africa. DHS Analytical Report, No. 5, Sep 1997. viii, 29 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This report examines the situation in four African countries in which fertility has declined by a greater amount than would be expected on the basis of increases in contraceptive prevalence. The four countries, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, and Zimbabwe, have each conducted two surveys under the DHS program. "The analysis reveals a number of factors that have contributed to larger than expected fertility declines in these four countries: a shift to the use of more effective methods of contraception, the lag effect of rapid increases in contraceptive adoption, stability in the duration of postpartum insusceptibility, and changes in marriage and sexual behavior."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10212 Calot, Gérard; Sardon, Jean-Paul. The surprising Swedish fertility. [Etonnante fécondité suédoise.] Futuribles, No. 217, Feb 1997. 5-14, 95 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent fertility trends in Sweden are analyzed, with the focus on the rise in fertility that occurred between 1985 and 1990 and its causes. The authors use the latest official data to show that "the recovery in the fertility indicator from 1.6 to 2.1 per woman, as observed between 1985 and 1990, has been followed by a decline at least as big and even more rapid, since this indicator will likely be below 1.6 in 1996. They analyze the stages of the ebb and flow in relation to the age of the mother and birth order. They examine the role which could in fact be played by the adoption of measures--mainly parental leave--allowing women to better balance family and work life. If this role probably has been important, other factors must have played a part since changes in the legislation regarding...parental leave are not sufficient to explain the fact that all categories of women have been affected by the observed ebb and flow."
Correspondence: G. Calot, Le Bois Fleuri, 3 rue Martin, 78380 Bougival, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10213 Chase, Robert S. Baby boom or bust? Changing fertility in post-Communist Czech Republic and Slovakia. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 769, Nov 1996. 40 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Using microdata from 1984 and 1993 in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, this paper estimates a dynamic stock adjustment model, relating observed drops in fertility post-Communism to new wages, prices and risks....Earnings influence total demand for children during Communism through substitution effects for women's earnings and income effects for men's. In all four data sets, earnings levels have little effect on fertility timing, though age and job uncertainty do affect the probability of having young children, particularly following Communism."
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 208269, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10214 Chen, Kuanjeng. The dynamics of birth in Taiwan: a simulation. Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, Jun 1997. 1-18 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"By manipulating the distribution of age-specific fertilities, this paper simulates and examines the changes in the number of births in Taiwan since 1905. Two humps in birth number after the 2nd World War were identified in the baseline analysis. The first hump can be attributed to the decline in mortality since 1920 and the decline in fertility since 1951....The second hump was determined [by] a compressed replication of the first one through the renewal process."
Correspondence: K. Chen, Academia Sinica, Institute of Sociology, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10215 Chen, Shengli. Demographic change from 1982 to 1992. In: 1992 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, China: selected research papers in English. Oct 1997. 13-21 pp. State Family Planning Commission of China: Beijing, China; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The author discusses population trends in China during the period 1982-1992, with a focus on the considerable decline in fertility. The impact of family planning programs is considered. Changes in marriage age, educational attainment, contraceptive use, and the effects on the fertility rate are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10216 China. State Family Planning Commission of China [SFPC] (Beijing, China); United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. World Health Organization Collaborating Center in Perinatal Care and Health Services Research in Maternal and Child Health (Atlanta, Georgia). 1992 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, China: selected research papers in English. Oct 1997. iii, 164 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"In October 1992, the State Family Planning Commission (SFPC) of China conducted a National Fertility and Family Planning Survey. The sample size was 380,000 persons, including 73,946 ever married women aged 50 and below....Based on the survey results on fertility, contraceptive use, and population structure, SFPC has edited and published three Chinese language books with tables, charts and analytical papers." This English-language volume contains papers presenting the main findings of the survey.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10217 de Jong, A. H. Variables influencing fertility developments. [Achtergronden van vruchtbaarheidsontwikkelingen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 10, Oct 1997. 12-24 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In the new population forecasts trends in fertility [in the Netherlands] are based on a time-series analysis of age-specific fertility figures and on analysis of backgrounds of fertility developments. Socio-cultural developments like women's liberation have had a negative effect on fertility in the past, as have the larger proportion of women following higher education and higher labour participation. Economic growth may have a positive effect on fertility, although only in the short run. The future course of development will largely depend on the degree to which higher educated women will catch up on their postponed fertility...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10218 Dow, Thomas E.; Kekovole, John; Archer, Linda H. Wealth flow and fertility decline in rural Kenya, 1981-92: a reassessment of the evidence. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Sep 1997. 41-66 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In 1981 and 1992, identical questionnaires measuring lineal and lateral wealth flows and emotional nucleation were administered to comparable samples of male household heads in rural Kenya. The 1981 results, showing limited evidence of economic or emotional nucleation within the household, were consistent with prevailing high fertility. By 1992 desired and observed fertility had declined significantly, but nucleation levels remained the same. The question then arose as to whether our bivariate measurements had been too coarse to detect subtle shifts in nucleation and/or the simultaneous effect of other independent variables. To resolve these issues, we re-examined our 1981 and 1992 data sets using regression analysis. The findings suggest that the independent contribution of wealth flow and emotional nucleation variables to explained variance in the desired number of children by rural male heads of households was limited, being approximately seven to 10 percent in 1981 and 10 to 18 percent in 1992."
Correspondence: T. E. Dow, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, College at Purchase, Purchase, NY 10577. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10219 Engelen, Theo. The fertility decline in the Dutch province of Limburg, 1880-1960: on understanding historical actors in a constrained environment. History of the Family, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1997. 405-24 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The Dutch province of Limburg is mentioned in the European Fertility Project studies because of the fact that its fertility was remarkably high well into the twentieth century and declined only gradually. This article explores the structural background of changes in reproductive behavior in Limburg. The province is economically differentiated in[to] industrial areas and traditional agricultural regions. Also, there is a clear cultural heterogeneity. Using data at the community level, the article analyzes...the economic motivation as well as the mental acceptation of the introduction of neoMalthusian behavior. The results show that we are better able to explain the variance in behavior as the twentieth century proceeds, and that the factor `economy' appears to be the best predictor, although the effects of a cultural filter become evident."
Correspondence: T. Engelen, University of Nijmegen, Department of Economic and Social History, P.O. Box 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, Netherlands. E-mail: th.engelen@let.kun.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10220 Ford, David; Nault, François. Changing fertility patterns, 1974 to 1994. [Changements des tendances de la fécondité, 1974 à 1994.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 8, No. 3, Winter 1996. 39-48; 43-51 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The authors examine national and provincial trends in fertility in Canada from 1974 to 1994. During this period, "the number of children Canadian women are likely to have during their lifetime decreased....As they pursued higher education and employment in the paid workforce, women have postponed childbearing. Consequently, the average age of women giving birth has risen....And by starting families later in life, women tend to have fewer children. In addition, largely because of the growing number of common-law relationships, over a quarter of all births are to unmarried women."
Correspondence: D. Ford, Statistics Canada, Division of Health Statistics, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10221 Goldstein, Alice; White, Michael; Goldstein, Sidney. Migration, fertility, and state policy in Hubei Province, China. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 4, Nov 1997. 481-91 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Despite China's one-child family planning policy, the nation experienced a slight rise in the birth rate in the mid-1980s. Many observers attributed this rise to the heightened fertility of those rural-to-urban migrants who moved without a change in registration (temporary migrants), presumably to avoid the surveillance of family planning programs at origin and destination. Using a sequential logit analysis with life-history data from a 1988 survey of Hubei Province, we test this possibility by comparing nonmigrants, permanent migrants, and temporary migrants. While changing family planning policies have a strong impact on timing of first birth and on the likelihood of higher-order births, migrants generally do not have more children than nonmigrants. In fact, migration tends to lower the propensity to have a child. More specifically, the fertility of temporary migrants does not differ significantly from that of other women."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Goldstein, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: Alice_Goldstein@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10222 Han, Jingqing; Yao, Cuizhen; Chen, Shengli. Using the birth number base and mean birth number base to estimate total fertility in China, 1990-2010. In: 1992 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, China: selected research papers in English. Oct 1997. 117-26 pp. State Family Planning Commission of China: Beijing, China; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"Birth number base (BNB) is an important concept in analyzing fertility and projecting population....In this chapter, we introduce the concept of mean birth number base (MBNB) and analyze the effect of birth model (i.e., the structure of age-specific fertility), female age-specific mortality, and female age structure on both BNB and MBNB....We also discuss some applications of BNB and MBNB and estimate the BNB and the MBNB in China for the years 1990-2010."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10223 Hill, Kenneth; Marindo, Ravai. Trends and differentials in fertility in Zimbabwe, 1980-94: analysis of the 1988 and 1994 DHS surveys. Zimbabwe Further Analysis, Oct 1997. iii, 14 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
The present analysis uses data from the 1994 and the 1988 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys to characterize the downward trend in fertility as well as differences in fertility levels and patterns among population subgroups in Zimbabwe.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10224 Jain, Anrudh. Consistency between contraceptive use and fertility in India. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1997. 19-36 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The analysis presented in this paper has applied the cross-country relationship between TFR [total fertility rate] and CPR [contraceptive prevalence rate] and the proximate determinants model to assess the degree of consistency between contraceptive use and fertility in India. The data...are used to obtain estimates for states and the country as a whole for the early 1990s." Data are from the National Family Health Survey undertaken in 1992-1993.
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Jain, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10225 Jie, Zhan. Effects of women's educational attainment on fertility change in China. In: 1992 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, China: selected research papers in English. Oct 1997. 99-107 pp. State Family Planning Commission of China: Beijing, China; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the effect of educational attainment on the fertility of three cohorts of Chinese women as family planning policies changed through time....Measures of educational attainment by Chinese women are useful in understanding the multiple factors that have led to fertility decline and that were part of the social and cultural transformations that took place in China from 1972 to 1992."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10226 Jongstra, Eduard. The proximate determinants of fertility in Yemen. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 44, 1996. 29-44 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
"Using data from the Yemen Arab Republic Fertility Survey of 1979 and the Yemen Demographic Maternal and Child Health Survey of 1991, the proximate determinants of fertility have been estimated for north-western Yemen (the former Yemen Arab Republic)....Although fertility levels for rural women remained almost constant, for urban women a sharp decline was noted....The fertility decline for urban women was brought about by the increased use of contraceptives and the postponement of marriage. Postpartum infecundability of rural women has declined, while their use of contraceptives has much increased."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10227 Kalipeni, Ezekiel. Population pressure, social change, culture and Malawi's pattern of fertility transition. African Studies Review, Vol. 40, No. 2, Sep 1997. 173-208 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1977 and 1987 censuses, this paper examines the levels and spatial variations of fertility rates in Malawi within the context of the demographic transition theory. The two years of 1977 and 1987 were chosen because the two most recent census sets were taken during these years. The paper offers a detailed examination of the ambiguous relationship between fertility levels and socioeconomic variables associated with modernization theory and the demographic transition model. It also suggests a stronger causal relationship between cultural variables and the spatial variation of fertility levels in Malawi."
Correspondence: E. Kalipeni, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10228 Kazue, Suzuki. Women rebuff the call for more babies. Japan Quarterly, Vol. 42, Jan-Mar 1995. 14-20 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author discusses reasons for the declining birth rate in Japan and outlines efforts by the government and other organizations to promote larger families. Aspects considered include women's attitude toward childbirth and government policies, higher levels of female education and employment, and male difficulties in finding spouses.
Correspondence: S. Kazue, Asahi Shimbun Publishing, 3-2 Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-11, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10229 Kim, Tai-Hun. The effects of sex-selective abortion on fertility level in Korea. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jul 1997. 43-60 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"In this paper, we present empirical evidence for the levels and their changes of the sex ratio in Korea. And the relationships between fertility level and sex ratio will be analysed with the estimation of the number of sex-selective abortions and the number of births controlled by abortion. The data and detailed methods will be shown just before the analysis in each section, if necessary."
Correspondence: T.-H. Kim, Korea National University of Education, Department of Demography, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10230 Krishna Reddy, M. M. Fertility and family planning behaviour in Indian society. 1996. 274 pp. Kanishka Publishers, Distributors: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a general review of the factors affecting fertility and family planning behavior in contemporary India. There are chapters on Indian culture and modern thought; Indian social structure and change, with special reference to Hindus and Muslims; religion, fertility, and family planning behavior; Hindu social stratification, fertility, and family planning; infant mortality and family planning among Hindus; modernization, fertility, and family planning among Hindus; and the implementation of the two-child family norm in rural Indian society.
Correspondence: Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, 4697/5-21A Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10231 Kumar, Sanjay. Women's work status and fertility: macro and micro level analysis in India and its selected states. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1997. 63-78 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The specific objective of this paper is to study the nature of [the] relationship between women's work status and fertility in India as a whole and in [a] few selected states with different socio-demographic characteristics. The paper analyses the nature of [the] relationship between economic status and fertility after controlling for a few important socio-demographic factors both at macro and micro level. An attempt has also been made to assess the relative importance of work status of the women on fertility (as an individual level variable) combined with the norms prevailing in the society at the aggregate level (as macro level variable)...."
Correspondence: S. Kumar, Population Foundation of India, B-28, Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10232 Lagerlöf, Nils-Petter. Endogenous fertility and the old-age security hypothesis: a note. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 64, No. 2, May 1997. 279-86 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author critiques articles by K. Nishimura and J. Zhang, regarding endogenous fertility and social security programs. "Many of the results in Nishimura and Zhang (1992) and in Zhang and Nishimura (1993) are incorrect, since the authors assume interior solutions to many of the utility maximization problems, when corner solutions yield higher utility. This note proves, inter alia, that fertility and saving cannot both be positive in the optimal steady state."
For the studies by Nishimura and Zhang referred to, see 59:40554 and 60:20560.
Correspondence: N.-P. Lagerlöf, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: npl@iies.su.se. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10233 Lavertu, Jacques. Fertility and the timing of family formation: the 1990 Family Survey. [Fécondité et calendrier de constitution des familles: Enquête Famille de 1990.] INSEE Résultats: Démographie-Société, No. 62, ISBN 2-11-066656-0. Nov 1997. 144 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This report presents data on fertility and family formation in France and is based on data from the 1990 Family Survey. The survey, which was carried out in conjunction with the 1990 census, involved 330,000 women aged 18-64. The report has two main objectives: first, to present the main demographic results from the survey, and second, to compare these results with those from a previous survey carried out in 1982. Particular attention is given to changes in cohort fertility for women born since World War I. Information is included on age-specific fertility, birth intervals, birth order, the probability of having more children in relation to time since last birth, and infertility.
For the previous report, published by Guy Desplanques in 1987, see 53:20443.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10234 Lesthaeghe, R.; Vanderhoeft, C. Ready, willing and able: a conceptualization of transitions to new behavioral forms. IPD Working Paper, No. 1997-8, 1997. 26 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"In the present paper we shall try to present a simple mathematical model for describing the adaptation to new forms of behavior and for studying the subsequent generalization of these forms among populations....In this conceptualization we shall make use of three basic concepts that correspond to three preconditions for the adaptation to a new mode of behavior. These three preconditions are `readiness', `willingness' and `ability'....We shall revisit the...preconditions and their use in various `narratives' of the fertility transition....[We relate these] concepts to actual data taken from the DHS-surveys in African countries."
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: esvbalck@vub.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10235 Losada Alvarez, Abel F. Cuba (1898-1958). Fertility decline and socioeconomic change. [Cuba (1898-1958). Descenso de la fecundidad y cambio socioeconómico.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1997. 41-78 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Two fundamental points are raised in this paper on the demographic history of the island of Cuba between its independence from Spain up to Fidel Castro's revolution. Firstly, different factors which could have influenced its evolution in a decisive way are considered: the composition of its population according to sex and age, the influence of the changes in marital status, the distribution of its population and urban development, and the external and internal migratory movements. Later, taking the aforementioned factors into account, a reconstruction is made of the path of descent in fertility...."
Correspondence: A. F. Losada Alvarez, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Economía, C/Oporto 1, 36201 Vigo, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10236 Lumey, L. H.; Stein, Aryeh D. In utero exposure to famine and subsequent fertility: the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 12, Dec 1997. 1,962-70 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The effect of prenatal calorie restriction due to food shortages on subsequent fecundity is analyzed using data on 700 women born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between August 1, 1944, and April 15, 1946, a period including a severe wartime famine. The results indicate that "there was no detectable effect of famine exposure on age at menarche, the proportion having no children, age at first delivery, or family size. An excess of perinatal deaths occurred among offspring of famine-exposed women, particularly those exposed in their third trimester."
Correspondence: L. H. Lumey, American Health Foundation, Epidemiology Division, 320 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10237 Mason, Karen O. Explaining fertility transitions. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 4, Nov 1997. 443-54 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this essay, I suggest that the crisis in our understanding of fertility transitions is more apparent than real. Although most existing theories of fertility transition have been partially or wholly discredited, this reflects a tendency to assume that all fertility transitions share one or two causes, to ignore mortality decline as a precondition for fertility decline, to assume that pretransitional fertility is wholly governed by social constraints rather than by individual decision-making, and to test ideas on a decadal time scale. I end the essay by suggesting a perceptual, interactive approach to explaining fertility transitions that is closely allied to existing theories but focuses on conditions that lead couples to switch from postnatal to prenatal controls on family size."
This is a revised version of the presidential address delivered at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. O. Mason, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601. E-mail: MasonK@Hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10238 Ngondo a Pitshandenge. The nuclearization of the biological family and the reinforcement of the social household in Kinshasa: the results of a demographic transition occurring in a crisis. [Nucléarisation du ménage biologique et renforcement du ménage social à Kinshasa: les retombées d'une transition démographique de crise.] Zaire Afrique, No. 308, 1996. 419-44 pp. Kinshasa, Zaire. In Fre.
Recent trends in fertility and household dynamics in Kinshasa, Zaire, are analyzed using data from a 1995 education survey of 1,184 households. The focus is on the demographic impact of the economic crises experienced by the city in recent years. The author first examines the evidence for a decline in fertility associated with the economic crisis, and also notes a decline in the rate of urbanization, an aging of the urban population, and a decline in nuptiality. The impact of economic factors on the household is then examined, and it is suggested that unfavorable economic conditions have led to an increase in household size, due mainly to the inclusion of more relatives rather than to the birth of more children.
Correspondence: Ngondo a Pitshandenge, Université de Kinshasa, Faculté de Démographie, Boîte Postale 127, Kinshasa XI, Zaire. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

64:10239 Noack, Turid; Østby, Lars. Fertility and family surveys in countries of the ECE region: standard country report, Norway. Economic Studies, No. 10a, Pub. Order No. GV.E.96-0-32. ISBN 92-1-100729-1. 1996. xii, 99 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of comparable surveys on fertility and family change that are being carried out in ECE member countries. This report presents results from the Family and Occupation Survey carried out in Norway in 1988. Following chapters on survey methodology, socioeconomic trends, and population trends in the country, there is a chapter presenting the main results of the survey. These include topics such as household composition, parental home, partnership formation and dissolution, children, fertility regulation, fertility preferences, values and beliefs, and female education and occupations.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, Room 351, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10240 Pathak, K. B. Fertility and mortality transition in India: policy perspectives and priorities. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 83-95 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes mortality and fertility trends in India, with a focus on patterns in the different states and in rural and urban areas. Possible ways to improve the effectiveness of population policies are discussed.
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10241 Pinnelli, Antonella. Women's condition, low fertility, and emerging union patterns in Europe. In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 82-101 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter is concerned with the apparent divergence between fertility trends and trends in union formation and dissolution in Western Europe--in particular, whether conditions for women can explain these trends and the divergence between them....In the next section, we analyse country-level data from fifteen Western European countries in order to understand how various demographic, family, socio-economic, and gender inequality indicators are statistically interrelated. Then, in a subsequent section, we review women's working conditions and governmental initiatives favouring the reconciliation of women's roles as mothers and workers in order to assess the impact of these initiatives on reproductive and family trends. In the concluding section, we examine the implications of our analysis for future trends in the family and fertility in Western Europe."
Correspondence: A. Pinnelli, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10242 Rajaram, S. Secular changes in the patterns of reproduction in Goa in the 1980s. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1997. 93-108 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to study the trends and differentials in the timing of births at two points of time in the state of Goa [India]. The paper attempts to [establish] whether fertility transition between the two points of time is characterized by truncation of ages of child bearing and/or by elongation of the last closed birth interval....The use of contraceptives has increased substantially in the study population during the period under consideration."
Correspondence: S. Rajaram, Population Foundation of India, B-28, Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10243 Ranjan, Alok. Fertility transition in Indian states 1985-1992. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1997. 37-44 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper we attempt to analyze transition in crude birth rate in Indian states during the period 1985-92 through the use of a decomposition methodology....[The] methodology...permits [us] to measure the extent of change in the crude birth rate attributed to the change in the risk of conception; change in the patterns of entry into married reproductive period; and change in the age-structure of the population."
Correspondence: A. Ranjan, Shyam Institute of Public Corporation and Community Development, Datia, Madhya Pradesh 475 661, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10244 Roudi, Farzaneh. Surprising decline in Iran's growth rates. Population Today, Vol. 25, No. 11, Nov 1997. 4-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Iran's 1996 census found the nation's population totaled 60 million--about 6 million to 7 million lower than estimates used by the UN and other international organizations. These results surprised Iranian demographers; outside Iran, some demographers have examined the new data with skepticism." Possible reasons for Iran's fertility decline are discussed, including a strong government family planning effort, desire for smaller families, contraceptive use, and dissemination of reproductive health and family planning information.
Correspondence: F. Roudi, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10245 Sánchez, Jesús. The two fertility transitions in Navarre (Spain), 1786-1991. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 97-381, Feb 1997. 29 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The increase in life expectancy at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth presents itself as the major cause for the descent in the average number of children per married woman in Navarre. The data obtained in 37 municipalities of this Spanish province leave little room for doubt about the influence that mortality had on the first fertility transition (descent in the average number of births per married woman). A second fertility transition began in the decade of the [nineteen-]fifties, in which not only did the descent in the number of births continue, but a descent in the average number of children to survive to adulthood per married women was initiated as well. The importance of the education of the young and a change in wealth flows demonstrate themselves to be the principal causes of this second transition."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

64:10246 Sandhu, Jasmeet. Sociology of fertility. 1996. 175 pp. Rawat Publications: Jaipur, India. In Eng.
The determinants of fertility in the Amritsar district of rural Punjab, India, are analyzed using a model based on the models developed by Hill, Back, and Stycos (1959) and Freedman (1975). The broad objectives of the study are to examine fertility differentials among women aged 15-44, to study the interrelationships among the variables affecting fertility, to assess the relative importance of those variables, and to draw policy implications and suggest measures for the further reduction of fertility in the Punjab. The data concern a sample of 313 women who were interviewed in 1988.
Correspondence: Rawat Publications, 3-Na-20, Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur 302 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10247 Saxena, Prem C.; Aoun, Habbouba Y. Women's education, economic activity and fertility: relationship re-examined (a study based on a Lebanese community). Al-Abhath, Vol. 45, 1997. 25-39 pp. Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
"The primary objective of the present paper is to investigate how women's education and work status affect the fertility of Lebanese women. Also, the study attempts to asses the extent of maternal role incompatibility experienced by Lebanese women engaged in higher and lower prestigious occupations and its effect on their fertility."
Correspondence: P. C. Saxena, American University of Beirut, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Beirut, Lebanon. E-mail: psaxena@aub.edu.lb. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10248 Shakhot'ko, L. The reproductive behavior of the population of Belarus. [Reproduktivnoe povedenie naseleniya Belarusi.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 3, 1997. 82-90 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Fertility trends in Belarus over the period 1958-1995 are analyzed in this paper. The author notes that an increase in fertility occurred in the early 1980s, but that fertility has declined significantly since 1986. The reasons for this decline are explored. Changes in attitudes toward fertility and ideal family size are also noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10249 Taris, Toon W. Reconsidering the relations between female employment and fertility: having children, full-time, and part-time employment. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1997. 45-68 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Using a longitudinal sample of 154 young full-time employed Dutch women who were living with a male partner and who were childless at the start of the study we sought to re-examine the relations between fertility and employment, by means of semi-parametric survival models and structural equation modelling. Our results supported the notion that job characteristics, values, and human capital variables interact with fertility where it concerns the course of the employment career, while there were also interesting differences regarding the predictors of employment exits vs. taking up part-time employment. Implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: T. W. Taris, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Kurt Lewis Institute, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10250 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report of the 1996 Survey of Fertility in Thailand. ISBN 974-236-585-7. 1997. [vi], 164 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Tha.
This report presents results from the 1996 Survey of Fertility carried out in Thailand. Although there is no English summary, the table titles are provided in English. The data concern the characteristics of ever-married women aged 15-49, including fertility, marital status, desired fertility, child care arrangements, breast-feeding, and abortion experience. The data are presented for the whole kingdom and for the regions.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10251 Tsuya, Noriko O.; Mason, Karen O. Changing gender roles and below-replacement fertility in Japan. In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 139-67 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The reasons for the recent decline in fertility in Japan to levels considerably below replacement level are explored using data from official sources. The focus is on the changes in marriage patterns that have been identified as the primary cause of the fertility decline, particularly the low proportion of Japanese women marrying in their twenties. "The explanation for which the strongest evidence was found is that educational and economic opportunities for young Japanese women have improved while the Japanese wife's subordinated and highly domesticated position in the family has changed little--a combination, we suggest, that has made young Japanese women reluctant to enter marriage before enjoying a period of relative autonomy and freedom from domestic burdens during which they can seek higher education and work for pay."
Correspondence: N. O. Tsuya, Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10252 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). Family-building and family planning evaluation. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/148, Pub. Order No. E.98.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151314-6. 1997. viii, 112 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report describes a methodology for measuring fertility which is based on a woman's childbearing experience as she moves through successive phases of the family-building process. The methodology may thus serve as a complement or possibly an alternative to the more commonly used methods that measure fertility in terms of summary indices such as total fertility rate. The rationale for this approach is the assumption that fertility decisions and behaviour are essentially parity-dependent, especially when family planning becomes more widespread. In effect, it is assumed that family-building can be more realistically viewed as a succession of decisions whether and when to have a first child or a next child than as a once-and-for-all decision to have a specified number of children. The methodology is intended to serve both as means to more refined analysis of fertility change and as a better tool for the monitoring and evaluation of family planning programmes. In this report, it is applied to the analysis of fertility trends and to measurement of the impact of family planning in 15 countries in the developing regions."
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10253 van Giersbergen, N. P. A.; de Beer, J. Number of births and consumer confidence: an econometric analysis. [Geboorteontwikkeling en consumentenvertrouwen: een econometrische analyse.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 11, Nov 1997. 23-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Short-term changes in the number of births can be predicted by previous short-term changes in consumer confidence." The authors use a structural time series model to "construct predictions for the number of births [in the Netherlands] in the years 1997 and 1998. The model predicts that the decline in the number of births in the period 1991 to 1996 will be followed by an increase in the years 1997 and 1998."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10254 Wattenberg, Ben J. The population explosion is over. New York Times Magazine, Nov 23, 1997. 60-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Mounting evidence, from rich nations and poor, strongly suggests that the population explosion is fizzling. Earlier this month, for the first time ever, the United Nations Population Division convened expert demographers to consider aspects of low and tumbling fertility rates....Never before have birthrates fallen so far, so fast, so low, for so long all around the world. The potential implications--environmental, economic, geopolitical and personal--are both unclear and clearly monumental, for good and for ill." The author briefly examines possible causes and consequences of changing fertility rates, and considers the impact on future economic development.
Correspondence: B. J. Wattenberg, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1150 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10255 Ytterstad, Elinor; Brenn, Tormod. Daily number of births in Norway 1989-1993: variation across month, day of week, phase of moon, and changes in national maternity leave entitlements. [Daglige fødselstall for Norge 1989-93: fordeling over kalendermåned, ukedag, månefase og endring av regler for fødselspermisjon.] Tidsskrift for den Norske Lægeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 8, No. 117, 1997. 1,098-101 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"The variation in the daily numbers of births across month, day of week, phase of the moon and maternity leave entitlements have been studied for all births in Norway between 1989 and 1993, a total of 302,209 newborn children. The number of births was highest in the spring and lowest in November and December....The number of births does not seem to vary with phase of the moon. At the time of the latest, and largest increase in national birth maternity leave entitlements, fewer births occurred in the days before and correspondingly more births in the days immediately after the date when the change came into force."
Correspondence: E. Ytterstad, Universitetet i Tromsø, Institutt for Matematiske Realfag, Breivika, 9037 Tromsø, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10256 Yu, Jingyuan; Yuan, Jianhua. The fertility status of Chinese women in recent years. In: 1992 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, China: selected research papers in English. Oct 1997. 23-5 pp. State Family Planning Commission of China: Beijing, China; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"According to survey data collected annually by the State Statistical Bureau, the total fertility rate of Chinese women decreased from a replacement level of 2.18 in 1990 to 2.02 in 1991 and then to 1.83 in 1992--a two-year decline of 16.1 percent....This chapter examines the reliability of previously published annual fertility data for 1980-1992 using data from population sampling surveys conducted in 1988 and 1992."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10257 Zachariah, K. C.; Irudaya Rajan, S. Kerala's demographic transition: determinants and consequences. ISBN 81-7036-645-3. LC 97-14484. 1997. 367 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This book contains a number of papers on the demographic transition in the Indian state of Kerala that were presented at the International Congress on Kerala Studies held in Trivandrum in August 1994. "The purpose of this volume is to understand the reasons why Kerala was able to achieve its demographic transition even in the absence of corresponding buoyancy in the economic sectors in order to draw lessons for both other Indian states and other developing nations. Among the aspects discussed by the contributors are the nature of this transition; the role played by education, age at marriage and the use of contraceptives; the causes and consequences of population ageing; the impact of both internal and external migration; and possible future patterns of population growth and age structure and their socioeconomic implications."
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

64:10258 Bennett, Trude; Skatrud, Julia D.; Guild, Priscilla; Loda, Frank; Klerman, Lorraine V. Rural adolescent pregnancy: a view from the South. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1997. 256-60, 267 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"An analysis of 1990 census and vital statistics data for eight Southeastern [U.S.] states revealed that the teenage birthrate generally was higher in rural than in metropolitan areas; the exception was among black women aged 15-17. The highest birthrate was 162 births per 1,000 among rural black women aged 18-19. Abortion rates were much lower for rural teenagers than for urban teenagers, regardless of race. For 15-17-year-olds, white women had an abortion rate of 12 abortions per 1,000 in rural counties and 18 per 1,000 in metropolitan counties; black women had rates of 13 per 1,000 and 30 per 1,000 in rural and metropolitan areas, respectively. Similarly, the abortion ratio was lower in rural than in urban areas....Black 15-17-year-olds in metropolitan areas had a higher pregnancy rate (106 per 1,000) than those in rural counties (87 per 1,000). The pregnancy rate of white women aged 15-17 was similar in urban and metropolitan areas (about 46 per 1,000)."
Correspondence: T. Bennett, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10259 Cuba. Cómite Estatal de Estadísticas. Instituto de Investigaciones Estadísticas (Havana, Cuba). Adolescent fertility. Some elements of behavior in Cuba in the past decade. [La fecundidad adolescente. Algunos elementos sobre su comportamiento en Cuba en la ultima decada.] Oct 1992. 21 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
The author reviews trends in adolescent pregnancy in Cuba for the period 1981-1991. Reasons for the fertility decline among this age group are analyzed. Aspects considered include contraceptive knowledge and use, induced abortion, educational level, family planning programs, and sex education.
Correspondence: Cómite Estatal de Estadísticas, Instituto de Investigaciones Estadísticas, Almendares No. 156, Esquina a Desague, Gaveta Postal 6016, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10260 Gray, Ronald H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David; Sewankambo, Nelson; Li, Chuanjun; Wabwire-Mangen, Frederick; Paxton, Lynn; Kiwanuka, Noah; Kigozi, Godfrey; Konde-Lule, Joseph; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; McNairn, Denise. Population-based study of fertility in women with HIV-1 infection in Uganda. Lancet, Vol. 351, No. 9096, Jan 10, 1998. 98-103 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The effects of HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections on pregnancy are assessed using data on 4,813 sexually active women aged 15-49 living in Rakai, a rural district in Uganda. The results show that "pregnancy prevalence is greatly reduced in HIV-1-infected women, owing to lower rates of conception and increased rates of pregnancy loss. HIV-1 surveillance confined to pregnant women underestimates the magnitude of the HIV-1 epidemic in the general population."
Correspondence: R. H. Gray, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Dynamics, Room 4030, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10261 Hou, Feng; Omwanda, Lewis O.; Kaspar, Violet; Noh, Samuel. Differential effects of sociodemographic factors across birth orders among Canadian women. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1996. 127-45 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Cox proportional hazards models were applied to...1984 Canadian Fertility Survey data to examine the varying associations of selected socioeconomic factors with the likelihood and timing of first, second, third, and fourth births among Canadian women of reproductive ages. The results indicated that women's religiosity, rural residence, marriage cohort, and previous birth intervals were consistently and significantly related to the likelihood and timing of all orders of birth. However, the two prominent determinants of fertility, mother's education and early career experience, were related significantly only to the first two births, and even then the effect of education was non-monotonic...."
Correspondence: F. Hou, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10262 Kposowa, Augustine J. Explaining racial and ethnic differences in family size in the United States. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1997. 69-103 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to explain racial and ethnic differences in family size in the United States, using census data drawn from the 1980 Public Use Microdata Samples. Based on the minority group status and opportunity costs perspectives, the paper develops and tests the hypothesis that race/ethnicity has an independent effect on fertility, net of the effects of socioeconomic variables and that access to structural opportunities as indexed by generational status conditions the effect of socioeconomic variables on fertility. It is found that substantial fertility differentials exist between whites and such minority groups as blacks, Mexican Americans, American Indians, Japanese and Chinese Americans."
Correspondence: A. J. Kposowa, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10263 Mathews, T. J.; Ventura, Stepanie J.; Curtin, Sally C.; Martin, Joyce A. Births of Hispanic origin, 1989-95. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 46, Suppl., No. 6, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 98-1120. Feb 12, 1998. 28 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Data are presented on births to Hispanic women in the United States from 1989 to 1995. "The number of births born to Hispanic women has risen every year from 1989 to 1995. In addition in 1989 Hispanic women had 14 percent of births in the United States and in 1995 they represented 18 percent. While Hispanic women as a group continue to have higher fertility rates than non-Hispanics, Mexican women in particular have dramatically higher rates."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782-2003. E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10264 Millar, Wayne J.; Wadhera, Surinder. A perspective on Canadian teenage births, 1992-94: older men and younger women? Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique, Vol. 88, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 333-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"This article uses vital statistics relating to births by Canadian mothers between 1992 and 1994 to examine the distribution of age of father by age of mother at the birth of the child. Over 77% of births to teenage mothers involved males who were older than the mother. At the time of birth of the child, the mean difference between age of the teenage mother and the father was 4.1 years, compared with a mean of 2.6 years for all mothers and fathers. For mothers below the age of 18 years, 37% of partners were within 2 years of the woman's age, 39% were 3 to 5 years older, and 24% were six or more years older."
Correspondence: W. J. Millar, Statistics Canada, Health and Vital Statistics Division, 18th Floor, R. H. Coats Building, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa K1A OT6, Canada. E-mail: millway@statcan.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10265 Moore, Kristin A.; Miller, Brent C.; Glei, Dana; Morrison, Donna R. Adolescent sex, contraception, and childbearing: a review of recent research. Jun 1995. xviii, 187, [52] pp. Child Trends: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report is concerned with the factors that have led to an exceptionally high rate of teenage childbearing in the United States, and is based on a review of the published literature. "This review is organized around the events leading to a birth to a teenager, including the transition into having sexual intercourse; use of contraception at first intercourse and use at current or recent intercourse; and, if pregnancy occurs, decisions about abortions, adoption and marriage."
Correspondence: Child Trends, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 100, Washington, D.C. 20008. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10266 Ng, Edward; Nault, François. Fertility among recent immigrant women to Canada, 1991: an examination of the disruption hypothesis. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1997. 559-78 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The objective of this study is to examine the disruption hypothesis for the fertility behaviour of recent immigrants. The disruption hypothesis suggests that during the period immediately following immigration, foreign-born fertility is depressed but subsequently rises. However, the rise is only temporary, and as the duration of stay in Canada increases, immigrant fertility declines....We examine the role of changes in country of origin of immigrants (from European countries to non-European countries) and socioeconomic differentials in explaining the higher current fertility pattern observed among the different immigrant cohorts as recorded in the 1991 Canadian census."
Correspondence: E. Ng, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10267 Okun, Barbara S. Innovation and adaptation in fertility transition: Jewish immigrants to Israel from Muslim North Africa and the Middle East. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 3, Nov 1997. 317-35 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Transplanted to a radically different economic and cultural environment, Jewish immigrants to Israel from Muslim North Africa and the Middle East reduced their cohort fertility by approximately 33 per cent within 30 years, in the absence of any organized family planning programme. Following the framework specified by Carlsson (1969), we identify two fertility control strategies that contributed to their fertility decline: (1) innovation behaviour--adoption of the birth control pill, and (2) adaptive behaviour--increases in birth spacing at low parities. Military service was a vehicle of socialization for these new immigrants [particularly in explaining innovative behavior]....These findings thus suggest circumstances in which cultural barriers to the adoption of new behaviour are important."
Correspondence: B. S. Okun, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Population Studies, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. E-mail: bsokun@vms.huji.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10268 Schinke, Steven P. Preventing teenage pregnancy: translating research knowledge. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1998. 53-66 pp. Binghampton, New York. In Eng.
"Teenage pregnancy is a social problem that has long concerned American citizens, policy makers, and social scientists. Despite that concern and notwithstanding the myriad negative consequences of an early unplanned pregnancy for young mothers and fathers, for their children, and for society, little progress has been made to understand the social and behavioral origins of teenage pregnancy. More important, practitioners and researchers have been sorely remiss in discovering proven, replicable, and socially acceptable ways to help American young people avoid unwanted pregnancies. Nascent data, however, have begun to shed empirical light not only on the underlying causes of pregnancy among adolescents, but also on strategies for reducing the risks of unplanned teenage pregnancy."
Correspondence: S. P. Schinke, 622 West 113th Street, New York, NY 10025. E-mail: schinke@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10269 Stock, Jacqueline L.; Bell, Michelle A.; Boyer, Debra K.; Connell, Frederick A. Adolescent pregnancy and sexual risk-taking among sexually abused girls. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 200-3, 227 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data on 3,128 girls in grades eight, 10 and 12 who participated in the 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors were used to analyze the association of a self-reported history of sexual abuse with teenage pregnancy and with sexual behavior that increases the risk of adolescent pregnancy. In analyses adjusting for grade level, respondents who had been sexually abused were 3.1 times as likely as those who had not been abused to say they had ever been pregnant; in multivariate analyses, respondents who had experienced abuse were 2.3 times as likely as others to have had intercourse but were not more likely than other sexually active respondents to have been pregnant. However, those with a history of sexual abuse were more likely to report having had intercourse by age 15 (odds ratio, 2.1), not using birth control at last intercourse (2.0) and having had more than one sexual partner (1.4)."
Correspondence: J. L. Stock, Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10270 Wielandt, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Sexual activity and pregnancies among adolescents in Denmark--trends during the eighties. Nordisk Sexologi, No. 15, 1997. 75-88 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"This paper aims to analyse sexual activity and fertility trends in adolescence in Denmark during the 1980s....The analysis revealed no substantial change in sexual activity. In the same period use of contraception at first sexual intercourse improved significantly. Correspondingly, the relative number of teenage pregnancies decreased and teenage parenthood is now rare in Denmark. Parallel trends for females and males were observed indicating equality between the sexes."
Correspondence: H. Wielandt, Odense University Hospital, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 5000 Odense, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10271 Zimmerman, Shirley L.; Gager, Constance T. A potential case of social bankruptcy: states' AFDC payments and their teen birth rates. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1997. 109-23 pp. Carbondale, Illinois. In Eng.
"Based on a pooled time series analysis that covers a 30-year period at five different time points--1960, 1970, 1980, 1985, and 1990--this research examines the relationship between [U.S.] states' Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) payments and teen birth rates. Drawing on rational choice theories, we expected the effects of states' AFDC payments on their teen birth rates to be positive, taking into account states' divorce rates, population change rates, unemployment rates, racial composition, and poverty rates....The findings do not support assumptions regarding the incentive effects of welfare that underlie rational choice theories in states where teen birth rates are higher. If anything, teen birth rates are higher in states where AFDC payments are lower."
Correspondence: S. L. Zimmerman, University of Minnesota, Department of Family Social Science, 290 McNeal Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

64:10272 Auger, J. Evolution of human male fecundity during the last 20 years. [Evolution de la fertilité de l'homme au cours des 20 dernières années.] Contraception--Fertilité--Sexualité, Vol. 25, No. 7-8, Jul-Aug 1997. 524-9 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a general review of the literature on the possible decline in the human sperm count in recent years. "The debate on declining sperm counts is not closed and these studies raised the following important questions: Could the differences in results...reflect...variation in techniques or bias in methodologies? If these phenomena are real, why a deterioration of semen quality in some places and not in others with so important geographical differences of sperm production? What are the possible consequences on human fertility and what are the causes?...Recent publications indicated concomitant and increasing alterations of the development and/or function of the male genital tract, various observations in the wildlife and several experimental studies suggesting the possible deleterious role of numerous chemical compounds present in our environment. Therefore, prospective epidemiological studies and fundamental research are urgently needed."
Correspondence: J. Auger, Groupe Hospitalier Cochin-Port-Royal, Service d'Histologie-Embryologie, Biologie de la Reproduction et CECOS, 123 boulevard de Port-Royal, 75014 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10273 Guérin, J. F.; de Mouzon, J. Age of male partner and fecundity. [Age de l`homme et fertilité.] Contraception--Fertilité--Sexualité, Vol. 25, No. 7-8, Jul-Aug 1997. 515-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Data from FIVNAT, a French program involving in vitro fertilization (IVF), are used to analyze variations in male fecundity with age. The data permit the analysis of some 30,000 IVF cycles for tubal sterility. They confirm the absence of significant alterations of semen characteristics with age. "Despite a significant decrease...of the mean fertilization rates, the pregnancy rates remain roughly constant for a given range of maternal age."
Correspondence: J. F. Guérin, Laboratoire d'Histologie, Embryologie, Biologie de la Reproduction, Faculté de Médecine, 8 avenue Rockefeller, 69373 Lyons Cedex 08, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10274 Marsh, Margaret; Ronner, Wanda. The empty cradle: infertility in America from colonial times to the present. Henry E. Sigerist Series in the History of Medicine, ISBN 0-8018-5228-5. LC 95-35525. 1996. xiii, 326 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"The mistaken idea that current infertility rates reflect a fundamentally new phenomenon in American society, and the equally erroneous but commonly held belief that white middle-class couples predominate among the infertile, not only provide a distorted image of the present but also obscure the relationships between contemporary ways of coping with infertility and those of past generations. This book explores those relationships, examining the ways in which the inability to conceive a child has been experienced by individuals, perceived by society, and treated by medical practitioners since the colonial era. By putting into perspective the extraordinary interest that exists today in the problem of infertility in the United States, [the authors seek] to understand its historical significance as a medical and cultural phenomenon."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4319. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10275 Zheng, Ye; Bonde, Jens P. E.; Ernst, Erik; Mortensen, Jens T.; Egense, Johan. Is semen quality related to the year of birth among Danish infertility clients? International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 6, Dec 1997. 1,289-97 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"There is circumstantial evidence that human sperm count may have declined during past decades. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between semen quality and year of birth....The study comprised 8,608 men consulting four Danish medical centres from 1968 to 1992 because of infertility....We found a birth cohort effect on sperm count and morphology among Danish infertile men born after 1950 but not in men born in the first part of the century. The findings are compatible with an environmental impact during prenatal life but the evidence is far from unequivocal."
Correspondence: J. P. E. Bonde, University Hospital of Aarhus, Department of Occupational Medicine, Noerrebrogade 37-39, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

64:10276 Abebe, G. M.; Yohannis, A. Birth interval and pregnancy outcome. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 73, No. 8, Aug 1996. 552-5 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"A cross-sectional study was conducted [in Ethiopia] from September to March 1993 at maternity ward of Jimma Hospital to assess the pattern and determinants of birth interval and the role of contraceptives in influencing the length of birth interval. The information was collected by use of pre-tested questionnaire from 415 mothers by three midwives trained for this purpose. The variables examined were: information on parity, use of contraceptive methods during the preceding birth intervals, breast feeding and some demographic variables such as age, marital status, education. Pregnancy outcome variables [considered included] live births, stillbirths, abortion and infant deaths....Based on the findings, we underscore the importance of birth spacing...to promote safe motherhood and achieve better child survival."
Correspondence: G. M. Abebe, Jimma Institute of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 480, Jimma, Ethiopia. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

64:10277 Arends-Kuenning, Mary. How do family planning workers' visits affect women's contraceptive behavior in Bangladesh? Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 99, 1997. 71 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper, a theory of how family planning workers' visits in Bangladesh affect women's contraceptive behavior is developed and tested. Visits lower the costs of contraception and may increase demand for contraception. If visits increase demand or if workers are targeting their visits, past family planning workers' visits should have a positive and significant effect on later probabilities of adopting contraceptive methods. Based on longitudinal data collected from 1982 to 1989 by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, the results show in hazard models that past visits are not significant for contraceptive method adoption, whereas visits in the current round are significant. Therefore, family planning workers' visits affect women's contraceptive behavior by decreasing the costs of contraception. Results for contraceptive discontinuation hazard models provide further support for this hypothesis. The results are robust to numerous tests for bias."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10278 Arends-Kuenning, Mary. The equity and efficiency of doorstep delivery of contraceptives in Bangladesh. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 101, 1997. 73 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Currently, the family planning policy of Bangladesh is moving away from the use of trained female family planning workers who deliver methods to the client's doorstep and toward use of a traditional fixed service-delivery site. The efficiency and equity of doorstep delivery as it operated between 1984 and 1989 are investigated using longitudinal data from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Maternal and Child Health--Family Planning Extension Project (Rural). The analysis examines both technical and economic efficiency. Results suggest that the program was not technically efficient. Workers' visits were most effective for uneducated women and for those who lived in the less developed regions. However, workers were not assigned disproportionately to these regions, and individual workers targeted visits to educated women. Changing workers' incentives to target visits to uneducated women and reallocating workers may be cost-effective ways to improve the equity and efficiency of the program."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10279 Audinarayana, N.; Rani, R. Shakila. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing the use of fertility control regulating methods in a Tamil Nadu village. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 19, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1996. 200-11 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"This paper examines the influence of selected socio-economic and demographic factors influencing the use of fertility control regulating methods among those couples who have two and three living children [in Tamil Nadu, India]. The findings suggest that [the] educational status of wives closely followed by husbands, the overall socio-economic status (index) and age at marriage of wives have significant influence on the use of contraceptive methods. The socio-economic factors, except occupational status of wives, have significantly, at various levels, supported the expected phenomena only among those couples who have two living children while the demographic factors played a major role among those who had three living children."
Correspondence: N. Audinarayana, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10280 Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre; Jakobi, Lucienne. The spatial diffusion of contraception in Great Britain and the origins of the fertility transition. [Diffusion spatiale de la contraception en Grande-Bretagne, à l'origine de la transition.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1997. 977-1,003 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Contraception can be diffused according to several modes: vertical (social), horizontal (geographically) or both (oblique). Most authors subscribing to a view of a diffusion at the start of the European fertility transition use the term in the sense of a vertical diffusion. This article reexamines the nature of the diffusion, by testing the hypothesis of a horizontal diffusion at the onset of the transition. The data used are the rate of variation in the Ig fertility index and 8 socio-demographic variables representing secularization, illiteracy and social scale in 78 counties of Great Britain in the periods 1861-1871, 1871-1881, 1881-1891, 1891-1901....It is shown that only a process of geographical diffusion can generate such a representation with a diffusion velocity of 14.6, 26.1, 42.4 and 34.9 km/year for each period."
Correspondence: J.-P. Bocquet-Appel, UMR 152, Musée de l'Homme, 17 place du Trocadéro, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10281 Chen, Charles H. C.; Jiang, Zhenghua; Chen, Sheng-Li; Wang, Qian. Contraceptive prevalence in China: findings from the 1992 National Family Planning Survey. In: 1992 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, China: selected research papers in English. Oct 1997. 27-48 pp. State Family Planning Commission of China: Beijing, China; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The authors analyze data from China's 1992 National Family Planning Survey. "We will describe trends in contraceptive prevalence in China for the past decade....We report the socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic differences in current contraceptive prevalence for all ever-married women....We examine the current status of contraceptive practice and specific method used by women with no children, one child, and two or more children, respectively, and the ratio of female to male sterilizations....We [then] discuss policy implications associated with findings from the data analysis."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10282 Chhabra, Rami. Women's status and reproductive health in the context of Indian family planning programme: a review and recommendations for the future. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 267-75 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses ways to improve India's national family planning program in the context of a growing concern with reproductive health issues. Aspects considered include sexual health and rights; foreign aid and program autonomy; women's status; meeting the need for family planning; inequalities among states; and sexually transmitted diseases and reproductive health.
Correspondence: R. Chhabra, B-5/19 Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10283 Curtis, Siân L.; Blanc, Ann K. Determinants of contraceptive failure, switching, and discontinuation: an analysis of DHS contraceptive histories. DHS Analytical Report, No. 6, Oct 1997. viii, 50 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is to examine contraceptive discontinuation in six developing countries that conducted DHS surveys between 1991 and 1995--Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Peru, and Zimbabwe. Four types of discontinuation are examined: failure, switching, and abandonment of use subdivided into users who are not `in need' of contraception following discontinuation of a method and those who remain `in need'....Analyses are based on monthly contraceptive histories collected from all survey respondents. Following an assessment of data quality, both life table and multivariate statistical techniques are used in the analysis....Multivariate analyses reveal that the method chosen by women is strongly associated with the likelihood of each of the four types of discontinuation examined in all six populations."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10284 Davidson, Andrew R.; Kalmuss, Debra; Cushman, Linda F.; Romero, Diana; Heartwell, Stephen; Rulin, Marvin. Injectable contraceptive discontinuation and subsequent unintended pregnancy among low-income women. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 878, No. 9, Sep 1997. 1,532-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study investigated rates of discontinuation of the recently introduced injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and postdiscontinuation rates of unprotected intercourse and unintended pregnancy [using data for] a sample of 402 low-income, urban, minority [U.S.] women....The 12-month life-table discontinuation rate was 58%, with half of the discontinuers stopping after only one injection. Menstrual changes and other side effects were the most frequently cited reasons for discontinuation. Approximately half of the discontinuers at risk for unintended pregnancy either did not make the transition to another contraceptive or used contraception only sporadically. The cumulative unintended pregnancy rate by 9 months postdiscontinuation was 20%."
Correspondence: A. R. Davidson, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue B-2, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:10285 Fisher, Andrew A.; Prihartono, Joedo; Tuladhar, Jayanti; Hoesni, R. Hasan M. An assessment of Norplant removal in Indonesia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1997. 308-16 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study of 2,979 Indonesian women in 14 provinces, all of whom had had Norplant inserted five or more years before they were interviewed, reveals that 66 percent had obtained removal by the end of the fifth year of use and 90 percent had done so by the end of the sixth year of use. The data from this study strongly suggest that no large backlog of removal cases exists, particularly after the sixth year of use. The major reason for the underreporting of removals is probably clients' use of nurse/midwives, of caregivers in the private sector, and of mass safari camps, because records from each of these sources are poor or nonexistent."
Correspondence: A. A. Fisher, Population Council, HIV/AIDS Horizons Project, 4201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 408, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10286 Goodkind, Daniel; Anh, Phan Thuc. Reasons for rising condom use in Vietnam. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1997. 173-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article attempts to fill the gap in knowledge about condom use in Vietnam. We begin by summarizing the history and general goals of Vietnam's national family planning program. Then we identify and discuss six factors that have contributed to a recent rise in condom use and that will likely increase the future demand for condoms in Vietnam faster than that for other methods. Finally, we estimate levels of current condom use for family planning within marriage, and both potential and actual demand for condom use to prevent pregnancy and STDs outside of marriage."
Correspondence: D. Goodkind, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10287 Hemminki, Elina; Rasimus, Anja; Forssas, Erja. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 12, Dec 1997. 1,875-84 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The transition of sexual sterilization in Finland from a eugenic tool to a contraceptive method over the course of the twentieth century is described. Data are primarily from a nationwide survey carried out in 1994. The authors note that sterilization in Finland has been predominately female, and that by 1994, about nine percent of Finnish women reported sterilization as their current method of contraception.
Correspondence: E. Hemminki, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Health Services Research Unit, P.O. Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: elina.hemminki@stakes.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10288 Kamau, R. K.; Karanja, J.; Sekadde-Kigondu, C.; Ruminjo, J. K.; Nichols, D.; Liku, J. Barriers to contraceptive use in Kenya. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 73, No. 10, Oct 1996. 651-9 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This study was designed to identify and to better understand the barriers to contraceptive use among Kenyan couples....Some important barriers to contraceptive use were identified in couples wishing to space or limit further births. Those barriers included lack of agreement on contraceptive use and on reproductive intentions; husband's attitude on his role as a decision maker; perceived undesirable side effects...; negative traditional practices and desires such as naming relatives; and preference for sons as security in old age. There were also gaps in knowledge on contraceptive methods, fears, rumours and misconceptions about specific methods and unavailability or poor quality of services in the areas studied."
Correspondence: C. Sekadde-Kigondu, University of Nairobi, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10289 Kasenda, Margareth; Calzavara, Liviana M.; Johnson, Ian; LeBlanc, Michael. Correlates of condom use in the young adult population in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique, Vol. 88, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1997. 280-5 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Data from the Ontario Health Survey were used to identify sociodemographic, lifestyle and sexual history characteristics associated with the use of condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in randomly selected adults between the ages of 16 and 44 years who had had two or more sexual partners in the 12 months before the survey (n=2,699)....Forty-two percent reported not having used condoms for protection against STDs. Those most likely to use condoms were 16 to 24 years of age, males, students, non-binge-drinkers, urban residents, and those at higher risk for HIV/AIDS. Of those who used condoms, 68% did not use them consistently....Age, gender, occupational activity, and non-binge-drinking were common correlates of both condom use and consistent use."
Correspondence: L. M. Calzavara, University of Toronto, HIV Social Behavioural and Epidemiological Studies Unit, 12 Queen's Park Crescent, 3rd Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. E-mail: liviana.calzavara@utoronto.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10290 Kaufman, Carol E. Reproductive control in South Africa. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 97, 1997. 53 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The controversial state-sponsored family planning program officially began in South Africa in 1974. Although the government did not implement the program on a racial basis, the program was widely believed to be linked with white fears of growing black numbers, and was attacked by detractors as a program of social and political control. In spite of the hostile environment, black women's use of services steadily increased. Using historical and anthropological evidence, this paper delineates the links between the social and political context of racial domination and individual fertility behavior."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10291 Koenig, Michael A.; Hossain, Mian B.; Whittaker, Maxine. The influence of quality of care upon contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1997. 278-89 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present study, based upon an analysis of prospective data from a sample of 7,800 reproductive-aged rural Bangladeshi women, provides empirical evidence on the importance of quality of care for contraceptive practice. The results demonstrate that the perceptions of women regarding the quality of field-worker care were significantly related to the probability of subsequent adoption of a family planning method. Women who were not using a method and who scored high on an index of perceived quality of care were 27 percent more likely to adopt a method subsequently, compared with women with a low score. Effects were even more pronounced for contraceptive continuation; high quality of care was associated with a 72 percent greater likelihood of continued use of any method of contraception."
Correspondence: M. A. Koenig, Ford Foundation, 55 Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10292 Lacey, Linda; Adeyemi, Victoria; Adewuyi, Alfred. A tool for monitoring the performance of family planning programs in the public and private sectors: an application in Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1997. 162-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A one-page family planning questionnaire developed by Nigeria's Federal Office of Statistics can be attached to nationally representative surveys that are routinely conducted to monitor development activities. The module collects data on household composition, source of family planning information, current use of family planning methods and the source of services and supplies. A comparison of data from two of these family planning modules, fielded in December 1992 and December 1993, with results from two earlier national surveys reveals that modern method use among women aged 15-49 went from 4% in 1990 to 9% in 1992, and then rose to 11% in 1993. Such a tool allows program managers to document the expansion of family planning practice between infrequently conducted national fertility surveys."
Correspondence: L. Lacey, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10293 Liu, Yunrong; Liu, Yan. Non-use of contraception among Chinese women. In: 1992 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, China: selected research papers in English. Oct 1997. 49-57 pp. State Family Planning Commission of China: Beijing, China; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The authors report on nonuse of contraception among Chinese women. "We first examine variations in nonuse among the country's 30 provinces and municipalities. Then we consider the influence of age, number of living children, and education on women in rural areas and those in urban areas. We also consider the relationship between access to various public services and nonuse by women in rural areas. Finally, we discuss the implications of some of the findings."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10294 Mavalankar, Dileep V. Current problems of family welfare programme: administration and principles and techniques of management applicable to family welfare and reproductive health programmes. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 286-304 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes some of the administrative and managerial issues confronting [India's] national family welfare programme and suggests possible management principles and techniques which may be applied to improve the programme's efficiency and effectiveness....The paper is based on our understanding of the programme obtained from various studies we have done, which were mainly in Gujarat, and reading of studies done all over the country. We have also incorporated insights obtained from our discussions with other researchers, programme managers and review of secondary sources of information on the Indian family welfare programme."
Correspondence: D. V. Mavalankar, Indian Institute of Management, Public Systems Group, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad 380 015, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10295 Meekers, Dominique; Ahmed, Ghyasuddin; Molatlhegi, M. Tinah. Understanding constraints to adolescent condom procurement: the case of urban Botswana. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 12, 1997. 19 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes survey data in conjunction with information from focus group discussions on issues related to condom use [among]...adolescents in urban Botswana. The survey data show that condom use is high....The findings from the focus group data confirm that many adolescents, particularly females, are shy to obtain condoms....The results of this study indicate that program managers can further improve adolescents' access to condoms by engaging in efforts to destigmatize condoms, implementing programs geared at improving interaction between service providers and adolescents, especially in the public sector, and by increased marketing of affordable condoms through the private sector."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10296 Milne, Robin G.; Wright, Robert E. The decline of fertility in Malta: the role of family planning. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1997. 147-67 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the role that family planning played in the decline of fertility in Malta. In 1993 the authors carried out a survey of family planning, similar to one carried out by one [of] the authors in 1971. The analysis of these two surveys suggests that the practice of family planning has not increased significantly in this period. However, there has been a sharp change in the type of method used. More specifically, there has been a shift away from traditional methods (such as coitus interruptus) to more efficient methods (such as the contraceptive pill)....The main aim of the empirical analysis is to establish what characteristics are associated with the use of efficient methods of contraception."
Correspondence: R. G. Milne, University of Glasgow, Department of Political Economy, Adam Smith Building, Glasgow G12 8RT, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10297 Oakley, Deborah; Potter, Linda; de Leon-Wong, Emelita; Visness, Cynthia. Oral contraceptive use and protective behavior after missed pills. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1997. 277-9, 287 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A three-month prospective study of 103 [U.S.] women initiating oral contraceptive use examined how consistently the women took their pills and whether those who missed pills employed other means to avoid pregnancy. The results showed that 52% took each active pill or never missed more than one pill at a time after the first week of the initial cycle....Another 21% were protected by behaviors that reduce the risk of pregnancy when two or more consecutive pills have been missed: avoiding coitus for the next seven days (18%) or using backup contraception during that period (3%). The remaining 27% were at increased risk of pregnancy. Predictors of increased risk were receiving low partner support for effective pill use, being unmarried and not considering it especially important to avoid pregnancy."
Correspondence: D. Oakley, University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Center for Nursing Research, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10298 Oddens, B. J.; Lehert, P. Determinants of contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Great Britain and Germany I: demographic factors. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct 1997. 415-35 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Multifactorial analyses of data from representative British and German national contraception surveys were used to examine the principal demographic determinants of contraceptive use by women. Contraceptive use appeared to be determined mainly by reference to `reproductive status' (the combined impact of age, marital status, parity and future child wish)....Differences between the countries suggested that the choice of contraceptive method was influenced by health care policy, the organisation of the relevant services and differential provider preferences. The contraceptive method used was also related to having occasional rather than steady sexual partners (more condom use), lower educational level (less oral contraceptive use) and frequent church attendance (greater use of condoms and periodic abstinence)."
Correspondence: B. J. Oddens, International Health Foundation, 8 avenue Don Bosco, 1150 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10299 Oddens, B. J. Determinants of contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Great Britain and Germany II: psychological factors. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct 1997. 437-70 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Psychological determinants of contraceptive use were investigated in Great Britain and Germany, using national data obtained in 1992. It was hypothesised that current contraceptive use among sexually active, fertile women aged 15-45 was related to their attitude towards the various contraceptive methods, social influences, perceptions of being able to use a method correctly and consistently, a correct estimation of fertility, and communication with their partner. Effects of age and country were also taken into account....Contraceptive choice appears to be determined more by a general like or dislike of medical methods rather than on a weighing of the merits of individual available methods."
Correspondence: B. J. Oddens, International Health Foundation, 8 avenue Don Bosco, 1150 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10300 Odimegwu, Clifford O.; Ojo, Modupe; Siyagande, Adegoke. Regional correlates of choice of contraceptive methods in Nigeria. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jul 1997. 130-45 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The study described here is an attempt to examine the effects of factors that may play roles in determining contraceptive use and method choice in Nigeria....The specific objectives of this paper are: (1) To determine the prevalence and pattern of use of modern and traditional methods of contraception; (2) To identify correlates of method choice and determine how these differ for traditional versus modern methods used across three Nigerian regions....This analysis shows that the educational attainment of respondents is a major factor in the use of family planning methods and in the type of method use [and that] educated groups are more likely to use modern contraceptives instead of traditional methods."
Correspondence: C. O. Odimegwu, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10301 Ozcan, F. Family planning in Isparta, Turkey. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct 1997. 509-10 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Family planning practices were reported by 491 married women, aged 15-49, who applied to the Family Planning Centre in Isparta, Turkey. Eighty-four percent of the women used contraception, the IUD being used most frequently. Almost half of the women married before age 18 years."
Correspondence: F. Ozcan, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10302 Panzer, Richard A. Condom Nation: blind faith, bad science. ISBN 1-888933-02-X. LC 96-084281. 1997. viii, 160 pp. Center for Educational Media: Westwood, New Jersey. In Eng.
This is an attack on what the author feels is the prevalent philosophy in the contemporary United States concerning unwanted fertility and AIDS: that promotion of condom use is a primary solution to these problems. He makes the case that sexual abstinence is a more appropriate, practical solution for young Americans.
Correspondence: Center for Educational Media, P.O. Box 97, Westwood, NJ 07675. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10303 Reinecke, Jost; Schmidt, Peter; Ajzen, Icek. Birth control versus AIDS prevention: a hierarchical model of condom use among young people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 27, No. 9, May 1, 1997. 743-59 pp. Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors report the results of a nationwide survey of young people in Germany which applied the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1991) to condom use for purposes of birth control and with new sexual partners (to prevent AIDS). A hierarchical model, in which the 2 functions of condom use were treated as separate 2nd-order factors, was found to be superior to a single-factor model. The hierarchical model also provided evidence for the convergence and discriminant validities of indicators used to assess the constructs in the theory of planned behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control all made significant contributions to the predictions of intentions....Perceived behavioral control carried most of the weight in the former prediction, while attitudes carried most of the weight in the latter. Implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: J. Reinecke, Universität Münster, Institut für Soziologie/Sozialpädagogik, Scharnhorststraße 121, 48151 Münster, Germany. E-mail: reineck@uni-muenster.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10304 Riddle, John M. Eve's herbs: a history of contraception and abortion in the West. ISBN 0-674-27024-X. LC 96-40383. 1997. 341 pp. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The author first describes the substances, mostly herbs, used by women in historical times to control reproduction. The focus of the book is on how and why this knowledge on birth control was lost, the geographical focus being on the Western world. "From the medieval Inquisition I traced back the knowledge given in testimony by two alleged heretics before the church tribunal in the early fourteenth century. In Chapters 2 and 3 I discuss some of the herbs that were available to ancient and medieval people and review the attitudes, practices, and laws about reproductive control....Chapter 4 begins with the early modern period, when the craft of women was tragically misunderstood as witchcraft. The succeeding chapters unfold chronologically from early modern times to the twentieth century. In these chapters I tell how ancient craft information about herbs still lingered in modern times."
Correspondence: Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10305 Ross, John; Heaton, Laura. Intended contraceptive use among women without an unmet need. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1997. 148-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Demographic and Health Survey data from 25 countries show that in 15 countries, those without an unmet need who intend to practice contraception outnumber women with an unmet need who do not intend to do so; in Colombia and Zimbabwe, for example, they are four times as numerous. Among women who intend to use a method, those who have an unmet need for contraception to space the next birth are similar to those without an apparent unmet need in age and family size, and they have a similar record of past contraceptive use; however, those without an unmet need are more likely to be pregnant (34% vs. 28%) and to say they wish to defer use for at least one year (34% vs. 23%). Women with no unmet need who plan to use a method are also generally similar to current users in family size, though they are a little younger and are considerably more likely to have had a recent birth."
Correspondence: J. Ross, Futures Group International, 80 Glastonbury Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10306 Rutenberg, Naomi; Watkins, Susan C. The buzz outside the clinics: conversations and contraception in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1997. 290-307 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"When women talk with each other about family planning outside the clinic, are they really only spreading myths and rumors? If nurses give good information about family planning, why do women go and talk with other women? Why would a woman instructed by a nurse at a workshop want to talk to the workshop cleaner as well? To answer these questions, findings are used from a household survey and in-depth interviews that examine the role of informal social interaction in influencing the use of contraceptives in rural Kenya. The women in the study area are found to be ambivalent about family planning, and they supplement providers' instructions with the experiences of women whose bodies and circumstances are similar to their own."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: N. Rutenberg, Population Council, East and Southern Africa Regional Office, P.O. Box 17643, Multichoice Towers, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10307 Santelli, John S.; Warren, Charles W.; Lowry, Richard; Sogolow, Ellen; Collins, Janet; Kann, Laura; Kaufmann, Rachel B.; Celentano, David D. The use of condoms with other contraceptive methods among young men and women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1997. 261-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In a nationally representative sample of sexually experienced [U.S.] youths aged 14-22, 37% of young women and 52% of young men said the condom was the primary method used to prevent pregnancy at last intercourse....Condom use at last intercourse was reported by 25% of young men whose partner was using the pill. Significant independent predictors of condom use with the pill among men included younger age, black race, engaging in fewer nonsexual risk behaviors and having received instruction about HIV in school. Among young women, 21% of those relying on the pill reported also using a condom at last intercourse. For women, independent predictors of dual use included younger age, black race, older age at first sex, fewer nonsexual risk behaviors, having no partners in the previous three months and having talked to parents or other adult relatives about HIV."
Correspondence: J. S. Santelli, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10308 Scavone, Lucila; Bretin, Hélène; Thébaud-Mony, Annie. Contraception, population control, and social inequalities: a comparative analysis of France and Brazil. [Contracepção, controle demográfico e desigualdades sociais: análise comparativa franco-brasileira.] Vol. 2, No. 2, 1994. 357-72, 533 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article discusses how contraceptives are prescribed and used in France and Brazil, comparing statistical data based on the hypothesis that women's command over their fertility is proportional to the society's respective level of development. The comparative figures show striking social and sexual inequalities for the two countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10309 Trussell, James; Koenig, Jacqueline; Stewart, Felicia; Darroch, Jacqueline E. Medical care cost savings from adolescent contraceptive use. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1997. 248-55, 295 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"An analysis of the economic benefits of adolescent contraceptive use utilizes information from a national private payer database and from the California Medicaid program to compare private- and public-sector costs and savings. The study estimates the costs of acquiring and using 11 contraceptive methods appropriate for adolescents, treating associated side effects, providing medical care related to an unintended pregnancy during method use and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and compares them with the costs of using no method. The average annual cost per adolescent at risk of unintended pregnancy who uses no method is $1,267 ($1,079 for unintended pregnancy and $188 for STDs) in the private sector and $677 ($541 for unintended pregnancy and $137 for STDs) in the public sector under the most conservative assumptions."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10310 Zeidenstein, Sondra; Moore, Kirsten. Learning about sexuality: a practical beginning. ISBN 0-878-34085-8. LC 95-40084. 1996. xii, 404 pp. Population Council: New York, New York; International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book contains a selection of papers by various authors on family planning and reproductive health programs that consider sexuality, gender roles, and power in designing and providing services. "The chapters in this book deal with boys, girls, men, and women; with the difficulties of researchers; with participatory approaches to learning; with the importance of understanding sexuality for family planning programs; with training; with research; with the darker side of sexuality and power; and with the attempts by people themselves to articulate their own understandings and concerns. It brings experience from a wide variety of cultures. Throughout, it outlines areas of human interest that, so far, we have failed to relate to in a programmatic way."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

No citations in this issue.

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

64:10311 Akin, John S.; Rous, Jeffrey J. Effect of provider characteristics on choice of contraceptive provider: a two-equation full-information maximum-likelihood estimation. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 4, Nov 1997. 513-23 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We use surveys of households and health-care facilities conducted in the same area at the same time to determine which characteristics of providers attract users of contraceptives. By using the full-information maximum-likelihood technique to jointly estimate choice of contraceptive method and choice of provider, we avoid self-selection bias. Results support the need for modeling quality and for jointly estimating the choice of contraceptive method and the choice of provider to avoid biased estimates of coefficients. The results suggest that for the Cebu, Philippines region, small local clinics that focus on family planning tend to be most favored by clients."
Correspondence: J. S. Akin, University of North Carolina, Department of Economics, Campus Box 3305, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. E-mail: john_akin@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10312 Gupta, Y. P.; Talwar, P. P. Family planning programme in seven most populous developing countries--a comparison. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1997. 139-48 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt to discuss and compare the emphasis laid on different components of the [family planning] programmes of less developed countries and relate them with the overall achievement....This paper uses socio-economic background, demographic profile, family planning programme achievements and family planning programme characteristics for...seven countries to analyse their achievements and the factors which might be partly responsible...." The countries concerned are China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nigeria.
Correspondence: Y. P. Gupta, CARE India, B-28 Greater Kailash-1, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10313 Jiang, Zhenghua. Recent developments in the family planning program in China. In: 1992 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, China: selected research papers in English. Oct 1997. 7-11 pp. State Family Planning Commission of China: Beijing, China; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The author briefly outlines recent changes in China's national family planning program. "The success of China's family planning program is due primarily to the efforts to educate the public and provide couples of child-bearing age with a range of services, including contraceptive devices that incorporate current scientific and technological thinking."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10314 Kamaara, Eunice. Some constraints to family planning programmes in Kenyan urban centres. Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, Vol. 25, 1995. 64-75 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This study examines the complex and multiple factors affecting the attitude and practice of family planning in Kenyan urban centres....Currently [Kenya] has one of the highest rates of expenditure on family planning programmes. In spite of this, the country has the lowest percentage of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) using any type of contraceptives. Moreover [it] has one of the highest rates of fertility, and contraceptive use has remained unchanged for the last three decades in spite of long-standing family planning programmes....It is hypothesized that there are certain socio-cultural, religious and political factors that inhibit the success of family planning programmes in Kenyan urban centres. This paper examines these."
Correspondence: E. Kamaara, Moi University, Department of Religion, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10315 Khuda, Barkat; Stoeckel, John; Piet-Pelon, Nancy. Bangladesh family planning programme: lessons learned and directions for the future. ICDDR, B Monograph, No. 6, ISBN 984-551-091-4. Apr 1997. xv, 80 pp. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh [ICDDR, B]: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The authors examine what has been learned during the development of a national family planning program in Bangladesh. "The specific objectives of the review are to identify the lessons learned regarding each programme component: what worked, what did not work, and why; and to provide recommendations for improvement based upon the lessons learned. Since the urban programme presents a special challenge, the review highlights urban concerns separately." There are chapters on service delivery; administration; planning; training; information, education, and communication; monitoring and supervision; logistics and supplies; and the urban MCH-FP program.
Correspondence: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Author's E-mail: barkat@cholera.bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10316 Khuda, Barkat; Kane, Thomas T.; Phillips, James F. Improving the Bangladesh Health and Family Planning Programme: lessons learned through operations research. ICDDR, B Monograph, No. 5, ISBN 984-551-090-6. Apr 1997. xix, 169 pp. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh [ICDDR, B]: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The purpose of this report is to document the lessons learned from the various interventions and technical assistance provided to the Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH-FP) Extension Project (Rural) carried out in Bangladesh since 1982. There are chapters on developing doorstep services, developing fixed service sites, improving management support services, achieving sustainability of health and family planning services, demographic change, policy impact of the project, and visions for the future.
Correspondence: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Author's E-mail: barkat@cholera.bangla.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10317 Mishra, Adarsh. Current policies and programmes in family planning and reproductive health and future trainings. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 220-35 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author evaluates current family planning and reproductive health programs in India, with a focus on regional accomplishments and means of improving program effectiveness. Aspects considered include specific interventions for different types of states; ways of monitoring performance; involvement of NGOs and voluntary agencies; and suggestions for the development of projects at the state level.
Correspondence: A. Mishra, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10318 Naré, Christine; Katz, Karen; Tolley, Elizabeth. Adolescents' access to reproductive health and family planning services in Dakar (Senegal). African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Sep 1997. 15-25 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper analyses the issue of adolescents' access to family planning services and information on reproductive health [in Dakar, Senegal]....The findings present information on adolescents' perceptions of premarital sexual activity and contraceptive use and the different types of barriers to access to family planning....The results indicate that adolescents did not approve of premarital sexual relations, were less likely to approve of contraceptive use by adolescents than by married men and women, and felt embarrassed to go to the services. They were also disappointed by the providers' reception and response to their needs....The discussion of the findings related adolescents' and providers' attitudes to the socio-cultural context in which adolescent sexuality takes place."
Correspondence: C. Naré, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10319 Schoen, Johanna. Fighting for child health: race, birth control, and the state in the Jim Crow South. Social Politics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring 1997. 90-113 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses North Carolina's state-run birth control program, which was established in 1937 and was the first such program in the United States. "Some have held that birth control programs were motivated by racism and a defense of class distinctions. Others have argued that the vulnerable position of black and poor white patients resulted in their exploitation as research subjects. Analyses of these public health efforts assume that the birth control program worked to the detriment of black and poor white interests. A closer examination of North Carolina's birth control program reveals, however, that black health and social work professionals as well as black and poor white clients welcomed the services, participated in them, and helped shape the contraceptive programs offered by the state."
Correspondence: J. Schoen, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10320 Simon, Helen H. A review of national family welfare programme. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 203-19 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews the goals and demographic effectiveness of India's national family planning program, which was instituted in 1951. Tabular data are included on birth, death, and growth rates; literacy; regional growth rates; urban growth; and high and low birth and death rates throughout the country.
Correspondence: H. H. Simon, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10321 Swaminathan, M. S.; Gulati, Anuja; Rao, Prabhakar; Ravichandran, R. Population programmes in the context of democratic decentralization: allocation of responsibilities and resources to Panchayats and Nagarpalikas. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 181-6 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors explore reasons for the marginal success of India's national family planning program, with a focus on the need for a disaggregated approach to program implementation. "The emergence of grass-roots democratic structures would provide a unique opportunity to give the population programme an area specific focus....The preparation of Socio-Demographic Charters [is suggested] as the planning tool for use at the grass-root level for achieving the transition to low birth and death rates."
Correspondence: M. S. Swaminathan, M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Street, Taramani Institutional Area, Madras 600 113, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10322 Trakroo, P. L. An assessment of communication activities for women in reproductive age in Haryana. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 19, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1996. 173-87 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"This paper attempts to assess the availability and acceptability of electronic media and inter-spouse communication for family planning among ever married women between age 13 and 59 years, living in Haryana State [India]. It also highlights the reach and effectiveness of communication efforts being performed by [the] health and family welfare delivery system in the State....The author concludes that...the acceptability of family planning messages presented through electronic media to Haryana women is comparatively higher than the overall national level. It was also observed that among women who use contraceptives almost half of them have been exposed to family welfare messages through electronic media."
Correspondence: P. L. Trakroo, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Communication, New Mehrauli Road, Munirka, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

64:10323 Adongo, Philip B.; Phillips, James F.; Kajihara, Beverly; Fayorsey, Clara; Debpuur, Cornelius; Binka, Fred N. Cultural factors constraining the introduction of family planning among the Kassena-Nankana of northern Ghana. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 12, Dec 1997. 1,789-804 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study presents a focus group investigation of reasons why women in a rural, Sahelian community [in Ghana] are reluctant to adopt family planning even when convenient services are made freely available. First, women opting to practice contraception must do so at considerable risk of social ostracism or familial conflict....Second, few women view personal decisions about contraceptives as theirs to make....Third, although children are highly valued for a variety of economic, social, and cultural reasons, mortality risks remain extremely high....Taken together, these findings attest to the inadequacy of service strategies focused on the contribution of distribution, individual agency, or personal choice. Outreach should also build a sense of community legitimacy for the program, collective health action, and traditional leadership support for family planning behavior."
Correspondence: J. F. Phillips, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10324 Bongaarts, John. Trends in unwanted childbearing in the developing world. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 98, 1997. 36 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study analyzes trends in unwanted fertility in 20 developing countries, based on data from WFS and DHS surveys. While wanted childbearing almost invariably declines as countries move through the fertility transition, the trend in unwanted fertility was found to have an inverted U shape....The principal policy implication from this analysis is that vigorous efforts to reduce unwanted pregnancies through family planning programs and other measures are needed early in the fertility transition because, in their absence, unwanted fertility and abortion rates are likely to rise to high levels."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10325 Bongaarts, John. Trends in unwanted childbearing in the developing world. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1997. 267-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study analyzes trends in unwanted fertility in 20 developing countries, based on data from the World Fertility Surveys and the Demographic and Health Surveys. Although wanted childbearing almost invariably declines as countries move through the fertility transition, the trend in unwanted fertility was found to have an inverted U shape. During the first half of the transition, unwanted fertility tends to rise, and it does not decline until near the end of the transition. This pattern is attributed to the combined effects of an increase in the duration of exposure to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and a rise in contraceptive use as desired family size declines. The substantial variation in unwanted fertility among countries at the same transition stage is caused by variation in the degree of implementation of preferences, the effectiveness of contraceptive use, the rate of induced abortion, and other proximate determinants, such as age at marriage, duration of breastfeeding, and frequency of sexual relations."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10326 Daragaiah, G.; Kumar, V. K. Ravindra; Dhanalakshmi, N. Status of women and value of children in Kurnool: Andhra Pradesh. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1996. 108-15 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"This study determines the influence of value of children and change in roles of women in slum areas of Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh [India]. The study reveals that most of the respondents are in favour of inter-caste marriage to their daughters. Family planning adoption is found to be more [prevalent] among those who have modern [outlooks] and have positive [attitudes] towards changes in day-to-day roles of women. The adoption of family planning will be [higher] among the slum areas where the value of [sons is lower]."
Correspondence: G. Daragaiah, Sri Venkateswara University, Department of Population Studies, District Chittoor, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh 517 502, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10327 Francome, Colin. Attitudes of general practitioners in Northern Ireland toward abortion and family planning. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 234-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A survey of the attitudes and practices of general practitioners in Northern Ireland regarding contraception and abortion was carried out in 1994 and 1995 with a randomized sample of 154 physicians. The vast majority of doctors who received requests for contraceptives from their patients fulfilled those requests (94%)....Two-thirds thought that a woman together with her physician should decide whether to terminate a pregnancy, 19% did not think the choice should be left with the woman and her physician and 13% were undecided."
Correspondence: C. Francome, Middlesex University, Department of Medical Sociology, London NW4 4BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10328 Gohel, Mira; Diamond, James J.; Chambers, Christopher V. Attitudes toward sexual responsibility and parenting: an exploratory study of young urban males. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1997. 280-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The self-reported sexual and parenting behaviors and attitudes of 42 [U.S.] urban males aged 16-22 who had fathered a child were compared with those of 49 demographically similar young men who were not fathers when they sought medical care at a public health center....Fathers were less likely than the other respondents to feel that parenthood would interfere with their future (71% vs. 92%) or to have a concrete five-year plan (57% vs. 90%). They were more likely to believe that family (62% vs. 37%) and peers (68% vs. 40%) looked favorably upon early parenthood, to have a mother who was a teenage parent (74% vs. 47%) and to state that they lacked an adequate father figure while growing up (50% vs. 18%). Fathers also reported more frequent sexual activity and less consistent contraceptive use than did the others."
Correspondence: M. Gohel, Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Family Medicine, 11th and Walnut Streets, Philadelphia, PA 19107. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10329 Hao, Hongsheng; Gao, Ling. Sex preference and its effects on fertility in China. In: 1992 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey, China: selected research papers in English. Oct 1997. 59-98 pp. State Family Planning Commission of China: Beijing, China; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This chapter [examines], for China as [a] whole and for urban and rural areas during the period 1955-92, the relationship between the decline in period parity progression ratios of women and the sex composition of their children. The quantitative influence of son preference on fertility decline will also be estimated in the study. We will also examine the relationship [of] sex ratio at birth with the sex composition of children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10330 Jelen, Ted G.; Wilcox, Clyde. Attitudes toward abortion in Poland and the United States. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 4, Dec 1997. 907-21 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
Attitudes toward legal abortion in Poland and the United States are compared using data compiled by NORC. "Despite differences in history, culture, and the distribution of religious affiliation, mass attitudes toward abortion are quite similar in the two countries, although Catholicism is a significantly stronger predictor of `pro-life' attitudes in the United States....In general, our findings suggest that national and cultural differences are of limited utility in accounting for variations in abortion attitudes. We suggest that the fact that the antiabortion movement in the United States must formulate arguments that appeal to an ecumenical coalition may make the Catholic Church a more effective agent of socialization in a religiously competitive environment."
Correspondence: T. G. Jelen, University of Nevada, Department of Political Science, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10331 Ji, Hong; Yan, Ruiguo. A study on the reproductive health of married graduate students. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997. 171-85 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Between October 1993 and April 1995, we conducted a systematic sample survey of all the married female graduate students and married male graduate students of equal number, at Beijing Normal University." Information is presented on students' views on dating and marriage; knowledge, attitude, and practice of contraception and termination of pregnancy; and views and knowledge of reproduction and childbearing.
Correspondence: H. Ji, Beijing Normal University Hospital, Xinjekouwai St 19, Beijing 100875, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10332 Kissling, Frances. The Vatican and politics of reproductive health. Conscience, Vol. 17, No. 4, Winter 1996-1997. 25-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the text of an address delivered by the president of Catholics for a Free Choice at a London meeting sponsored by the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population, Development and Reproductive Health. The author examines some questions concerning the role of religious institutions in the formulation of public policy and law, with particular reference to the involvement of the Roman Catholic Church in issues concerning gender, sexuality, and human reproduction. She points out that, if policymakers were to adopt the Catholic position on such issues, everyone would be subject to laws based on the teaching of one religion, and that the church patriarchy appears not only to be attempting to control women but also to cut off all dialogue on such topics.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10333 Mace, Ruth; Sear, Rebecca. Birth interval and the sex of children in a traditional African population: an evolutionary analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct 1997. 499-507 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the length of the birth interval in a traditional African population is analysed by sex of children. Birth intervals after the birth of a boy were significantly longer than after the birth of a girl, indicating higher parental investment in boys. However, in women of high parity, this differential disappeared. Birth intervals for women with no son were shorter than for those with at least one son. All these results are compatible with an evolutionary analysis of reproductive decision-making....This paper examines data...from Gabbra pastoralists, a traditional group of nomadic camel herders who live in the north of Kenya."
Correspondence: R. Mace, University College London, Department of Anthropology, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10334 Oates, Gary L. Self-esteem enhancement through fertility? Socioeconomic prospects, gender, and mutual influence. American Sociological Review, Vol. 62, No. 6, Dec 1997. 965-73 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"I analyze data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), using a LISREL model to examine whether having children influences one's self-esteem, whether the effect of children on self-esteem is stronger among the less socioeconomically privileged and among women, and whether there is evidence of mutual influence in the relationship between having children and self-esteem. I find that the number of children does not affect self-esteem; this holds true for both women and men, and for different socioeconomic groups. There is no evidence of non linearity in the relationship between number of children and self-esteem. Further, self-esteem does not affect whether men or women have children."
Correspondence: G. L. Oates, University of Connecticut, Department of Sociology, 344 Mansfield Road, Storrs, CT 06268. E-mail: oatesg@uconnvm.uconn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10335 Pandey, R. N. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning in Mongolia. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1997. 79-92 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In Mongolia, there is no system of collection of regular data on the contraceptive prevalence rate. To fill this gap, the Population Teaching and Research Centre (PTRC) conducted the first ever Demographic Survey in Mongolia during October-November 1994, to provide information about the trends and levels of fertility, mortality, [and] use of contraceptive methods....In this paper an attempt has been made to present some information about the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning methods in Mongolia based on the data from this survey."
Correspondence: R. N. Pandey, Central Statistical Organization, Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10336 Ravindran, T. K. Sundari; Berer, Marge; Cottingham, Jane. Beyond acceptability: users' perspectives on contraception. ISBN 0-9531210-0-3. 1997. iii, 121 pp. Reproductive Health Matters: London, England. In Eng.
This collection of papers was initiated at an international workshop held in Geneva, Switzerland, in late 1995 on aspects of contraceptive acceptability and users' perspectives on contraception. "It brings together the experience of researchers, contraceptive service providers and women's health advocates. The papers include original research carried out in Chile, India, South Africa and the UK and in two cross-country studies; reviews and analysis of the existing literature and proposals for future directions, including the following topics: market research and analysis of contraception; hormonal contraception: what we know and what we need to find out; would the diaphragm be more widely used if it were more available; negotiating condom use: an issue of empowerment; acceptability of the new post-partum vaginal ring; urban poor women's views on the technical attributes of contraceptive methods: a comparative study; couples' perspectives on the vasectomy decision; dual risk and dual protection: making sex safer; supporting women's choices and effective use of contraception; [and] reorienting research on contraceptive choice."
Correspondence: Reproductive Health Matters, 29-35 Farringdon Road, London EC1M 3JB, England. E-mail: RHMjournal@compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10337 Shi, Youying; Zhang, Jingyu. A study on premarital instructions in urban areas. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1997. 135-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study was conducted by the aggregate sampling method among people who visited the Dongsi Maternity and Child Care Hospital in Beijing between June 1993 and April 1994. The visitors' views on marriage and reproduction and willingness to seek premarital instructions were surveyed." Respondents' knowledge of reproductive health, contraception, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease is assessed.
Correspondence: Y. Shi, Dongsi Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10338 Unger, Jennifer B.; Molina, Gregory B. Desired family size and son preference among Hispanic women of low socioeconomic status. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1997. 284-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Among 432 Hispanic women aged 18-50 interviewed at a Los Angeles obstetrics and gynecology clinic, respondents reported wanting an average of 2.8 sons but only 0.1 daughters. Being older than 30, having no more than an eighth grade education, being separated, divorced or widowed, being Spanish-speaking or having been born outside the United States, and having a large family of origin were all positively associated with a desire for a greater number of sons. A multivariate analysis indicated that women who preferred to speak Spanish were 10.9 times as likely as those who preferred English to desire a greater number of sons, and those with more children were 2.5 times as likely as those with fewer children to have a strong desire for sons."
Correspondence: J. B. Unger, University of Southern California, Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10339 Zheng, Xiaoying. A survey of graduate students' knowledge, views, and behavior with respect to reproductive health. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1997. 123-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Should we provide college students with information and services related to reproductive health based on their characteristics and needs? In order to answer this question, this study was conducted in 1994 [in China] among married and unmarried graduate students on their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with respect to reproductive health." Aspects considered include contraceptive usage, premarital sex, abortion, knowledge of the fertile period, and need for population education.
Correspondence: X. Zheng, Beijing University, Institute of Demographics, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

64:10340 Agadjanian, Victor; Qian, Zhenchao. Ethnocultural identity and induced abortion in Kazakstan. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1997. 317-29 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study analyzes ethnic differences in induced abortion among ever-married women in Kazakstan, drawing on data from the 1995 Kazakstan Demographic and Health Survey. Instead of conventional ethnic markers, such as `Kazak' or `Russian', it focuses on more complex ethnocultural identities that combine ascribed ethnicity with language use. Because of the history of russification in Kazakstan, three ethnocultural groups are defined and compared--Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Kazak, Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Russian, and women of European background interviewed in Russian. Whereas women of European origin were the most likely to undergo induced abortion, the Russian-interviewed Kazaks had higher abortion ratios and were more likely to terminate their pregnancies than were the Kazak-interviewed Kazaks, net of other characteristics. The implications of the results for induced abortion trends and family planning policy in Kazakstan are discussed in addition to other findings."
Correspondence: V. Agadjanian, Arizona State University, Department of Sociology, Tempe, AZ 85287-2101. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10341 Borisov, V.; Sinel'nikov, A.; Arkhangel'skii, V. Abortions and family planning in Russia: legal and moral aspects. [Aborty i planirovanie sem'i v Rossii: pravovye i nravstvennye aspekty.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 3, 1997. 75-81 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Trends in induced abortion and family planning in the Russian Federation are analyzed over the period from 1970 to 1995.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10342 Bowen, Donna L. Abortion, Islam, and the 1994 Cairo Population Conference. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1997. 161-84 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author discusses induced abortion and Islam in the context of the 1994 Cairo Population Conference. She first reviews "the theological and juridical reasoning gleaned from the classical fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) texts of the 9th-15th centuries and contemporary articles and statements by ulama on abortion....Second, I will take up the religious, political, and social contexts of attitudes toward abortion and the practice of abortion in the late 20th century....The topic of the third section [is] the actions and attitudes of women as they confront the possibility of abortion. Finally, I will survey the stances of Muslim countries as delineated in reports from the population conference."
Correspondence: D. L. Bowen, Brigham Young University, Department of Political Science, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

64:10343 Centre for African Family Studies (Nairobi, Kenya). Abortion in Africa. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1996. 80 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
This special issue of a new journal provides an overview of unsafe abortion in Africa, with a focus on the legal status of the procedure, prevalence, reasons for abortion complications, differences among countries, and ethical considerations.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Centre for African Family Studies, Pamstech House, Woodvale Grove, Westlands, P.O. Box 60054, Nairobi, Kenya. E-mail: cafs@ken.Healthnet.Org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10344 Chalubinski, Miroslaw. Politics and abortion. [Polityka i aborcja.] ISBN 83-85838-14-7. 1994. 255 pp. Agencja Scholar: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
This book presents a selection of articles by various authors on induced abortion and related issues in Poland. The articles deal with the social, ethical, religious, and political aspects of the abortion debate, as well as with the physiological aspects of abortion. The focus of the debate is on whether the right to an abortion should be protected as a basic human right.
Correspondence: Agencja Scholar, ul. Królewska 43/92, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10345 Emuveyan, Edward E. Profile of abortion in Nigeria. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1996. 8-13 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the legal and social contexts of abortion in Nigeria, provides information on available data and identifies gaps in the available data with a view to finding ways to further improve data collection and management. It outlines policy changes needed, advocacy activities to facilitate such changes and areas of further research." The author reports on focus groups conducted in 1993 and 1994 in which women were asked about abortion-related attitudes, beliefs, motives, and behaviors.
Correspondence: E. E. Emuveyan, University of Lagos, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10346 Ghebrehewet, Samuel; Ashton, J. A review of induced abortion rates in England and Wales, 1969-1994. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 4, Jan 1998. 120-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines trends in induced abortion rates in England and Wales, from 1969 to 1994. A comparison of the trends between the different age groups shows contrasting changes and interesting features. The only age group to show a continuous increase since 1969 has been females aged 11 to 14 years. This may be due to birth cohort effect, as younger women begin sexual activity in a social environment of higher risk than previous cohorts....In spite of the availability of improved and better contraceptive services and sex education, the cohort analysis suggests that induced abortion rate in each successive cohort was higher than the preceding cohort."
Correspondence: S. Ghebrehewet, Saint Catherine's Hospital, Wirral Health Authority, Birkenhead, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10347 Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip; Staiger, Douglas. Abortion legalization and child living circumstances: who is the "marginal child"? NBER Working Paper, No. 6034, May 1997. 32, [2] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We estimate the impact of changes in abortion access in the early 1970s on the average living standards of cohorts born in those years. In particular, we address the selection inherent in the abortion decision: is the marginal child who is not born when abortion access increases more or less disadvantaged than the average child?...Our estimates imply that the marginal child who was not born due to legalization would have been 70% more likely to live in a single parent family, 40% more likely to live in poverty, 50% more likely to receive welfare, and 35% more likely to die as an infant. These selection effects imply that the legalization of abortion saved the government over $14 billion in welfare expenditures through 1994."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: gruber@mit.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10348 Haas-Wilson, Deborah. Women's reproductive choices: the impact of Medicaid funding restrictions. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 228-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"As of January 1997, 34 states were enforcing restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortions. Determining whether these restrictions affect women's reproductive decisions was the object of a fixed-effects log-linear analysis using 11 years of data between 1978 and 1992. Results indicate that abortion rates in states with Medicaid funding restrictions are 2% lower than rates in states with no such restrictions. However, when the supply of abortion providers and the demographic characteristics of the state population are taken into account, the difference is no longer statistically significant. Medicaid funding restrictions have no impact on birthrates, and the result is the same regardless of whether the empirical model takes into account provider availability, demographic characteristics and state sentiment toward women and reproductive rights."
Correspondence: D. Haas-Wilson, Smith College, Department of Economics, Northampton, MA 01063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10349 Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica [ISTAT]. Sistema Statistico Nazionale (Rome, Italy). The voluntary interruption of pregnancy in Italy: a sociodemographic and health profile from Law 194 to the present. [L'interruzione volontaria di gravidanza in Italia: un quadro socio-demografico e sanitario dalla legge 194 ad oggi.] Argomenti, No. 9, ISBN 88-458-0055-5. 1997. 201 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This report reviews developments in induced abortion in Italy, from the implementation in 1978 of Law 194 legalizing abortion up to the present. In addition to an analysis of changes over time in abortions by region, the report examines the characteristics of women having abortions, including abortions undergone by minors, the status of abortion services, and the types of procedures used. Some major changes are noted, particularly the significant reduction in time between conception and performance of abortions. Extensive tables presenting the relevant data are provided.
Correspondence: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 16, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10350 Kaufmann, K. The abortion resource handbook. A Fireside Book, ISBN 0-684-83076-0. LC 97-10262. 1997. xix, 218 pp. Simon and Schuster: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book "was conceived and written to provide women [in the United States] with the support and clear, practical information they need to get an abortion regardless of their personal situation or the restrictive nature of the laws, lack of clinics, or level of antichoice violence in their state....Chapters 1 through 6 cover logistics: how to choose a clinic, deal with informed consent and parental notification and consent laws, and find help if you think you can't afford an abortion or have to travel to a clinic in another city or state. Chapter 7 contains information on clinic harassment, and Chapter 8 looks at the emotional and physical experience of unplanned pregnancy. Chapters 9 and 10 provide basic medical information on abortion, including the procedures used for first-and second-trimester abortions, what will be happening during your appointment, and the drugs that can be used for emergency contraception and early abortion. Chapter 11 is intended only for women who are having a late abortion because of fetal anomaly or other life-threatening medical condition. The appendixes include a state-by-state list of laws and prochoice organizations; a resource and bibliography section; and sample parental notification, judicial bypass, and medical informed consent forms."
Correspondence: Simon and Schuster, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10351 Likwa, Rosemary N.; Whittaker, Maxine. The characteristics of women presenting for abortion and complications of illegal abortions at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia: an explorative study. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1996. 42-9 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This report describes the findings of a prospective study of women presenting with a request for termination of pregnancy or with the diagnosis of complication of induced abortion, at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. The paper identifies some socio-economic characteristics of these women, comparing those obtaining legal with those obtaining illegal abortions....The paper...suggests reasons for the demographic differences noted between the groups."
Correspondence: R. N. Likwa, Ministry of Health, Family Health Unit (MCH/FP), Lusaka, Zambia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10352 Machungo, Fernanda; Zanconato, Giovanni; Bergström, Staffan. Reproductive characteristics and post-abortion health consequences in women undergoing illegal and legal abortion in Maputo. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 11, Dec 1997. 1,607-13 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the Maputo Central Hospital [Mozambique] 103 women undergoing induced legal abortion (LA), 103 women with confirmed, recent illegal abortion (IA), and 100 randomly recruited antenatal clinic (AC) attenders were compared in order to find characteristic features regarding obstetric history, reproductive performance and contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice." The results suggest that women undergoing illegal abortion are more likely to be exposed to unprotected intercourse and to experience a first pregnancy at a young age, and have little or no experience of safe and legal abortion.
Correspondence: S. Bergström, Karolinska Institute, Division of International Health Care Research, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10353 Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina; Singh, Susheela; Audam, Suzette. Nigerian health professionals' perceptions about abortion practice. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1997. 155-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Although the provision of abortion is highly restricted in Nigeria, findings from a 1996 survey of 67 health professionals from two-thirds of the country's states indicate that women of all socioeconomic levels obtain induced abortions, albeit under a wide range of conditions. Nationally, about one-third of women seeking an abortion are thought to obtain it from a physician, and almost one-quarter are believed to go to a nurse or midwife; nearly half are thought to either use traditional providers who have no formal medical training, take drugs they purchase over the counter or employ other means to induce the abortion themselves. Because such a high proportion of abortions are likely performed by unskilled providers or are self-induced, about two-fifths of all women who have an abortion are believed to suffer a medical complication, and nearly one-fifth are expected to be hospitalized for treatment of health consequences."
Correspondence: S. Singh, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10354 Mandelin, Matti A. Pregnancy termination--situation in Finland. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 76, Suppl., No. 164, 1997. 51-3 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"Finnish abortion numbers have been declining steadily since the initial increase following the liberalization of abortion legislation in 1970, and in 1994, only 7.9 abortions per 1,000 women between 15 and 49 years of age were performed. This figure is the lowest in the Nordic countries. Legislation, methods and complications, abortion services and contraceptive practices in Finland are described."
Correspondence: M. A. Mandelin, City Maternity Hospital, Sofianlehdonkatu 5, 00610 Helsinki, Finland. Source: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10355 Mogilevkina, Irina; Markote, Solvita; Avakyan, Yuri; Mrochek, Ludmila; Liljestrand, Jerker; Hellberg, Dan. Induced abortions and childbirths: trends in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Belarussia and the Ukraine during 1970 to 1994. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 75, No. 10, 1996. 908-11 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
The aim of this study is "to analyse trends in childbirth, induced abortions and maternal morbidity from 1970 to 1994 in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Belarussia and the Ukraine." The study was based on compilation and analysis of official health statistics from the six countries. The authors report that "high abortion rates (up to 142 per 1,000 women of fertile ages and years) were seen in all countries analysed, but since 1980 a continuing decrease is noted for Estonia, Latvia and Kaliningrad with a lowest rate of 50 abortions/1,000 women/year in Latvia in 1994. Teenage abortions and childbirths are increasing. Maternal mortality, including complications of abortions, is still a reality in all the countries studied". The article makes comparisons of abortion and birth rates, in general and in teenagers, with the situation in Sweden. In all countries and regions, induced abortions were at least three times as common as in Sweden.
Correspondence: D. Hellberg, Falun Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 791 82 Falun, Sweden. E-mail: dan.hellberg@ltdalarna.se. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10356 Mosaase, M. L.; Tlebere, P. Unsafe abortion and post abortion family planning in Africa: the case of Lesotho. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1996. 26-8 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"The maternal mortality rate in Lesotho is still regrettably high....The rate could be an underestimate since it is computed from hospital-based data and mortalities that occur in the home are not reflected. It is estimated that about a quarter to a third of maternal deaths are secondary to complications of abortion: severe haemorrhage; post abortal sepsis; poisoning from ingestion of abortifacients."
Correspondence: M. L. Mosaase, Planned Parenthood Association, Maseru, Lesotho. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10357 Mpangile, G. S.; Leshabari, M. T.; Kaaya, S. F.; Kihwele, D. J. The role of male partners in teenage induced abortion in Dar es Salaam. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1996. 29-37 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper presents information from 150 teenagers on the role played by male partners in facilitating induced abortions in Dar es Salaam [Tanzania]. The sample was screened from a larger data set consisting of 965 women admitted with abortion complications over 45 consecutive days. Findings of the study revealed that although the majority of the partners of teenage girls advised abortion, less than 1/3 of these men were willing to identify an abortionist, pay the fees required, or provide further assistance when complications developed."
Correspondence: G. S. Mpangile, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Region, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10358 Okonofua, Friday E.; Odimegwu, Clifford; Aina, Bisi; Daru, P. H.; Johnson, A. Women's experiences of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in Nigeria: summary report. Critical Issues in Reproductive Health, Nov 1996. ii, 31 pp. Population Council, Robert H. Ebert Program: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is to present the results of a population-based study of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion among women of reproductive age in two communities in the southwestern and northern parts of Nigeria. The overall objective of the study was to provide data necessary for the design of practical interventions and policies for reducing the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with induced abortion in Nigeria."
Correspondence: Population Council, Robert H. Ebert Program, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Author's E-mail: FOkonofua@OAU.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10359 Pringle, Helen. Is abortion illegal? Australian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 32, No. 1, Mar 1997. 93-110 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"My aim in this article is very limited: to explore whether abortion is illegal in Australia....First, I set out the statutory provisions and judicial rulings that form the basis of the legal position on abortion in Australia. Secondly, I consider the legal weight of those rulings....I then explore whether there are any abortions that would be `prima facie' illegal....I conclude with mention of the most recent developments in the area...and the relevant provisions of the proposed Model Criminal Code, and their significance for the law and public policy on abortion."
For on-line availability see http://www.catchword.co.uk.
Correspondence: H. Pringle, University of New South Wales, School of Political Science, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

64:10360 Ramalefo, Cally; Modisaotsile, Innocent M. The state of unsafe abortion in Botswana: evidence from proxy indicators. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1996. 38-41 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"In this paper, we will advance evidence to register the existence of unsafe abortions [in Botswana]. However, given limited research in this area, we will support our arguments through proxy indicators for unsafe abortions. Finally, we will advance both short term and long term strategies that need to be employed to curtail the incidence of unsafe abortion."
Correspondence: C. Ramalefo, Botswana Family Welfare Association, P.O. Bag 00100, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10361 Renne, Elisha P. Changing patterns of child-spacing and abortion in a northern Nigerian town. OPR Working Paper, No. 97-1, Apr 1997. 22, [10] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper examines...changing patterns of abortion and child-spacing in relation to women's education, based on research conducted in Zaria [Nigeria] from 1994 to 1996....Women's education in Zaria appears to be affecting patterns of abortion in at least two ways. First, it has provided alternative advice on child-spacing which has indirectly reduced the demand for abortion by married women. Second, the demand for abortion may be increasing for secondary school women who want to complete their education before marrying."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10362 Roberge, Lawrence F. The cost of abortion: an analysis of the social, economic, and demographic effects of abortion in the United States. ISBN 1-885857-16-0. LC 95-61930. 1995. xvi, 78 pp. Four Winds: LaGrange, Georgia. In Eng.
In this study, the author attempts to analyze the costs of legal abortion for the United States from a pro-life perspective, using publicly available data for the period 1965-1992. He first presents evidence to show that the official published data underestimate the number of legal abortions that actually occur. He then goes on to analyze the effect of induced abortion on fertility and mortality, population growth, education, and economic and fiscal factors.
Correspondence: Four Winds, P.O. Box 3102, LaGrange, GA 30241. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10363 Rogo, Khama; Leonard, Ann; Muia, Esther. Unsafe abortion in Kenya: findings from eight studies. ISBN 0-87834-087-4. 1996. vi, 42 pp. Population Council: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"In 1988...the Population Council embarked on a four-year collaborative program...to document the magnitude and nature of the problem of unsafe abortion. The program had two principal objectives. The first was to assist Kenyan institutions in defining the major legal, policy, and programmatic issues surrounding the practice of illegal and unsafe abortions. The second objective was to provide Kenyan researchers with experience in utilizing a range of methodologies, both quantitative and qualitative, to study the problem....Researchers from the Centre for the Study of Adolescence designed and implemented a package of eight studies. This monograph provides a summary of the findings of these studies."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10364 Rogo, Khama O. Induced abortion in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1996. 14-25 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
The author discusses the problem of induced abortion in Sub-Saharan Africa. Aspects considered include the dimensions of abortion, abortion and the law, abortion services, consequences of induced abortion, and the future of induced abortion.
Correspondence: K. O. Rogo, University of Nairobi, College of Health Services, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box 19626, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10365 Serour, G. I.; Ragab, A. R.; Hassanein, M. The position of Muslim culture towards abortion. Population Sciences, Vol. 16, Jul 1996. 1-17 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The position of Islam with regard to induced abortion is examined. "There is a consensus among the theologians that abortion after 120 days is not allowed except to save mother's life. Before 120 days, the majority of the Islamic institutions and theologians are of the opinion that abortion is not allowed in Islam except for health reasons and abortion as a method of family planning is not accepted. However, women presented with abortion complications should be attended properly."
Correspondence: G. I. Serour, Al-Azhar University, International Islamic Centre for Population Studies and Research, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10366 Söderberg, Hanna. Abortions in Malmö--problems and prevention. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 76, Suppl., No. 164, 1997. 60-2 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"Since 1975, women living in Sweden have had after counseling, free access to legal abortion until the 18th week of pregnancy. During the past decade, the abortion number remained around 34-38,000 per year, but since 1989 it has been decreasing continuously....The largest towns in Sweden have the highest abortion rates, Malmö leading with 26.5-30.4 per 1,000 women."
Correspondence: H. Söderberg, University Hospital of Malmö, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10367 Solinger, Rickie. Abortion wars: a half century of struggle, 1950-2000. ISBN 0-520-20256-2. LC 97-12261. 1998. xvi, 413 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of 18 essays on induced abortion in the United States in the second half of the twentieth century, written from an interdisciplinary perspective. "This volume is unabashedly a pro-rights book. The perspectives collected here yield a complex picture of what has been at stake in abortion politics during the past fifty years. These essays help clarify why so many women consider abortion crucial to their lives and so bound up with full citizenship rights. They also help explain why opposition to abortion rights has persisted and become so violent today."
Correspondence: University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10368 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Abortion surveillance: preliminary analysis--United States, 1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 46, No. 48, Dec 5, 1997. 1,133-7 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"For 1995, CDC received data about legal induced abortions from the 50 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia. This report presents preliminary data for 1995; final abortion data for 1995 will be published during spring 1998." Information is provided on numbers of abortions and live births, characteristics of women obtaining abortions, gestational age at time of abortion, residence of women, and abortion ratios.
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

64:10369 Lacson, Romel S.; Theocharis, Theocharis R.; Strack, Robert; Sy, Francisco S.; Vincent, Murray L.; Osteria, Trinidad S.; Jiminez, Pilar R. Correlates of sexual abstinence among urban university students in the Philippines. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1997. 168-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The majority of members of a convenience sample of 1,355 urban university students in metropolitan Manila, the Philippines, were sexually abstinent (83%). Most were knowledgeable about AIDS, about pregnancy risk and about contraception in general (60-88%), but only 20% had adequate knowledge about condoms. Approximately 90% of all students held nonaccepting attitudes toward premarital and recreational sex. Males were more likely than females to have ever had sexual intercourse (30% vs. 7%), and they were better informed about condoms and about contraception in general. Sexually abstinent students were more likely than sexually active students to attend church regularly (76% vs. 64%) and to feel that premarital sex was unacceptable (92% vs. 67%)."
Correspondence: R. S. Lacson, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, STD/HIV Division, Columbia, SC. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10370 Lauritsen, Janet L.; Swicegood, C. Gray. The consistency of self-reported initiation of sexual activity. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 215-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In an analysis of the consistency of self-reported age at first intercourse using longitudinal data from the [U.S.] National Youth Survey, 28-32% of adolescents reported an age at first intercourse inconsistent with the information they provided up to seven years later as adults. Overall, white females were the most likely to offer consistent responses (70%), while black males were the least likely to do so (27%). Multivariate analyses indicated that in addition to race and gender, some social and economic factors were significantly associated with inconsistent reporting. For example, those who lived in a two-parent household were less likely than those from a one-parent family to report an earlier age at first intercourse as adolescents than they reported as adults. After controlling for these inconsistencies, overall predictors of adolescent sexual behavior remained unchanged."
Correspondence: J. L. Lauritsen, University of Missouri, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, St. Louis, MO 63121-4499. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

64:10371 Powers, Daniel A.; Hsueh, James C.-T. Sibling models of socioeconomic effects on the timing of first premarital birth. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 4, Nov 1997. 493-511 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data on 1,090 pairs of sisters from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to estimate the effects of observed individual-level factors, common family-level variables, and shared unobserved family-level traits on the timing of premarital births. Results show a moderate correlated risk of premarital childbearing among siblings after controlling for the effects of measured covariates. The effect of older sisters' out-of-wedlock childbearing on the timing of younger sisters' premarital birth is overestimated when shared unmeasured family-level traits are ignored. Public policy measures designed to reduce premarital births have a smaller multiplier effect via reduced younger sisters' premarital births because unmeasured family-level factors are less amenable to policy measures. However, because the older-sibling effect is large when other sources of variability in premarital birth timing are controlled, interventions may be effective in reducing premarital births among young women in high-risk families."
Correspondence: D. A. Powers, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, 336 Burdine Hall, Austin, TX 78712. E-mail: dpowers@mail.la.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10372 Stloukal, Libor. Changing patterns of extramarital conceptions in the Czech Republic, 1960-93. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct 1997. 471-89 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Patterns of reproduction associated with extramarital conception [in the Czech Republic] are examined using data on non-marital births, marital births occurring during less than 8 months after marriage, and spontaneous and induced abortions experienced by unmarried women....Substantial increases in the proportion of extramaritally conceived pregnancies leading to non-marital births are detected for the period since the late 1980s, and ascribed mainly to rising levels of unmarried cohabitation. The demographic effects of the post-1989 transition from state to market economy are discussed."
Correspondence: L. Stloukal, Charles University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Demography and Geodemography, Albertov 6, 12 843 Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.